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ABSTARCT

The main objectives for this experiment are to determine the relationship between the
pressure and volume of air in ideal gas condition which is related with Boyles Law experiment,
relationship between pressure and the temperature of ideal gas condition which is related Gay-
Lussac Law experiment, response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization
for the Stepswise Depressurization experiment, determine the ratio of volume and compares it to
the theoretical value for Determination of Ratio of Volume experiment and finally determine the
ratio of heat capacity in Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity.

For first experiment which is Boyles Law experiment was taken the reading of the pressure
before and after the valve is open to vacuum chamber. The result show that the increasing in
pressure the volume of the gas in the pressure chamber will decrease. The result show the the
Boyles law is proven because the PV is slightly the same before expansion is 4.9905 kPa m3 and
after expansion i s4.9803kPa m3 with different of
0.0102 kPa m3.

For second experiment which is Gay-Lussac Law experiment the temperature and the
pressure were recorded at every increasing and decreasing in every 10kPa. The relationship is the
temperature is increased when the pressure increased. The result show when the pressure is
110kPa the temperature was 25.97C and the temperature was increased which is 29.67C at
160kPa. This prove the Gay-Lussac Law.

For third experiment which is Stepswise Depressurization experiment reading of pressure


were recorded before and after the valve V1 is open. From the experiment, we noticed pressure
reading before the valve is open is more than when the after it open which are 164.6kPa and
118.6kPa respectively.

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Determination of Ratio of Volume experiment the pressure for both tanks are recorded. The
result show the pressure before expansion is greater which 162.1kPa than after expansion which
102,8kPa. So in the short word, the when the gas is expand the pressure will decrease .The
volume ratio obtained was 0.1839 while the theoretical value is 2.021. The difference is as
much as 0.1820

Lastly, determination of ratio of heat capacity.The ratio of heat capacity obtained was as
much as 0.48 while the theoretical value is 1.4. The value obtained deviates as much as 65.7 %

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INTRODUCTION

The experiment is conducted by using the apparatus that called as Perfect Gas Expansion
Apparatus from Model TH11. This experiment the basically measure the important parameter in
thermodynamics principle based on PVT law. The parameter are temperature, pressure and
volume of the gas based on the ideal gas equation. The apparatus consist temperature and
pressure detector for both pressure tank and vacuum tank. The detector can adjust the pressure
and temperature in the tanks.

In the chamber, the gas collides each other and also the wall of chamber . From the
thermodynamics principle, the momentum of the particle which is gas has equal momentum
before and after the collision. Equations are derived directly from the law of conservation of
linear motion momentum and conservation of energy The equation involve is PV = nRT. The
Boyles law and Gay-Lussac law are involve in this experiment that related to PVT law. The
Boyles law state the pressure is inversely proportional volume of the gas. While the Gay-Lussac
law the pressure is directly proportional to the temperature. Both principle are combined to form
PV = nRT. That meant when the pressure increases the volume will decrease and the temperature
will increase.

From the experiment the relationship between pressure, temperature and volume of the air is
proven by calculation and graph relationship. The relationship and the value of the reading such
as heat capacity and volume ratio by using the PVT law and assuming the gas is ideal gas.

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AIM
This experiment comprises 5 different experiments in determining the properties of PVT of
gases. Those experiments were aimed to
Experiment 1: Boyles Law Experiment
1. To determine the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas.
2. To compare the experimental results with theoretical results.

Experiment 2: Gay-Lussac Law Experiment


1. To determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas.

Experiment 3: Stepwise Depressurization


1. To study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization.

Experiment 4: Determination of ratio of volume


1. To determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical value.

Experiment 5: Determine of ratio of heat capacity


1. To determine the ratio of heat capacity.

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THEORY
Experiment 1: Boyles Law Experiment
Boyle's Law states that the product of the pressure and volume for a gas is a constant at a
condition where there is a fixed amount of gas at a fixed temperature. It can be defined in
mathematical terms as follow:
P x V = constant
This formula is usually applied to predict on how a change in volume will alter the
pressure and vice versa. In the aspect of kinetic energy, if the volume is decreased, so the
pressure will be increased. Thus, the frequency of gas collision between each particle will
increase.
Therefore, for initial values of P1 and V1, which change to final values of P2 and V2. It can
be shown as the following equation :
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

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Experiment 2: Gay-Lussac Law Experiment
Gay-Lussac Law states that for a given amount of gas held at constant volume, the pressure is
proportional to the absolute temperature. The formula can be stated as below

= =

Where
P = the pressure of the gas
T = the temperature of the gas (K)
kG = the appropriate proportionality constant
According to Gay-Lussac Law, it may be dangerous to heat gas in a closed container because the
increment in pressure might cause an explosion. The initial value of P1 and T1 will change to P2
and T2, and the following formula will be applied.

=

Note that, T must be in Kelvin,K where K= oC + 273

\\

Graph 2: Graph Pressure against Temperature

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The graph above shows how pressure and temperature vary according to Gay-Lussac
Law. Based on Gay-Lussac it stated that the pressure exerted on a containers sides by an ideal is
proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas. This follows from the kinetic theory which
stated that by increasing the temperature of the gas, the molecules speed will increase. It means
the amount of collisions between the molecules and the container walls is increased.
Thus, when the temperature increases, it will also result in increase of the collision
between the molecules. So, raising the temperature will result in the increase of pressure and vice
versa.

Experiment 4: Stepwise Depressurization


Stepwise depressurization is conducted by depressurizing the chamber or tank step by
step slowly or gradually by flowing out the gas which they would expand at every instant opened
and closed in order to identify gradual changes in pressure and temperature within the contrary
decreases with the expansion.

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APPARATUS

The apparatus used in this experiment is:

Gas Expansion Apparatus


The apparatus consists of:
1. Pressure chamber
2. Vacuum chamber
3. Valve 1, valve 2, valve 3, valve 4, and valve 5
4. Compressor
5. Vacuum pump
6. Main switch and pump switch
7. Display of pressure tank 1 (PT1), pressure tank 2 (PT2), temperature tank 1 (TT1), and
temperature tank 2 (TT2)

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PROCEDURE

General Start-Up Procedures


1. The equipment was connected to single phase power supply and then switches on the
unit.
2. All valves were fully opened and the pressure reading was checked on the panel. This is
to make sure that the chambers are under atmospheric pressure.
3. Then, all the valves were opened.
4. The pipe from compressive port of the pump to pressurized chamber or the pipes from
vacuum port of the pump were connected to vacuum chamber.
5. Then, the unit was ready for use.

General Shut-Down Procedures


1. The pump was switch off and both pipes were removed from the chambers.
2. The valves were fully open to release the air inside the chambers.
3. The main switch and power supply were switch off.

Boyles Law Experiment


1. The start-up procedures were done and all the valves were fully closed.
2. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside chamber was allowed to
increase up to 150 kPa. The pump was switched off and the hose was removed from the
chamber.
3. The pressure reading was monitored until it stabilized.
4. The pressure reading were both recorded before expansion.
5. Valve 2 was opened and the pressured air was allowed to flow to vacuum chamber and
the reading was recorded.
6. The PV value was calculated and the Boyles Law was proved.

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Gay-Lussac Law Experiment
1. The start-up procedures were done and all the valves were fully closed.
2. The hose from compressive pump was connected to the pressurized pump.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the temperature for every 10 kPa of
increment in the chamber was recorded. The pump was stopped when the pressure, PT1
reached 160 kPa.
4. Valve V1 was opened to allow the pressurized air to flow out and for every 10 kPa of
decrement, the reading was recorded.
5. The experiment was stopped until the pressure reached atmospheric pressure.
6. Step 3 until 5 were repeated to get the average.
7. The data was recorded in the table.

Stepwise Depressurization
1. The start-up procedures were done and all the valves were fully closed.
2. The hose from compressive pump was connected to the pressurized pump.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure inside the chamber was allowed
to increase until 160 kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was removed
from the chamber.
4. The pressure reading was monitored until it stabilized and the reading pressure, PT1 was
recorded.
5. Valve V1 was fully opened and bring back to the closed position instantly. The reading of
pressure was recorded until it stable.
6. Step 5 was repeated at least four times.
7. The data was recorded in the table.

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Determination of ratio of volume
1. The start-up procedures were done and all the valves were fully closed.
2. The compressive pump was switch on and the pressure inside chamber was allowed to
increase up to about 150 kPa. Then, switch off the pump was switch off and the hose was
removed from the chamber.
3. The pressure reading inside the chamber was monitored until it stabilizes.
4. The pressure reading for both chambers was recorded before expansion.
5. V02 was opened and the pressurized air was allowed to flows into the atmospheric
chamber slowly.
6. The pressure reading for both chambers was recorded after expansion.
7. The experimental procedures were repeated for the following conditions:
8. From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber
9. From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber
10. The ratio of volume was calculated and compared it with the theoretical value.

Determination of ratio of heat capacity


1. The start-up procedures were done and all the valves were fully closed
2. The hose was connected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switch on and the pressure inside chamber was allowed to
increase until about 160 kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was removed
from the chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber was monitored until it stabilizes. The pressure
reading PT1 and temperature TT 1 were recorded.
5. Fully open valve V 01 and bring it back to the closed position after few seconds. Monitor
and records the pressure reading PT1 and TT1 until it becomes stable.

The ratio of heat capacity was determined and it was compared with the theoretical

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RESULT

Boyles Law Experiment

Pressure (kPa )
PT 1 PT 2
Before Expansion After Expansion Before Expansion After Expansion
149.0 133.6 102.3 132.6

Gay-Lussac Law Experiment

Pressure Temperature (C)


(kPa) Pressurized Depressurized
1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average
110 26.2 25.9 25.8 25.97 26.2 26.4 26.7 26.43
120 26.5 26.2 26.1 26.27 27.1 27.2 27.4 27.23
130 27.4 26.8 26.8 27.00 27.8 28.4 28.5 28.23
140 28.1 27.8 27.7 27.87 29.1 29.5 29.6 29.40
150 29.0 28.6 28.6 28.73 30.3 30.2 30.4 30.30
160 29.8 29.7 29.5 29.67 30.5 30.3 30.6 30.47

Determine of Ratio of Volume

From Pressurised Chamber to Atmospheric Chamber

PT1 (kPa abs) PT2 (kPa abs)


Before Experiment 162.1 102.8
After Experiment 144.7 134.8

From Atmospheric Chamber to Vacuum Chamber

PT1 (kPa abs) PT2 (kPa abs)


Before Experiment 101.0 65.5
After Experiment 84.0 82.6

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From Pressurised Chamber to Vacuum Chamber

PT1 (kPa abs) PT2 (kPa abs)


Before Experiment 134.7 50.9
After Experiment 129.2 115.4

Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity

Pressure Reading (kPa) Temperature (C)


158.3 28.9
149.8 28.3
138.0 26.7
133.8 26.1
118.3 25.5

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CALCULATION

Boyles Law
V1 = 0.025 m3
V2 = 0.01237 m3

By using Boyles Equation.

Before expansion
P1V1 + P2V2 = (149.0 x 0.025) + (102.3 x 0.01237)
= 4.9905 kPa m3

After expansion
P1V1 + P2V2 = (133.6 x 0.025) + (132.6 x 0.01237)
= 4.9803kPa m3

The different is 4.9905 - 4.9803 = 0.0102 kPa m3

Gay-Lussac Law Experiment

Pressure against Temperature

180
170
160
Pressure (kPa)

150
140
130
120
110
100
26.2
Temparature (C)

Graph 1

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Stepwise Depressurization

Response of Pressurized Chamber Follow Stepwise Depressurization


180

160

140

120
Pressure (kPa)

100

80
Pressure
60

40

20

0
1 2 3 4
Expansion

Determination of Ratio of Volume


1 2 2
=
2 1 1
1
= 2.0210
2

134.8 102.8
= 1.839
162.1 144.7

2.0210 1.839 = 0.1820

Percentage of error
2.0210 1.839
100 = 9.005
2.0210

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Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity

Cp ln Pinitial ln Pintermediate
experimental =
Cv ln Pinitial ln Pfinal
ln Pinitial ln Pintermediate ln 158.3ln 138.0
= ln 168.3ln 118.3
ln Pinitial ln Pfinal
0.14
= 0.29

= 0.48

Cp
theory = 1.4
Cv
1.40.48
100 % = 65.7%
1.4

Deviation : 65.7%

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DISCUSSION

Experiment 1: Boyles Law experiment

From the experiment the product of volume and pressure before and after expansion is
slightly the same which constant value in Boyles Law which are 4.9905 kPa m3 and 4.9803kPa
m3 respectively. The different is 0.0102 kPa m3 between both reading. The experiment show the
pressure inversely proportional to volume of the gas, which meant the increases in pressure lead
to decrease in volume of gas due to over burden pressure on the gas. This cause the gas to
compress and resulting the decreasing in volume. So the Boyles Law for this experiment is
accepted because the different between product of volume and pressure before and after
expansion

Experiment 2 : Gay-Lussac Law Experiment

Then, experiment 2 is about Gay-Lussac Law Experiment which are we needed to


determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas. The experiment was
run by using 6 difference pressure started from 110 kPa abs to 160 kPa abs. The average
temperature was obtained from 3 trials. The graph of Pressure against Temperature was plotted to
determine the patent of the gradient line. Based on the graph obtained, we can say that pressure
is directly proportional the temperature. Hence, the Gay-Lussac law is verified. As a precaution
for this part is we need to make sure the pump presser lever did not exceed 2 bar as excessive
pressure may result in glass cylinder breaking. Based on Graph 1, it shows that the pressure is
directly proportional to temperature. Hence, the Gay-Lussac law is verified.

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Experiment 4: Stepwise Depressurization
In experiment 3, Stepwise Depressurization, we need to study the pressurized chamber by
depressurized it following the stepwise depressurization. During the experiment, the pressure in
the chamber was set to 164.6 kPa as the initial reading. Then, the valve of the pressurized
chamber was open and closed immediately and the reading of the pressure was taken. The valve
was opened and closed for several times and the pressure reading was recorded.

Response of Pressurized Chamber Follow Stepwise Depressurization


180
160
140
Pressure (kPa)

120
100
80
Pressure
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4
Expansion

Graph 2
From Graph 2, we can see that pressure decrease gradually with the contrary decrease of the
expansion. From the stepwise depressurization theory, the gas would expand at every instant
opened and closed. So, by that, we have achieved the objective of the experiment.

Experiment 6 : Determination Of Ratio Of Volume


The next experiment 6 is to determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the
theoretical value. For this experiment, it same as at experiment 1 which is need to do for 3
conditions. These conditions are from pressured vessel to atmospheric pressure, from
atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel and the last one is from pressured vessel to vacuum vessel.
The reading of pressures needs to be recorded before and after. By using the formula,

=

We determine that the difference before and after is 0.1820

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Experiment 7: Determination of Ratio of Heat Capacity

The last part for this experiment is experiment 7 which is to determine the ratio of the heat
capacity and compare it with the theoretical value.Tthe formula that we use to determine the
value of Cp/ Cv is
ln Pinitial ln Pintermediate
=
ln Pinitial ln Pfinal

The value obtained is 0.48 and the theoretical value is 1.4. Then based on the calculation, the
deviation is 65.7%

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CONCLUSION

Form the experiment, all the objective is achieved. From experiment 1,the result obtained shows
that the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume for closed system. It same with the
Boyles Law statement. In experiment 2, the Gay-Lussac lay is achieved when the result
obtained shows that the pressure is directly proportional to pressure of ideal gas. For experiment
4, when the valve opened many times , the pressure in the chamber decreasing .In experiment 6,
the volume ratio is 0.1839 while the theoretical value is 2.021.Form the result, the difference is
this might be caused by some errors done while conducting the experiment that may affect the
results. Lastly in experiment 7,the heat capacity ratio is 0.48 compared to the theoretical value
which is 1.4. The differences in the value might due to some errors occurred during conducting
the experiment.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

We realized that, there are some error occurred during conduct the experiment .The error might
give the impact to the result. So, there are some recommendation, so that we can avoid from the
error and have a better result.
1. Make sure the valve is closed or opened properly so that the air would not escape.
2. Ensure that the pump pressure does not exceed 2 bar because it might break the glass
chamber
3. To have the exactly value, the student is recommend to take the video when collecting the
data.
4. The pressure reading should be stabilize before record the reading to get the really exact
value.

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REFERENCES

1. P. K. Nag. (2013). Engineering Thermodynamics. (5th Edition). India. McGraw Hill


Education
2. Richard Myers. (2003). The Basic of Chemistry. United State of America. Greenwood
Press

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APPENDIX

Compressor

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Valve

Fully Chamber

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