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2-Components of Airport

Dr. Hossam F. Hassan, Fall 2017

Airport Components

The area and facilities on the property of an airport that facilitate the
movement of aircraft.
facilities that are located on an airport's airfield:
aircraft parking areas
navigational aids
lighting systems, signage, and markings

Airport Components
Lihue Airport, Hawaii, USA



Airport - Example

Lihue Airport - Hawaii

Small Airports
A small airport may have very simple airfield infrastructures:
Single unlit runway with very minimal markings,
no taxiways,
little signage
little aircraft parking areas

Large Airports
Larger airport airfields may have:
complex systems of multiple runways and taxiways
various airfield lighting systems and navigational aids
highest levels of fire and rescue.

The single most important facility on the airfield.
Strict design guidelines for?:
the length
orientation (direction)
configuration (of multiple runways)
and pavement thickness of runways
assuring that the immediate airfield area surrounding the runways have no
dangerous obstructions preventing the safe operation of aircraft.

Runway operations are facilitated by:
Systems of markings, lighting systems, and associated airfield signage
that identify runways and provide directional guidance for aircraft taxiing,
takeoff, approach, and landing.

Strict regulations regarding the use of runways, including:

when and,
how the aircraft may use a runway,
for takeoff and landing,
are imposed on airfield operations.

Runway Orientation
Wright brothers made their first flight at Kitty Hawk in 1903, there were no
runways to facilitate the flight.
However, certain conditions existed during the flight that led directly to the
orientation of today's runways.
The Wright brothers knew that fixed-wing aircraft rely on airflow over the
aircraft's wings to achieve flight,
the appropriate direction to take off an aircraft was into whichever way the
wind was blowing.
This allows aircraft to achieve the desired amount of airflow over the wings
with the least amount of ground speed and takeoff distance.
Similarly,the safest direction in which to land an aircraft is? also into the wind.

Runway Orientation
Airport runways are typically oriented into the prevailing winds of the
Airports may have runways oriented in different directions.
The runway(s) that is oriented into the prevailing winds is known as the
primary runway(s).
It is most appropriate for aircraft to take off and land into the wind
(with a headwind)
It is least appropriate, and in fact sometimes highly unsafe, to
land or take off with a wind blowing directly perpendicular to the
direction of travel, that is, with a direct crosswind.


Runway Orientation
Smaller, lighter, slower-moving aircraft are much more sensitive to
crosswinds than larger aircraft.

Airports that are located in areas with winds that blow from various
directions at sufficient wind speeds and/or accommodate primarily
smaller aircraft are also planned with runways oriented toward the most
common crosswind directions. These runways are known as
crosswind runways.

Multiple Crosswind Runways
Many airports have only one runway.
Airports which typically serve smaller aircraft tend to have additional
runways in the form of crosswind runways.

Flagler county, FL General Aviation Airport 12

Parallel Runways..?
Airports serving higher volumes of primarily larger aircraft tend to have
additional runways in the form of parallel primary runways or simply
"parallel runways".

Runway Designation
Runways are defined by their orientation with respect to
magnetic north.

Runways are identified by their degrees from magnetic north (Azimuth),

rounded to the nearest 10 (rounded up or down), then drop the last digit
(divide by 10).
The opposite direction differs by 18 (180).
Add zero to the left if it is a single digit.

Runway Designation - Example

A Runway is to be oriented in the direction 122. Find the runway
Round to nearest 10 120
Drop the last digit 12
Add 18 for the opposite direction
It is called runway 12/30
A Runway is to be oriented in the direction 37. Find the runway
Round to nearest 10 40
Drop the last digit 4
If the result is a single digit, add zero to the left 04
Add 18 for the opposite direction
It is Runway 04/22 15
Airport Example,
Lihue Airport - Hawaii Something


Runway Designation
A northerly oriented runway is identified as runway 36 (not 00)
Runway 18/36 and not 00/18
The lower number is always identified first, regardless of which direction is
actually the primary operating orientation.

Often, the planning of runways is considered so that aircraft may also

operate with headwinds when the winds at an airport blow from the
opposite direction to that of the prevailing winds.
When runways are planned in such a manner, the runway is identified by
both of its possible operating directions.
A runway whose primary orientation is easterly but also may be used in a
westerly direction (i.e., 270 degrees from magnetic north) would be
identified as runway 09-27.
Runway Designation
For planning purposes, runways are identified by the one or two
allowable operating directions.
For operating purposes, however, runways are identified only by
the current direction of operations.
On runway 09/27:
a pilot is landing heading east is landing on Runway 09,
while heading west he is landing on Runway 27.


Airport Example,
Lihue Airport - Hawaii


Runway Designation
The letters differentiate among left (L), right (R), or center (C) parallel
runways, as applicable.
More than 3 runways, some identifiers are shifted by 10 to avoid
6L, 6R, 7L, 7R are all parallel runways (69).(page 6)

Example: Dallas Fort Worth Airport

17L, 17C, 17R, 18L and 18R are all parallel runways (175.4).

Runway Designation - Dallas Fort Worth


Active runway(s) is the runway in use.
Takeoff and landing are usually done in headwind.
Decisions based on noise can be made such as in London Heathrow.

Muscat Intl Airport

Direction Length Surface

02/20 750 Soil
08/26 3,584 Asphalt

Muscat Intl Airport

Direction Length Width Surface
m m
02/20 750 Soil
08/26 3,589 4,000 45 60 Asphalt
New R/W 4,000 60 Asphalt

Muscat Intl Airport

New Parallel R/W designation? ? ?

Existing R/W