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Fundamentals of Product Quality Planning/

Grundlagen der Produktqualittsplanung

Product Quality Planning is a structured method of defining and establishing the steps necessary to assure
that a product satisfies the customer./ Produktqualittsplanung ist eine strukturierte Methode zur
Festlegung und Festlegung der notwendigen Schritte, um sicherzustellen, dass ein Produkt den
Kunden zufrieden stellt.
Some of the benefits of product quality planning are:/ Einige der Vorteile der Produktqualittsplanung
sind:
- To direct resources to satisfy the customer./ Um Ressourcen zu befriedigen, um den Kunden zu
befriedigen.
- To promote early identification of required changes./ Zur frhzeitigen Erkennung der
erforderlichen nderungen
- To avoid late changes. /Um spte nderungen zu vermeiden.
- To provide a quality product on time at the lowest cost./ Um ein Qualittsprodukt pnktlich zu
den niedrigsten Kosten zu liefern.

Each Product Quality Plan is unique / Jeder Produkt-Qualittsplan ist einzigartig

Definition
Control Plans/ Kontrollplne

Control plans are written descriptions of the systems for controlling parts and processes./
Kontrollplne sind Beschreibungen der Systeme zur Steuerung von Teilen und
Prozessen.

Separate control plans cover three distinct phases: / Separate Kontrollplne decken drei verschiedene
Phasen ab.

Prototype - A description of the dimensional measurements and material and performance tests that will
occur during Prototype build/ Eine Beschreibung der Dimensionsmessungen und Material- und
Leistungsprfungen, die whrend des Prototypenaufbaus auftreten werden
Pre-launch - A description of the dimensional measurements and material and performance tests that will
occur after Prototype and before full Production./ Eine Beschreibung der Mamessungen und Material-
und Leistungsprfungen, die nach Prototyp und vor der vollstndigen Produktion auftreten werden.
Production - A comprehensive documentation of product/process characteristics, process controls, tests,
and measurement systems that will occur during mass production./ Eine umfassende Dokumentation von
Produkt- / Prozessmerkmalen, Prozesskontrollen, Tests und Messsystemen, die bei der
Massenproduktion auftreten werden.
Section 0: Pre-Planning/ Abschnitt 0: Vorplanung

Section 1: Plan and Define/ Abschnitt 1: Planen und definieren

Section 2: Product Design and Development/ Abschnitt 2: Produktdesign und Entwicklung

Section 3: Process Design and Development/ Abschnitt 3: Prozessdesign und Entwicklung

Section 4: Product and Process Validation/ Abschnitt 4: Produkt- und Prozessvalidierung

Section 5: Feedback Assessment and Corrective Action/ Abschnitt 5: Rckblickbewertung


und Korrekturmanahme

Each section of APQP depends on risk information that has previously been discovered. The information
sharing assures a flow of logical risk discovery and mitigation./ Jeder Abschnitt von APQP hngt von
Risiko-Informationen, die zuvor entdeckt wurde. Der Informationsaustausch sichert einen Fluss der
logischen Risikoentdeckung und -minderung.

Inputs into Section 1:/ Eingnge in Abschnitt 1:

Voice of the Customer / Stimme des Kunden


o Market research/ Marktforschung
o Historical issues/ Historische Fragen
o Team experience/ Team Erfahrung
Business Plan and Marketing Plan/ Geschftsplan und Marketingplan
Product and Process Benchmark/ Produkt- und Prozess-Benchmark
Product and Process Assumptions/ Produkt- und Prozessannahmen
Product Reliability Studies/ Produktzuverlssigkeitsstudien
Customer Inputs as applicable/ Kundeneingaben gelten

Outputs of Section 1:

Design Goals/ Designziele


Reliability and Quality Goals/ Zuverlssigkeit und Qualitt Ziele
Preliminary Bill of Material (BOM)/ Vorlufige Stckliste
Preliminary Process Flow/ Vorlufiger Ablauf
Preliminary list of Special Characteristics/ Vorlufige Liste der Besonderheiten
Product Assurance Plan/ Produktsicherungsplan
Gateway approval/ Gateway-Genehmigung

Outputs of Section 2:

Design FMEA (DFMEA)


Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A)/ Design fr Fertigung und Montage
Design Verification/ Designprfung
Design Review/ Designprfung
Prototype Control Plan/ Prototypen-Kontrollplan
Engineering Drawings CAD the Master/ Konstruktionszeichnungen CAD der Master
Engineering Specifications/ Technische Daten
Material Specifications/ Materialspezifikationen
Change Control for Drawings/ ndern der Kontrolle fr Zeichnungen
New Equipment, Tooling and Facilities Requirements/ Neue Gerte-, Werkzeug- und
Anlagenanforderungen
Special Product and Process Characteristics/ Spezielle Produkt- und Prozessmerkmale
Gages / Testing Equipment Requirements/ Gages / Prfgerte Voraussetzungen
Team Feasibility Commitment and Gateway approval/ Team-Machbarkeitsverpflichtung und
Gateway-Genehmigung

Outputs of Section 3:

Packaging Standards and Specifications/ Verpackungsstandards und Spezifikationen


Quality System Review/ Qualitt System Review
Process Flow Chart/ Ablaufplan
Floor Plan Layout
Characteristics Matrix
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
Pre-Launch Control Plan
Process Instructions/ Verfahrensanleitung
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) Plan/ Messsystemanalyse (MSA) Plan
Preliminary process capability plan/ Vorbereitungsplan
Gateway approval/ Gateway-Genehmigung

Outputs of Section 4:

Significant Production Run/ Bedeutender Produktionslauf


MSA Results/ MSA Ergebnisse
Process Capability Studies/ Prozessfhigkeitsstudien
Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)/ Fertigungsteil Genehmigungsverfahren
Production Validation Testing/ Produktionsprfung
Packaging Evaluation/ Verpackungsauswertung
Production Control Plan/ Produktionskontrollplan
Quality Planning Sign-Off and Gateway approval/ Qualittsplanung Abmeldung und Gateway-
Zulassung

Outputs of Section 5:

Reduced Variation/ Reduzierte Variation


Improved Customer Satisfaction/ Verbesserte Kundenzufriedenheit
Improved Delivery Performance/ Verbesserte Lieferleistung
Effective Use of Lessons Learned/ Wirksame Verwendung von Lessons Learned
APQP = Advanced Product Quality Planning
oder auf Deutsch:
PQVP = Produkt Qualittsvorausplanung

Das Referenzbuch APQP wurde von der Chrysler, Ford, General Motors Supplier Quality Requirements
Task Force erstellt. Es stellt einen Leitfaden dar fr die frhzeitige Planungsphase, Entwicklungsphase bis
hin zur Prozessanalyse und stellt somit eine Richtlinie zur Erstellung von Plnen und Checklisten zur
Verfgung, um sicherzustellen, dass die Produkt- Qualittsvorausplanung vom Lieferanten durchgefhrt
wird

Grundlagen der Qualittsvorausplanung (APQP)

Bei der Produkt Qualittsvorausplanung geht es um eine strukturierte Methode mit


standardisierten Werkzeugen (FMEA, QFD, QM-Plan usw.), die dafr sorgt, dass alle
geforderten Ablaufschritte rechtzeitig abgeschlossen werden und das Produkt den Kunden
zufrieden stellt. Dabei knnen die zeitliche Abfolge, die Anwendung der Werkzeuge und die
Ausfhrung der einzelnen Schritte variieren. Das Ergebnis der Produkt- Qualittsvorausplanung
ist die Erstellung von QM-Plnen.

Ttigkeiten im Rahmen von APQP


Nach der Festlegung des interdisziplinren Teams (Konstruktion, Einkauf, Produktion, Logistik,
QS, Lieferant, Marketing) und der Aufgabenklrung sollten die im Referenzhandbuch APQP
beschriebenen Techniken durchgefhrt werden, hierzu gehren vor allem:

Entwicklung und Festlegung besonderer Merkmale (Key-Characteristics). Fr diese


Merkmale mssen gegebenenfalls gesonderte Prozesslenkungsmanahmen eingeleitet
werden, d.h. z.B. Lastenheft erstellen, FMEA usw.

Machbarkeitsanalyse: Vor allem zusammen mit dem Lieferanten muss die


Herstellbarkeitsberprfung durchgefhrt und dokumentiert werden (Eignung des
Designs, Materials, Prozesses, cpk / cmk Analyse usw.)

Prozess-FMEA: Unter der Bercksichtigung der besonderen Merkmale mssen fr eine


frhzeitige Fehlervermeidung Prozess-FMEAs durchgefhrt werden.

QM-Plan (Kontrollplan): QM-Plne mssen auf der Ebene der Baugruppen,


Untergruppen, Einzelteile erstellt werden fr die einzelnen Phasen (Prototyp, Vorserie,
Serie) und dem Kunden zur Freigabe vorgelegt werden falls dieser nicht darauf
verzichtet. Darin enthalten ist eine Beschreibung der malichen sowie Material- und
Qualifikationsprfungen die vor bzw. nach den einzelnen Phasen durchzufhren sind.

Das APQP Modell zur Qualittsvorausplanung whrend der Entwicklung

Das APQP Modell besteht aus insgesamt 5 Phasen. Fr jede dieser Phasen sind Eingangs- und
Ausgangsgren definiert. Zum Erreichen der Ergebnisse sind je nach Phase gezielte Ttigkeiten
erforderlich.

Planungs- und Bestimmungsprogramm (Definition)


Produkt- Konstruktions- und Entwicklungsprogramm

Prozess- Planungs- und Entwicklungsprogramm


Produkt- und Prozess- Besttigungsprogramm (Validierung)
Rckmeldung, Beurteilung, und Verbesserungsmanahmen
Durch diese 5 Phasen der Produkt-Qualittsvorausplanung werden die vier Kernfragen des
Qualittsmanagements beantwortet:

Sind wir berhaupt in der Lage unsere Produkte innerhalb der notwendigen und
geforderten Spezifikationen herzustellen? (Prozessfhigkeit)

Stellen wir unsere Produkte auch wirklich innerhalb der geforderten


Spezifikationsgrenzen her? (Prozessberwachung)

Knnen wir nachweisen, dass unsere Produkte innerhalb der Spezifikationen produziert
worden sind? (Dokumentation)

Werden unsere Produkte laufend verbessert? (Qualittsverbesserung)

APQP 5-Phasen-Modell - Input / Output

Input und Output der verschiedenen Phasen:


(Die Ergebnisse der vorherigen Phase sind zugleich Input fr die nchste Phase)

1. Planungs- und Bestimmungsprogramm (Definition)


In der ersten Phase werden die Bedrfnisse und Erwartungen des Kunden eindeutig ermittelt. Neue
Produkte sollten immer darauf ausgerichtet sein die Kundenzufriedenheit zu erhhen und besser und
schneller zu sein als der Wettbewerber.
2. Produkt- Konstruktions- und Entwicklungsprogramm
Das Produkt- Qualittsplanungsteam muss alle Designaspekte bercksichtigen und sicherstellen, dass
Produktionsmengen und Zeitvorgaben eingehalten und technische Forderungen erfllt werden knnen.
Dies wird durch die Herstellung eines Prototypen nachgewiesen. Auch eine frhe
Herstellbarkeitsanalyse, auch wenn zunchst nur in Form einer technischen Zeichnung, fhrt zum
Erkennen von potentiellen Problemen, die bei der Realisierung auftreten knnen.
3. Prozess- Planungs- und Entwicklungsprogramm
Hier werden die wichtigsten Aspekte zur Entwicklung eines Produktionssystems abgefragt, um Produkte
mit guter Qualitt herstellen zu knnen.
4. Produkt- und Prozess- Besttigungsprogramm (Validierung)
Dies sind die wichtigsten Aspekte zur Besttigung (Validierung) des Produktionsprozesses im Rahmen
einer Versuchs- bzw. Vorserienproduktion. Hierbei sollen Schwachpunkte und Unzulnglichkeiten vor
Beginn der Serienproduktion erkannt werden.
5. Rckmeldung, Beurteilung, und Verbesserungsmanahmen
Die Qualittsplanung geht ber die Produkt- und Prozessbesttigung hinaus. Da in der laufenden
Produktion die zuflligen und systematischen Ursachen der Streuung vorhanden sind, zeigt sich nun die
Wirksamkeit aller Ttigkeiten der Produkt- und Qualittsvorausplanung. Der Serien QM-Plan dient als
Grundlage fr die Produktberwachung.
APQP
Advanced Product Quality Planning

Introduction to APQP

What is APQP

Why Perform APQP

When to Perform APQP

How to Perform APQP

Introduction to APQP
Complex products and supply chains present plenty of possibilities for failure, especially when
new products are being launched. Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is a structured
process aimed at ensuring customer satisfaction with new products or processes.

APQP has existed for decades in many forms and practices. Originally referred to as Advanced
Quality Planning (AQP), APQP is used by progressive companies to assure quality and
performance through planning. Ford Motor Company published the first Advanced Quality
Planning handbook for suppliers in the early 1980s. APQP helped Ford suppliers develop
appropriate prevention and detection controls for new products supporting the corporate quality
effort. With lessons learned from Ford AQP, the North American Automotive OEMs
collectively created the APQP process in 1994 and then later updated in 2008. APQP is intended
to aggregate the common planning activities all automotive OEMs require into one process.
Suppliers utilize APQP to bring new products and processes to successful validation and drive
continuous improvement.

There are numerous tools and techniques described within APQP. Each tool has potential value
when applied in the correct timing. Tools that have the greatest impact on product and process
success are called the Core Tools. The Core Tools are expected to be used for compliance to
IATF 16949. There are five basic Core Tools detailed in separate guideline handbooks, including
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP). The other Core Tools are:

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)


Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)

What is APQP
APQP is a structured approach to product and process design. This framework is a standardized
set of quality requirements that enable suppliers to design a product that satisfies the customer.

The primary goal of product quality planning is to facilitate communication and collaboration
between engineering activities. A Cross Functional Team (CFT), involving marketing, product
design, procurement, manufacturing and distribution, is used in the APQP process. APQP
ensures the Voice of the Customer (VOC) is clearly understood, translated into requirements,
technical specifications and special characteristics. The product or process benefits are designed
in through prevention.

APQP supports the early identification of change, both intentional and incidental. These changes
can result in exciting new innovation supporting customer delight. When not managed well they
translate to failure and customer dissatisfaction. The focus of APQP is utilization of tools and
methods for mitigating the risks associated with change in the new product or process.
APQP - Concurrent Process

Why Apply APQP


APQP supports the never ending pursuit of continuous improvement. The first three sections of
APQP focus on planning and prevention and make up 80% of the APQP process. The fourth and
fifth sections support the remaining 20% of APQP and focus on validation and evidence. The
fifth section specifically allows an organization to communicate learnings and provide feedback
to develop standard work and processes. A list of APQP benefits are:

Directing resources by defining the vital few items from the trivial many
Promote early identification of change
o Intentional (what is being changed on purpose to bring value to the customer)
o Incidental (environments, customer usage, degradation and interfaces)
Avoid late changes (post release) by anticipating failure and preventing it
o Fewer design and process changes later in the product development process
On-time quality product at lowest cost
Multiple options for mitigating the risk when found earlier
Higher capability of verification and validation of a change
Improved collaboration between Design of the Product and Process
Improved Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A)
Lower cost solutions selected earlier in the process
Legacy capture and reuse, advancement of Tribal Knowledge and standard work creation and
utilization
Late Failure Mode Discovery
Early Failure Mode Discovery

When to Apply APQP


APQP facilitates communication between the supply chain and the organization / customer.
Requirements that translate into more detailed specifications are clarified and decomposed to
more detail as the process continues. APQP is used in 2 ways:

1. New Product Introduction (NPI) Support:

APQP supplements product development processes by adding a focus on risk as a substitute for
failure. This allows the team to take action on the risk instead of having to wait for failure to
occur in testing or worse, in the hands of the customer. APQP utilizes risk based tools that focus
on all aspects of product and process design, service, process quality control, packaging and
continuous improvement. Each application of APQP may be unique to a previous application
because of the percentage of new content, changes to current off-the-shelf technology or past
failure history.

2. Product or Process Change (Post Release):

APQP follows a product or process change outside of Product Development and assures the risk
of change is managed successfully by preventing problems created by the change.

How to Apply APQP


APQP is comprised of one pre-planning stage and five concurrent phases. Once begun, the
process never ends and is often illustrated in the Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) cycle. PDSA was
made famous by W. Edwards Deming. Each section is aligned with analytical risk discovery
tools and techniques. Finding risk in product and process development is more desirable than
finding late failure. The APQP Sections are defined below:

Section 0: Pre-Planning

APQP begins with assumptions, concepts and past knowledge. Bookshelf knowledge and
standard work practices are listed as well as areas where significant change is expected. This
section compiles the inputs into Section 1 Plan and Define.

Section 1: Plan and Define

Section 1 links customer expectations, wants, needs and desires to requirements. Plan
Development will assure the output of this section is satisfactory product quality. Resource
planning, process and product assumptions are made. A list of preliminary special characteristics
and design / reliability goals are also established.

Section 2: Product Design and Development


The focus in Section 2 is on product design and development. Geometry, design features, details,
tolerances and refinement of special characteristics are all reviewed in a formal Design Review.
Design verification through prototypes and testing are also part of this section. Tools which
typically provide great benefit in this section are DFM/A, Design Failure Mode and Effects
Analysis (DFMEA) and Design Verification Plan and Report (DVP&R).

Section 3: Process Design and Development

Section 3 explores manufacturing techniques and measurement methods that will be used to
bring the design engineers vision into reality. Process Flow Charts, Process Failure Mode and
Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan Methodology are examples of tools used in this
section.

Section 4: Product and Process Validation

Validation of the process quality and volume capabilities is the focus of Section 4. Statistical
Process Control (SPC), Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) and Process Capability Studies
are introduced in this section. Product Part Approval Process (PPAP) is ready for submission and
production begins upon approval.

Section 5: Feedback Assessment and Corrective Action

Section 5 explores learnings from the ongoing manufacturing process, RPN reduction, corrective
actions (both internal and external), Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D) and the capture
of information pertinent for future use.

APQP Inputs and Outputs by Section

Each section of APQP depends on risk information that has previously been discovered. The
information sharing assures a flow of logical risk discovery and mitigation. The detailed inputs
and outputs for each section are described below:

Inputs into Section 1:

Voice of the Customer


o Market research
o Historical issues
o Team experience
Business Plan and Marketing Plan
Product and Process Benchmark
Product and Process Assumptions
Product Reliability Studies
Customer Inputs as applicable

Outputs of Section 1:
Design Goals
Reliability and Quality Goals
Preliminary Bill of Material (BOM)
Preliminary Process Flow
Preliminary list of Special Characteristics
Product Assurance Plan
Gateway approval

Outputs of Section 2:

Design FMEA (DFMEA)


Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A)
Design Verification
Design Review
Prototype Control Plan
Engineering Drawings CAD the Master
Engineering Specifications
Material Specifications
Change Control for Drawings
New Equipment, Tooling and Facilities Requirements
Special Product and Process Characteristics
Gages / Testing Equipment Requirements
Team Feasibility Commitment and Gateway approval

Outputs of Section 3:

Packaging Standards and Specifications


Quality System Review
Process Flow Chart
Floor Plan Layout
Characteristics Matrix
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
Pre-Launch Control Plan
Process Instructions
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) Plan
Preliminary process capability plan
Gateway approval

Outputs of Section 4:

Significant Production Run


MSA Results
Process Capability Studies
Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
Production Validation Testing
Packaging Evaluation
Production Control Plan
Quality Planning Sign-Off and Gateway approval

Outputs of Section 5:

Reduced Variation
Improved Customer Satisfaction
Improved Delivery Performance
Effective Use of Lessons Learned

Examples of Where to Incorporate APQP:

Develop Requirements from Voice of the Customer (VOC) using Quality Function Deployment
(QFD)
Develop a Product Quality Plan integrated into Program / Project Timeline
Translate percentage of new content into Product and Process Assumptions
Product design activities communicating special characteristics or key characteristics to the
process design activity, prior to design release
o This may include new geometry, shape, parts, tighter tolerances and new materials
linking the DFMEA to PFMEA
Develop test plans (DVP&R)
Use of formal Design Review to track progress
Plan, acquire and install appropriate process equipment and tooling based on design tolerances
provided by the product design source
Assembly and Manufacturing personnel communicating suggestions of ways to better assemble
a product (DFM/A)
Establish adequate Quality Controls for Special Characteristics or Key Characteristics features of
a product or parameters of a process, which still risk potential failure
Performing Stability and Capability studies on special characteristics to understand the variation
present and predict future performance with Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Process
Capability (PPK and CPK)

How to Develop a Product Quality Plan (PQP)

The APQP process begins with the creation of a Product Quality Plan (PQP). The PQP may be
unique for each individual development. During the planning section, a core group of personnel
will review the concept design, process and product assumptions, overall goals of the project and
past failures. After collecting this information, the core team selects tools from each section,
based on the value they may bring when failure prevention is discussed. The PQP is linked to the
project timing plan to aid in program / project management efficiency. The tools and techniques
are selected based on what risk may be present, created by the intentional and incidental change.
Discovering unknown risk is desirable. Each risk is quantified and mitigation actions are
developed and implemented increasing the probability of project success.

Example of a Product Quality Plan

The Quality-One approach depicted in the following PQP example is a matrix with calculated
ratios of qualitative tools verses quantitative evidence. Since qualitative tools can be used earlier
in the product development process, Quality-One expects a 3:1 qualitative to quantitative ratio.
The opportunity to discuss potential issues based on change with qualitative tools should be three
times greater than the actual data collected. Observed data collection happens late in Product
Development (PD) and reaction to failure may be required. Discussion of the change, using a
tool and a Cross Functional Team (CFT), often results in discovering and preventing a failure
early in PD. APQP is focused on predicting and preventing failure (80%) and less on detecting it
(20%).

The APQP Cross Functional Team (CFT)

The Cross Functional Team (CFT) in APQP evolves and changes as the process progresses.
Preliminary details required to begin Product Quality Planning are collected by a CFT prior to
project kick-off. This process is typically short and does not involve any product or process
design effort. Aspects of Pre-Planning include:

Scope of the project


Product and Process Assumptions
Past Failure
Team size, structure and experience
Methods for issue resolution
Space and resources required
Timing of the project

The CFT adds members as certain disciplines are required. Two examples of team evolution are:
purchasing engagement when make / buy decisions are required and engagement of tool
design resources when prototype and production tooling is required.

APQP is performed using Collaborative Product (Process) Development (CPD). Each CFT
discipline communicates with their counterparts on items which can impact quality, cost or
delivery, either positively or negatively. Special Characteristics are also communicated
between each CFT discipline. The earlier a product or process problem can be found, the less
expensive and work intensive it will be to fix it. Working concurrently per the project timeline,
the team completes the Plan and Design activity:

Product Engineering (PDE) addresses Product Design and Development


Process and / or Manufacturing Engineering (ME) addresses the Process Design and
Development

Each section has inputs, outputs and management gateway reviews. Gateways are timed to
coincide with key decisions impacting project Quality, Cost or Delivery.

How is APQP related to PPAP?

Product Part Approval Process (PPAP) highlights the proof or evidence collected through APQP.
Validated results from the first trial run supports the assertion that quality of delivery is expected.
The trial run must represent the production environment, with correct tools, machines, processes,
personnel and conditions that may affect part quality.

PPAP and APQP cannot be separated, as PPAP documents are the result of APQP. PPAP
provides evidence that APQP has been successfully performed. Poor performance in a PPAP or a
rejected sample can be attributed to poor APQP. Deliverables in PPAP are extensions of APQP
Planning. The PPAP elements are listed below, note that many are the same as APQP tools or are
the output results of APQP tools:

Part Submission Warrant (PSW)


Design Records
Engineering Change Documents
Customer Engineering Approval
Design FMEA (DFMEA)
Process Flow
Process FMEA (PFMEA)
Dimensional Results
Performance and material test results
Initial Process Capability Study
Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
Qualified Laboratory Documentation
Bulk Material Requirements (if required)
Control Plan
Cosmetic or Visual Signoff
Sample Product
Master Sample
Checking Aids
Records of Compliance with customer specific requirements

How are APQP, NPI and DFSS Related

APQP, New Product Introduction (NPI), Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and other Product
Development Processes share goals and development tools. Examples of these tools can be found
in our Core Competencies. APQP is often the Product Development Process that is used as a
default process to support supplier engagement. DFSS is a highly focused effort reserved for
high value requirements or specifications. APQP is broader in scope than DFSS and scalable to
perceived risk each supplier, design or process poses on program success.

Example of APQP, NPI and DFSS relationship

An Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is preparing a new end user product. The product
will follow the OEM NPI. Several of the subsystems and components require supplier
engagement to assure that their expertise is included in product design. APQP will be used to
collaborate with the suppliers.

DFSS will focus on key features that are highly valuable and quite different than past products.
A Six Sigma Black Belt is assigned to follow these features across all communications channels
and groups. The tools used in each of these endeavors are the same. The tools may be used at
differing utilization levels at the Black Belts discretion.
APQP - Plan Do Study Act
APQP - PQP Flow Chart
APQP - PQP Example
PPAP Level Selection

Learn More About APQP


Quality-One offers Quality and Reliability Support for Product and Process Development
through Consulting, Training and Project Support. Quality-One provides Knowledge, Guidance
and Direction in Quality and Reliability activities, tailored to your unique wants, needs and
desires. Let us help you Discover the Value of APQP Consulting, APQP Training or APQP
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