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German Studies Association

Aby Warburg's (1866-1929) Dots and Lines. Mapping the Diffusion of Astrological Motifs in Art
Author(s): Dorothea McEwan
Source: German Studies Review, Vol. 29, No. 2 (May, 2006), pp. 243-268
Published by: Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the German Studies Association
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AbyWarburg's (1866-1929) Dots
and Lines. Mapping the Diffusion of
Astrological Motifs inArt History

Dorothea McEwan
The Warburg Institute, University of London

Abstract: The art theorist and intellectual historian Aby Warburg made it his life's goal
to research the "Wanderstra?en der Kultur," conceived as the pathways of the mind. As

"image historian" he traced the metamorphoses of ideas as translated into art, literature,
and music over time and space, to probe what itmeant to orient oneself in space. The

Mnemosyne Atlas, a compilation of photographs to chart the development of particular

symbols and images, is one such well-known tool of orientation. Less widely known is
his quest, presented here, to understand astrological motifs and their shifting place in
an evolving intellectual world view.

The question "What does itmean to orient oneself in space?"?this is the rough
translation of "Was bedeutet es, sich im Raum zu orientieren?"? was
posed by
Aby Warburg on the morning of the day on which he died, 26 October 1929,
adding, "my speech as incoming Rector of Hamburg University would have been
called something like this."1While paraphrasing Kant's "What does itmean to
orient oneself in thought?"2 Warburg's question formulated his quest for orienta
tion. The immediate was Ernst Cassirer's lecture as Rector of
prompt inaugural
Hamburg University on 7November 1929 on "Forms and Change of Forms in
the Philosophical Concept of Truth." In it the philosopher Cassirer touched on
von Ranke 's task, as an historian, to make visible the "universe of ideas."3
Warburg used the term "orientation" frequently in his research into "die
Wanderstra?en der Kultur,"4 the highways of culture, the pathways of the mind or
intellect, and more precisely into the "Bilderwanderung," the journey of images,
literal and metaphorical.5 Thus, despite his own insistence on being an "image or
historian"6 and not an "art historian," he used the label "historian"
picture loosely,
certainly not in a Rankean sense of constructing linear history or histories, but
in the sense of excavating those thought processes that led people to a spatial
grasp of orientation in the cosmos, not unlike a geological map, which shows
strata, rock faultlines, and routes of subterranean water courses that
exist are invisible to the
yet eye.
A short note on Aby Warburg: Aby Warburg, 1866-1929, founder of the
Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg inHamburg, abbreviated to KBW
or jokingly referred to as "Keimzelle bedeutender Werke" or "K?nnte besser
werden,"7 which was transferred to London in 1933 and incorporated asThe

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244 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

Warburg Institute into the University of London in 1944, embodies the scholar,
intellectual, visionary who went beyond narrow confines of academic life in
and German academic institutions in
general particular.
Trained as an art historian, he transcended the purely formal tradition of
works of art to masters or schools. He tried to understand the trans
mission of thought, the transmission and metamorphoses of images; he called
his endeavor the research into the "Wanderstra?en des Geistes,"8 paths traced
or taken
by the mind, meandering bye-ways of the mind, from classical antiquity
to Renaissance and to art. In his
Europe beyond contemporary correspondence
with Franz Boll, the great scholar of classical philology, Warburg stressed that
the academic summer courses in 1913, precursors of the fully fledged Hamburg
University which was only established in 1919, needed to offer lectures on
linguistics and the exchange of intellectual thought "on the significance of the
world view of classical antiquity for the culture of the present time."9
Warburg went further, he was interested in the myriad ways of expressing
fascination: visual, aural, and emotional or in
put differently images, language,
music, and religions. He studied the "paths taken by the mind," the staging
posts in the development of scientific thought, tracing the history of disciplines
changing color: how numerology turned into mathematics, how alchemy gave
birth to how invocations and incantations evolved into a of
chemistry, corpus

religious texts and songs, stories and literature; how astrology, through scientific
observations of the celestial sphere became astronomy. Particularly the triad of art,
literature, and religion embodies for him the corpus of culture, that which needs
to be tended and nurtured so that it can be harvested, enjoyed, and handed on.
Warburg's quest for orientation will be discussed in three sections: 1.Warburg's
understanding of the role of astrology; 2. his explanation of this role with the help
of similes likeWanderstra?en, the rotating observation tower and theMnemosyne
Atlas project; and 3.Warburg's tool of the Wanderkarte.

1.Warburg's Understanding of Astrology

The research by the professor of classics atHeidelberg University, Franz Boll,
into the belief in astrology in classical antiquity, published as Sphaera in 1903
but commented on byWarburg only in 1908, was an eye-opener forWarburg.
Some 20 years later he would explain that Boll's Sphaera was the first collection
in word and to document "the of pure un-reason," a
image critique "phenom
enological for a history and psychology of intellectual orientation."10
It guided Warburg in one direction of research, the survival of pagan antiquity
in an altogether different worldview, that of a Christianized Europe. How was
it possible that something which had been termed superstitious by the Church
could surface in aChristian country? To wit, the so-called Sphaera Barb?rica, the
astrological frescoes in the Salonenof the Palazzo della Ragione in Padua or in
the Palazzo Schifanoja in Ferrara.12 The Christian message had been unable to
extinguish the influences of astrology, where pagan gods were believed to exert

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Dorothea McEwan 245

astral as seen in tarot and of where took recourse to

powers, cards, magic, people
divination by a host of practices, using anything from everyday objects to purpose
cut gemstones. Warburg followed Boll in looking at astrology as representing
an on the road to human it was a store
important development enlightenment;
of understanding, albeit a an "Erkenntnisrudiment";13
rudimentary perception,
as such itwas a fertile field of expression with which Warburg documented the
survival of ahidden classical heritage. When researching images of human passions,
"Urleidenschaften," he looked at the formulae which had been created in classical
antiquity; and furthermore, he followed their journeys and metamorphoses
he became convinced that allowed one to draw certain conclusions about
the nature and contents of the memory of humankind.14
A short sketch ofWarburg's preoccupation with images of planetary gods
makes us realize that this topic accompanied Warburg throughout his life. He
spoke on "TheWorld of the Gods of Antiquity and the Early Renaissance in the
South and the North" in a lecture inHamburg in 190815, stressing the evidence
of the survival of the ancient gods in different guises, allegories, interpretations
of classical authors like Ovid. Further, he showed in his lecture on "Church and
Court Art at Landshut" in Bavaria in 190916 the pervasive presence of images of
planets: they decorated a fireplace in the Castle of Landshut, Southern Germany,
an of one more station on the of of the of
example peregrinations images gods
antiquity and their wanderlust. A lecture inHamburg in 1911, "The Journeys
of the Sphaera Barb?rica''11 threw light on another stage of their journeys,
preserved in the frescoes in the Sphaera Barb?rica in Salone, Padua, for which
there is a of tables, schemata, and charts in papers,
panoply Warburg's working
showing origins and derivations such as a genealogical tree (fig. I, see next page)
and for the first time a geographical map of theMediterranean and theMiddle
East (fig. 2) showing the journey of images with lines sketched in color.18 The
best known of these lectures was "Italian Art and International Astrology in the
Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara"19 delivered at theTenth International Art Historical
Congress in Rome in 1912. It marked Warburg's undisputed leadership in this
area of research, with his interpretation of the frescoes in Palazzo Schifanoja,
in particular the Decans, the gods ruling 10-day periods. (The term derives
from the division of the signs of the zodiac into three parts of 10 degrees each.)
Warburg called them the "missing links" between image and symbol20 and in
troduced his listeners to a new view of the centuries-old
astrology, documenting
peregrinations of images of the planets from theMediterranean to theMiddle
East, Mesopotamia, Egypt and from there to Spain. By documenting the route
an took, he could answers the influence
astrological image present concerning
of classical on the artistic culture of Europe.
In 1910,Warburg had met the young Viennese art historian, Fritz Saxl, who
sharedWarburg's enthusiasm for the history of astrology aswell as for Rembrandt.
In a telling aside many years later Saxl remembered a conversation where Warburg
had put it bluntly to Saxl that if he wanted to work forWarburg he would have

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246 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)




Figure 1:Leitfossil. 1911 (WIA,III.78.2.[43])

For transcription of the words see p. 263.

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r ? ^1


Restitution." Lecture in
Hamburg, (WIA,m.78.2.[24]).

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248 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

to decide between or Rembrandt?to work on

researching astrology researching
both fields was, simply, impossible.21 At that time Saxl researched a handbook of
magic, called in Arabic Gh?yat al-Hakimfi H-sihr and in Latin Picatrix, the work
of the Andalusian mathematician al-Majriti [or al-Madjriti], who died c.1004.
Saxl proudly reported toWarburg that he had discovered that King Maximilian
owned a splendid copy o? Picatrix?1 Warburg was excited as, now that he had
further proof, itwould be possible to establish one more route along which ideas
traveled, from the Arabs toMaximilian. To publish Picatrix was therefore an
task, as it a source for the of modern
important presented understanding early
occultism.23 And indeed, the publication o? Picatrix24 was a project which would
occupy Warburg and his staff for many years to come.
Warburg was not interested in researching Babylonian astrology as such, but
in the "practical purpose of cosmological oracular technique,"25 as exemplified by
the lectures "Classical Star Images in Renaissance Art" atHamburg University
in 1913 (fig. 3) and "Pagan-antique Prophecy inWords and Images in the Age
of Luther" inHamburg in 1917.26
The influence of Babylonian astrology could be charted by the "Wanderung,"
the journey of oriental astrology. The ongoing belief in astrology27 had to be
interpreted as one that provided continuity in discontinuity, old beliefs in chang
ing times. To understand the processes whereby it adapted to and was adopted by
the new circumstances encountered would be a contribution to
its modern was therefore also interested in it in the
reemergence.28 Warburg
sense that it presented a block to enlightenment and the "good European" had
to fight this block:29 he engaged with gusto in the unmasking of astrology as
fraud, particularly in times of upheaval and war.
Thus, Warburg found it a paradigmatic example in his research into the
processes of social memory. Looking at the images of the gods of classical
antiquity and their survival and /or resurfacing in a Christian milieu occupied
Warburg throughout his life, from his student days in the 1880s (fig. 4) to his
correspondence with Father Joseph Fischer, the author of the cartographic work
Ptolemy,30 in 1902 and to his final years when the topic had fanned out to
embrace an investigation into the thought processes of image making and the
of memorizing or which in a con
metamorphosis memory, Warburg presented
densed form in his Picture Atlas orMnemosyne Atlas towards the end of his life.

2 .The High Roads, theMnemosyne Atlas and the Rotating ObservationTower

Astrological and cosmological images were the vehicles traveling onWarburg's
"high roads" or "Wanderstra?en." As much as he was keen on the index in a book,
which was like a needle to a
compass pointing particular passage?and planned,
indeed, towrite the "index of indexless books," because "the lack of indices impedes
the way to the hearts of books,"31 he was keen on a visual research tool, charts, to

show the origins of ideas and images and their journeys over vast territories and
timescales.The language andmethod used byWarburg were those of cartography.

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Dorothea McEwan 249





?JHfHfHlWiHI llllll:nill,.''." iM#f?fg|?j?j!

IlitlIl?llllii?i?liH [ti:I i ?I


Figure 3: "Orientexpress," Ferienkurs, 1913 (WIA, IIL87.4.[5]).

Transcription of words on p. 263.

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ViO S? C/5



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Dorothea McEwan 251

are used to present and information time and space to

Maps process spanning
make connections visible in a two dimensional layout. If one finds oneself in a
one does not understand its one cannot orient oneself. But seen
labyrinth, layout,
from from a bird's links, contours, over obstacles
above, eye view, paths, bridges
become visible and may be grasped intellectually.
The term "Wanderstra?e" is not easily rendered into English. It obviously
goes beyond its primary meaning, that of awalking route. It occurred in other
disciplines that mapped developments and distributions, such as the so-called
Atlas research,32 the Atlas of Plants, a classification scheme following
the naturalist Linn?,33 the Picture Atlas ofArt History^ or in the ethnological
study by Adolf Bastian, The World in its Reflections in the Changing Thought of the
an illustrated volume that Gombrich
Peoples,ls which was accompanied by called
an "ethnological picture book in the form of an Atlas."36 The linear investiga
tion into the origins and spread of particular languages or plants or paintings,
new forms, had a long
tracing their distinct dialects, offshoots, variations and
established counterpart in the history of art, where tracing the development
of style was an important component of the discipline.37 A "Wanderstra?e" in
a path, a course for all that and more; itwas
Warburg's understanding provided
an artery along which ideas coursed, semi hidden, but vital for the health of the
sense from landmark to
organism. But ideas were not only carried in a physical
landmark scholars, merchants, and In uncharted
by traveling pilgrims beggars.
territories or on the high seas itwas only natural that travelers were guided by
the stars and, by extension, by a belief in the guiding properties of the stars.
In order to understand the network of arteries, in order to orient oneself, a
was from which to see the roads, the traffic, the movement
vantage point necessary,
of intellectual was such an "observation as he
activity. Warburg's library post,"
termed it in the famous letter to the classicist Ulrich vonWilamowitz-Moellendorff
in 1924.38 In another letter he spoke of his library as "the revolving observation
tower, from which the intellectual past of the Orient and the Occident can be
viewed."39 Another time he called it the Tower," an observation
"Lynceus post
from which one could view far away developments, like the Argonaut Lynceus,
who was famous for his sharp eye and penetrating gaze backwards into the past.40
Warburg even saw in his library an observation tower from which "the entire
trade route of culture and between Asia and America could be viewed."41
A pertinent Hamburg tradition with itsColonial Academy and shipping tradition
was invoked when he declared the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg
to be "a tower the trade routes of cultural "our
observing exchange,"42 scanning
field of vision."43Therefore the project of the Picture orMnemosyne Atlas, "the
of the movement of civilizations, or rather of ideas"44was made pos
great map
sible only because Warburg's library presented such a nodal or vantage point.
Saxl was as excited about the Atlas project asWarburg, because itwould be in
his view "a revelation for German minds," the most on the
important publication
Renaissance since He saw it not as a the definitive
early J. Burckhardt. "corpus,"

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252 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

treatment of a topic, but a selection which pointed in the direction that research
should take. It was therefore necessary to do research in every library in France
and Italy so that the routes along which the images traveled became clear.45
Observation and memory had created pictures and stories and these were to be
arranged in away that their diffusion and direction would become visible.
However, to tie down these peregrinations proved difficult. Warburg, in the
first instance, put up mobile walls in the KBW on which he arranged photo
on the cloth-covered
graphs grouped according to topics. He pinned them up
mobile walls so that they could easily be taken down again and rearranged anew.
Warburg could choose his examples from his vast collections of several thousand
photographs and could use them as auto cues when explaining the journeys of
images to library users, standing in front of the illustrations arranged to fit
lecture This ever was not conducive to
particular topic. shifting arrangement

producing a definitive version, a publication, and had to remain fragmentary.46

3. "Wanderkarte"
I have explained the importance of astrology toWarburg, I have introduced
you to the terminology used byWarburg, the high roads orWanderwege, the
observation tower and the Mnemosyne Atlas. It is now time that we
look at the method Warburg employed to put these all together by employing
the tool of the Wanderkarte."
A map a bird's view. It makes it easy to grasp chunks of
presents eye large
information. For Warburg maps were heuristic tools, or finding aids, for his
in for his interest in the network of roads of ideas. He was
research, particular
amapmaker, and selective like all mapmakers. His selection had a purpose, to
show the diffusion of ideas.
He realized that he needed specialist tools to organize thematerial, to codify
tomake visible
meaning. The method for providing the synoptic tool with which
the high roads or arteries and the work on the rotating observation towers filled
with images was what he called theWanderkarte, the map of images. Itwould be a
psychogeographical tool to chart human inventiveness aswell asmemory. Itwould
show what has remained hidden or what we would see "as if a sort of autonomous

fate had blown the works of Arat andTeukros hither and thither."47 He referred to
theGreek poet and astronomer Aratus whose books describing constellations were
called Aratea inCicero's translation and illustrated inCarolingian times; Teukros
or Teucer the Babylonian was the Egyptian astronomer and astrologer (fig. 5).
Back in 1913, for the summer course with Franz Boll and Carl Bezold on
"Classical Star Images inRenaissance Art," Warburg had used amap that his wife
was an outline map
Mary had drawn, probably between 1908 and 1911 (fig. 2). It
specifically drawn to chart the routes of the images with astrological information.
then inserted dots and lines tomake visible the diffusion and direction,
or real, of the images of these constellations traveling through time
and space.48 By the summer of 1926, immersed in his Atlas andWanderstra?en

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254 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

and exhibition research, he needed amore or maps.

professionally produced map
In the first instance, he contacted the economic historian Heinrich Sievek
ing: could he help him find printed maps of trade routes, in particular sea routes
from Flanders to Italy, and if not, could he draw them, so thatWarburg could
use them for his lectures?49 Sieveking replied in the At the same time
wrote to Max Schmidt, the mapmaker, whose new edition of a
Warburg Georg
history of world trade, Geschichte desWelthandels,51 was supposed to be printed by
the publishers Joachim Perthes in the next few months.52 There was even talk of
"buying" back the map from Perthes publishers if they did not publish quickly
enough and to instruct another publisher with the task.However, Schmidt could
not revoke his contract as Perthes promised to go to print
Schmidt was commissioned specifically to provide largemaps or wall charts for
two purposes: first, for an exhibition project called "Bild und Zahl alsWerkzeuge
menschlicher or and Number as tools of human orienta
Orientierung" "Image
tion,"53 to be mounted in the new German Museum of Technology inMunich.54
was in consultation and with the director, Oskar von
Warburg negotiations
Miller, for providing exhibition material for a history of astrology to give the
proper introduction to an exhibition on the history of astronomy. This project,
however, fell through, even though detailed plans had already been drawn up,
and soWarburg, sure of its didactic importance, approached the Hamburg city
authorities and was able to convince them to mount such an exhibition in the

projected planetarium inHamburg.55 To chart the history of astrology Warburg

needed maps indicating particular places of learning and commerce, where old
and new ideas collided. He saw this exhibition project as his contribution to
the education of the young, to introduce them to not a treasure
house filled with curiosities.56
Secondly, Warburg also needed maps for a projected expanded edition of his
Luther article, to show the route of Schmidt was sent
astrological images. eight
photographs with mapped outlines of countries and was requested to mark in
trade routes.57

Apart from the particulars of the outlines of the Mediterranean basin and
Europe, as drawn by Mary Warburg some 15 years earlier, Warburg and Saxl
needed to be clear about what developments they wanted to show. A number
of letters between Saxl andWarburg followed, in which routes were discussed.
Was "our Aratea" coming from Rome and going to Ireland or did it originate in
Alexandria or inGallia?58 Schmidt was instructed that the finished product should
not look like a geographical map, but be more schematic; what was important
to see was the overall direction of trade routes, caravan routes, sea routes.59
Max Georg Schmidt produced one map, thinking that entries for trade routes
of all periods could be accommodated on one map only.60 He sent it to Saxl
who was in London in 1928 cataloguing the large holdings of astrological and
mythological manuscripts in the library of the British Museum and elsewhere.
When Saxl received the map he immediately saw what was wrong with it:To fix

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Dorothea McEwan 255

and chart a diachronic movement presented considerable difficulties and to do

so on one map sheet only was simply use themap
confusing.61 Saxl decided to by
Mary Warburg and ordered multiple copies from Germany. He then proceeded
to make entries on three one for each He entered dates, names of
maps, period.
towns, of people, and most importantly lines indicating the direction of diffusion
of thought. With these entries he could finish Warburg's "favorite child," as he
called theWanderkarte.The task, he found, was not so difficult for the road network
from the twelfth century onwards, with the onset of the reception of images from
classical antiquity, but was very different for the images in antiquity itself. He
therefore requested the help ofWilhelm Gundel, a classicist and eminent scholar
on the history of astrology, to chart the route astrology took from East toWest,
starting with Plato, and then the route back from Alexandria and Rome, which
he called "Hellenized antiquity," to the Orient and its further spread into Gaul.62
The first of those deals with an impossibly long time span, from 500 BC
to 500 AD. Gundel, enthusiastic about the commission, went to work with a
vengeance. He entered in purple ink places and events, such as the origin of
of appearances of comets and meteor showers,
astrology, predictions eclipses,
just as he would the horoscopes of individuals, discussing "Chaldaei" not in the
sense of a but as a collective noun for liver oracles, end of world
people stargazers,
star and moon movements, calendars, he mentioned the
prophecies, mysteries;
names of scholars and travelers in but did not want to enter
priests, antiquity,
them all on a map charting intellectual development as it would go too far
and be confusing?names of people with their places of birth attached do not
mean that these were for their studies.63
necessarily places important astrological
The Western European countries have relatively few handwritten additions, the
Eastern Mediterranean countries, Greece, modern Arab countries,
Egypt, Turkey,
Iran, and Afghanistan have very many handwritten additions.64 It is all but
unusable, and, crucially, it does not show any lines denoting diffusion or direction.
The historical information superimposed on a geographical map makes the
information on the map crowded and nigh on unintelligible. Just three examples
will suffice to demonstrate that this "map" did not work: he made an entry for
Heliopolis, south of Alexandria, "here studies Solon, Pythagoras, Plato, Sadoxus,
cf. [Hermann] Kees, Sechnuphis (Plato's teacher), by P.W." ["hier studiert Solon,
Pythagoras, Plato, Sadoxus, cf. [Hermann] Kees, Sechnuphis (Plato's teacher)
bei P.W."]; an arrow pointing to Bordeaux and explaining "Ausonius 4. Jd p."
[Ausonius Decimus Magnus, Latin poet and teacher, 310P-394], and additional
information for Palermo "Scribonius 1Jd. aweissagte dem Tiberias sein Schicksal,
starb 42 v.Chr." ["the astrologer Scribonius prophesied forTiberius an illustrious
Saxl revised this map in blue, with much fewer entries, but lines of diffusion
of it presents a overview of "The most trade routes
thought, good important
to the times of Alexander the Great" [broken lines] and "The most important
trade routes to the time of the Roman Empire" [continuous lines].

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256 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

The other two maps are "The most trade routes from
captioned: important
the sixth to the twelfth centuries" and "The most important trade routes from
the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries" (fig. 6).
While Gundel was busy filling his map with far too many entries, Schmidt
mailed his map in three copies again to Saxl in London inAugust 1928, and Saxl
acknowledged them, but then mislaid them. He was "utterly desperate,"65 but did
not informWarburg right away.When Saxl did informWarburg that he could not
find the route maps?a major drama?he softened the blow by suggesting that
Schmidt should be asked to draw them again, and to take amore differentiated
timeframe into account.66 However, when Saxl returned to London in March

1929, he found them there.67

To Warburg, research into memory, the overall need to find one's bearing, to
understand one's world, to find one's guiding light, was connected with providing
tools, be they the constant urgent appeals for the establishment of university
institutes, such as aDepartment of Archaeology inHamburg University, or be
they books, photographs and maps in his library. People in the North lacked the
compass and the direction as they had no knowledge ofMediterranean culture;
the KBW as the "observation tower with the most subtle set of instruments"
was the place from which to conduct such research and a vehicle for enlighten
ment. He cited as a good example the importance of the reconciliation of Pope
Pius XI and King Victor Emanuel III in Italy in 1929: it could not possibly be
understood inHamburg, because it did not know anything of Catholicism.
He was convinced that his method and instruments were right. They had
global character and application as exemplified by a "brilliant discovery" which
Saxl had made and which would attract the greatest admiration.68
The "discovery" was the floor mosaic in Beth Alpha, Palestine. The room in
which the mosaic of astrological images was found was a late Hellenistic Jewish
cult room. It was a rare of the Jewish faith, otherwise strictly given
non-visual, non-literal but using images. Scholarship
representations, astrological
today is still divided on how to interpret this.69
The Wanderkarten were exhibited in the Planetarium exhibition in 1930 and
theMary Warburg map was incorporated into plate A of theMnemosyne Atlas. It
shows three pictures: (fig. 7) the representation of the sky populated by zoomor
phic and anthropomorphic images of stars of 1684, theWanderkarte and a hand
drawn Tornabuoni-Medici The are "Orientation,"
genealogy. pictures captioned

"Exchange" and "Social Integration." The first picture is the map of mythological
images of stars in the night sky, the second is the route map of images, the third
the family tree of an important family which traced its origins from the fifteenth
century back to classical antiquity. In this way a single research topic, family
research, exemplified its link to the general research topic of orientation.70
Thus, research into visual memory, the movement of memory,
turned into amultimedia project: it comprised the creation of charts outlining
the journey of images, superimposed onto geographical maps, the arrangements

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I I ^1

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258 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

x x,

Figure 7: Phte A,Mnemosyne Atlas. 1930 (WIA, IE. 108.8. l).Transcription p. 263.

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Dorothea McEwan 259

of photographs on mobile walls and a projected publication in book form.War

burg, with the help of dots and lines, tried to supply the guiding principles and
orientation in the maze of our intellectual heritage, away beyond the rudiment
of perception called astrology, pointing to a life no longer governed by fear. He
found it important to show people that from a vantage point even higher than a
tower they could see spread out below them the network of roads and understand
connections. He commissioned a German airmail from the artist
stamp graphic
Otto Heinrich Strohmeyer and supplied both sketches and caption. At long last
air travel would the overview method, the of
provide internationality airspace
was like amap in outline. Itwas the synoptic medium with which to see the land
and sea spread out below the onlookers and from which they would perceive
the "Wanderstra?en," the routes linking people. Strohmeyer's design was not
executed as a stamp, but as a linocut called "Idea Vincit," which exemplified to
Warburg that the soaring aeroplane of ideas will win through and will overcome
fear.71Warburg valued it somuch that he presented it to dozens of friends, family
members, and politicians, and took itwith him to Italy where he hung it up in his
hotel rooms, as a reminder that it is to fear.
perhaps personal possible conquer
"routes of culture" presented aweb or net, inwhich one nodal point was
Hamburg andWarburg's library. It would have delighted him if it would have
been seen and used as hypertext in aworldwide web of information and symbols.

Photo credits: All illustrations are from the Institute Archive of the
Warburg by permission
Director of theWarburg Institute, ? The Warburg Institute, London.
Aby Warburg. Tagebuch der Kulturwissenschaftlichen Bibliothek Warburg, Charlotte Schoell
Glass/Karen Michels, eds. (Berlin: Akademie 2001), 555.
Immanuel Kant, Werke, Band III, Schriften zur und Logik, Wilhelm Weischedel, ed.
(Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag, 1958), 267: "Was hei?t: sich im Denken orientieren?"
Ernst Cassirer, "Formen und Formwandlungen des philosophischen
in: Universit?t Reden (Hamburg: C. Boysen, 1929), 29.
Hamburgische Verlag
Dorothea McEwan, der Kultur. Die Aby Saxl Korrespondenz
Wanderstra?en Warburg-Fritz
1920 bis 1929 (Hamburg-M?nchen: D?lling und Galitz Verlag, 2004).
Fritz Saxl, "Das Nachleben der Antike. Zur Einf?hrung in die Bibliothek
Hamburger Universit?tszeitung, 11/4 (1921): 245, where he used the phrase "Wanderstra?en
der Kultur"; Fritz Saxl, "Die Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek in
Warburg Hamburg,"
in: Ihre Geschichte, Organisation und Ziele, L. Brauer et al, eds
Forschungsinstitute: (Hamburg:
H?rtung, 1930), 355, where he used the phrase "Wanderstra?en der Tradition," 355.
A.Warburg to C. Neumann (art historian), 2 0March :
1917 Warburg Institute Archive (here
after: WIA), General Correspondence (hereafter: GC): Kopierbuch (hereafter: KB) VI, 289.
WIA, m.1.2.3. Poster for the 60th birthday party of A. Warburg, 1926. "Germ cell of

significant works" and "Could be better": WIA, III. 1.2.3.

A. Warburg to F Saxl, 31 December 1921 GC:: W/Saxl file (hereafter: W/S).
A. Warburg to F Boll, 20/02/1913: GC, "?ber die Bedeutung des antiken Weltbildes f?r
die Kultur der Gegenwart."
A Warburg to G.
Bing, F. Saxl and C Hertz, 19March 1925: GC
Marco Bertozzi, La tirannia astri: di Palazzo 2nd
degli gli affreschi astrologici Schifanoia,

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260 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

ed. (Livorno: 1999). Bertozzi an

augmented Sillabe, presents analysis of the iconography and
sources (in ancient Indian, Persian, and Greek and inMarcus Manilius'
Egyptian astrology,
Astron?mica) of the 21 decans represented in the 1469-70 mural (various artists)
commissioned by Borso d'Est? in the Salone dei Mesi (Ferrara, Palazzo Schifanoia). The
on a transla
study builds Warburg's interpretation of the cycle, and includes (in appendix)
tion ofWarburg's 1912 essay "Italienische Kunst und internationale im Palazzo
Schifanoia zu Ferrara and a translation of Elsbeth Jaffa's study of the decans, in
the appendix of Aby Warburg, Gesammelte Schriften (1932): The Renewal
Aby Warburg, of
David Britt, trans. (Los Angeles: The Research Institute Publications
Pagan Antiquity, Getty
Program, 1999).
Graziella Federici Vescovini confirms the dependence of the fourteeth-century frescoes
Pietro d'Abano's of astronomical
upon (1257?c.1315) theory images: Graziella Federici
"Pietro d'Abano e
Vescovini, gli affreschi astrologici del Palazzo della Ragione di Padova,"

LabyrinthosV/9 (1986): 50-75.

Personal Diary page 60, entry for 13 August 1901: WIA: III, 10.2. "Veth portraitirt, ich
z?hle; die primitiven V?lker haben gegen beides abergl?ubische Abneigung; Aberglauben
ist ein Erkenntnisrudiment: werden wollen und gez?hlt werden ist ein Symptom
des Bewu?tseins der H?hepunkt?berschreitung." referred here to the Dutch
painter Jan Veth. Warburg drew up a statement of expenditure for Veth's expenses when

painting Warburg's parents.

14Eduard Rosenbaum to Richard Fick, 19 November 1929. Enclosed G. Bing's statement
on the tasks of KBW and the function of a library/research institute: GC.
"Die antike G?tterwelt und die Fr?hrenaissance im S?den und Norden," Verein f?r

Hamburgische Geschichte, 14 December 1908, Hamburg: WIA, IH-73.1.

Warburg, The Renewal, 561.
Lecture given in a group called "Kr?nzchen," in inWarburg's house, on 16
December 1911. "Die Wanderungen der Sphaera Barb?rica": WIA, III.78.1 and IIL78.2.
Warburg, The Renewal, 563-92.
to Saxl, 31 December 1921: GC: W/S.
21F Saxl to Paul
Warburg (banker), 5August 1926:GC: W/S.
A. Warburg toW. Ahrens (writer), 7March 1914: GC.
A. to C.H.Becker, editor of the periodical Der Islam, 16 February 1916: GC.
Orientalist Helmut Ritter, "Picatrix, ein arabisches Handbuch hellenistischer Magie," in:

Vortr?ge 1921-22, (Leipzig: B.G.Teubner, 1923), 94-124.

"Die Planetenbilder auf der Wanderung von S?d nach Nord und ihre R?ckkehr nach
Italien": WIA, III.87.2.2.
Also in the Religionswissenschaftliche Gesellschaft in Berlin in the following year,
in the
printed Proceedings of theHeidelberg Academy of Science in 1920. Warburg, The Renewal,
A. Warburg to F. Saxl, 11 January 1921, in which he suggested a lecture on "Zum Bild
des Kulturaustausches zwischen Osten und Westen" or "Das Problem
der Bilderwanderung zwischen Osten und Westen von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter":
GC. It was published by Fritz Saxl, "Die Bibliothek Warburg und ihr Ziel," in:
Vortr?ge der
Bibliothek Warburg, 1, 1921-22 (Leipzig: B.G.Teubner, 1923), 1-10.
F. Saxl to the Africanist C. F. Meinhof, 18 February 1922: GC.
Warburg, The Renewal, 586.
Fischer, Der "Deutsche Ptolem?us" aus dem Ende des XV. (um 1490)
Joseph Jahrhunderts
Faksimiledruck. (Strasbourg, 1910); nach der arabischen Bearbeitung der des
Afrika "geographike

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Dorothea McEwan 261

Claudius Ptolemaeus von Muhammad ibnMusa al-Hwarizmi, Hans von Mzik, ed., with an

appendix "Ptolem?us und Agathod?mon," by Joseph Fischer, S.J., and two plates and one

map of Africa (Vienna, 1916).

31 to Paul Flemming
Warburg (historian), 24 February 1918:WIA: GC; KB VI , 360,
32 was on a
Bernhard Sch?del, Romanist at and dialect
Hamburg University, working linguistic
atlas of the languages of the Iberian Peninsula, petitioning theWissenschaftliche Stiftung
for funding for field trips, purchase of equipment, etc. As Max M. A.
frequently Warburg,
brother and head of the bankM. M. Warburg, was amember of the committee of
the foundation, he used to request confidential advice from Aby Warburg, which the latte,
in the case of the Sprachatlas, spiked with negative
comments. WIA: GC, 15 August 1915.
Carl Hoffmann, Pflanzenatlas nach dem Linn?schen System (c. 1910).
34 zur a.N,
Wilhelm Tesdorpf, Bilderatlas in die Kunstgeschichte (Esslingen 1909).
35 unter dem Wandeides
Adolf Bastian, Die Welt in ihren V?lkergedankens (Berlin,
1887); comments in Ernst H. Gombrich, ^4?>y
Warburg. An Intellectual Biography (Leiden: E.
J. Brill, 1970), 285; with an of the arrangement on Plate 55b.
Gombrich, Aby Warburg, 285.
O. Fischel (art historian) toW, 9 September 1928: GC.
A. Warburg to U. v.Willamowitz-Moellendorff, 2 3April 1924: GC; "Beobachtungsstelle"
or "observation
39 or
A Warburg to G. (classist), 20 July 1924: GC; "Aussichtsdrehturm"
Herbig "revolving
observation tower."
A. Warburg to Senator C Cohn, 6 September 1928: GC.
41AWarburg, "Durchbruch nach Amerika," 4July 1927. "Wenn er [Saxl] dann zur?ckgekehrt
sein wird, ich sicher zu sein, dass unser Institut auch den h?chsten
glaube Anforderungern
eines Beobachtungsturmes, der die ganze Wanderstra?e der Kultur und Symbole zwischen
Asien und Amerika vom Observatorium aus bestreicht, w?re":
hamburgischen gewachsen
WIA: [5].
42A to ErichWarburg
Warburg (banker), 29 June 1928:GC
A. Warburg to the classicist E. Jaff?: GC
Strong (a family friend) toA Warburg, 24 October 1929:GC
E. Fraenkel (classicist) to A. 24 February 1927: GC
46 one
The collection of the different versions is in the Archive, only of which was published
as late as 2000: Martin Warnke/Claudia Der Bilderatlas Mnemosyne (Ber
^r'mk,Aby Warburg.
lin: Akademie Verlag, vol. II. 1 of Aby Warburg, Gesammelte Schriften, Studienausgabe, 2000.
P. Ruben (Hebrew scholar) to A. 2 June 1924: GC.
Die Fixsternhimmelsbilder der Sphaera Barb?rica auf der Wanderung von Ost nach
West." 5 August 1913: WIA: III.78.2 [24].
A to H. (economic historian), 28 August 1926: GC.
Warburg Sieveking
H. Sieveking to A. 2 September 1926: GC.
Max Georg Schmidt, Geschichte des Welthandels (Berlin/Leipzig: Teubner, 1928).
A. Warburg toM. G. Schmidt, 2 December 1926: GC.
53 to E Schumacher,
A. Warburg 2 October 1927: GC. Also "Bilderwanderung bis Eckener,

Mnemosyne, Logik, Ghirlandajo" (manuscript, 1929); "Bild und Zahl als polare antichaoti
sche Funktion des Ged?chtnisses im Gesch?fte der Orientierung," 6 October 1929: WIA,

F. Saxl to A Warburg, 28 September 1927: GC: W/S.
A. Warburg to the architect F. Schumacher, 2 October 1927: GC.
A. Warburg to K Umlauf of Hamburg 13 October 1928: GC.

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262 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

KBW toM.G. Schmidt, 20 March 1928: GC.
F. Saxl to A. Warburg, 23 March 1928: GC.
F Saxl toM.G. Schmidt, 22 April 1928: GC.
60 was
to A. 20 August 1928: GC.
M.G.Schmidt Warburg, The lettering done by R. Larisch
in Vienna.
E Saxl to A. 26 May 1928: GC: W/S.
62F Saxl toW Warburg, 14 June 1928:GC.
W. Gundel to A Warburg, 25 August 1928: GC.
64 are in italics
W. Gundel, dated 28 August 1928: WIA: IV2.1. These entries
on the list in the
E Saxl toM.G.Schmidt, 29 September 1928: GC.
E Saxl to A. Warburg, 28 January 1929: GC: W/S.
E Saxl to A. Warburg, 6March 1929: GC: W/S.
toMax 25 March 1929: WIA: GC, WFam.
Warburg Warburg,
"Brief an Gisela Warburg (AbyWarburg's niece) vom 14.May 1929," Dorothea McEwan/
Martin Treml, eds., Trajekte 4/8 (2004): 4?8; Dorothea McEwan, "Gegen die 'Pioniere
der Diesseitigkeit,'" ibid.: 9-11; Eleazar L. The Ancient
Sukenik, Synagogue of Beth Alpha.
Jerusalem: University Press, 1932.
Claudia Wedepohl, Ein Versuch zu der
"Ideengeographie: Aby Warburgs Wanderstra?en
Kultur" the R?ume, Kulturelle um 1900 und
Proceedings of Conference "Entgrenzte Transfers
in der Gegenwart. Internationales Symposion des Spezialforschungsbereichs Modern?Wien und
um 1900." 16-18 October 2003, Graz, Mitterbauer and
Zentraleuropa University Helga
Katharina Scherke, eds. (Vienna, 2005), 227-54.
McEwan, "Gegen die 'Pioniere...'"; Dorothea McEwan, '"Die siegende, fliegende Idea.'
Ein k?nstlerischer Auftrag Aby War b?rg," in: Der Bilderatlas imWechsel der K?nste und

Medien, Sabine Flach, Inge M?nz-Koenen and Marianne Streisand, eds. (Munich: Wilhelm
Fink Verlag, Reihe Trajekte, 2005), 121-51.

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Dorothea McEwan 263

I: Transcription of Words on the Illustrations.

Figure 1: Leitfossil. 1911 Dekane
Der Mann mit dem Beil Der Mann mit dem Strick

Achmet, der Perser
Axine ["axe"] Abu Masr
Aben Esra
"chorda percinctus"
echte[!] teukrischer

(einheitliche [!])Archetypus

Hbg[Hamburg] in ejus manu fascionem* incidens

Wien, ascionum incidentem
Hann. Un arma
Abano, Astrolabium Alfonso Steinbuch
Wenzel hs [Handschrift]
Wie wird assia* arab.[isch] ?bersetzt? (Schifanoja)

[* "fascionem" should be "ascionem," "assia" should be "ascia," "axe"]

Figure 3: "Orientexpress," Ferienkurs, 1913

Conventionelle Grenzpf?hle der m?hsam und undenkbar

subjektiven geistigen inneren Aufkl?rung und des Tatsachengebietes


u. besondere[?]
Organisch unorganisch
Aufkl?rung Aberglauben
Mathematik u. Fetischismus

imponderable h?chstens m??iglich ponderable


Figure 4 and 5: Next two pages ?>

Figure 7: Plate A, Mnemosyne Atlas. 1930

Der antike Sternenhimmel mit modernen nach einer holl?ndischen
Die "Wanderstra?enkarte" des Kulturaustausches zwischen Norden?S?den, Osten
Der Stammbaum der Familie Medici.

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4? C/5
3. ? O ON


?chtnis Wissenschaft
:w?rts Reactionsform-








(Wissen) Recht

II regulirte Bewg.


May" (Besitz)


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? o3 S o sI P ON








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266 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

Appendix II: Entries on the Wanderkarten

The "Wanderkarte" map, drawn features names of towns in print.

by Mary Warburg,
These entries are
listed below. There are four of this map extant in theWarburg
Institute Archive with handwritten additions featuring dates, names of towns, names of

people, and most importantly lines indicating the direction of diffusion of thought.
On one?uncaptioned?copy of this map, dated 28/08/1928, Wilhelm Gundel entered
additional information; theWestern European countries have relatively few handwritten

additions, the Eastern Mediterranean countries, Greece, Egypt, modern Turkey, Arab

countries, Iran, Afghanistan have very many handwritten additions. These entries are in
italics on the list below (WIA, IV.

Fritz Saxl revised this map with many fewer entries, but, crucially, lines of direction of
diffusion of thought (WIA, IV. The map is captioned:
"The most trade routes to the times of Alexander the Great" [broken lines],
"The most trade routes to the time of the Roman [continuous
important Empire"
Saxl's additions are underlined.

[The other two maps are


"The most important trade routes from the 6th to the 12th centuries." (not illustrated)

"The most important trade routes from the 12th to the 15th centuries." (fig. 6) (WIA, IV]
Towns and Events Entered on WIA, IV. 2.2.4).

England: London; Northampton; Oxford; Sandwich.

von M. a. war in Brit. has spent a long
Additional: Asklepiades l.Jh. lange Zeit [1st century BC,
time in Britain]. ?Entry crossed out.]
Line North to Ruthwell Cross. Dumfriesshire, Scotland.
The Netherlands: Amsterdam.

Belgium: Antwerpen; Br?gge [Bruges]; Mecheln [Malines].

France: Aigueperse; Avignon; Auxerre; Bordeaux; Lille; Lyon; Marseille; Paris; Tournai.
Additional: Quadius ? century AD]; Anthedhis, S.Jh.p [5th century AD, with
arrow to arrow to
Lyon]; Caecilius Arborius Argicius (Haedner) 3Ajh. p.[3A century AD, with
Bordeaux]; Ausonius, AD; in the Arat Krinas [?] l.Jh.
4.Jh. p [4th century vicifiity ofAvignon];
p [1st century AD, in the vicinity ofMarseille].
Toulouse; Narbonne.

Spain: Barcelona; Cadiz; Cordoba; Coruna;

Malaga; Sevilla; Toledo.
Leon; Salamanca; Ermer.[ita Augustea, modern M?rida]; Caes.[araugusta, modern

Carth.[ago nova, modern Carthagena]

Zaragoza]; Tarragonal

Germany: Aichach; Augsburg; Bamberg; Berlin; Brandenburg; Erfurt; Frankfurt; Goslar;

Hamburg; I la?furt;Heidelberg; Kiel; Leipzig; L?neburg; L?beck; Naumburg; N?rnberg
[Nuremberg]; Regensburg; Stendal; Stra?burg; Ulm; Weimar; Wetzlar; Wittenberg;
Wolfenb?ttel; W?rzburg.
Additional: Trier ?Tr?ves], 3. Jh., 3.4.Jh.p.[beginning of 3rd century AD].
Panegyr., (Igel),Anf.

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Dorothea McEwan 267

Switzerland: Basel [Basle].

Czech Republic: Budweis; Prag [Prague].
Poland: Krakau [Cracow].
Russia: Moskau [Moscow].

Austria: Eggenburg; Wien [Vienna].


Italy: Crot?n; Ferrara; Florenz [Florence]; Genua [Genoa]; Livorno; Mailand [Milan];
Mantua; Neapel [Naples]; Padua; Palermo; Pavia; Perugia; Pisa; Rom [Rome]; Venedig
Additional: 2.J.t. a.?4. Jh. p. [2nd millennium BC to 4th century AD, near Rome]; Capri, Tibul

lus; Syracus, Firmicus M.[aternus] Scribonius, 1. Jh. a, weissagt dem

4.Jh.p [4th century AD];
Tiberias sein Schicksal, etwas 42 v. Chr., [1st century BC, Tiberias s c. 42 BC, with
foretells fate,
an arrow to Palermo.].
Greece: Athen [Athens]; Samos.
Additional: Rhodos, Tiberius und Thrasyll; Kos, Berosos 3Jh a, Sch?ler Antipater undAchinapolus
[3rd century BC; student ofAntipater andAchinapolus]; Harlicarnass: Scylax, Freund des Panaitios
v. Chr., 88, vor ihm: Anchialus
2Jh und Cassandrus [Scylax, friend of Panaitios 2nd

century BC, before him Anchialus and Cassandrus].

Albania: [no printed entry].

Additional: convertiert zum Christentum [?] [converts to near
Apollonia, Theagetos Christianity,

Romania: [no printed entry].

Sirm.[Sirmium. Sremska Mi trovica];Singid. Belgrade] :Vimin[Viminacmm.

2. Jh. a [2nd century BC]; Geminus 1. Jh. a [1st century

Cyprus: Hipparch, Serapion;
BC]; Paridonius.

or Corum Province]; Harran [in the vicinity

Turkey: Boghazki?i [Boghazkoi Bogazkale,
of Sanliurfa]; Konstantinopel [Istambul];Kyzikos [Cyzicus, in Bithynia]; Lystra [Lyca
onia, South of Iconium]; [renamed Pontus et Nicaea
Myrlea Apameia, Bithynia province]
[Bithynia] Tyana [Cappadocia]; Soloi [Soloi/Pomeiopolis].
Additional: von
Spigenes Byzantion (3 Jh a) studiert bei Chaldaeern; [3rd century BC, studies
with Chaldeaens]; Heraiskos 5 Jh p.Ch [5th century AD]; Parilli, Artemidor von Carion studiert
bei Chaldaeern [studies with Chaldeaeans, with arrow to Teneios, Kleostrat 6. a.
Kyzikos]; Jh.
[6th century BC, with arrow to Kyzikos]; Hipparch, 2.Jh.a.geboren [born 2nd century BC, with
arrow toNicaea]; astrol. 3Jh a.,cf ccalV 150 [3rd century BC, with arrow toNicaea];
Knidos, Eudoxos a [4th century BC]; [?] 2Jh [2nd century]; Kommagene,
4Jh Myndos, Apollinos
Grab des Antiochos [grave ofAntiochos].
Syn. [Syneta; supposed site, west of Laodocia. Bucakk?ya]: Ancyra [Boghazkoi. formerly
Kilise K?y].

Iraq: Babylon; Bagdad [Baghdad]; Basra; Erbil [Irbil, Sulaymaniyah]; Mossul [Mosul];
Sindschirli [Sinjalah?;Muhafazat as Sulaymaniyah];
Additional: Kidznan der Chaldaeer, 2.-3. Jh.a., vielleicht Quelle des Hipparch? [Kidznan the

Chaldeaen, 2nd/3rd century BC, possibly the source for Hipparchos?; near Erbil];
Edessa urn 1-8 p, fu?t u.a.
aufKritodem, beruft sich auf die alten Aeg. [c. 7th
to 8th century, goes

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268 German Studies Review 29/2 (2006)

back among other toKritodem, quotes old Egyptian sources, near Baghdad]; Horoskop vomj. 142
v. Chr. (vielleicht schon griech. R?ck...) written in 142 BC, Greek
[horoscope possibly already
[tear in paper, rest illegible, arrow pointing to
Babylon]; Seleukos aus Babylon,
Seleukia am Tikris Seleukia on lokier, stoischer a.
[Diogenes from Tigris]; Philosoph 2Jh. [Stoic
philosopher, 2nd century BC].

Syria: Apamea [on the outskirts of Hama] ;

Dolyche [Doliche, D?l?k, northwest of Ain tab] ;
Palmyra [Province of Horms].

Lebanon: [no printed entry]

Additional: Sidon [Sayda], Dorotheus 2. Jh. p [2nd century AD].

Iran: Gundeschapur [Gundeshapur, Western Iran]; Isfahan [Isfahan Province, South of

Teheran]. Susa [in southwestern Iran, modern Shush]; Oum [Oimis, Damghan].

India: Ozene [Central India, on the banks of the river

[Ujjain] Shipra].

[Balkh; Paktra, Bactria, near modern Mazar-i-Sharif; Northern
Province of Afghanistan]; Kab.[ul]; Herat.

Turkmenistan: [no printed entry].

Merw [Margiana],

Pakistan: [no printed entry].

Pesch.[Peshawar, Valley in northwestern Pakistan]; River Kabul River; River

Uzbekistan: [no printed entry].

Buchara; Sam [Samarkand],

Israel: Jerusalem

Jordan: [no printed entry].

Petra; Aelana [Al Aqabah].

Saudi Arabia: Kufar [Qufar].

Egypt: Akhmim [Upper Egypt, East bank of theNile, opposite Sohag] Alexandria;
; Aswan;
Denderah [Dendara, Tentyra, Upper Egypt]; Edfu [Between Aswan and Luxor, Upper
Elefantine island in the river Nile in the Aswan area]; Theben
Egypt]; [Elephantine,
[Thebes, Upper Egypt].
Additional: Hypsikles, [2nd century BC, near Alexandria];
2Jh.a Heliopolis: hier studiert Solon,

Plato, Eudoxus, bei P.W. [here studied Solon,

Pythagoras, vgl. Kees, Sechnuphis Pythagoras, Plato,
Eudoxus, f. Kees, Sechnuphis in P. W.]; Memphis, a. Plato, Eudoxus [4th century BC]; Bolos
vonMendes, Ende 5. Jh.a. [end of 5th century BC]; Babylon; Teukros von Babylon, a? [Teucer
of Baby Ion in Egypt, 1st century BC?]; Hephaestis 4.jh.p? [4th century BC?, near Thebes]; Odapius
Thebanus 3 Jh v. Chr. [3rd century BC].

Libya: [no printed entry].

Additional: Leptis. Septimius Severus 146p.Chr. [146AD].

Tunisia: [no printed entry].

Aditional: in seiner Sterndeuter S. Augustin was an
Karthago. Augustin Jugend [Carthage.
in his youth].

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