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Second order RLC circuits

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Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, TOPI 23460

hadeed@giki.edu.pk

December 7, 2017

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 1 / 32

Overview

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

Example 8.1 Nilsson

Procedure to nd the overdamped response

Example 8.2 Nilsson

Procedure to nd the underdamped response

The critically damped voltage response

Example 8.4 Nilsson

Step response of parallel RLC circuits

Example 8.6 Nilsson

Example 8.10 Nilsson

Second order RLC series circuits

Example 8.11 Nilsson

Summary

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 2 / 32

Second order RLC transient circuits

1

RLC circuits are second order circuits because the order of derivative is

second.

2

In parallel connected RLC networks the interest is in nding the element

voltage. In series connected RLC networks the interest is in nding the

current.

3

The analysis shall consist of natural and step response.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 3 / 32

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

For all parallel RLC circuits the rst task is to nd the voltage after which

the current voltage relationship of an element can be used to nd the

branch current. Consider the circuit shown.

v dv 1 t

Z

i + iL + iC = +C + vdt + I =0 (1)

R

R dt L 0

0

0

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 4 / 32

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

Dierentiation of (1) wrt time

1 dv v d v 2

+ +C =0 (2)

R dt L dt 2

Dividing both sides by C and rearranging the terms in the order of their

derivatives, (2) becomes

d v

2

1 dv v

+ + =0 (3)

dt 2

RC dt LC

Eq.(3) is an ordinary second order dierential equation with constant

coecients. The classical solution of this kind of equation is to assume

that the solution is of the order expressed in (4)

v = Ae st

(4)

Both A and s are unknown in (4)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 5 / 32

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

Using (4) in (3),

As Ae st

As e 2 st

+ e st

+ =0 (5)

RC RC

Eq(5) can be rewritten as (6)

s 1

Ae st

s +

2

+ =0 (6)

RC LC

In (6) A cannot be zero because it implies that voltage is zero all the time,

however there could be energy stored in C and/or L. The other term e is st

not equal to zero for a nite value of st. Therefore, the term inside the

parenthesis is equal to zero.

s 1

s 2

+ + =0 (7)

RC LC

Eq.(7) is a classical characteristic equation.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 6 / 32

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

Solution of (7) is,

b b 2

4ac

s ,s = (8)

1 2

2a

Putting (7) in (8)

q

1

RC 1

( RC )2 4(1) LC

1

s ,s = (9)

1 2

2

This leaves two roots

q

1

RC + 1

( RC )2 4(1) LC

1

s = (10)

1

2

q

1

RC 1

( RC )2 4(1) LC

1

s = (11)

2

2

Because there are two solutions therefore, (6) results in (12)

v =A e 1

s1 t

+ A2 e s2 t (12)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 7 / 32

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

In (12) the values of R,L and C determines the values of s and s and the 1 2

s ,s

q

1 2 = ()2 (0 )2 (13)

Where,

1

= (14)

2RC

and

1

0 = (15)

LC

is called neper frequency and its unit is np/sec and 0 is called resonant

radiant frequency in rad/sec. s and s are complex frequencies.

1 2

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 8 / 32

Natural response of RC circuit

Now, the nature of the roots s and s depends on the values of and .

1 2 0

( ) < () Both roots will be real and distinct. In this case the

0

2 2

( ) = () Both roots will be real and equal.In this case the

0

2 2

( ) > () Booth roots will be complex and conjugate.In this case

0

2 2

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 9 / 32

Example 8.1 Nilsson

Find the roots of the characteristic Using eq.(13) the roots are calculated

equation that governs the transient as rad

behavior of the voltage shown in Fig. s = 5000 (16)

s 1

Will the response be overdamped, rad

s = 20, 000 (17)

underdamped, or critically damped ?

2

s

Because < so the voltage

2

0

2

response is overdamped If R is

required such that the overall

response would be critically damped

then

Using eq.(14) and (15) 1 1

= 2

( 2

) = = 10 2 8

= 1

= 1.25 10 rad/s and

4

2RC

0

LC

(18)

2RC

2

=2

= 10 2 .

1 8 rad

LC s

So R= 250

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 10 / 32

Procedure to nd the overdamped response

Step 1: Find the roots of the characteristic equation s and s using the 1 2

Step 2: Find V(O + ) and dv (0+ )/dt using circuit analysis.

Step 3: Find the values of A and A by solving the following generic

1 2

equations.

V (0+ ) = A + A 1 (19)

2

dV (0 + ) iC (0+ )

= = s1 A1 + s2 A2 (20)

dt C

Step 4: Put all these values in the below mentioned general solution

v =A e 1

s1 t

+ A2 e s2 t (21)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 11 / 32

Example 8.2 Nilsson

For the circuit in Fig. v (0+ )=12V,

0

L

v 12

b) Find the initial value of dv/dt and i = = = 60mA (22)

expression for v(t). d) Sketch v(t) in R 200

R

i (0+ ) = i (0+ )i (0+ ) = 90mA

C R L

(23)

Using (23),

dv (0+ ) i

= 450kv /s (24)

C C

=

dt C

Using initial conditions Using the values of R,L and C the

i (0+ ) = i (0) = i (0 )=30mA.

L L L = 12500 , = 10

rad

s

2

0

. 8 rad

s

Also,

v (0 ) = v (0) = v (0+ )=12V

C C C

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 12 / 32

Example 8.2 Nilsson

The roots are therefore, Solving (28) and (29) gives A =-14 1

and A =26V.

2

s

q

1 = 12500 + (12500)2 (108 ) Putting these values in (21)

(25)

v (t ) = (14e 5000t

+26e 20,000t V )

s

q

2 = 12500 (12500)2 (108 ) (30)

(26) If we solve this equation then

So s =5k rad/s and s =-20k rad/s. v(0)=12V and ( + ) =-450,000 V/s.

1 2

dv 0

From (19) and (20) we can write

v (0 + ) = A 1 + A2 = 12 (27)

dv (0+ ) i (0+ )

=s A + s2 A2

C

=

dt C 1 1

(28)

450 10 = 5000A 20, 000A

3

1 2

(29)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 13 / 32

Procedure to nd the underdamped response

When > the roots of the characteristic equation are complex and

2

0

2

q

s

1 = + (02 2 ),

(31)

q

= + j (02 2 ),

= + j d

s2 = j d (32)

where is the damped radian frequency and is,

d

q

d = 02 2 (33)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 14 / 32

Procedure to nd the underdamped response

The underdamped voltage response of parallel RLC circuit is

v (t ) = B e cos t + B e sin t

1

t

d 2

t

d (34)

Using Euler identity

e = cos jsin

j

(35)

Therefore, (34) is the general solution . B and B are real because the

1

1 2

v (0+ ) = V 0 = B1 (36)

v (0+ ) = V = B 0 1 (37)

dv (0+ ) i (0+ )

= B + d B 2 (38)

C

=

dt C 1

1

Detail proof is given in chapter 9 of Nilsson

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 15 / 32

Procedure to nd the underdamped response

The rate at which the voltage oscillates is xed by .

d

The rate at which the oscillation die is determined by . Therefore, it is

also called a damping factor or damping coecient.

For every circuit that has resistance R, the damping factor is not zero.

Oscillation is because of two energy storage elements. This is similar to the

mechanical analogy of mass suspended on a spring.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 16 / 32

The critically damped voltage response

2

0

2

1

s = s2 = = (39)

1

2RC

In this case the solution for voltage is

v = D te

1

t

+ D2 te t (40)

The values of D and D are

1 2

v (0+ ) + V 0 = D2 (41)

dv (0+ ) i (0+ )

=D D2 (42)

C

=

dt C 1

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 17 / 32

Example 8.4 Nilsson

In the circuit shown V =0, and0

0

q

rad

the characteristic equation. Calculate d = 02 2 = 979.8 (45)

s

v and dv/dt at t = 0 . Calculate the

+

(??) and (32)

s1 = +j d = 200+j 979.8 (46)

= = 200 (43)

2RC s

i (0+ ) = (12.25) = 12.25mA

1 rad C

(48)

0 = = 10 3

(44)

LC s d (0+ ) i (0+ )

= 98000V /s

v C

=

since > so it is an

2 2

dt C

0

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 18 / 32

Example 8.4 Nilsson

critically damped system then.

Using (36) and (38)

02 = 2 R = 4k (52)

B 1 = V0 = 0 B 2 = 100V (50)

Because it is a critically damped

Using (34) system therefore, using (41), (42)

and (40).

v (t ) = 100e 200t

sin979.8t (V ) t0

(51) D =0 2 D = 98000 (53)

1

v (t ) = 98000te t

(54)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 19 / 32

Step response of parallel RLC circuits

In the step response the easiest method is to add the nal value of the

forcing function in the solution for natural response.

Therefore,

i(t)=I +(function of same form as natural response)

f

f

f f

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 20 / 32

Example 8.6 Nilsson

i (0 )=0, also v (0 )=0, Now

L C

because v = L L therefore,

di

(0 ) = 0 (55)

L

is applied to the circuit. a) What is

the initial value of i b) What is the From the element values

L

di

1

dt

2 8

(56)

LC 0

for i (t ), when t0. 1

= = 5 10 4

(57)

2RC

L

= 25 10 2 8

(58)

because < it is an overdamped

2

0

2

real and distinct.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 21 / 32

Example 8.6 Nilsson

Using (13)

rad

s = 20, 000 (59)

1

s

rad di

s = 80, 000 (0) = s A0 + s A0 = 0 (63)

L

(60) dt

s

1 1 2 2

2

1 2 1

2 L

iL = If + A01 e s1 t + A02 e s1 t

(61) i (t ) = (2432e +8e , )mA t0

, 20 000t 80 000t

L

0 0

1 2

(64)

two simultaneous [Practice example 8.7-8.9 yourself]

equations are

i (0) = I

L f + A01 + A02 = 0

(62)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 22 / 32

Example 8.10 Nilsson

For the gure shown, the initial Next we check the system response.

current in inductor is 29mA and

initial voltage on capacitor is 50V. 02 = 16 108 (66)

Find a) i (0) b) L ( ) c) i (t ) for

L

di 0

dt L

So = so it is critically damped

2 2

response is (68-71).

i (t ) = I

L f + D10 te t + D20 e t (68)

Here i (0)=i (0 )=29mA. Also

L L

L f + D20 = 0 (69)

change instantaneously. Therefore, di (0)

= D 0 D 0 = 0 (70)

L

di (0+ ) 2

L

= 2000A/s (65) D 0 = 2.2 10 mA/s 6

dt 1

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 23 / 32

Example 8.10 Nilsson

i (t ) = (24 + 2.2 10 te

L

6 ,

40 000t

+ 5e 40,000t )mA t 0. (71)

Voltage expression for t 0 can be written using voltage current

relationship of inductor

di

v (t ) = L L

= 2.2 106 te 40,000t + 50e 40,000t V t0 (72)

dt

Substituting the value of t=0 gives the initial voltage on capacitor.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 24 / 32

Second order RLC series circuits

The interest in series circuit is to nd the current. For the gure shown,

applying KVL.

di 1 t

Z

Ri + L + idt + V =0 (73)

dt C 0

0

0

d i

2

R di i

+ + =0 (74)

dt2

L dt LC

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 25 / 32

Second order RLC series circuits

Eq.(78) is of same form as of the parallel connected RLC circuit. Therefore,

R 1

s 2

+ s+ =0 (75)

L LC

The roots of this quadratic equation is as follows

s

R R 1

2

s, = (76)

1 2

2L 2L LC

s

2

2

s,1 2 = 0 (77)

R rad

= (78)

2L s

1 rad

0 = (79)

LC s

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 26 / 32

Second order RLC series circuits

The rest is same. Therefore, (80), (81), and (82) provide the solution for

the overdamped, underdamped and critically damped cases

i (t ) = A e 1

s1 t

+ A2 e s2 t (80)

i (t ) = B e cos t + B e sin t

1

t

d 2

t

d (81)

i (t ) = D te + D e

1

t

2

t

(82)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 27 / 32

Example 8.11 Nilsson

t=0 the capacitor is discharged through a series combination of a 100 mH

inductor and a 560 resistor. Find i(t) and v (t ) for t0.

c

C L

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 28 / 32

Example 8.11 Nilsson

The roots of the

Using the expression for v .

characteristic equations are L

1 di (0+ ) V

= 1000A/s (86)

0

= 10 (83) =

2

0 =

LC

8

dt L

R So, using the formulae given in (38)

= = 2800rad /s (84)

2L 1000

because > then response

B = = 0.1042A (87)

2

0

2 2

9600

is underdamped so the

The solution for i(t) is

solution is given in (81) .

Using the solution to nd B 1

i (t ) = 0.1042e 2800t

sin9600tA t0

and B . 2

(88)

Using the expression for v or KVL,

i (0) = 0 = B 1 (85) C

To nd B we need to

v (t ) = (100cos 9600t +29.17sin9600t )e

C

2800t

V

2

(89)

calculate di (0+ )/dt .

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 29 / 32

Summary | Natural response of second order circuits

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 30 / 32

Summary | Step response of second order circuits

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 31 / 32

Summary | Step response of second order circuits

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 32 / 32

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