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The Real Time Monitoring of Water

Quality in
IoT Environment
Introduction:
In order to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water the quality needs to be monitor in
real time. In this paper we present a design and development of a low cost system for real
time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things).the system consist of
several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The
parameters such as temperature, PH, turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen of the
water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the
core controller. The ADRUINO model can be used as a core controller. Finally, the sensor
data can be viewed on internet using dot net software.
Nowadays drinking water is the most precious and valuable for all the human beings,
drinking water utilities faces new challenges in real-time operation. This challenge
occurred because of limited water resources growing population, ageing infrastructure
etc. Hence therefore there is a need of better methodologies for monitoring the water
quality Traditional methods of water quality involve the manual collection of water
sample at different locations, followed by laboratory analytical
Techniques in order the character the water quality. Such approaches take longer time and
no longer to be considered efficient [1]-[5]. Although the current methodologies analysis
the physical, chemical and biological agents, it has several drawbacks:
a) Poor spatiotemporal coverage
b) It is labor intensive and high cost (labor, operation; and equipment)
c) The lack of real time water quality information to enable critical decisions for public
health protection.
Therefore, there is a need for continuous online water Quality monitoring. The online
water monitoring technologies have made a significant progress for source water
surveillance and water plant operation. The use of their technologies having high cost
associated with Installation and calibration of a large distributed array of monitoring
sensors. The algorithm proposed on the new technology must be suitable for particular
area and for large system is not suitable. By focusing on the above issues our paper
design and develop a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT
environment. In our design Adruino uno is used as a core controller. The design system
applies a specialized IOT module for accessing sensor data from core controller to the
cloud. The sensor data can be viewed on the cloud using a special IP address.
Additionally the IOT module also provides a mobile data for viewing the data on mobile.

Block diagram:
COMPONENT USED:
Power Supply 5v DC - 7805
Micro controller - Adruino uno
Crystal - 4MHz
RS232 - - Serial Communication
LCD
Lm35 - Temperature sensor
Humidity sensor
Turbidity sensor
conductivity sensor
Ph sensor

Power supply:
This is regulated 5v power supply required drive microcontroller, gps, gsm
fsr.
Here capacitors are used for smoothing voltage i.e noise reduction.
7805 is a fixed voltage regulator for input 6 to 30v always outputs 5v

Adruino uno
The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328.
It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM
outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB
connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It
contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply
connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC
adapter or battery to get started

Oscillator circuit:

Used to provide machine cyles required for microcontroller to execute


program.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a
vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise
frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, to provide a stable
clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio
transmitters and receivers.
The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator
circuits designed around them were called "crystal oscillators".A crystal is a solid in
which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered,
repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal, with
appropriate transducers, since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration.
For example, steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound. It was often used in
mechanical filters before quartz. The resonant frequency depends on size, shape,
elasticity, and the speed of sound in the material. High-frequency crystals are typically
cut in the shape of a simple, rectangular plate. Low-frequency crystals, such as those used
in digital watches, are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. For applications not
needing very precise timing, a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a
quartz crystal.
When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an
electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is
known as piezoelectricity.

6 MAX232 and DB9 connector(Level Converter)


Since the RS232 is not compatible with todays microprocessor and
microcontroller, we need a line driver to convert the RS232s signals to TTL voltage
levels that will be acceptable to the microcontrollers TxD and RxD pins. One example of
such a converter is MAX232 from Maxim Corp. The MAX232 converts the RS232
voltage levels to TTL voltage levels, and vice versa. One advantage of the MAX232 chip
is that it uses a +5V power source, which is the same as the source voltage for the
microcontroller, and Max 232, with no need for the dual power supplies that are common
in many older systems.

Figure 3.9: Pin diagram of MAX232


The MAX232 has two sets of line drivers for transferring and receiving data. The line drivers
used for TxD are called T1 and T2, while the line drivers for RxD are designated as R1 and R2. In
many applications only one of each is used. For example, T1 and R1 are used together to TxD
and RxD of microcontroller, and the second set is left unused.
Figure 3.10: MAX232 and DB9 connector

22

3.6.1 Pin descriptions


T1 IN (Pin 11):
This is an input pin. TxD of microcontroller is connected to this pin. The data to
be sent to GSM modem is transmitted serially on this pin.
T1 OUT (Pin 14):
This is an output pin. This pin is connected to RxD (Pin 2) of RS232. This pin
transmits sends the data received from microcontroller serially to RS232.
R1 IN (Pin 13):
This is an input pin. This pin is connected to TxD (Pin 3) of RS232. This pin
receives data to be transmitted to microcontroller.
R1 OUT (Pin 12):
This is an output pin. This pin is connected to RxD (Pin 12) of microcontroller.
This pin sends the data received on R1 IN pin to microcontroller.

Vcc (Pin 16):


This pin is connected to +5v supply.
GND (Pin 15):
This pin is connected to ground.

SIM900 GSM/GPRS MODULE


Sim900a GSM/GPRS USB Modem, Featuring an industry-standard interface, the
SIM900A delivers GSM/GPRS 900/1800MHz performance for SMS, Data, and
Fax in a small form factor and with low power consumption, With Aluminum
enclosure to minimize noise.

LCD 16X2
Whenever we work with embedded system we need a reliable output
device with the help of which we get the required information, now
this problem is solved with the introduction of 16 character by 2
(16X2) LCD. Uses - Alphanumeric output, Information Display,
Process status, in short we can keep eye on every move of our
microcontroller.

LM35 TEMPERATURE SENSOR

The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature


sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius
(Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over
linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not
required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to
obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any
external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of
14C at room temperature and 34C over a full -55 to +150C
temperature range.
CONDUCTIVITY SENSOR:

USED TO ENSE THE CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER

HUMIDITY SENSOR

Model: HR202
- Color: Blue
- Material: PCB
- Model 1:
- Detects the ambient humidity
- Applied to the storage compartment, indoor air quality control,
building automation, medical, industrial control systems wide range of
applications and research fields
- Adjustable sensitivity
- Operating voltage: 3.3V~5V
- Output: a analog voltage output / b digital switch outputs (0 and 1)
- With fixed bolt hole for easy installation
- With stable LM393 chipset in comparator
- Model 2:
- VCC 3.3V~5V external power supply
- GND external GND
- DO digital output interface (0 and 1)
- AO analog output interface
- Packing list:
- 1 x HR202 humidity detection sensor module
- 2 x Dupont cables (20cm)
Dimensions: 1.97 in x 0.59 in x 0.24 in (5.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 0.6 cm)
Weight: 0.25 oz (7 g)

TURBIDITY SENSOR:

Turbidity is the quantitative measure of suspended particles in a


fluid.

Turbidity Sensor, which along with a micro controller unit, takes care
of turbidity measurements.

Crafted with plastic and some metal-alloy traces, turbidity sensor


uses light to convey information about turbidity in water.
SOFTWARES USED:
Embedded C
Code vision avr
Avrstudio
VISUAL STUDIO
DOT NET