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# EE-211 Linear Circuit Analysis

## Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, TOPI 23460

December 7, 2017

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 1 / 32
Overview

## 1 Second order RLC transient circuits

Natural response of parallel RLC circuit
Example 8.1 Nilsson
Procedure to nd the overdamped response
Example 8.2 Nilsson
Procedure to nd the underdamped response
The critically damped voltage response
Example 8.4 Nilsson
Step response of parallel RLC circuits
Example 8.6 Nilsson
Example 8.10 Nilsson
Second order RLC series circuits
Example 8.11 Nilsson
Summary

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 2 / 32
Second order RLC transient circuits

1
RLC circuits are second order circuits because the order of derivative is
second.

2
In parallel connected RLC networks the interest is in nding the element
voltage. In series connected RLC networks the interest is in nding the
current.

3
The analysis shall consist of natural and step response.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 3 / 32
Natural response of parallel RLC circuit
For all parallel RLC circuits the rst task is to nd the voltage after which
the current voltage relationship of an element can be used to nd the
branch current. Consider the circuit shown.

## Apply KCL at the top node

v dv 1 t
Z
i + iL + iC = +C + vdt + I =0 (1)
R
R dt L 0
0

## Where, I is the initial current of inductor 'L'.

0

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 4 / 32
Natural response of parallel RLC circuit
Dierentiation of (1) wrt time
1 dv v d v 2

+ +C =0 (2)
R dt L dt 2

Dividing both sides by C and rearranging the terms in the order of their
derivatives, (2) becomes
d v
2
1 dv v
+ + =0 (3)
dt 2
RC dt LC
Eq.(3) is an ordinary second order dierential equation with constant
coecients. The classical solution of this kind of equation is to assume
that the solution is of the order expressed in (4)
v = Ae st
(4)
Both A and s are unknown in (4)
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 5 / 32
Natural response of parallel RLC circuit
Using (4) in (3),
As Ae st

As e 2 st
+ e st
+ =0 (5)
RC RC
Eq(5) can be rewritten as (6)
s 1
 
Ae st
s +
2
+ =0 (6)
RC LC
In (6) A cannot be zero because it implies that voltage is zero all the time,
however there could be energy stored in C and/or L. The other term e is st

not equal to zero for a nite value of st. Therefore, the term inside the
parenthesis is equal to zero.
s 1
s 2
+ + =0 (7)
RC LC
Eq.(7) is a classical characteristic equation.
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 6 / 32
Natural response of parallel RLC circuit
Solution of (7) is,
b b 2
4ac
s ,s = (8)
1 2
2a
Putting (7) in (8)
q
1
RC 1
( RC )2 4(1) LC
1

s ,s = (9)
1 2
2
This leaves two roots
q
1
RC + 1
( RC )2 4(1) LC
1

s = (10)
1
2
q
1
RC 1
( RC )2 4(1) LC
1

s = (11)
2
2
Because there are two solutions therefore, (6) results in (12)
v =A e 1
s1 t
+ A2 e s2 t (12)
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 7 / 32
Natural response of parallel RLC circuit

In (12) the values of R,L and C determines the values of s and s and the 1 2

## and (11) can be rewritten as

s ,s
q
1 2 = ()2 (0 )2 (13)

Where,
1
= (14)
2RC
and
1
0 = (15)
LC
is called neper frequency and its unit is np/sec and 0 is called resonant
radiant frequency in rad/sec. s and s are complex frequencies.
1 2

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 8 / 32
Natural response of RC circuit

Now, the nature of the roots s and s depends on the values of and .
1 2 0

## So three possibilities exist in this scenario

( ) < () Both roots will be real and distinct. In this case the
0
2 2

## response is called overdamped.

( ) = () Both roots will be real and equal.In this case the
0
2 2

## response is called critically damped.

( ) > () Booth roots will be complex and conjugate.In this case
0
2 2

## the response is called underdamped.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 9 / 32
Example 8.1 Nilsson
Find the roots of the characteristic Using eq.(13) the roots are calculated
equation that governs the transient as rad
behavior of the voltage shown in Fig. s = 5000 (16)
s 1

## if R=200, L=50mH, and C=0.2F.

Will the response be overdamped, rad
s = 20, 000 (17)
underdamped, or critically damped ?
2
s
Because < so the voltage
2
0
2

response is overdamped If R is
required such that the overall
response would be critically damped
then
Using eq.(14) and (15) 1 1
= 2
( 2
) = = 10 2 8

= 1
= 1.25 10 rad/s and
4
2RC
0
LC
(18)
2RC
2
=2
= 10 2 .
LC s
So R= 250

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 10 / 32
Procedure to nd the overdamped response

Step 1: Find the roots of the characteristic equation s and s using the 1 2

## values of R,L and C.

Step 2: Find V(O + ) and dv (0+ )/dt using circuit analysis.
Step 3: Find the values of A and A by solving the following generic
1 2

equations.
V (0+ ) = A + A 1 (19)
2

dV (0 + ) iC (0+ )
= = s1 A1 + s2 A2 (20)
dt C
Step 4: Put all these values in the below mentioned general solution
v =A e 1
s1 t
+ A2 e s2 t (21)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 11 / 32
Example 8.2 Nilsson
For the circuit in Fig. v (0+ )=12V,
0

L

## current in each branch of the circuit.

v 12
b) Find the initial value of dv/dt and i = = = 60mA (22)
expression for v(t). d) Sketch v(t) in R 200
R

## the interval 0 t 250ms. Applying KCL at the top node

i (0+ ) = i (0+ )i (0+ ) = 90mA
C R L

(23)
Using (23),
dv (0+ ) i
= 450kv /s (24)
C C
=
dt C
Using initial conditions Using the values of R,L and C the
i (0+ ) = i (0) = i (0 )=30mA.
L L L = 12500 , = 10
s
2
0
s
Also,
v (0 ) = v (0) = v (0+ )=12V
C C C

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 12 / 32
Example 8.2 Nilsson
The roots are therefore, Solving (28) and (29) gives A =-14 1

and A =26V.
2

s
q
1 = 12500 + (12500)2 (108 ) Putting these values in (21)
(25)
v (t ) = (14e 5000t
+26e 20,000t V )
s
q
2 = 12500 (12500)2 (108 ) (30)
(26) If we solve this equation then
So s =5k rad/s and s =-20k rad/s. v(0)=12V and ( + ) =-450,000 V/s.
1 2
dv 0

## solution is of the form given in (12).

From (19) and (20) we can write
v (0 + ) = A 1 + A2 = 12 (27)
dv (0+ ) i (0+ )
=s A + s2 A2
C
=
dt C 1 1

(28)
450 10 = 5000A 20, 000A
3
1 2

(29)
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 13 / 32
Procedure to nd the underdamped response

When > the roots of the characteristic equation are complex and
2
0
2

## the response is underdamped.

q
s
1 = + (02 2 ),
(31)
q
= + j (02 2 ),
= + j d

s2 = j d (32)
where is the damped radian frequency and is,
d

q
d = 02 2 (33)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 14 / 32
Procedure to nd the underdamped response
The underdamped voltage response of parallel RLC circuit is
v (t ) = B e cos t + B e sin t
1
t
d 2
t
d (34)
Using Euler identity
e = cos jsin
j
(35)
Therefore, (34) is the general solution . B and B are real because the
1
1 2

## voltage is a real function.

v (0+ ) = V 0 = B1 (36)
v (0+ ) = V = B 0 1 (37)
dv (0+ ) i (0+ )
= B + d B 2 (38)
C
=
dt C 1

1
Detail proof is given in chapter 9 of Nilsson
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 15 / 32
Procedure to nd the underdamped response

## Trigonometric function hints that the response is oscillatory.

The rate at which the voltage oscillates is xed by .
d

## Amplitude of oscillation deceases exponentially.

The rate at which the oscillation die is determined by . Therefore, it is
also called a damping factor or damping coecient.
For every circuit that has resistance R, the damping factor is not zero.
Oscillation is because of two energy storage elements. This is similar to the
mechanical analogy of mass suspended on a spring.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 16 / 32
The critically damped voltage response

## If = then system is critically damped. The roots of such system is

2
0
2

1
s = s2 = = (39)
1
2RC
In this case the solution for voltage is
v = D te
1
t
+ D2 te t (40)
The values of D and D are
1 2

v (0+ ) + V 0 = D2 (41)
dv (0+ ) i (0+ )
=D D2 (42)
C
=
dt C 1

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 17 / 32
Example 8.4 Nilsson
In the circuit shown V =0, and0

## I =-12.25mA. Calculate the roots of

0
q
the characteristic equation. Calculate d = 02 2 = 979.8 (45)
s
v and dv/dt at t = 0 . Calculate the
+

## voltage response for t 0. The roots can be calculated using

(??) and (32)
s1 = +j d = 200+j 979.8 (46)

## 1 rad The initial conditions are as follows,

= = 200 (43)
2RC s
i (0+ ) = (12.25) = 12.25mA

(48)
0 = = 10 3
(44)
LC s d (0+ ) i (0+ )
= 98000V /s
v C
=
since > so it is an
2 2
dt C
0

## underdamped response. (49)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 18 / 32
Example 8.4 Nilsson

## If the system is considered to be a

critically damped system then.
Using (36) and (38)
02 = 2 R = 4k (52)
B 1 = V0 = 0 B 2 = 100V (50)
Because it is a critically damped
Using (34) system therefore, using (41), (42)
and (40).
v (t ) = 100e 200t
sin979.8t (V ) t0
(51) D =0 2 D = 98000 (53)
1

v (t ) = 98000te t
(54)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 19 / 32
Step response of parallel RLC circuits
In the step response the easiest method is to add the nal value of the
forcing function in the solution for natural response.

Therefore,
i(t)=I +(function of same form as natural response)
f

f

## Where I and V are nal values of forcing function

f f

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 20 / 32
Example 8.6 Nilsson
i (0 )=0, also v (0 )=0, Now
L C

because v = L L therefore,
di

(0 ) = 0 (55)
L

## At t=0, a dc current source of 24 mA dt

is applied to the circuit. a) What is
the initial value of i b) What is the From the element values
L

di
1
dt

2 8
(56)
LC 0

## d) What is the numerical expression

for i (t ), when t0. 1
= = 5 10 4
(57)
2RC
L

= 25 10 2 8
(58)
because < it is an overdamped
2
0
2

## system with characteristic equations

real and distinct.
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 21 / 32
Example 8.6 Nilsson
Using (13)
s = 20, 000 (59)
1
s
s = 80, 000 (0) = s A0 + s A0 = 0 (63)
L
(60) dt
s
1 1 2 2
2

1 2 1

## A0 =8mA. The numerical solution for i (t ) is

2 L

iL = If + A01 e s1 t + A02 e s1 t
(61) i (t ) = (2432e +8e , )mA t0
, 20 000t 80 000t
L

## In order to nd A and A

0 0
1 2
(64)
two simultaneous [Practice example 8.7-8.9 yourself]
equations are
i (0) = I
L f + A01 + A02 = 0
(62)
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 22 / 32
Example 8.10 Nilsson
For the gure shown, the initial Next we check the system response.
current in inductor is 29mA and
initial voltage on capacitor is 50V. 02 = 16 108 (66)
Find a) i (0) b) L ( ) c) i (t ) for
L
di 0
dt L

## t 0 d) v (t ) for t 0. = 4 104 (67)

So = so it is critically damped
2 2

## parallel RLC circuit. Solution of this

response is (68-71).
i (t ) = I
L f + D10 te t + D20 e t (68)
Here i (0)=i (0 )=29mA. Also
L L

## voltage across a capacitor cannot i (0) = I

L f + D20 = 0 (69)
change instantaneously. Therefore, di (0)
= D 0 D 0 = 0 (70)
L

## Using (69) D 0 =5mA , and using (70)

di (0+ ) 2
L
= 2000A/s (65) D 0 = 2.2 10 mA/s 6

dt 1

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 23 / 32
Example 8.10 Nilsson

## So numerical expression for i (t ) is L

i (t ) = (24 + 2.2 10 te
L
6 ,
40 000t
+ 5e 40,000t )mA t 0. (71)
Voltage expression for t 0 can be written using voltage current
relationship of inductor
di
v (t ) = L L
= 2.2 106 te 40,000t + 50e 40,000t V t0 (72)
dt
Substituting the value of t=0 gives the initial voltage on capacitor.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 24 / 32
Second order RLC series circuits

The interest in series circuit is to nd the current. For the gure shown,
applying KVL.

di 1 t
Z
Ri + L + idt + V =0 (73)
dt C 0
0

0

## and rearranging them

d i
2
R di i
+ + =0 (74)
dt2
L dt LC

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 25 / 32
Second order RLC series circuits
Eq.(78) is of same form as of the parallel connected RLC circuit. Therefore,
R 1
s 2
+ s+ =0 (75)
L LC
The roots of this quadratic equation is as follows
s
R R 1
2
s, = (76)
1 2
2L 2L LC
s 
2
 2
s,1 2 = 0 (77)

## This implies that for a series connected RLC circuit

= (78)
2L s
0 = (79)
LC s
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 26 / 32
Second order RLC series circuits

The rest is same. Therefore, (80), (81), and (82) provide the solution for
the overdamped, underdamped and critically damped cases
i (t ) = A e 1
s1 t
+ A2 e s2 t (80)
i (t ) = B e cos t + B e sin t
1
t
d 2
t
d (81)
i (t ) = D te + D e
1
t
2
t
(82)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 27 / 32
Example 8.11 Nilsson

## The 0.1F capacitor in the circuit shown in Fig. is charged to 100V. At

t=0 the capacitor is discharged through a series combination of a 100 mH
inductor and a 560 resistor. Find i(t) and v (t ) for t0.
c

## The initial conditions are v (0 )=100V and i (0 )=0A

C L

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 28 / 32
Example 8.11 Nilsson
The roots of the
Using the expression for v .
characteristic equations are L

1 di (0+ ) V
= 1000A/s (86)
0

= 10 (83) =
2
0 =
LC
8
dt L
R So, using the formulae given in (38)
= = 2800rad /s (84)
2L 1000
because > then response
B = = 0.1042A (87)
2
0
2 2
9600
is underdamped so the
The solution for i(t) is
solution is given in (81) .
Using the solution to nd B 1
i (t ) = 0.1042e 2800t
sin9600tA t0
and B . 2
(88)
Using the expression for v or KVL,
i (0) = 0 = B 1 (85) C

To nd B we need to
v (t ) = (100cos 9600t +29.17sin9600t )e
C
2800t
V
2
(89)
calculate di (0+ )/dt .
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 29 / 32
Summary | Natural response of second order circuits

## Ref: Electric circuits by Nilsson

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 30 / 32
Summary | Step response of second order circuits

## Ref: Electric circuits by Nilsson

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 13 Resources December 7, 2017 31 / 32
Summary | Step response of second order circuits

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