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FILM STUDIO DESIGN

Sanagaun, Lalitpur, Nepal

by

Pratik Lal Shrestha (08-223)

A report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


Bachelor of Architecture

Advisor
Asst. Prof. Rabin Shrestha

Department of Architecture
Nepal Engineering College
Changunarayan, Bhaktapur, Nepal
(March 2014)
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled FILM STUDIO DESIGN submitted
by Pratik Lal Shrestha (08-223) has been examined by us and is accepted for the award of
degree of Bachelor of Architecture of Pokhara University.

____________________________ ___________________________

..

(External Examiner) (Advisor Asst. Prof. Rabin shrestha)

___________________________ ___________________________
Prof. Bharat Sharma (Thesis Asst. Prof. Baburam Bhattarai
Coordinator) (Thesis Co- coordinator)
Date: .
DECLARATION

I declare that this dissertation has not been previously accepted in substance for any
degree and is not being concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree. I state that this
dissertation is the result of my own independent work/investigation, except where otherwise
stated. I hereby give consent for my dissertation, if accepted, to be available for photocopying
and understand that any reference to or quotation from my thesis will receive an
acknowledgement.

__________________________

PRATIK LAL SHRESTHA

Date: March 2014


Table of content
Title Page no
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background 1

1.2 Introduction 1

1.3 Aims and Objective of the study 2

1.4 Project justification 2

1.5 Methodology 3

Chapter 2 Literature review


2.1 Motion picture 5

2.2 Motion picture making process 6

2.3 Crew members involved 9

2.4 Motion picture facilities 15

2.4.1 Pre production facility 16

2.4.2 Procuction facilities workshops 22

2.4.3 Post production facility 36

2.4.4 Other facilities 47

Chapter 3 Case study


3.1 Nepal Film Development Company Ltd, Balaju 58

3.2 Three mills studio, London 63

3.3 Studio 4, Bhainsepati 72

3.4 Red studio, Narayangopal Chowk 75

3.5 Phoenix studio, Bagdole 79


Chapter 4 Requirement And Area Analysis
4.1 Relation between spaces regarding to users,their task and their activities 84
4.2 Finalization of area requirement 92

Chapter 5 Site Analysis


Introduction to site 96
Site potential 96

Site data 96

Accessibility and approach 97

Site topography 97

Climate 97

Landuses and architecture 97

Utilities 97

Bye laws 98

Analysis 98

Recommendations from mahony table 104

Chapter 6 Design concept


Bibiliography 107

Appendix I Architectural drawings

Appendix II Photos of model

Appendix III climatic data

Appendix IV Mahoney Table Analysis of Climatic Da ta


List of figures
Figure no. Description Page no
Chapter 1
1.a Study methodology 3

Chapter 2
2-1 Dressing room adjoining sound stage 23

2-3 Process of making animation 28

2-4 Story boarding 29

2-5 Model seat 29

2-6 Modeling 30

2-7 Texturing 31

2-8 Rigging 31

2-9 Animation 31

2-10 Server room 33

2-11 Render farm 34

2-12 Sound stage 35

2-13 Recording studio 37

2-14 Home studio 37

2-15 Separate studio and control room 38

2-16 Scoring stage and control room 38

2-17 Linear editing system 42


2-18 Non linear editing system 43
2-19 photography studio typical plan 45

2-20 Duplication machine 47

2-21 Screening room 48

2-22 Maximum viewing distance 49

2-23 Maximum viewing angle,first row 49

2-24 Site line clearance 50

2-25 Gang way requirement 50

2-26 Restaurant flow diagram 51

2-27 Parking type 54

2-28 Ramp gradient 54

2-29 Lock box assembly 55

2-30 Lock box unit B,C and D 56

Chapter 3
3-1 NFDC site plan 59

3-2 NFDC sound stage 61

3-3 NFDC backlot 62

3-4 Three mills studio site plan 63

3-5 Three mills studio zoning 64

3-6 Studio 4 site plan 73

3-7 Office space 74

3-8 Sound stage 74

3-9 Red studio editing studio room 76

3-10 Red studio control room 77

3-11 Red studio dubbing room 77


3-12 Red studio color grading room 77
3-13 Phoenix studio plan 80

3-14 Phoenix studio site plan 80

3-15 phoenix studio control room 81

3-16 Phoenix studio live room 81

Chapter-5
5-1 Site and site location 95
5-2 Temperature analysis 97

5-3 Humidity analysis 98

5-4 Rainfall analysis 99

5-5 Site zoning 100

5-6 Views from site 100

5-7 Utility supply 100

5-8 Sun and wind direction 101

5-9 Land use around site 101

5-10 Data collected for overlay technique 102

5-11 Overlay technique 103


List of Tables
Table no. Description Page no
Chapter 1
2.a Floor to ceiling height according to office space 18

2.b Rest rooms with respect to number of seats 51

2.c Floor height of dining room with respect to floor area 52

2.d Walk up width with respect to dining floor area 52

2.e Proportional division of kitchen area 53

Chapter 3
3.a Sound stages in three mills studio 69

3.b Rehearsel room in three mills studio 72

3.c prop store in three mills studio 72

Chapter 4
4.a Spatial relationship 91

4.b Area requirement 94


Acknowledgement
Sincere appreciation and acknowledgement is due to the following person and institution for
their guidance and assistance in the accomplishment of this study

To Asst. Prof .Rabin Shrestha, my thesis supervisor, for his competent guidance and support

To the faculty and colleagues of the Department of Architecture for providing a congenial and
competitive atmosphere for the study

I am very gratified to Mr. Krishna Maharjan for his technical information regarding this topic.
Again I would like to express my acknowledgement to Mr. Purusottam Khadka (Red studio),
Sailesh Shrestha (phoenix studio) and all the staffs members of Nepal Film Development Co Ltd
and Studio 4 and my colleagues who took interests in my topic and provided their valuable
suggestion.
Film Studio Design

Chapter One

Chapter -1

Introduction
1.1. Background

Ever since the first movie made in 1887 the need of film making facilities under single roof was
felt so that it would be easy for the film makers to make films. In 1893 in West Orange, New
Jersey Thomas Edison build first movie studio called Black Maria and asked circus, vaudeville,
and dramatic actors to perform for the camera. He distributed these movies in different theaters and
arcades.

Till early 1900s movies were shot out door in sunlight although there were facilities for electric bulbs.
The reason behind this was inappropriate and inadequate lighting of these electric bulbs. Till this date
indoor shooting was not preferred for film making. It was only in 1920s, some good production
companies like 20th Century Fox, RKO pictures etc were established and started their own studio,
distribution division, theaters and contracted with performers and other film making personnel. Since then
the film studio started growing technologically and in facilities too.

In Nepal history on film studio is not so long. Some studios like Nepal Film Development company,
Prime Broadcasting System, Birendra Aishwarya Kollyood studio etc evolved with time but they were not
able to bring all the facilities necessary for film makers under one roof.

1.2. Introduction

According to Wikipedia A film studio (also known a s movie studio or simply studio) is a major
Entertainment Company or Motion Picture Company that has its own privately owned studio
facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production company.

A film studio consists of all the equipments and facilities required for pre production, production
and post productions plus a primer theater. Some years before film studios use to have only
indoor and outdoor shooting facilities. The advancement of technology brought major changed in
the field of film making. Animation techniques such as green screen technology and
development of sound system had given the touch of reality. In film studio we can find all the
facilities required including office spaces, residence facilities for actors and other technicians.

Here in film studio one can shoot a movie in a very fast pace as one can construct different
indoor and outdoor scenes quickly by using the workshop facilities available here. Workshop

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facilities consist of wood and metal workshop, painting workshop and plastering workshop.
Mostly these workshops are used for the construction of indoor sets.

1.3. Aims and Objectives of the study

Basic objective of this thesis is to provide all the facilities that will be necessary from pre
production stage up to the release of the movie so that film makers will not go through any kind
of problems during the process of film making.

To design the facility that can accommodate the pre production, production, post
production and release of the movie and that can also financially function on its own.
To provide platform for the new talents arising in the film sector
To facilitate film makers during the film making
To provide the facility of producing CDs and DVDs of the movies
To introduce the animation technology and facility.

1.4. Project justification

Film industry is one of the big industries in Nepal. Lots of money and talents can be seen in
present context of Nepali film industry. All these money and talents are suffering in the process
of making movies. Especially moviemakers like producers and directors are suffering during film
making due to lack of facilities and equipment necessary. The Film Studio as proposed will
bring all the facilities necessary from pre production to release of movie for film makers under
single roof. This will facilitate each and every film makers.

Other scope of this kind of film studio can be seen internationally. Recently movies from
Hollywood like expendables were shot in. This kind of movies and documentaries were shot
before too but Nepal could not gain economically from this due to lack of such facilities.

Thus this kind of facility under one roof will not only benefit existing film maker but also benefit
young talents as they dont have to wonder around in the film making process.

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1.5. Methodology

Animation Center

Aims & Objectives

Literature Review
Nepal film
development
company ltd Case Studies Latest Knowledge
Red studio
Phoenix studio
Program Formulation

Site Analysis Conclusion/ Recommendation

Finalization of Area Design Finalization of Functional


Requirement decisions/Guidelines Activities

Design concept and development

Master/Site Planning Architectural design and


detailing
Fig 1(a): Study Methodology

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Literature review

Reading of various books, articles, news, videos and thesis on related subject from
seniors will be referred so that it will provide information and standard data for
designing. During literature review expert in related fields will be consulted so that it will
help to address the problem in context of Nepal.

Case study

Study of various existing institutions and space will be done so as to know the various
functions and spaced in the real life cased and help in the design of my thesis topic Film
Studio.

Analysis of case study

Various aspects of case study will be compared with the standard data those were
obtained from literature so that best solution would be found out for thesis program
formulation

Program formulation

From the analysis of both case study and literature review required spaces and its area for
the design of Film Studio will be found out and p roject site will be finalized.

Project site analysis

Project site will be analyzing parameters like geology, soil, topography, climate,
manmade structures traffic flow patterns, acoustics, surrounding environment etc so that
potential of site can be found out and spaces can be placed accordingly.

Design concept and development

After all of the process design concept will be finalized and suitable design will be
developed for Film Studio

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Chapter -2

Literature Review

2.1. Motion picture

Motion picture is a series of still pictures which, when shown on screen, creates the illusion of
moving image. During the mid development phase, motion picture were recorded on to plastic
film which was then shown on a large screen through projector. With the advancement of
technology motions pictures are now filmed and stored digitally like red one camera which
records captured images on the hard-disk or flash cards.

Development of motion pictures has taken place gradually to the state now it is. The credit of
origination of motion picture can be given to the early plays and dances. They use to have
elements common to motion pictures like scripts, sets, costumes, direction, actors, audiences,
storyboard and scores. In spite of this due to the lack of technology, plays and dances could not
th
be recorded for future. During mid 19 century invention of devices like pinakistoscope and
zoetrope showed that a carefully designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the
changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects actually moving if
they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate. Limitation of these devices
were that, they could show limited number of drawings usually twelve, so it could only show
endlessly repeating cyclical motions.

The use of sequence of photographs was limited to some numbers only due to the lack of
sensitivity that shows the motions. The sensitivity was increased gradually and it was only in
late 1870s Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in
real-time. During 1880s invention of celluloid photographic film and motion picture camera
made possible to capture an indefinitely long rapid sequence of images using only one lens due
to this it became possible to record several minutes of actions in a single compact reel of film.

The earliest films were simply one static shot that showed an event or action with no editing or
other cinematic techniques. Around 20th century, films started stringing several scenes together
to tell a story. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots photographed from different
distances and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement were developed as effective
ways to tell a story with film.

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Till this time sounds in motion pictures could not be heard and were purely visual arts. It was
only in late 1920s, sound recording technologies were invented for motion pictures and
incorporation of dialogue and sound effects became possible. Although the combination of sound
and picture became possible motion pictures were not considered to gain its full height because
motion pictures could only be viewed in black and white. The introduction of natural color in the
field of motion picture brought revolution. Audiences could now see motion pictures in the color
that they can see around them.

In 1950s invention of black and with television brought serious problem to the motion pictures.
People stopped going to theaters and cinemas to overcome this problem bigger screens were
installed, widescreen processes, polarized 3D projection and stereophonic sound were
introduced, and more films were made in color, which soon became the rule rather than the
exception.

2.2. Motion picture making process

According to Wikipedia Film making is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of
discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through scriptwriting, casting, shooting,
editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and
exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and
political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a
large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to
complete. Making of movie consists of complex processes wi th different individuals or
departments working. All of these individuals and department works together under a film director
and is also known captain of ship. All the processes are divided into three steps according to their
execution i.e.

Development
Pre production
Production
Post production
Distribution

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Development
This is the first and the most important step of film making. During this step idea of film is
generated. That may be an original idea or may be derived from somewhere like novels, story,
existing movie but old one. If the movie is derived then permission is taken from the original
creator. After that producer hires a writer, they work together and prepare a synopsis of the
story. Here changes are made to the story if there is one. After the satisfying synopsis a step
outline is prepared because synopsis is more like an abstract and step outline is a detailed
form. But step outline dont have any kind of dialogue and is just a detail story of a film. After
the satisfying step outline, a 25 to 30 page treatment is prepared. Treatment contains more
stage directions and less dialogue. If felt necessary, drawings are also attached with it so that
one can understand key point of the story.

The next step in the development phase is to arrange the finance necessary for the movie.
After the completion and approval of the treatment producer and screenwriter visits potential
financers to seek the financial help for the movie. After the approval by potential financers,
they sign different contracts and agreements under different financial terms and conditions.
Then a screenplay for the movie is prepared by screenplay writer so that writing work for the
movie is completed and film gets a full story. After this, film proceeds towards the pre
production phase of film making.

Pre production
During this phase of film making preparations are made for film making. Cast and crews are
hired, location is finalized and permissions are taken and sets are built for indoor shooting of
the film. To control all these activities and all other activities during film making and
promotions a production office is established which controls all the activities and does all the
paper work necessary during film making.

After this a film is pre visualized using storyboard method for which sketch artists are hired.
The process of pre visualization is done so that actors, directors, makeup artists etc
responsible for film making can get the story clearly. During this phase, a budget plan is
drawn up to manage the budget and cutoff the unnecessary expenditure of the film. After all
this, film is ready for the production phase.

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Production
Work of film actually starts from this phase. During this phase, raw footage for film is
recorded. More crew members like property master, script supervisor, assistant director etc
are recruited.

A typical day of shooting starts with the arrival of technical crew members like lighting
persons, art director, dress super visors etc in a set or location as they have to prepare
set/location for shooting. It may take hours and in some cases it may take days too. After
this, actors arrive in the set/location at the time of their calling. Usually actors are called
according to the schedule of shooting on that day. Then they go to the dressing area and put
on their dress and makeup according to scene. They then rehearse with their co-actors,
director, camera man and sound crew. After this when the set/location is ready for final take
all the crew members arrives at the place. Assistant directors then instruct everyone to be
quite. Then he informs sound and camera to be record respectively. After that director says
action and actors acts for the final take. When t he take is over the director says cut and
sound and camera stops recording. If the director decides to take the additional take whole
of the process starts again. Once the director is satisfied the crew moves to next camera
angel or setup.

While actors and crew members are taking final shot in one setup, another group of crew
members prepares set/ location for another shot so as to save the time. When shooting is
finished for the scene assistant director declares that the scene is over and crew members
dismantle the set and moves on to next setup. At the end of the day director approves next
day shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to production office. After the
completion of this phase it is customary to give wrap up party by production office to the
entire crew and cast for their efforts and hard work.

Post production
In this phase of film making final touch is given to the movie like assembly of raw footage,
editing and dubbing of dialogue, visual effects etc and finally all sound elements are mixed
and the movie is fully completed

Distribution
In this phase the movie is finally released in cinemas or occasionally to media in the form
of DVD, CD, VHS, Blue ray or direct download from the internet website. The film is
duplicated and distributed to the cinemas as required. Press kits, posters, and other

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advertising materials are published and the film is advertised and promoted. After all of
these processes finally the movie enters the market.

2.3. Crew members involved

Hiring of crew members entirely depends upon the budget of the movie. If the budget of the film
is low then crew members are hired on the individual basis as per necessity and if the film is of
big budget then department heads are hired and they hire rest of the crew members as per the
necessity of film. Key department heads are

Director of photography
Production manager
Assistant director
Production designer

Following are the crew members for film making working in different phase.

Pre production crew members

Story editor
The story editor supervises several story analysts who work for the studios. The analysts
read screenplays, books and other literary efforts looking for potential movies. The
analyst then writes a synopsis of the material. The story editor reviews the synopsis and
passes on promising prospects to the producer for possible development into a film.

Writer
The writer creates and shapes an original story, or adapts a book, play or other work for
use on the big screen. A script may go through many writers.

Dialogue coach
The dialogue coach helps actors learn their lines and master accents and dialects that are
necessary for their roles.

Location manager
The location manager reads the script, decides what locations are necessary for the film,
then scouts for them. The location manager visits possible locations and takes pictures to
help the director find the best setting. After locations are chosen, the location manager
acquires all the permits and permissions necessary for filming.

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Set designer
The set designer takes direction from the art director about the look of the set, and then
plans its technical construction.

Art director
The art director, or production designer, designs and supervises the construction of sets
for a movie. This person needs to be well-versed in a variety of art and design styles,
including architecture and interior design. He or she works with the cinematographer to
achieve the right look for the production

Costume designer
The costume designer creates all the costumes worn by the cast on a production. This
person contributes to the overall look of the film, as well as the style and interpretation of
the film's characters.

Production Crew Members

Unit production manager


The unit production manager (U.P.M.) reports the daily financial operation of a
production to the production manager. Sometimes the U.P.M. will scout for locations and
help the production manager with overall planning.

Line producer
The line producer supervises the movie's budget. This includes unique expenses like a
star's salary as well as daily costs like equipment rentals. The production manager reports
his or her expenses and needs to the line producer.

Production manager
The production manager (P.M.) makes business deals with the crew and arranges for the
production's technical needs. This includes everything from obtaining the right technical
equipment to renting accommodations for actors and crew.

Director
The director is responsible for all creative aspects of a movie. The director usually helps
hire actors, decides on locations and plans the shots before filming begins. During
filming the director oversees the actors and crew, sets up shots and keeps the movie on
schedule and on budget. The director is usually hired by a producer, unless he or she is
also producing the film.

Assistant director
The assistant director works to make the director more efficient. The A.D. plans a
shooting schedule by breaking the script into sections that can be filmed in a single day

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and in the most efficient order. During filming the A.D. manages the set, helps line up
shots for the director, calls for quiet on the set and coordinates the extras.

Second assistant director


The second assistant director (second A.D.) is a liaison between the production manager
and the first assistant director. The second A.D. usually works with the cast and crew and
handles paperwork, including call sheets (who needs to be on the set and when), actors'
time sheets and production reports. This person also helps the First A.D. place extras and
control crowds.

Continuity person
The continuity person tries to prevent embarrassing shots in the final film, such as an
actor wearing a hat that mysteriously disappears in one shot then reappears in another.
The continuity person logs how many times a scene was shot, how long the shot lasted,
which actors were in the scene, where they were standing and any other details

Cinematographer
The cinematographer, or director of photography (D.P.), helps create the look of a movie.
The D.P. directs the lighting for each scene, helps frame shots, chooses lenses, selects film
stock and ensures that the visual look of the film conforms to the director's vision. The
cinematographer usually does not operate the camera on set.

Gaffer
The gaffer is the chief electrician on the set, and is responsible for lighting the set
according to the instructions of the cinematographer.

Camera operator
The camera operator is a member of the camera crew and runs the camera as instructed
by the director and the cinematographer. The camera operator is responsible for keeping
the action in frame, and responding quickly to the action as it unfolds.

Assistant cameraman
Often there is a first and second assistant cameraman. The first assistant cameraman is
generally responsible for the maintenance of the camera. The first assistant cameraman
also changes lenses, maintains focus during shots, marks the spots where actors will stand
and measures the distance between the camera and the subject matter. The second
assistant cameraman fills out camera reports and is often responsible for loading and
unloading camera magazines, which contain the film. (Also see film loader.)

Film loader
The film loader is a member of the camera crew in charge of loading and unloading the
camera's film magazines. The film loader also keeps the loading room in good, clean
condition.

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Production sound mixer


The production sound mixer (or recordist) records sound during filming. This person is
also responsible for mixing the various soundtracks into the film's composite soundtrack,
which is then put onto the film with either a magnetic or optical stripe.

Boom operator
The boom operator is a sound crew member who handles the microphone boom, a long
pole that holds the microphone near the action but out of frame, allowing the microphone
to follow the actors as they move.

Key grip
The key grip is the chief grip on the set. Grips create shadow effects with lights and
operate camera cranes, dollies and platforms as directed by the cinematographer.

Dolly grip
The dolly grip places and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly along
that track. The dolly is a cart that the camera and sometimes its crew sit on. It allows the
camera to move smoothly from place to place during a shot.

Best boy
There are actually two separate best boy positions -- the best boy/electric and the best
boy/grip, which is second in command to the gaffer and to the key grip. The best boy/grip
is in charge of the rest of the grips and grip equipment. The best boy/electric is in charge
of the rest of the electricians and the electrical equipment.

Stunt coordinator
The stunt coordinator lines up professional stunt people to take the risks that make the
movies so exciting. The stunt coordinator makes sure that all safety regulations are
followed and that all safety equipment is on the set and ready for action.

Visual effects director


The visual effects director's job varies according to the needs of the production.
Sometimes the visual effects director helps with effects on the set. But he or she could
also be called upon to supervise separate teams of effects technicians working away from
the set.

FX coordinator
FX is film shorthand for special effects. The job of the FX coordinator differs from film
to film. Special effects range from complicated computer animation to helping Superman
fly to simple on-set logistics like making a shower work.

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Property master
The property master finds, maintains and places on the set all essential props for a scene.
A prop is a moveable item that is essential to a scene.

Leadman
The leadman answers to the set designer and heads the people who set up and take down
the set and the set dressing department.

Set dresser
The set dresser is responsible for everything on a set except props that are essential to the
scene. The set dresser selects items like drapes, artwork, bed linens, dishes and anything
else, to make the set a realistic environment.
Costumer
The costumer, or wardrobe person, takes care of the costumes on the set, keeping them in
good, clean condition, and making sure the right actor gets the right costume.

Make-up artist
The make-up artist is usually a licensed professional who applies any make-up to an actor
above the breastbone to the top of the head and from the tips of the fingers to the elbow.

Body make-up artist


The body make-up artist applies any make-up below the actor's breastbone, or above the
elbow.

Hairdresser
The hairdresser is licensed to cut color and style the hair of actors in a production. He or
she also styles and cuts wigs when necessary. Usually the hairdresser provides all the
necessary equipment and rents it to the production on a weekly basis.

Production assistant
Often called a gofer or a runner on the set, the production assistant (P.A.) performs small
but essential tasks for the cast and crew.

Production office coordinator


The production office coordinator (P.O.C.) handles the production's office duties and stays
behind when a production goes on location. He or she coordinates the crew, makes sure
paperwork gets done and answers the phone. The P.O.C. also puts together new versions
of the script as changes are made.
Unit publicist
The unit publicist makes sure the media are aware of a production by sending out press
releases, arranging for interviews of cast and crew, setting up on-set visits and organizing
media kits, which include publicity pictures, video and audio clips and plot summaries.

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Second unit director


The second unit director heads the second unit, a separate production crew that shoots
sequences not involving the main actors. These can include background shots at remote
locations, shots used for special effects and scenes that are not essential to the plot.

Production caterer
The production caterer provides all the meals for a production, especially for on-location
shoots. The caterer makes sure that the food provided meets the needs of the cast, often
including special items for the star of the movie.

Craft services
The people responsible for coffee, beverages and snacks on the set. They also perform
various small chores.

Transportation coordinator
The transportation coordinator makes sure that actors, crew and equipment have some
way of getting to the location shoot. He or she coordinates the use of everything from
limos to semis.

Day player
A day player is an actor hired on a daily basis. This actor only has a few lines or scenes.
The day player must be notified that they are finished by the end of the day; otherwise
they are automatically called back for another day of work.

Post production Crew Members

Post-Production Supervisor
The post-production supervisor oversees the finishing of a film once shooting ends. He or
she attends editing sessions, maintains quality control, and coordinates audio mixing,
computer graphics, and all other technical needs.

Editor
The editor works with the director in editing the film. The director has the primary
responsibility for editing decisions, but the editor often has significant input in the
creative decisions involved in putting together a final cut of a movie. The editor often
starts work while the film is still being shot, by assembling preliminary cuts from the
daily footage. Increasingly, editors work on computerized editing consoles without
touching the actual film.

Color timer
The color timer works with the cinematographer. He or she works in the lab to correct
and balance the color of the film to the director's wishes for the look of the scene.

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Negative cutter
The negative cutter takes the negative of a movie and conforms, or matches, it to the final
cut of the film as decided by the director, editor, producer, studio and anyone else who
may be involved. Final prints of the film are made from this conformed negative.

Foley artist
The foley artist creates sounds that cannot be properly recorded during the shoot. This
often includes creating footsteps, thunder, creaking doors and even the sound of punches.

ADR editor
ADR is an acronym for automatic dialogue replacement. In this process the actors are
called back during the post-production process to re-record dialogue that wasn't recorded
properly during the shoot. The editor supervises this process and matches the newly
recorded lines to the actor's mouth on film.

Music mixer
The music mixer is part of the team that prepares the final soundtrack for a movie. The
music mixer carefully balances and mixes the film's musical score to integrate with the
dialogue.

Matte artist
The matte artist is a member of the special effects department who helps create locations
that never existed. He or she constructs backgrounds that integrate with the live action
filmed on a set.

These are the list of crew members that works hard in a movie to make it a success. In low
budget movies all of them are not hired. They are hired on the individual basis as per the need of
movie but in a big budget movie almost all of these persons are hired.

2.4. Motion picture making facilities


While going through the phases of film making i.e. from development phase to the distribution
phase different facilities are needed like office space for establishing production office, indoor
and outdoor shooting area, green studios etc. so that film can be completed in effective way.
Following are the facilities needed for the completion of any motion picture and are arranged
according to the phases of making motion picture.

2.4.1. Pre production facilities


Office space
2.4.2. Production facilities
. Workshops
Dressing room

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Animation studio
Equipment rental
Backlot
Sound stage
2.4.3. Post production facilities
Post production studio
Photography studio
Film development
lab 2.4.4. Other facilities
Screening room
Restaurant
Parking
Post room

2.4.1. Pre production facilities

Office space
During pre production phase of making motion pictures, cast and crews are hired,
location for shooting the movie is finalized, permission for the location is taken, sets are
built for indoor shooting etc. To control all of these activities during the pre production
phase and during all other phase an office space is required. From here producers and
other members of crew controls the movie making process.

For work room the minimum area of 8.00 sqm should be allowed and free circulation
space should be of minimum 1.5 sqm per employee and width of the corridor should be
such that tow person can pass each other easily. Computers and screens should not be
placed directly opposite to the window in work room because die to this a shadow of
window is casted on the screen which will disturb our work. To know the depth of light
penetration following formula can be used.

D = 1.5H
Here, D = depth of light penetration from
window H = total height of the window
Above is a general formula if there is no obstruction i.e. for normal condition and depth
of light penetration can be affected by the location of building.

Generally an office space contains following spaces

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Record area
In this area of office all records are stored and should be placed centrally. As this space
contains such important documents it should safe from water, bacteria and other thing
that can harm the records. For the record area rooms in attics and basement are not
suitable. Generally records like files, drawings, microfilm, document reproduction etc are
stored. For the storage of such documents deep moveable filing systems are considered to
be very economical and space saving. They can save space from 100% to 200%.

For the better and easy access it is necessary to arrange stored documents in a clearly
label system with short circulation routes and efficient use of space. As cabinet increases,
the aisle between cabinet should get wider. Following formula from neufert architects
data can be helpful to estimate the space requirements

L x W (Filing equipments) = space for furniture +


L x W + 0.5 = aisle space
___________________________________________________
Total requirement = space for furniture + aisle space

The choice of filing system in record area can save space very effectively. So it is
necessary to choose appropriate filing system. For vertical filing system ratio of floor
area required for filing to the aisle space should be 100:90 and for flat filing system ratio
of floor area required for filing to the aisle space should be 90:100. From above we can
easily say that vertical filing system can save the space more than flat filing system and
can hold files more than flat filing system. For tall office buildings it is better to move
files in paternoster elevator so that files can be transported safely and easily from one
floor to another.

Central clerical area


This area contains the facilities that are used by whole office like dictating, duplicating,
printing, photocopy equipments and personals computers. These kinds of spaces should
be placed such that they may be easily accessed from work spaces of other areas because
this space contains such facilities that will be needed by whole office frequently.

Corporate display area


This area contains board rooms with moveable walls, exhibition areas, conference rooms
and meeting rooms. Social facilities like cloak rooms, a kitchen, toilets, rest areas for
employees, refreshment rooms, sports facilities and a dining room with kitchen.

Central service area


This area contains technical equipment, air conditioning and ventilation, heating, electric
power, water supply, data processing, the computer center, telecommunications and
cleaning and maintenance etc facilities necessary to keep office space in comfortable

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condition. Usually these kinds of spaces makes lots of noise and can disturb working
areas of the office so this kind of space should be kept away from the working areas.

Work stations
This is the space where staffs works for the office and contains working desk along with
computers. There is no such specific standard for work stations because the space
requirement varies widely depending upon the nature of work.

For easy and better working in work stations it should be kept in mind that items that are
used frequently should be placed within preferred field of vision and reach area. For
better working conditions properties of materials like reflection, refractions etc should
also be kept in mind. Items close to the user should have a 20% to 25% reflection,
illumination 300 Lux to 500 Lux and glare from light must be limited.

Following considerations should be done while deciding the floor to ceiling height of the
office space

Office space Floor to ceiling


height
Up to 50 sqm 2.50m
Over 50 sqm 2.75m
Over 100 sqm 3.00m
Over 250 and up to 3.25m
2000 sqm
Table 2(a): Floor to ceiling height according to office space

Office space arrangement according to planning approach


According to the planning approach office space can be divided into three types. Modern
office building falls into these three categories according to flexibility, visual and acoustic
privacy and initial and lifecycle cost. Three types of office spaces according to planning
concept areas follow
Close plan office
Open plan office
Modified open plan office

Close plan office


In this type of planning spaces are divided into offices by wall of full height with doors.
In this type of offices generally private offices are typically located along the window
wall and administrative supports are housed in workstations along with corridor or in
shared room.

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Open plan office


In this type of planning of office space, all the workstations are located in open space
without floor to ceiling divisions and doors while administrative supports are located in
rooms with floor to ceiling partition with doors. These types of spaces are suitable for the
staffs with high division of labor and performing routine works with low level of
concentration.

Modified open plan office


This type of planning of office combines the elements of both of the above planning.
Workstation is placed in an open plan with system furniture and others in private offices
and administrative support is also located in enclosed room.

Layout of office spaces by function


Generally any kind of office has following six basic functions according to which the
office spaces should be allocated. Six basic functions are
Management
Finance
Sale
General services
Technical services
Production

Management
In the office buildings offices for top managements are usually arranged together in a sort
of chain of command and are frequently around edge office but according to the need of
office they can also be located in the center. Top executives like chairman, managing
directors etc should be allocated more space not only for their prestige but also for
meeting as they have more than usual amount of visitors.

Finance
This part of the office takes care of all the financial works and decision and is one of the
most important functions of office. It is more important to the accounting function near
where it picks up the order from sales department. The purchasing departments usually
have lots of visitors and contact with vendors so it should be placed near entrance or
reception. Purchasing department not only has contacts with vendors but they also work
closely with accounts department like vendors invoice, handling requisitions etc.

Sales
This section in the office has more and frequent no of visitor than other sections and
requires spaces for catalogue, specification, files etc so each person working should be
provided with the extra amount of space than average. Due to their duties sales

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department needs conference hall or a multipurpose hall for training, meeting,


demonstration and conference with different persons.

General service area


This area of the office provides service for other areas and functions like central files
stenographic service, duplications etc. Due to this, it should be placed centrally so that it
can serve other areas effectively. In case of duplication services, they should be isolated
because they make noise and produce fumes which may disturb other areas

Technical service area


Technical service area like engineering, drafting and designing should be placed near area
which they serve.

General design principle


According to time saver standard for building types followings are the general design
principle that should be followed for designing office spaces

Work flow
By the systematic study of the operation, process and procedure involved in individual
task, the planner can assist management by providing workstation patterns which ensure
a smooth, straight line flow of work.

Straight line principle


In a well planned office, paper goes from one desk to another with least amount of
handling, travelling and delay, work should progress in series of straight lines with a
general forward movement, avoiding crisscross motions and backflow.

Work stations
The following general rules are applicable in positioning desk

Desk should face the same direction unless there is a compelling functional reason to do
otherwise. The use of this technique provides for straight work flow patterns, facilities
communication and creates neat and attractive appearance.

In open areas, consideration should be given to placing desk in rows of two. This method
will permit the use of bank type partitions as a divider for those activities which requires
visual privacy while still obtain Maximum utilization.

Desk should be space at a distance of 6 ft from the front of a desk to the desk behind it.
This distance should be increased to 7 ft when desk are in rows of two ingress and egress

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is confined to one side of aisle or in instances where more than two desks side by side
cannot be avoided.

In private offices the desk should be positioned to afford the occupant a view of the door.

In open work areas the supervision should be located adjacent to the receptionist or
secretary. Access to supervisory work stations should not be through the work areas.

Desk of employees having considerable visitors contact should be located near the office
entrance. Conversely, desk of employees doing classified work should be away from
entrance.

Where frequent interviews with the general public are required as in personnel offices,
the use of interview cubicles should be considered. Such cubicles needs only be large
enough for interviewer, the applicant and a small desk or table.

Office space housing for more than 50 persons should be sub divided either by use of file
cabinets, shelving, railing or low bank type partitions.

The following standard with regard to internal circulation will be applied in space
planning survey

Main aisle should be 60" wide


Intermediate aisle should be 48" wide
Aisle between rows (secondary aisle) should be approx 36" wide.

Access to conference room should be through corridors or through reception areas.

Guide lines for locating office spaces


Those departments having the greatest no of visitors should be located so the visitors
have a short, direct and convenient route from the main entrance. The sales, purchasing
and employment personnel department usually have the most visitors.

Department having closest working relation should be placed closest together. When this
is done work flow with minimum waste of time can be achieved. Sales and advertising
department works together

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Sections and facilities that serves entire office should be centrally located and easily
accessible to all who use them. Data processing, central files and cost accounting are
examples.

Certain functions of a business may be of confidential nature that requires them to be


isolated from others in the office and from general public, central files , legal offices are
the examples

Conference and training room should be near to those departments that use them the most

Departments receiving and delivering quantities of material should be located near the
freight areas for the ease of handling, less time and labor and less distraction of other
workers. Mail, stock room and machine department are in this category.

When an office occupies more than one floor, elevator service will be more effective
when the department with large clerical force are on the lower floor

2.4.2. Production facilities


Workshops

Workshops like metal workshop, wood workshop and painting and plastering workshop
are very essential for film studio. Here sets for indoor and outdoor shooting are prepared
according to the design of art director. In the case of film studio it will be economic to
have compact and courtyard planning of workshops as it will be easy to make the sets
sequentially

Architectural consideration for workshops

Natural light should be provided in enough quantity and through ribbon window
Space like storage, cutting , finishing etc should be arrange according to sequence of
work
For small workshop up to 10 staffs production flow is in line or L shape and for medium
workshop having more than 10 staffs production flow is in U shape, circular or square.
Workshop should have height of 15
There should be enough space to make possible trial setup of an entire set without
disturbing other work.

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Dressing room

Dressing room is used in a film studio for


changing the dress and for hair and
makeup by actors. This facility is available
for actor in sound stage of film studio and
for location shooting vanity van is
provided for actors for changing and make
up. Dressing room specially consist of
wardrobe, changing space and makeup
area
Fig 2-1: Dressing room adjoining sound stage
Architectural consideration for dressing room

For wardrobe 2 is the standard depth or 2- 6 i f a hook strip to be used


Clothes closet width parallel to the doors should be from 3 to 6 per person
Wardrobe for mans cloth should be 5 9 in heigh t with 9 clearance at the bottom of
wardrobe to cloth and 3 clearance from top of the wardrobe to hanging rod
Wardrobe for womens cloth should be 6 in height w ith 6 clearance at the bottom of
wardrobe to cloth and 3 above clearance from top o f the wardrobe to hanging rod
Wardrobe for children should be 4- 6 in height wi th 6 clearance at the bottom of
wardrobe to cloth and 6 above clearance from top o f the wardrobe to hanging rod
Minimum 20 sqft should be allowed per person to change the dress
Minimum 22 sqft should be allowed for hair and makeup purpose

Animation studio
According to Wikipedia Animation studio is a compa ny producing animated media.
This company also own rights over merchandising and creative rights for characters
created/held by the company like authors holding copyrights.

The idea of a studio dedicated to the cartoons was first brought by Raoul Barre by
establishing Barre studio along with Bill Nolan. Sometimes after Earl Hurd working for
Brays studio came up with the patents design for mass producing the output of the
studio. This is much like the copyright system. The patents for animation system using
drawings on transparent celluloid sheets and a registration system that kept steady were
held under this firm. Bray also developed division of labor in animation studio still used
in todays animation studio like animators, layout artist etc.

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The biggest name in animation


studios during this early time
was Disney Brothers Animation
Studio which we know as Walt
Disney Animation Studio. They
made some short animated
movie but the real breakthrough
was in 1973 A.D. when the
studio was able to produce a full
length animated feature film
called Snow White and the
Seven Dwarfs, which laid the
foundation for the other studios Fig2-2: Animation studio
to try to make full length movies.
Today animation as an industry has grown to very big industry of billions of dollars and
uses computers with central storage devices in networking using different kinds of
software.

To get an idea about the animation studio at first we should know about the animation,
its types, software used by them and many other things explained below.

Animation
The term animation is derived from the Latin word animatio the act of bringing to life.
According to Wikipedia Animation is the rapid disp lay of a sequence of static images
and/or objects to create an illusion of movement. The sequence of change of these
static images through any medium like computer, hand rendered art etc makes
animation. Usually, viewing devices displays these static images rapidly i.e. from 24 to
30 frames per second.

The attempt to make animation dates back to Egyptian age when they use to make
paintings on walls showing series of images. However there were no such devices
which could show the images in motion. So these kinds of images cannot be called
animation. For example we can take Voynich manuscript that dates back to between
1404 and 1438 which contains series of illustrations of the same subject matter and
even few circles that when sinned around the center would create an illusion of a
motion.

With the invention of devices like pinakistoscope and zoetrope movement of static
images became possible. Inspite of this they were not so good for animation and could
not support sound. The invention of cinematographe brought drastic change in the field
of animation and showed the direction for future.

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A French artist Emile Cohl a movie called Fantasmagorie by drawing cartoon strips
which became a big hit. Following his success many artists started making movies
similar to him. One of them were Winsor McCay, he along with his team made an
animated movie but this time each frame was drawn on paper and was presented frame
by frame as done today through computers.

The production of cartoons films started much later in the film industry in 1910s and
in 1955 when an animated movie called toy story was made using computers it spread
throughout the world. Today animation has taken huge market throughout the world.

Software used in animation


Today animations are done with the help of computers and different software.
Following are the most used animation software by the animation studios

Houdini
This is the software used by animations studios like dreamworks animations, Blue sky
studios etc for animation works. It has a very strong particle and smoke system due to
its powerful animation, and VFX tools and its lighting effects are also pretty decent.

3Ds max
3Ds max is a well known name in the animation and modeling. This software is
commonly used in video game development. 3Ds max is also starting to be used more
and more in film productions as it has powerful controls over dynamics and shading as
well as realistic lighting

Maya 3D
Maya is very powerful tool used for making animations in animation studio and even
top 3D animators continue to learn and progress their skills from using it. A great deal
of work we see on our cinema and TV has been produced using Maya spider man, lord
of the rings are few examples.
Cinema 4D
This is animation software used by animation studios for making animations and
animated movie. This software gives you option and resources character tools, physic
engines, hair, eyes, and an unlimited network for rendering which is very useful for
render farm.

Blender 3D
Blender 3D is another software used by animation studios and was released in 1995 by
blender foundation as a free software for animators.

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Flash
This is one of the famous software mostly used for animation on the web page which
was produced by macromedia.

Types of animation
Talking about animation, there are three different types of animation which differs
from each other with respect to technique, technology and equipments
Cel animation
Stop animation
Computer animation

Cel animation
This is a traditional way of animation and was used for creating early Mickey Mouse
cartoons. For animation, cartoons are drawn on transparent sheets called cel. It used
to save time and effort as artist has to draw many frames to make animated movies.
After that characters are colored on the opposite side of the cel. Coloring the
background may be a more difficult task than a single drawing as it covers the whole
picture and requires shading and lighting and will be viewed for a longer duration.
Then for final touch these drawings are photographed

Stop motion animation


According to Wikipedia Stop motion is an animation technique to make a physically
manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small
increments between individually photographed frames, creating the illusion of
movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous sequence. Dolls with
movable joints or clay figures are often used in stop motion for their ease of
repositioning. Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animation or
"clay-mation". Not all stop motion requires figures or models; many stop motion
films can involve using humans, household appliances and other things for comedic
effect. Stop motion using objects is sometimes referred to as object animation.
This is also an old technique of animations and is not used these days.

Computer animation
Computer animation is the latest technique that includes 2D and 3D animation. These
not only enhance the hand drawn characters but also make them appear real as
compared to above mentions animations.

2D Animation

Process of making 2D animation


The process of making 2D animation is divided into three parts namely pre-production,
production and post production.

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Per production
Under the pre production process for animation are the script, storyboarding, audio
recording, animatics, character, prop and location design, color styling and color model
sheet. The pre production sets the tone for the animation production process, if it is not
well conceived and done, there will be lot of retakes and correction to be done in the
production process.

Production
Under the production process are the background layout and positing, animation, line
test, digital background, cleanup in between, scaling, ink and paint, compositing and
export rendering. If the artists are not good there will be lot of retakes in the clean up in
between stage. Compositing also takes long time as errors are found out and corrected
before the final rendering.

Post production
Under the post production process are the musical score, sound effects, editing and color
grading.

3D Animation
According to ask.com 3D Animation is a computer ge nerated illustration that gives
objects space. In 3D, the images and the graphics use three dimensions that give
characters a depth, which makes them appear to be real and living. The graphic designers
usually use computer software to give their pictures and image a life

Process of making 3D animation


Same as motion picture animation or animated movies are made in four steps they are
Development
Pre production
Production
Post production

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Development
Pre- Productio Post
Development is the first and important
phase of making animated movies. In
this phase idea for the movie is
developed. The idea may be the original, Layout
Story Composit
may be adopted from play, novels or any
other sources. In case of adopted story Modeling Sound
permission is taken from the person who Layouts
holds the copyright. After this producer
along with writer works out and Rigging
prepares a synopsis which is an abstract Models Video
form of a story. After the satisfactory
output of synopsis, a step outline is Animatio
prepared, which is a detail form of a Animatics
story but it doesnt contain dialogue.
The step outline is then reviewed by Simulation
producer and correction is done until he and Effect
satisfies. After that a 20 to 30 page
treatment is prepared which consist of
more stage directions and less dialogue. Texturing
Drawings are also attached with it so
that one can understand the key point of
the story. Lighting

After all this process a treatment is Fig 2-3: Process of making animation
presented to the potential financer who
may finance the movie. If enough finance is arranged then screenplay is written by
screenplay writer. After completion of this phase movie proceeds towards pre
production phase.

Pre production
In this phase of making animated movie preparations are done for the production
phase and visualization process is carried out. Pre production phase of animated
movie consists of storyboarding, layouts, model sheets and animatics. These four
steps helps crew members involve in the production phase to visualize the story and
carry it out exactly throughout the production phase.

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Story boarding
In this step of pre production,
drawings area prepared in form
of comic strip i.e. story is
converted into drawings. They
are often accompanied by text
notes describing things occurring
within the scene
itself, such as camera
movement. It not only helps to Fig 2-4: Story boarding
visualize the animation clearly
but also help to communicate the idea clearly within crew members and provides
a visual reminder of original plan which can be referred back throughout the
production phase.

Layouts
After the process of story boarding it is sent to layout department. Here
crewmembers of layout department work closely with director and designs
location and costumes. With this done they begin to stage the scenes, showing the
various characters positions throughout the course of each shot.

Model sheets
It is a precisely drawn group of
pictures that shows all the
expressions, positions and expression
a character can take throughout the
movie. They are prepared so as to
accurately maintain the character
detail throughout the movie because
more than one animator will be
working on the same mo vie during
the process of production. After the
preparation and approval of model
sheet it is sent to modeling for the Fig 2-5: Model seat
creation of 3d models of characters.

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Animatics
Shortly after the process of story boarding simplified mockups are prepared called
Animatics so that it can give better visualizatio n of the story to the entire
crewmembers working on the animation movie. This helps director to plan how
they will go in further sequence and also helps to get knowledge about how visual
effects will be integrate in the final shot.

Production
The main process of making movie starts here. In this phase 3d models of the
characters are prepared, texture, lighting etc are added and animation is done.
Production phase of a animated movie consist of layout, modeling, texturing,
lighting, rigging and animation. During this phase, a final character is created and
animation is done and sent for the process of final rendering.

Layouts
In this phase of production of animated movie layout artists create rough
animations using low resolution models or block of geometry so that can act as
guide to the animators. In another way we can say that they prepare the 3d version
of what storyboard artist have prepared. During this director finalize camera
move, depth of field, props, dresses of character etc. after completion and
approval it is passed to modeling department.

Modeling
In this phase of production modelers turns 2d
concept into highly detailed topologically
sound 3d models by referring all the materials
from above processes. Usually modelers are
split into departments. First one is organic
modelers. They are specialized in building the
character like people, animals etc. and other
free forms. Second one is hard surface
modelers. They have architectural background
or industrial background. They design vehicles,
props, weapons, buildings etc. Once the model
is approved it is then handed to rigging and
texture paint department who complete the final Fig 2-6: Modeling stages in
preparing the model for animation and
rendering.

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Texturing
Working closely with surfacing and
shading department texture artist
creates texture either form the scratch
or form the existing text ure to match
the concept of art and design which has
passed by the art department.

Lighting Fig 2-7: Texturing


Light artists usually add lighting to the scene but they also have to consider how
to bring together all the elements that have been created by other departments.
Lighting artists have a responsible and tough job. They not only have to place
lights but also have to define light property, define how light interact with
different types of materials and how intensity of light affects the mood and
believability. They also have to arrange the reflection and refraction properties
due to the light for each assigned shot ensuring that each shot fits within the
continuity of a sequence, all the while aiming to fulfill the vision of the Directors,
Production Designers, Art Directors and VFX Supervisors.

Rigging
According to www.cg.tutsplus.com Rigging is the pr ocess of adding bone to the
character or defining
movement of a mechanical
object, and its central to the
animation process. It is this
step through which a
character can move in
animatedmovies.A
character TD will make test
animation how the Fig 2-8: Rigging
3Dcharacter will move and take a different poses during the movie. It the results
are not satisfying more adjustments and corrections are done. Responsibility of
rigging department does not end here. They are also responsible for cloth
simulation and it is their duty to make the cloths move in the believable manner
during the movie and are also responsible for
the movement of characters like clenching their
fist or rotating their arms etc.

Animation
The concept of animation is same as in 2D
animations i.e. frame by frame. Animation of
character takes place frame by frame. Lets Fig 2-9: Animation

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suppose an animation shows a character is walking and takes four steps. For this
animation, in a first frame animator takes characters first leg at the front in the
second frame he takes its second leg at front and first leg to the back. In this way
animation completes frame by frame.

Post production
This is the final phase of making animated movie. In this phase final adjustments
are done in movie to make it more attractive like editing of raw footage to cut the
scene together, inserting translation effect, working with voice and sound actors
for dubbing etc. Post production of a animated movie consist of composing, sound
editing and video editing.

a. Composing
The main responsibility of composing department is to bring all the 3D images
and prepare the final render images ready for the film and also includes paint
fixes, rotoscoping and compositing of FX elements and general color grading.

b. Sound editing
During this phase sound editors adds sounds to the characters that had been
recorded previously and makes sure that the sound is matching to the movement
of lips. This department is also responsible for adding all other sound effects to
the movie as per the direction given.

c. Video editing
In this phase videos are manipulated, rearranged and unwanted footage are
removed so that film flows through according to requirement and makes sure that
it is prepared for the final release.

Spatial requirements
Animation studios today use different kinds of technology to get their job done. So
spaces must be allocated according to the technological requirement of an animation
studio for which the technological requirements are calculated by the expert and on
the basis of that planning is done. Following are the most important spaces in
animation studio without which it cannot operate
Workstations
Server room
Executive offices
Backup rooms

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Workstatio ns
Workstations in animation studio
consist of a powerful desk top
and one to two monitors
depending upon the work. These
workstations are used for content
creation and editing purpose for
making animated movies.
Windows and other artificial
light sources should be placed
such that th ey will not produce
glare on sc reen and necessary Fig 2-10: Se rver room
thing should be within the reach
area of the artist. Generally workstations in animation studio include
3Dmodeling unit, story board and development unit, art and design unit.

Server room
This is the room where the distribution of internet, netwo rking and central
storage of a studio is controlled. It can be said that this roo m controls all the
technology running in the studio. The size of this room d epends upon the
storage units used and the networking devices used. This room should be air
tight and use of double door with lobby in between is practi ced to keep away
the dust and other harmful things which can damage the storage device and
other devices in the server room. This room should be place d away from the
area where visitors can easily access them as this room controls all the
technology r unning in the studio.

Executive offices
Executive offfices are used by executive members, supervisors and other
staffs who c ontrols whole of the studio. Requirements and other things are
same as disc ussed above in office space of preproduction fac ilities

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Fig 2-11: Render farm

Chapter Two

Backup room
This is the most important part of the animation studio because during the
process of making animated movies and animations processes like rendering
needs continuous power backup. For this, backup room must be able to
handle the backup system that can give backup to all the computers in the
animation studio. As backup system makes lots of noise it should be kept
away from the working areas.
Render farm
Render farm is a group of
computer networked together,
called nodes, all rendering some
part of all of a frame of
animation. Animation studios
use render farms for rendering
the final animations. Render
farm uses three software first is

application software like Maya,


3ds max etc second is render
engine which takes information
created by animator and then
renders it into cinematic, high
definition or TV quality, third and
last one is render manager which
schedules and distributes render
jobs to render nod es. Along with
these software four piece of
components are used
Dispatcher main
control computer or dispatcher to distribute jobs
Render nodes- rendering slave responsible for rendering job
Network- communication between render nodes and dispatcher
Storage- a shared location for sourced files and output files

Render farm should be placed near or if possible right next to the server room
because render farm contains large no of render nodes which needed to be
networked with central storage device and other computers of the studio. Size of

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the render farm depends on the no of stacks used for staking render nodes in them.
To render 90 minutes animated movie 225 render nodes are necessary. These
render nodes are stacked in shelve made to hold these render nodes. Each self can
hold 15 render nodes and is of height 6-6, length is 18 and width is 16.
Height of 1 unit in shelves 5. The space between t wo rows of shelves should be
4 so that it provides easy circulation and space if some minor adjustment is to be
done.

Architectural considerations for animation studio


0
It should accommodate a drawing table for A size for layout process
It should accommodate file cabinet
Workstations with computer should be provided
A good A/C system should be provided in render farm.

Backlot

According to Wikipedia A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio,


containing permanent exterior buildings for outdoor scenes in film making or
television production or space for temporary set construction. The buildings on
backlot are usually constructed with three sides and a roof, often missing the back
wall and one of the side walls. All the sets on a studio backlot are built so that what
looks large or as if it covers miles of ground on the big or small screen in reality only
takes up a few acres of the backlot. There is no such specific requirement for backlot
but it should be enough to hold sets for outdoor shooting along with camera and all
the equipment.

Sound stage

Sound stage is a building or portion of a


building usually insulated from outside
noise and natural light for use by the
entertainment industry for the purpose of
motion picture, television and
commercial production. Sound stages are
classified according to floor area as
small, medium, large and extra large. For
more requirements of big budget films

Fig 2-12: Sound stage


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super stages are also used which has area more than 1800 sqm. These are built
basically for re-creating outdoor setting in feature films. Sometimes super stages are
made up of block of two or three sound stages of increased ceiling height separated
by sliding or roll up soundproof partitions which enable the block to be used either
as two or three separate sound stage or as single stage.

The basic equipment of sound stage serves to facilitate the assembling and
dismantling of sets and the mechanized operation of light equipment and to supply
electrical power as need. It is installed on the working ceiling, which is either
suspended from or built into the roof.

Architectural considerations for sound stage

Area of small soundstage should be 400 sqm, medium should be 820 sqm, large should
be 1400sqm and extra large should be 1800 sqm.
Clear height for these categories should be proportional to diagonal length and should
not be less than 0.23D
For super stages span should be 38m to 48m and length should be 54m to 72m.
Height should be up to 25m
Soundproofing should be done to keep away outside noise
A powerful and noiseless air conditioning system should be provided

2.4.3. Post production facilities

Post production studio


In this studio final works of motion picture editing is done. This studio contains
recording room, control room, video editing room, mastering room and color
grading room. This studio should be completely sound proof and light proof so that
best quality of work can be delivered to the client. This studio have frequent visitors
that are involved in film especially actors, director, producers, singers and musicians
so they should be placed in a site in such a way that visitors coming here would not
disturb other spaces like outdoor shooting, indoor shooting etc.

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Fig 2- 13: Re cording studio

Chapter Two

Sound editing and recordingSound


editing is another part of the post
production process. For this a recording
studio is used. Rec ording studios can be
used to record musicians, voice over artist,
dubbing, etc. Acco rding to Wikipedia A
recording studio is a facility for sound
recording and mix ing. Ideally both the
recording and monitoring spaces are
specially designed by an acoustician to
achieve optimum acoustics properties.
Basically a recordin g studio consists of, live
room where instru mentalist and performs;
control room where sound engineer controls and records sounds by using mixing
console along with computer and special software in it; isolation booth use to
accommodate loud musical instruments like drums, electric guitar and silent musical
instruments too. It is also used for recording vocals while performi ng. In totality we
can say that singer along with his musicians can perform together he re.

Recording studio s can be classified into three types according t o music intended
to be recorded as follows

Home or project s tudio


Separate studio a nd control room
Scoring stage and control room
Home or project studio

It is a very sm all scale recording studio


generally used by music persons in their home
for their projects and albums. In this type of
recording studio we can see small mixing
console, voice recording facility with
microphone and filter and a computer with Fig 2- 14: Home studio
software.

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Separate studio and control room

It is a mediu m scale
recording studio which we
can see generall y around
us. In this type of recording
studio musicians play their
musical instruments and
recorded in a storage
device (generall y a hard Fig 2- 15: Separate studio and control room
disk of a computer)
through microph one or transducers built in their instruments. In this type of
recording studios musical instruments can be recorded in differe nt time and could
be mixed together afterwards through computer software. If all t he musicians are
playing musical i nstruments at same time loud musical instrumen ts like drums
are played in isolatioon booth so that it does not overlap with the sound of other
musical instruments. All of these musical instruments and vocals are recorded,
controlled and mixed in the recording room.

Scoring stage and control room


This is a large scale recording

studio. In this type of recording


studio we can see a hall for
playing music b y the group of
musicians called s coring stage
and control room. In scoring
stage musical instruments are
recorded through microphone or
by using transdu cers. All of the Fig 2- 16: Scoring stage and control room
instruments u se separate
microphone. In scoring stage sometimes musicians are separated by using
portable partitions called gobos but mostly it is not used because use of gobos
cannot give better quality.

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Architectural considerations for sound editing and recording studio

Studio should be designed around the principles of room acoustics and


should be light proof i.e. no light should enter the spaces in the recording so
that best quality of sound and visual can be delivered.
Minimum ceiling height should be 19
For visual connection between control room and recording room
observation window with glass should be provided and should be of size 6
x 9
The glass panel of size 8mm thick and 12mm thick with air gap of 30cm
separating them.
All doors in the studio contain double glass with gap between them as
mention in above point with glass wool inside.
Ceiling should be of RCC and should be acoustically treated
Walls should be double leaf
Flooring should be of carpet with sponge of good quality to make it noise
proof.
o
A constant temperature of about 18 c and low humidity should be
maintained inside the studio all the times
The working plane should be well illuminated

Acoustic
It is very important to have acoustic consideration in recording studio for better
quality of sound. For acoustic treatment and consideration various acoustic
properties and treatment materials should be known. Acoustic in the building fan
be controlled by controlling two kinds of noise i.e. air borne noise and structure
borne noise. Air borne noise transfers from one space to another through air from
source and structure borne noise travels through vibration of the structure of
building due to impact of source

Goals of acoustic treatment


To prevent standing waves and acoustic interference from affecting the
frequency response of recording studios and listening rooms.
To reduce reverberation time in large studios and auditorium
To absorb or diffuse sound in the room to avoid ringing and flutter echoes
To keep sound from leaking into or out of a room.

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Following materials can be used to keep away the air borne noise in the space so
that the quality of sound inside the studio improves

Acoustic plaster
Acoustic plaster is available in the market in the form of which can be applied of
the wall of any shape either with the help of trowel or with the help of spraying
equipment.

Composite or assembled unit


They are made up of sound absorbing materials like rock wool, glass fiber blanket
etc fasten to an acoustically transparent facing. These facings are perforated to
allow the penetration of sound waves. By varying the thickness of the sound
absorbing element and the spacing between the panels and the wall, come
variation in the overall absorbing and the absorbing at different frequency can be
obtained.

Prefabricated boards and tiles


They are made up of compressed cane or wood or mineral wool.hey are available
in the form of fiber, building boards, acoustical tiles, composite unit and other
similar materials.

Vibration isolators
It is very important to treat floors so that the vibration of the floors will not affect
the quality of the recorded sound. For these different kinds of vibration isolators
are used.

Isolation pads
Isolation pads of felt, cork, neoprene impregnated fiberglass or ribbed
neoprene sometimes sandwiched by steel plates usually have about a 0.5
deflection and are used in non critical or high frequency applications.
Typically they are supplied in small squares, which are placed under
vibrating equipment or piping. Where higher deflections are desired or
where there is a need to spread the load, pads are sandwiched with thin
steel plates.

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Neoprene mounts
Neoprene isolators are available in the form of individual mounts which
have about a 0.25 rated deflection, or as double d eflection mounts
having a 0.4 deflection. These products have integral ste el plates,
sometimes with tapped holes that allow them to be bolted to walls or
floors. The double deflection isolators can be used to support floating
floors in critical applications such as recording studio.

Steel springs
A steel spring is the most commonly used vibration isolator for large
equipments internationally. Steel springs alone can be effective for low
frequency isolation. However for broadband isolation they must be used in
combination with neoprene pads to stop high frequencies otherwise
vibration will be transmitted down the springs.

Hanger isolators
Hanger isolators contain a flexible element either neoprene or steel spring
or a combination of both which supports equipment from above. Spring
hangers like free standing springs must have a neoprene pad as part of the
assembly. Hangers should allow for some misalignment between the
o
housing and the support rod without shorting out and be free to rotate 360
without making contact with another object. Threaded height adjusting
rods are usually part of these devices.

Video editing
Video editing is one of the processes of preproduction. In this phase raw footage
taken during production phase is assembled and final effects are added in is so
that it could be distributed in the marked. There are four types of video editing
systems
Linear editing system
Non linear editing system
Offline editing
Online editing

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Fig 2-17: Linear editing system

Chapter Two

As offline and online editing systems are not related to the post production process of making
motion pictures, we are discussing only about linear and non-linear editing system.

Linear editing system

According to Wikipedia linear video


editing is a video editing post production
process of selecting, arranging and
modifying images and sound in a
predetermined order sequence. Regardless
of whether it was captured by video camera,
tapeless camcorder, or recorded in a
television studio on a video tape recorder
the content must be accessed sequentially.

At the starting phased quadruplex video


tapes were used were for shooting of video
which can travel at the speed of 15per second and was edited manually.
Originally video was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and
cutting it with razor blade or guillotine cutter. When two pieces of tapes to be
joint they were painted with a solution a solution of extremely fine iron fillings
suspended in carbon tetra chloride.

After few years a computerized system was developed for linear editing system
but the problem was that the audio track was prone to suffer a short buzzing sound
called artifacts. Editing in linear editing system includes expensive hardware with
time consuming setup and relatively long roll back times for each edit and showed
misalignment as disagreeable bandi ng in videos.

With the passage of time linear system improved. Two machines were used in
linear editing system. One was for playing the source tape and second was for
copying desired portion on the second tape. In this system tape is used to record
the footage as described above. The main disadvantage is that once the footage
has been recorded it cannot be replaced and overwrite. This can be taken as main
disadvantage of this system. Another major disadvantage is they cannot be used

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for rough cut presentation for producers due to which producers dont have
opportunity to suggests and give their opinions.

Non linear editing system


According to Wikipedia A

non linear editing system


(NLE) is video (NLVE) or
audio editing (NLAE) digital
audio workstation syst em that
performs non destructive
editing on source material. In
this system of editing, reels and
tapes are not used as in case of
linear editing system. For
editing, it uses digital files due Fig 2-18: Non linear editing system
to which the possibility of
damage to the source has become zero. In this system of video editing we can
access any frame by entering the timing of video frame in computer. Due to this it
is not only reliable and safer than linear editing system; it is also faster than linear
editing system. The concept could be understood by taking the example of ms
word. By using ms word we can edit our documents by copying, pasting and cut.
During this process there is no possibility of damaging the original file.

For the process of linear editing at first a raw footages are brought which are shot
during the production process and digital copies of those footage are copied on
the hard disk of computer or on the server of computer. After that computer
software is used for editing footage. If editing software is professional one than it
can record editors decision in an edit decision list (EDL) that is exportable to
other editing tools. With this EDL tool editor can work on low resolution copies
of video. This feature is useful especially with those computers which have low
configuration on them.

Since the videos are stored either in server or any other storage device, editing
system can use one of the following method to access the material to be edited

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Direct access
The video server records feeds with a codec readable by the editing system, has
an Ethernet connection and allows direct editing. The editor previews material
directly on the server and edits directly on the server without transferring

Shared storage
The server transfers feed to and from shared storage that is accessible by all
editors. Media in the appropriate codec on the server need only transferred. If
recorded with a different codec, media must be transcoded during transfer. In
some cases, files on shared storage can be edited even before the transfer is
finished.

Importing
The editor downloads the material and edits it locally. This method can be used
with the previous methods.

Architectural considerations for video editing studio

A seal light proof room should be used for video editing


For ventilation and to throw the heat generated by equipment proper design and
installation of air conditioning system should be done
Editing room should be of minimum size 13 x 19
Video editing studio should accommodate a sitting space for editor a working table with
monitors and editing panel
This room should have racks on which to arrange unused film and film being edited can
be placed
Provision should be made so that it can be dust free

Mastering studio

According to Wikipedia Mastering, a form of audio post production is the


process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing
the final mix to a data storage device (the master) . Mastering can be done
electro mechanically or digital. Due to the advancement in the technology
digital mastering has overcome electromechanical system of mastering. In
digital system audio are stored in hard disks and then transferred to CD.

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Color grading studio

According to Wikipedia Color grading is the proces s of altering and enhancing


the color of a motion picture, video image, or still image either electronically,
photo-chemically or digitally. During this proces s of post production different
kinds of equipments area used including like color grading panel along with
desktop computer with color grading software. For color grading special
monitor is required which can show color accurately. For more accuracy this
monitor is taken to different movie halls and is matched with their color
settings. For easiness in work color correction is done shot by shot and not
frame by frame.

Architectural considerations for mastering and color grading studio

A seal light proof room should be used.


For ventilation and to throw the heat generated by equipment proper design and
installation of air conditioning system should be done.
Room should be of minimum 13 x 19
Studio should accommodate a sitting space for editor a working table with monitors and
equipment panel.
Ceiling height should be minimum 10.
Distance of monitor in color grading studio can be calculated by (3/2)* monitor size

Photography studio

According to Wikipedia Photography is the


art, science, and practice of creating durable
images by recording light or other
electromagnetic radiation, either chemically
by means of a light-sensitive material such as
photographic film, or electronically by means
of an image sensor. There are four basic
functions of photography studio i.e. taking a
photo, developing a photo, printing a photo
and duplicating a photo. To accomplish these
works photography studio needs following
Fig 2-19: Photography studio typical plan

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spaces

Camera room
Makeup and dressing room
Display room
Photo printing lab
Store

Camera room
Camera room in a photography studio is a room or a space where photographer take
photo of a subject using different kinds of lights and backgrounds. . The camera room
should be white, gray or neutral in color. This helps to avoid unintentional reflections
in the studio. The most important thing is that, only shooting should be done in
camera room and everything else should happen somewhere else.

Makeup and dressing room


Generally a photography studio photographing models provide such facility to the
clients as they will either need to make portfolio or shoot for the products and other
activities. A dressing room should at least offer a small chair and table as well as
hooks to hang clothing along with the privacy of users.

Architectural considerations for photography studio


Camera room should be light proof
Air condition should be used in the studio
For portrait photography camera room should be at least 10 x 12
For full length photography camera room should be at least 14 x 12
Ceiling height of camera room should be more than 9
Makeup and dressing room should be at least 5 x 5
Makeup and dressing room should get enough natural light but privacy should be
maintained.

Film processing lab

After all the above processes film is released in cinema halls and CDs and DVDs are
produced. The production of CDs and DVDs are done in film processing labs and can be
done by duplication process and replication process

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Duplication process
Duplication is the process of burning information
on to a blank CD or DVD and is similar to burning
CD or DVD on our personal computer. A CD or
DVD duplicator extracts data from the master disc
and writes it to blank disc. The difference between
burning multiple CD or DVD at duplication
facility and burning one on computer desktop is
that the duplication facility burns hundreds at a
time on tower that are linked together. Each tower
contains several CD or DVD trays so that many
copies can be created simultaneously. After all the
data has been written unto the blank CD or DVD Fig 2-20: Duplication machine the
information is verified with the master copy
and the process is complete.

Replication process
The method of adding information in CD or DVD during the manufacturing process is
called replication. Replication is done by using big machines and plants in a big factory.
In other words media like CD or DVD does not exist before the process starts. Before the
process of replication, data provided by client is evaluated for data corruption. Then, a
glass master containing relevant data from client supplied master is created. Replication
begins when a flawless glass master is assured. The glass master is used to develop a
stamper. The stamper n turn is loaded into an injection molding machine that creates CD
or DVD replicated. The quality of CD or DVD replication hinges upon the quality of the
glass masters data. Through each step, quality and accuracy is consistently monitored to
insure each disc in an exact replica or the original. A layer of micro thin aluminum is
applied to the polycarbonate disc. It is then subjected to additional protecting and printed
before packing.

Replication plant needs huge equipments and plants and more cost which is not favorable
for Nepal so we are discussing architectural consideration for duplication plant

Architectural consideration for film processing lab


Processing lab should be dust proof
Processing lab should have adequate natural light to work in day and artificial light for
nights
Room should be of minimum 10 x 12 and ceiling hei ght should be of minimum 9

2.4.4. Other facilities

Following are the some of the additional facilities that will help film studio to be
more efficient in terms of facility and operation.

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Screening room

According to Wikipedia Screening


room is a room in which films are
shown on a large screen for a small
private audience. Usually screening
room is used by the film making team
to see whether the final quality of
movie has been accomplished according
to vision of director producer and other
creative staffs and is used in between to
see the quality of work. Beside this
screening room in film studio is also Fig 2-21: Screening room
used for primer of movies where no of
guests are called along with the film making team. During primer of movies film
making team along with actors attends primer program in screening room where red
carpet is laid from a certain distance of entrance where they are dropped from the
car. After entrance at certain point they give short interview to the press who are
called to the primer of the movie. Then all of the guests and film making team walks
towards the screening room.

Architectural consideration for screening room


Main room
o The maximum viewing distance should not be greater than twice the width of the
widest picture to be projected.

o The width of the seating pattern should vary from 1 times the widest projected
picture of the first row to 1.3 times at the row farthest from the screen

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Fig 2-23: Maximum viewing an gle, first row Fig 2-22: Maximum viewing distance
,

o The viewing angle from the first row of the seats to the center of the picture
o
screen should not exceed 30 .
2
o Area of 0.5m per person for seating arrangement.
o It should not ha ve natural light walls and ceiling should be made up of non
reflective material
o The viewing ang el from first row of seat to the center of the picture should not
o
exceed 30

o Elevation of shee ting


Floor grad ient is achieved by an inclination of up to
10% For seatin g raiser should be 6 and tread should be
3- 9 Sightline clearance should not be less than 5
o Screen
o
Center of projected beam should not deviate more than 5 horizontal or
vertically from the center of screen and it should be deflected via a
deflection mirror
Minimum distance of projection screen from wall should be 3 -9
Lower edg e of projection screen should be at least 3 -9 a bove the floor
Large projection screens are curved with a radius centered at last row of
seats

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o Gangway
Maximum no. of seats in one way gangway :11 seats

Maximum no. of seats in two way gangway: 22 seats

Here should be minimum 1 gang way after 15 rows


Width of central longitudinal gangway 4
Width of side longitudinal gangway 3
Width of cross gangway should be 4

Fig 2-25: Site line clearance


Fig 2-26: Gang way requirement
o Projection room
Projection window should be at least 7 high from the last row floor
Height of projection room should be at least 9
Projection room can vary from 9- 8 to 14- 7 dep ending on site
circumstances

o Rest rooms
Rest rooms should be provided in screening room according to following
guidelines

Capacity Men Women


1 Basin 1 Basin
Up to 400 seats
1 Toilet 2 Toilet

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1 Urinals
2 Basin 2 Basin
400 to 600 seats
2 Toilet 3 Toilet
2 Urinal
2 Basin 2 Basin
600 to 1000 seats
2 Toilet 4 Toilet
3 Urinals
Table 2(b): Rest rooms with respect to no of seats
Restaurant

In film studio a restaurant is needed for

meals during the day for staffs and film


makers. It may also be needed during night
if film production continues at night time
too. Sometimes it is also used as party venue
by film makers during the premier of their Fig 2-27: Restaurant flow diagram
movie.

Architectural consideration for restaurant

Dining room
o To be able to eat comfortably one person requires a table area around 1- 9 wide
and 1- 3 deep. An additional space of 7 in the c enter dishes is sometimes
desirable.
o The kitchen, store rooms, delivery points, toilet and other service areas should be
grouped around the dining room
o Aisle widths should be ; main aisle 6 5, interm ediate aisle 2 9 and side
aisle 3 9
o Ceiling height of dining room should be considered according to following

Floor area Height


538 sqft 8 2
> 538 sqft 9

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1076 sqft 10
Table 2(c): Floor height of dining room with respect to floor area

Space required for dining area can be calculated by following formula

SD = SP x N

SD = Space required for dining area

SP = No of sqft per person

N = No of person at one time

Walk way width should be considered according to following

Dinning floor area (Sqft) Walk way width (ft)


Up to 1076 3 6
Up to 2690 4 3
Up to 5381 5 4
Up to 10763 5 9
Over 10763 6 - 8
Table 2(d): walk way width with respect to dining floor area

Kitchen
o Area for kitchen = x Area of dinning
o The server for a restaurant kitchen with a counter or bar serving point is best
located between the preparation area and dining room
o About 10% to 15% area of the kitchen area should be reserved for offices and
staff rooms.

Area Proportion in %
Goods deliveries including inspection and waste storage 10
Storage in deep freeze, cold and dry room 20
Daily store
Vegetable and salad preparation kitchen 2
Cold meals, desserts 8
Cake shop 8
Meat preparation 2
Cooking area 8
Washing area 10
Walk ways 17

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Staff rooms and office 15


Total 100
Table 2(e): Proportional division of kitchen area

o The server for a restaurant kitchen with a counter or bar serving point is best
located between the preparation area and dining room
o Kitchen staffs must be provided with changing rooms, washroom and
toilets o If more than 10 staffs are employed rest and break rooms are required
o More than 64 sqft should be provided for the changing room with 4 to 6 air
changing per hour as well as visual screening.

Parking

Correct and accurate parking facility is must in the film studio so that it will help to
do all other works easily and faster. Parking should be provided so that actors should
not have to walk more distance for backlot and sound stage and staffs should not
have to walk more for their respective office spaces. For the shooting in outdoor
location outside film studio a vanity van is needed and should be stored in parking
area like underground parking areas until and unless they are needed.

Architectural consideration for parking

Parking space are should be outlined by 5 to 7 wi de yellow or white lines. When


parking facing a wall, these lines should be painted at a height of up to 3 for better
visibility.
Parking types
o Parallel parking
o
o 30 parking
o
o 45 parking
o
o 60 parking
o
o 90 parking

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Fig 2-28Parking types


For car, parking unit should be 16- 4 long and 7 - 5
wide but parking space for disable should be more than 11 wide
Circulation space for car parking should be minimum 11 wide

Garages
o Small garages are those with 1076 sqft effective
area o Medium garages are those with 1076
sqft to 10763 sqft effective area
o Large garages are those with
10763 sqft effective area

o Separate entrance and exit should be


provided for large garages
o Should have clear head room of at
least 8 Fig 2-29: Ramp gradient
o The gradient of ramp should not exceed
15% or in case of small garages 20%

Post room

According to Wikipedia A mail room or post room is a room in which incoming


and outgoing mail is processed and stored. A pers on who works in a mailroom is
known as a mailroom clerk or mail boy and the head person is called postmaster. The
postmaster manages the department, clerks assist them and mail boy deliver mail for
other employees in different departments using a mail cart. The mail room is
responsible for a companys incoming and outgoing mail and allows more efficient
deliveries of mails. The size of the mail room is determined by the no of

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units to serve, size of lock box and type


of lock box assemblies. Lockbox
assembly is a privately owned group of
mailboxes designed to receive mail for
all occupants of the building and
constructed so that each tenant has an
individual compartment that is securely
locked. For the deliveries of mail to the
individual boxes access is provided to the
front or rear of the boxes

Following things should be kept in mind


while installing lockbox assembly Fig 2-30: Lock box assembly

Lockbox assembly should not be higher than 5- 6 a nd should not be lower


than 1- 4 from the finished floor
An enclosed room at rear of the assembly having working space of at least 4
in width should be provided
It should be kept at the safe place where inspection can be done by the person
working in post room

Lock box assemblies can be divided into two types according to their mechanism

Front loading lockbox assemblies

In front loading lockbox assemblies, access for the delivery personnel is provided
through a master door or similar access feature. This permits the delivery personnel
to use the same floor space as the customer, thus reducing the overall space required.
Two major types of front loading boxes are

Drop front lockbox assembly

The drop front lockbox assembly consist of a nu mber vertically oriented


mailboxes banked to form a unit that, when unlocked b y delivery personnel, tilt
out at the top to permit the mail to be deposit through the open box tops.
Customer access is provided by aside hinged, individually locked customer
compartment. This assembly does not hold parcel sized boxes.

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Master door lockbox assembly

With this style of lockbox assembly, the delivery personnel are provided access to
multiple boxes by opening a master door on the front of the assembly. Customer
access is provided by a hinged, individually locked customer compartment door.

Rear loading lockbox assembly

A rear loading lockbox assembly consists of boxes that are opened from inside a
mailroom located directly behind the assembly. The boxes form part of wall with the
front facing the building lobby to provide customer access. The rear of the assembly
faces the mailroom where delivery personnel deposit mail into the open back of the
boxes.

Lock box sizes

Lockboxes can be found in three sizes namely B, C and D. B is small size and is
used for individual homes for letters and magazines. Sizes C and D are large sizes
and used for parcels and other items of similar nature in offices.

B size

Dimension 5 x 4 x 1

Used for personal compartments in residential and small


business application

C size

Dimension 5 x 1 x 1

Used for large main receivers in business


buildings. These may also be used as optional
parcel compartments if space is available.

D size

Dimension 1 x 1x 1

Used for large business application as well as optional


parcel compartments

Fig 2-31: Lock box units B, C and D

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Users in film studio

User

Film studio staffs Film makers

Administration staff Producer

Accounting staff Director

Technical staff Actors


Post production staff Technical staffs
Recording studio staff
Pre production staff
Video editing staff
Production staff
Mastering staff

Color grading staff


Animation studio staff

Pre production staff

Production staff
Work shop staff

Wood workshop staff

Metal workshop staff

Painting and plastering


workshop staff
Wardrobe staffs

Dress designer

Tailors
Equipment rental staff, prop store staff, restaurant staff

Guard, post room staff, screening room staff, library staff

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Chapter -3

Case Studies

Purpose of case study


To know about the relationship between the spaces that are necessary for easy work flow
To know about the equipments and working method necessary for film studio that will
make difference while planning film studio
To know about the structural requirements of different spaces that is necessary for best
quality of work.
To know about the lighting requirement of different spaces necessary for best quality of
work.
To know about the technological aspect of film studio that affects entire film making
process.

3.1 Case study1: Nepal Film Development Company Ltd (NFDC)

Objective of case study


To know about the functional and spatial requirement of indoor and outdoor shooting
facilities in film studio
To know about the structural requirements of indoor and outdoor shooting facilities

Introduction
Nepal Film Development Company limited (NFDC) is located in balaju within the premises of
balaju industrial area and is on lease. It covers the area of 26 ropani and was designed by ER
K.L. kayastha in 1971 A.D. Fourteen staff member working in this company in different posts
with different responsibilities. Talking about the electricity it has got its own transformer for
electric supply within the premises and generator of 75KV for back up. Recently it has bought
some cameras that will be rented to the film makers.

Facilities provided
Indoor shooting facilities
Outdoor shooting facilities
Film processing lab
Wood and metal workshops

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Fig 3-1: NFDC site plan

Chapter Three

Architectural styles of surrounding


No particular architectural style can be seen around
Buildings around contains mixed styles
No contextual continuity in the style in surrounding building.

Design parameters

Site planning
NFDC is located in balaju industrial and is surrounded by industry on one side school on another side and ring
road and approach road on other side as shown on figure. NFDC contains following elements in the site
Guard house
Temple
Administration block with film processing lab
and postproduction unit
Garden for landscaping and outdoor shooting
Indoor shooting studio at southwest of
administration block
Canteen at northwest of administration block.

The entrance of the building is through 12 wide


gate at the end of the site in east direction as shown
in figure. On the right hand side guard post can be
seen and on the left hand side a small temple of
lord ganesh is placed.

The admin block in design in a modern approach


placed near to the entrance and can be seen
immediately after the entry in the premises of
NFDC. Parking for all the users are provided at the
front of the main block. Other facilities like sound stage, canteen, workshop and back lot are
placed at the back of the main block. For the approach, circulation routes are provided from two
sides i.e. right and left side of the main block.

If we take right side route, we can see canteen block after passing the main block which is placed
at the corner of the site as shown in figure. The canteen block is placed at some height according
to the terrain of land. If we take left hand route we can see backlot area in front of us which is
raised about 1 from the ground and is placed in between sound stage 2 and main block. Passing
through backlot we can reach to sound state 2 and workshop which are adjacent to one another.
Another backlot can be seen in at the back of the sound stage 2.

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The most appreciable thing about the planning of NFDC is that terrains of the site has given due
consideration while designing and has not been disturbed much.

Orientation
Talking about the orientation, all the buildings are not oriented in same directions.
Site is east oriented
Main block which containing administration function, post production and sound stage is
oriented towards east
Canteen is oriented towards south, sound stage2 is oriented towards north and workshop
is oriented towards east

Pebbled path way to access canteen, backlot, sound stage 2 and workshop at the back of
main block
Pebbled at the front of main block
Green grasses on the backlot

Circulation
Tow pathway running from side of main block each of 8 wide
Left side pathway leads to backlot directly and right one to back of the main block
Right side pathway leads to canteen , backlot and sound stage and is a formal type

Main block
The main block is design modern approach and has brick exposure and is made of RCC
frame structure
It consist post production studio, administration and film processing lab
More emphasis is given to natural lighting through ribbon window and full height
window at each floor
Granite on the floor and walls are painted with white paint
Floors have been designed in split level
Main block contains following spaces in main block

Ground floor
Entrance + lobby
Reception
Waiting
Public relation officer
Film development lab
Chemical testing lab
Quality control room
Optical printing room
Sound printing room

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Film blowup room


Color grading studio
Film editing and mixing lab
Film negative store
Chemical room
Telecine room
Winding room
Ladies and gents toilet

First floor
Account section
Waiting
Final print packing room
Final print editing room
Store room
Electric room
General manager room
Deputy general manager room
PA room
Staff room
Dubbing room
Projector room
Film patching room
Ladies and gents toilet
Digital editing room
Digital dubbing and mixing room

Third floor
Administration room
Projection room
Store
Cement floor in the indoor shooting studio
Truss in the indoor studio made up of metal
pipes and CGI sheets
Wooden floor in lab
Perforated gypsum board panel in studio and
dubbing room

Indoor shooting facilities


NFDC has two indoor shooting studio namely
studio 1 and studio 2. Dimension of studio 1 is 70
x 50 (L x B) and 24 in height. It is placed in
Fig 3-2: NFDC sound stage
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Fig 3-3: NFDC backlot

Chapter Three

administration block itself and is provided with makeup room and dressing room of dimension
7 x 8, toilets. In this studio provisio n for natural light has not been done. The second one is
studio 2. It is constructed separately adjacent to outdoor shooting facility at the back of
administrative block. The dimension of this block is 80 x 52-5 (L x B) and 24 in height.
This studio 2 is provided with dressing rooms, makeup rooms and toilet facilities. Unlike the
studio 1, natural light has been provided in this studio.

Outdoor shooting facilities


Talking about outdoor shooting facilities of
NFDC, it has got backlot at the back of the main
block which acts as landscape element and outdoor
shooting facility both. Grasses are growing on the
back lot and shooting of many films have been
done. For easiness sound stage 2 having makeup
room and dressing rooms are cl ose to backlot as
we can see above figure. Due to this it will be very
easy to shoot on the backlot.

Film processing lab


NFDC has film processing facility for the final
touch to release in the market. This facility has been placed in ground floor at the left side
of the stair leading first floor. But this facility for tape systems only which has become out
of date these days and cinema halls uses digital technology for showing movies. Due to
this reason processing labs has been closed.
Wood and metal workshop
In NFDC wood and metal workshop facilities are provided for indoor scene construction
and are placed near to the studio 2 due to this time could be saved to carry sets from
workshop to sound stage2. But sound stage 1 which is in main block and work shop is at
some distance which shows that sound stage 1 is not used frequently than sound stage2 and
is given less priority.

Construction materials
Bricks for internal and external partition
Tiles on the floor
Plaster on the internal walls
Wooden doors and windows

Good points
Good use of natural and artificial lighting
Use of duct to control all the pipes and wires between floors

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Clear demarcation of public, semi public and private zone.


Good use of catwalk in the indoor shooting studio.
Zoning is done according to topography

Bad points
Maintenance of spaces and outdoor shooting area is neglected
In appropriate shape of fire exit stairs
No use of outdoor area having greater potential
Insufficient water supply and air conditioning
No provision of natural light and ventilation in the lab area.

Lesson learnt
Indoor shooting area should not have natural light because that will disturb the lighting
during the shooting
Proper management of catwalk is necessary.
Fire escapes should be properly managed for the case of emergency
Artificial ventilation should be provided for the spaces like indoor shooting studio.
Workshops should be at minimum distance from indoor shooting studio.
Landscape should be properly managed as it will enhance the beauty of the place if good
care is taken
Administration area should be near to entrance.

3.2 Case study 2: Three Mills studio, London

Objective of case study


To know about the
functional and spatial
requirement of indoor and
outdoor shooting facilities in
film studio
To know about the structural
requirements of indoor and
outdoor shooting facilities
To know about the
international trend and styles
of film studio.

Introduction
Three mills studio is Londons one
of the largest studio and is located
seven miles from central London.
Fig 3-4: Three mills studio site plan

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This studio has provided service to famous film makers and T.V. shows like Ben 10 etc. it has got
11 sound stages, 10 rehearsal rooms more than 170 production offices, prison exterior and cell
set and ample parking. It provides all sorts of facilities for film making and T.V. production. In
other words one enters with the script and leaves with a complete movie.

Facilities provided

Sound stages with makeup and dressing room


Exterior and location filming
Prison exterior and cell
Production offices
Rehearsal rooms
Screening room
Workshop and prop stores

Design parameters
Site planning

Three mills studio can be approached through two roads namely sugar house lane and three mills
lane. The whole studio is divided into two piece of land by three mills Wall river. First piece is at
west direction and second piece is at east
direction. The piece of land in east
direction has also got huge backlot area as
shown in figure. Sugar house lane is
separated for vehicular entrance which
leads to piece of land in west direction of
studio. Immediately after the entrance, we
can see parking on the right side and
warehouse on the left side. This piece of
land consist mostly ware house and
workshops. Sound stage also can be seen
but in few numbers.
Second piece of land in east direction Fig 3-5: Three mills studio zoning
mostly consist of sound stages and other facilities like prop store, rehearsal room necessary for
production phases.

Planning
Seeing broadly we can see that piece of land in west direction is separated for supportive facility
for production facility and east piece of land is for production facility. Supportive facility
consists of warehouse, workshop, parking and rehearsal room.

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Production facility consist of sound stage, rehearsal room, prop store, production office and
restaurant. Production offices and sound stages are placed very close to each other in eastern
part. Prop stores are at the back of the sound stages and back access is provided for them.
Parking space is provided at front of sound stages which will be coming from western part of the
studio across the river.

Workshops and warehouse are placed away from the sound stage and production offices as they
can disturb the shooting process. Parking space is provided at the western part of the studio
immediately after the entry.

Circulation
Sugar house lane approach for west piece of land i.e. supportive facility for production
facilities
Three mill lane approach for east piece of land i.e. production facilities
Back access for storage facilities
Fire exit provisions between sound stage as they are close to each other.
Bridge connects two piece of land divided by three mills wall river

Landscaping
Landscaping is very well done & very attractive and decorative that enhances the site
Black top road running throughout the studio
Paving in front of production offices

Steel structure for foundation and super structure


Brick walls with truss roof in sound stage
Sound absorbing panels on the walls of sound stage
Concrete flooring with wooden overlay in sound stage
Pitched roof with roof
PCC on parking
Wood flooring on rehearsal room with truss on the roof

Sound stage
Three mills studio has got 11 sound stages of areas 3200 sqft to 13500 sqft. Walls and ceiling of
the sound stages are covered with sound proof materials so that shooting can be done in a quality
environment. For electric supply in sound stage, power sockets of 100amp, 32amp and 13amp
are provided. The floors are concrete floors with wooden overlay and water sprinkle and smoke
detectors are used for fire protection. Following table shows the description of sound stages

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Sound stage Area (sqft) Floor type Plan


1 3945 wooden

2 3219 wooden

4 6034 Concrete with

wooden overlay

5 10437 Concrete with

wooden overlay

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6 8046 Concrete with


wooden overlay

7 13483 Concrete

8 3802 Concrete with


wooden overlay

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9 8949 Concrete

11 8128 Concrete

12 7834 Concrete

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15 5320 wooden

Table 3(a): Sound stages in three mills studio


Rehearsal rooms
Three mills studio has 10 rehearsal rooms sizing from 280 sqft to 2500 sqft which are hired by
dance, theater and Opera Company. Spaces in the rehearsal rooms are enough for artist to
practice with orchestra and arial works. Rehearsal rooms here are neither sound proof nor have
air conditions in them. Following table shows the description of rehearsal rooms

Rehearsal Area (sqft)Floor type Plan


room

1 767.5 Wooden,
raised floor

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2 870.8 Wooden,
raised floor

3 280.9 Wooden,
raised floor

4 587.7 Wooden,
raised floor

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5 1693.93 Wooden,
raised floor

6 2507 Wooden,
raised floor

7 1124.6 (G.F) Wooden,


raised floor
739.5
(mezzanine)

A 1970 Wooden,
raised floor
B 947 Wooden,
raised floor

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C 1970 Wooden,
raised floor

Table 3(b): Rehearsal rooms in three mills studio


Prop store
Three mills studios offer complementary production facilities such as workshop and prop stores.
These spaces can be used for set construction, prop and model making. The lobby outside stage 6
and 7 is a large common area which is used for storage, workshop or set construction when
shooting is on the adjacent stage. Prop store sizes from 712 sqft to 1205 sqft. Following table
shows the description of prop stores

Prop store Area (sqft) Floor type


1 734 Concrete
2 741 Concrete
3 1205 Concrete
4 712 Concrete
Table 3(c): Prop store in three mills studio

Lesson learnt
Zoning should be done so that design will be effective
Sound stage and production should be very close to each other
Workshop and production office should be placed far.
Separate parking should be provided at sound stage and administrative area

3.3 Case study 3: Studio 4, Bhainsepati, Lalitpur

Objective of case study


To know about the sound stage and facilities needed for sound stage
To know about the working method in sound stage
To know how sets are prepared for shooting in sound stage
Introduction
Studio 4 is located in bhainsepati lalitpur in the residential area. Stu dio 4 is a private film
shooting studio and has its own building with two sound stages. Studio 4 has 16 staffs working
from administration to technical staffs. This is more oriented to indoor shooting for film and T.
V. shows and has got control room for the purpose of shooting for T.V. shows.

Facilities provided

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Indoor shooting
Changing and makeup room
Set construction

Architectural style of surrounding


No particular architectural style can be seen around
Buildings around contains mixed styles
No contextual continuity in the style in surrounding building

Design parameters
Site planning

Studio 4 is located in bhainsepati lalitpur near civil


homes. It is surrounded by residential houses.
Although being constructed shooting purpose it has
only sound stage facility a nd no backlot facility.
Studio 4 contains following elements in the site.
Parking
Office space
Staff quarter
Sound stage
Store rooms
Although having all these elements in site, office
space, staff quarter, makeup and changing room is
place in a single building and sound stages are
close to office space as shown in figure Fig 3-6: Studio 4 site plan

Entrance in the studio is through 10 wide gate and is oriented towards south. Immediately after
entering the main gate parking space can be seen. On the left hand side of the gate at level of 3-
3. Makeup and dressing rooms are at adjoining offi ce space. Above office space staff quarter is
provided which is linked to sound stage 1 through control room. The sound stage 2 is adjoining
sound stage1 and of same size. Sound stages are also at same level as office space. Toilet is
provided just in front of sound stage 1 and adjoining sound stage 2. Above toile store and water
tank room is constructed which can be accessed from metal stairs at compound.

Orientation
Site is oriented to south direction
The building is constructed in L shape so, office space and sound stage 1 is oriented
towards east, sound stage 2 is oriented towards south and toilets are oriented towards
west

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Landscaping
Parking area is paved with interlocking blocks
No other landscaping elements

Circulation
Entrance gate leads directly to parking
Office space along with rest areas for actors is at left side
Sound stages directly in front of parking area
Toilets in parking area

Office space
Office space has not been planned well.
To get into one room we have to get
through another room. After going down
the steps reception can be seen at the
front and makeup and dressing room at
right side. Going through reception we
can enter to the room which has been
separated for actors to take rest. Going
Fig 3-7: Office space
through that room we can enter the
kitchen. Floors of the office space have been cemented and walls are painted with white color.

Sound stage
Adjoining the office space we can see sound stage 1
which is 40 x 50 and 20in height. Sound stage 2
adjoining sound stage 1 which has same dimension
as sound stage 1 as shown in figure. Sound stages
have plastered floors and sound proof materials are
used in the ceiling to keep away noises coming
through the ceiling. For lighting almost every time
artificial lights are used but ribbon windows are
placed at the top of the walls so that natural light can
help working on catwalks. Nothing is used on the
walls and doors of the sound stage to make them
Fig 3-8: Sound stage
sound proof.

Ground floor
Reception
Rest area for actors
Kitchen
Makeup room

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Dressing room
Sound stage
Toilets

First floor
Staff quarter
Control room
Store
Water tank room

Construction materials
RCC construction for office space, toile and store
Truss for sound stage and brick wall
Plastered facade
Cemented floor
White colors on the walls

Good points
Good construction and well managed sound stage
Control room at good place in sound stages
Good technique of natural lighting in sound stage

Bad points
No enough parking space
Facades of the studio have been neglected
No generator room
To get into one room one has to go through another room
Toilets are faced towards parking.
No backlot facility

Lesson learnt
Landscaping plays important role in adding beauty of place
Natural lights can be provided in catwalks without effecting whole sound stage
Sound stage and control room can be linked from inside

3.4 Case study 4: Red studio, Narayangopal chowk, Maharajgunj

Objective of case study


To know about the practical way of post production process
To know about the working environment necessary for post production

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To know about equipments used and their spatial requirement.

Introduction
Red studio is a post production studio located at Narayangopal chowk, Maharajgunj. The studio
space has been rented by the studio. This company provides post production facilities like video
editing, sound editing and dubbing, color grading, mastering and subtitling and provided
equipments on hire too. Red studio operates totally digitally throughout the process of
postproduction.

Facilities provided
Video editing
Sound editing
Dubbing
Color grading
Mastering
Subtitling
Equipment rental

Data storage
All data are stored in hard disk but in this case hard disk is not fitted inside the computer.
Hard disk is carried from one room to another and read through hard disk duct. This is
similar to USB port but is used for hard disk.

Video editing
Video editing is one of the processes of post production. During this process they accept the
footage from film makers which is initially storage in magazine which is a storage device
like hard disk and memory card. They retrieve that footage from magazine and stored in
hard disk. After retrieving data video
footages are converted into proxy file
which reduces the size of footage and
makes easy for video editor to edit
footage. Those footages are then
assembled and unnecessary portions of
video are thrown away through the
software called final cut pro. To make
the work easy and smooth and EDL Fig 3-9: Red studio editing room
facility in software is used which helps
technicians throughout the process of post
production.

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Fig 3-11: Red studio dubbing room

Chapter Three

Sound editing
For editing of sound a sound editing
room is used containing 5.1 sound
systems. This room is made sound proof
by using sound absorbing materials on
the wall, sound proofing system on the
door and no windows in the sound
editing room. For ventilation in the
rooms AC are used. Sound editing is Fig 3-10: Red studio control room
also done by using computer software
called protools-le8. During this all the sound and dialogues are mixed in the final footage
after color grading.
Dubbing
For dubbing two rooms are used. One is sound booth
used by artists which contains a camera to monitor the
activity of artists, microphone along with filter for
dubbing the sound, headphone to communicate with
technical person in control room and a monitor for visual
communication between control room and sound booth.
This sound booth is also a sound proof room which is
made sound proof by using perforated sound panels on
the walls and ceiling. And sound proofing materials on
the doors. It doesnt have windows and AC is used for
ventilation purpose.

Second is control room which contains monitor for visual


communication between sound booth and control room,
microphone for vocal communication between
control room and sound booth, controlling
equipments, computers with sound editing software called protools-le8, sitting space for six
persons and speakers. Here in this room along with technical person director and other
people related to film can stay
and help technician during the
process of dubbing.

Color grading
Color grading is the process of
editing color and lights in the
footage. For this, a computer
with software called scratch
software is used and for control

Fig 3-12: Red studio Color grading room


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Chapter Three

the activity equipment called color grading panel is used. Color grading of the footage is
done shot by shot with the software. For the process of color grading a normal monitor or
television cannot be used because it cannot show the exact output that software has give.
For this a special monitors are ordered and then it is calibrated with the resolution of
different cinema halls as output of the picture during this process will be the final output that
will be seen on cinema hall by audience. While color grading a room should be completely
dark so that natural and artificial lights will not affect the quality of work.

Mastering
Here mastering work are done for promos only because different cinema halls have different
encoding
.
Subtitling
For subtitling same control room is used with same equipments for dubbing but this time
vocal booth is not used.

Equipment rental
Red studio provides cameras in rent for film makers with the fix amount of charge.

Spatial planning
Ground floor
Reception + waiting
Store
Managers office
Mastering studio
Color grading studio
Electrical backup room

First floor
Video editing studio
Dubbing room
Control room

Construction technology
Talking about the construction technology of the building, studio building is made up of RCC
frame structure i.e. column, beam and slab. External and partition walls are made up of bricks
but external walls are plastered with cement but internal walls consist of soundproof materials on
it. No of windows are limited in working spaces because it will affect work quality and work
should be done in complete darkness.

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Construction materials
Brick with cement mortar on the external face of wall
Carpets on the working rooms
Carpet flooring on the lobby
Perforated sound absorbing material on the wall and ceiling
Wooden door with sound proofing arrangements on it.

Good points
It is centrally located and is good for a commercial post production studio
Structural aspects like sound proofing, limiting the amount of natural lights in working
space has been done with careful consideration.
Careful arrangement of electrical requirements for working rooms.
Good technical equipments including software.
Experience staffs.
Friendly working environments

Bad points
As it is an adopted building, spaces dont corresponds to the work flow
It can handle less no of people at a time.

Lesson learnt
Workspace in the studio excluding staff facilities and reception should be sound proof.
For best quality output, works should be done in complete darkness so natural lights in
the working spaces are undesirable and unnecessary.
Technology and equipments effects greatly in context of planning and working.
Artificial ventilation is necessary as the spaces will be sound proof and light proof which
will also affect natural ventilation.
Electrical backup for emergency cases is must because studio is based totally on
electricity from ventilation to lighting.

3.5 Case study 5: Phoenix Studio, Bagdole

Objective of case study


To know about the spatial requirement of recording studio
To know about the treatments necessary for the recording studio
To know about the workflow and work system of studio.

Introduction
Phoenix studio is a popular recording studio in Bagdole, lalitpur. This recording studio is
especially dedicated to songs recording and music video production. This studio is relatively
small in area and is adopted residential building.

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Facilities provided
Songs recording
Music video production
Music CD production

Architectural style of surrounding


No particular architectural style can be seen around
Buildings around contains mixed styles
No contextual continuity in the style in surrounding
building

Orientation
The building is north oriented and faces towards the main
road but the main entry is in east direction and the studio
entrance also faces towards east. But the studio is on the
first floor and is established in a flat only.

Circulation Fig 3-13: Phoenix studio plan


Entrance through a side with 6 door
Building entrance through east direction as shown on
figure.
3- 6 wide stairs leads to the studio at first flo or.

Planning
This recording studio in place in an adopted residential
building and is established in a flat on the first floor. It contains
following spaces
Reception
Control room
Live room
Kitchen cum dinning
Toilet Fig 3-14: Phoenix studio site plan

Reception
Here reception is used for inquire purpose only and rest of the work is done with personal
contacts and lies at the left side of the entry to the studio. The size of reception is 10 x
12 and four persons can be accommodated excluding receptionist

Control room

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Fig 3-15: Phoenix studio control room

Chapter Three

This room consists of the equipments like mixture, personal computer, speaker etc necessary
for controlling purpose and lies at the right side of the studio entry. Excluding
technician four persons can sit together so that
they can help technicians in making their music
albums and is of dimension 11 x 15. This
room is treated acoustically by using fiberglass
boards on the walls by projecting some of them
outside by certain inches than other and
windows has been covered by using timber
boards with vertical stripes on them. Door in
this room has been made air tight by using
double layer of glass on them with air gap in
between the glasses. Floor has been carpeted so
that floor vibration and tapping sound will not
affect the work and room will be fully sound proof. This room is sometimes used for
recording the musical instruments as all the instruments including drums are recorded
using transducers.

Live room
Considerations has been done regarding to acoustical treatments for live room too. Floor
has been carted with the layer of sponge between floor slab and carpet so that floor
vibrations and taping sound of floor cannot disturb the live room. Walls of the live room
are constructed parallel so to make it acoustically better fiberglass boards and wooden
boards has been used to make the walls non parallel. Ceilings are also treated with fiber
glass boards to make them non parallel with floor. These rooms dont have any window
but doors are made up of wooden frame with double glass and air gap between them.
Dimension of this room is 15 x 20.
Construction technology
The building in which it has been established is
constructed in RCC frame structure with internal
and external wall is constructed with brick. Floor
has been carpeted so that tapping sound on the
floor will not disturb the recording process and
shoes are not allowed in the recording studio.
Walls are parallel to each other which is not good
for the recording studio so fiber glass boards has
been used to make them non parallel. Same is
done for the ceiling. Walls are treated with fiber
glass boards projecting some of them more than
others so that it can help to give better sound
Fig 3-16: Phoenix studio live room

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quality. Curve windows are treated with wooden boards having vertical stripes on them and
doors and windows are made sound proof by using double glass with air gap between them.
Visual connection has been established between control room and live room through a viewing
window having double glass with air gap between them.

Construction materials
RCC frame structures
Walls are made up of bricks with plaster on external surface.
Wooden doors having double glass with air gap between them
Carpet finish on the floor with sponge layer between carpet and floor slab.
Windows are covered with wooden board with vertical stripes on them.
Walls and ceiling are treated with fiberglass boards.

Good points
Good acoustical treatment on walls, floors and ceiling
Reconfiguration of walls and ceiling by using fiber glass boards to make them suitable
for recording purpose
Doors has been made sound poof by using double glass in them with air gap in between
the glasses.
Recording studio is totally sound proof
Whole recording studio has been made interesting by using artificial lights.

Bad points
All the facilities for recording like isolation booth, live rooms etc are not provided
Control room also performs as live room some time
No good waiting space

Lesson learnt
Recording studio should be sound proof
Curve and parallel surfaces are harmful for recording studio so they must be treated well
Treatments on the walls should be done such that they can act as sound diffuser which
improves the sound quality.
Workspaces can be made interesting by using artificial lights.

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Chapter Four

Chapter -4

Requirement and Area Analysis

4.1 Relation between spaces regarding to users, their task and their activities

In the following table links between the spaces are shown according to the users, their activity
and task involved in various phases

Users Tasks involved Activities Result


Pre production Frequent visit to Office should be
Signing contract office by actor placed near to site
with film studio and crew entrance
member
Hiring cast and Meeting space should
crews Meeting of artist, be provided at easily
creative staffs accessible place by
and other crew visitors in office
Permission is member with
taken for outdoor producer Film studio
location administration and
Communication post production office
between film should be close to
Pre visualization studio each other
Film maker of film administration
Producer and post
Director production office
Budget plan is
made

Sets for indoor


shooting is built

Equipment is
hired
Production Preparation of set Sound stage, backlot

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Recording of raw by technical crew and set preparation


footages members. workshop should be
at fair distance
Hiring of more Shooting starts. Office, backlot and
crews
sound stage should be
Distribution of at fair distance
next day
schedule at the
end of day. Set preparation
workshop and office
should be far from
Daily progress each other
report to
production
office.
Post production Supervision of Post production
Visit of post voice over and studio and office
production studio songs should be close to
each other and should
Watching be linked internally
finalized version
in screening room Post production
studio and screening
room should be at fair
distance
Pre production Meeting with Office should be
Signing of director and placed near to site
contract with producer entrance
Actors producer and
director Discussion on Meeting space should
script be provided at easily
accessible place by
visitors in office
Production From parking to Parking and shooting
Arrival of actors shooting area area (indoor or
in set (indoor or outdoor) should be at
outdoor) fair distance
Makeup,
rehearsal, Puts on costumes Space to take rest
changing costume and make up should be provided in
and shooting the sound stage for

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actors
Rehearsal of shot
Makeup room,

Final shot with wardrobe and


crew rehearsal room should
be provide in sound
stage
Makeup, wardrobe

and rehearsal facility


should be at fair
distance in case of
backlot
Pre production Frequent visit Space for technical
Contract signing with director and staffs should be
with director and producer provided near the
producer production office and
Clothes for should be internally
Story editing and costume designing linked
finishing are purchased and
design is finalized Separate route should
Costume and set be provided from
Technical staffs (film design entrance to stores
Production Parts of set are Workshop should be
making) Preparation of set brought in at fair distance from
for shooting shooting area shooting area
from workshop
Assisting actors Equipment rental
during rehearsal Lighting and other store and prop store
equipments should be close to
Shooting of final necessary for shooting area
footage shooting are
brought from Rehearsal space
Preparation of equipment rental should be provided in
next set while store case of sound stage
being shot in one Actors rehearse
Store should be
for sometime provided in sound
before final shot stage and should be
near to backlot

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Assembly of next
set in shooting
area by technical
staffs brought
from workshop
Post production studio Recording of Taking the help of Some space should be
staffs voices producer and provided for directors
Control room director while and producers
staffs Recording music recording voices
and music Control room should
Mixing of voices be placed in such a
and music with Communicating place inside post
video with artist and production studio,
musician while where visitors coming
recording voices here will not disturb
and music other working area
Taking help of Live room, vocal

music director booth and dubbing


while mixing the room should be
music adjacent to control
room.
Provision for visual

connection should be
made between live
room, vocal booth
and dubbing room
Video editor Editing of raw Video received Should have space for
footage from director and producer
shooting Editing is done along with editor.
with the help of
director and Should be placed so
producer that other a spaces
will not be effected
Color grading Editing color and Receive edited It should be placed
light in the footage from close to video editing
footage edited by video editor room
video editor
Editing color and Encoding room
light in it should be placed
centrally

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Footage passed to

encoding room
(control room)
Story boarding Drawings are Meeting room should
prepared in form be close to story
Animation studio staffs Design location of comic strips boarding unit and
and costume for layout unit
Pre production characters Meeting with
staffs production staffs, Consistent natural
Model sheets producer and light should be
director provided for pre
Animatics Picture of production area

character in Layout area should
different pose is contain space for
prepared short meetings
Simplified 3D Story boarding unit,

version of layout unit and model


storyboard is sheet unit should be
created close to each other
Production staffs Creation of 3D Referring of story Production studio
character board and model should contain
sheets for creation workstation with
Adding necessary of 3D character. computers
details
Works on Story board unit and
Animating computer for model sheet unit
creating character should be close to
and adding details production unit
Final render using Render farm should

render farm be close if possible


adjacent to
Passed on to post production unit
production studio
for final touch Post production
studio should be
internally linked with
animation studio.

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Wood workshop, Preparation of set Goods from Alternative route


metal workshop, for shooting outside to store should be provided
painting and from site entrance to
plastering workshop Preparation of set store
Alternative route
Kept in store should be from store
to shooting area
Transfer to the
shooting area
Releasing goods Meeting with It should be near to
Equipment rental staffs technicians for shooting area
Getting back releasing and
and prop store staffs goods getting back Alternative route
goods should be provided
from site entrance to
Goods received store
from vendor
Receiving letters Arranging Should be placed near
from outside received letters entrance
from outside
Post room Distributing Separate space to
letters to Distribution of receive letter by users
respective letters by post
department room staffs Lockbox assembly
should be provided
Letter ranging room

should be placed
adjacent to lockbox
assembly

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`. Review of final Film makers Should be separated


touch l by film enters screening from other facilities
makers room directly
from entrance or Should be placed near
Primer of movie from shooting to entrance
Screening room area
Talking to press Parking space should
and media by Invited guest in be separated for VIP
actors and film primer show enter and others
makers to screening room
directly Conference room
Actors and film should be near to
screening room
makers gives
interview to press
and media.

Providing lunch Loading of goods Separate route should


every day to the respective be provided for in
store that came coming goods to
Restaurant staffs Providing meals from outside restaurant
in morning or
night according to Preparation of Storage space should
situation. foods be near to back route
Serving food to Food serving area

indoor and should be in


outdoor dining intermediate space
between indoor
dining, outdoor
dining and kitchen
Changing room

should be near to
kitchen
Should be at

intermediate distance
from all the facilities

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Conclusion Office space should be placed near to site entrance


Site planning Office, backlot and sound stage should be at fair distance
Sound stage, backlot and set preparation workshop should be at fair
distance
Set preparation workshop and office should be far from each other
Post production studio and office should be close to each other and
should be linked internally
Post production studio and screening room should be at fair distance
Parking and shooting area (indoor or outdoor) should be at fair distance
Makeup, wardrobe and rehearsal facility should be at fair distance in
case of backlot
Space for technical staffs should be provided near the production office
and should be internally linked
Separate route should be provided from entrance to stores
Equipment rental store and prop store should be close to shooting area
Post production studio should be internally linked with animation
studio.
Alternative route should be from workshop store to shooting area
Post room should be placed near entrance
Screening room should be placed near to entrance
Screening should be separated from other facilities
Restaurant should be at intermediate from all the facilities
Separate route should be provided for in coming goods to restaurant

Office space
Meeting space should be provided at easily accessible place by visitors
in office
Film studio administration and post production office should be close
to each other
General service area should be placed centrally
Central clerical area should be placed such that they may be easily
accessed for workspaces
Internal planning Central service area should be placed away from working area
Finance department should be placed near office entrance or reception.
Accounts should be near to finance and department
Sales department should be placed near to meeting space
Store should be near to back entrance of office

Sound stage
Makeup room, wardrobe and rehearsal room should be provide in
sound stage

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Space to take rest should be provided in the sound stage


Rehearsal space should be provided in sound stage
Store should be provided in sound stage

Post production studio


Some space should be given to film makers in control room to assist
technician
Control room should be placed in such a place where visitors will not
disturb other working area
Live room, vocal booth and dubbing room should be adjacent to control
room.
Video editing studio should have space for film maker along with
editor
Provision for visual connection should be made between live room,
vocal booth and dubbing room
Color grading studio should be placed near to video editing studio
Encoding room should be placed centrally

Animation studio
Meeting room should be close to story boarding unit and layout unit
Layout area should contain space for short meetings
Story boarding unit, layout unit and model sheet unit should be close to
each other
Story board unit and model sheet unit should be close to production
unit
Render farm should be close if possible adjacent to production unit

Restaurant
Storage space should be near to back route
Food serving area should be in intermediate space between indoor
dining, outdoor dining and kitchen
Changing room should be near to kitchen

Post room
Lockbox assembly should be provided to users to receive letters
Letters arranging room should be adjacent to lockbox assembly room
Table 4(a): Spatial relationship

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4.2 Finalization of area requirement

After literature, case studies and analysis of these both following areas has been finalized for my
thesis project on Film Studio. These areas are no t final but an approximation and can be
changed during design if necessary.

Particular Area
Administration
Reception 161 sqft
Public relation officer 322 sqft
Chairmans office 645 sqft
Administrative offices 645 sqft
Account 322 sqft
Purchase 322 sqft
Marketing 322 sqft
Meeting room 400 sqft
Generator room 129 sqft
Store room 43 sqft
Production office

Reception 161 sqft (3 nos)


Directors room 645 sqft (3 nos)
Assistant directors room 322 sqft (3 nos)
Producers room 322 sqft (3 nos)
Production managers room 322 sqft (3 nos)
Marketing 322 sqft (3 nos)
Pantry 161 sqft (3 nos)
Meeting room 100 sqft (3 nos)
400 sqft (3 nos)
Production facility
Sound stage
Large size 16145 sqft (2 nos)
Small size 4305 sqft (3 nos)
Makeup room 129 sqft (10 nos)
Rest room 129 sqft
Dressing room 129 sqft (10 nos)
Lounge 129 sqft (5 nos)
Store 215 sqft (5 nos)
Prop store 734 sqft

Equipment rental 500 sqft

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Animation studio
Story boarding department 1722 sqft
Model sheet and layout department 1076 sqft
Rigging department 688 sqft
Modeling and texturing department 1076 sqft
Lighting and animation department 1076 sqft
Render farm 1076 sqft
Meeting room 400 sqft
Post production facility

Post production studio 322 sqft


Live room 107 sqft
Control room 322 sqft
Video editing room 107 sqft
Mastering room 107 sqft
Color grading room 107 sqft
Photography studio

Camera room 398 sqft


Dressing room 129 sqft
Store 43 sqft
Film processing lab 150 sqft (3 nos)

Other facilities

Screening room
Projector room 861 sqft
Audience seating area 6458 sqft
Restaurant 645 sqft

Post room

Lockbox assembly room 100 sqft


Letter arranging room 100 sqft
Residential facilities for actors

Deluxe rooms 538 sqft (21 nos)


Wardrobe

Dress designer 430 sqft


Dress making room 215 sqft
Costume store 215 sqft

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Staff quarter 4144 sqft (2 nos)


V.I.P Residence 1100 sqft (6 nos)

Permanent set

Temple 861 sqft


Stupa 129 sqft
Total 56769 sqft

Table 4(b): Area requirements

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Chapter Five

Chapter -5

Site Analysis
Introduction to site

The proposed site for the construction of Film Stu dio is located at Sanogaun also known as
Siddhipur which is about 7 km from Gwarko, lalitpur. The site is 1110051.51 sqft i.e. 202 ropani
11aana 1paisa 2.30 dam in area accessed through 20 wide road. The shape of the site is roughly
rectangular with plain topography. Talking about the surroundings, it is surrounded be
agricultural land on three side and access road on another side.

Fig 5- 1: Site and site location


Site potential

The site lies at the distance of 7 km from the lalitpur and is about 20 to 25 minutes drive. Site is
located in the outskirt of the Kathmandu valley and as we all know that Kathmandu has fast and
rapidly growing film industry in it and can attract existing and other potential film makers in the
film studio. Due to this reason it not only generate income for itself but also help in increasing
job and other opportunities for the betterment of economic condition of the place. Not only that
the film studio in this site also can contribute to increase the quality of movies.

Site data

For collecting data from the site, site visit was done and data were collected by noting down the
observations, photographs and by making figures. Details of collected data are as follows

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Accessibility and approach

Talking about the approach and accessibility to the site, site is accessible from one side
only i.e. from east side which is only road approach to the site and is of 15ft wide with
blacktop. Being surrounded by the agricultural land and brick factories tractors and other
heavy vehicles only go through this road

Site topography

Talking about the topography of the site, the site has got flat land throughout with no
terrain and slope.

Climate

To know about the climate climatic data should be collected for certain years and then
processed further for getting some conclusion. I have collected climatic data for my site
and analyzed through Mahoney table and some analysis has been done by me too.
Following are some of the data presented in general which occurred.
o o
Temperature 32 c maximum and 2 c minimum.
Relative humidity 96 maximum and 51 minimum
Rainfall 385mm maximum and 6mm minimum

Landuses and architecture

Talking about the land use and in and around the site, my site is surrounded by
agricultural land from all the side but at some distance we can see the residential area
and brick factories around the site.

In the society where I have chosen the site we can see vernacular architecture but as time is
passing those vernacular buildings are changing into modern RCC building slowly.

Utilities

Utility connections like sanitary and sewer connections, electric connection, water
supply connection etc are necessary for any project and should be easily available. All
the utilities necessary for the site can be brought in from the west side of the site where
we can see remarkable no of residential buildings and brick factories using all of the
utility supply necessary.

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TEMPERATURE

Fig 5-2: Temperature analysis

Chapter Five

Bye-laws

Ground coverage 40%


Floor area ration (FAR) 1.50
Set back

Analysis

For suitable design in the site, analysis of above collected data is necessary. For the analysis of
above collected data different methods are used like figures, comparisons, tables etc so that it
will help us in designing the suitable buildings in the site

Climatic analysis

Climatic analysis is one of the most important steps in the process of design as a
building is sure to be subjected to the weather or climate in that area. Climatic analysis
of that place helps us to design a building
that will sustain in that climate and provide a 35
30
comfortable condition inside the building for 25
the users. For this project following analysis 20 max
has been done as the climatic analysis. 15
10 min
Temperature 5
0
To maintain comfortable condition inside the jan mar may jul sep nov
building it is necessary to control temperature High
Low
inside the building we are trying to design.
For this here we are trying to analyze the
condition of temperature at the site. Here we
are trying to analyze the temperature
condition using figures along side.

The first picture shows variation in


temperature for twelve months and second
figure shows the amount of high and low
temperature at the site throughout the year.
First figure shows that most of the times in
o
the year temperature remains around 30 C
o
and lowest temperature also remains above 15 C and fells below it for few months of the

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year. This can be seen clearly from second picture, which shows the pie chart of the
temperatures of the site. From the figures we also can see that July, august and September
are the hottest months in the year as their higher and lower temperature dont have much
o
differences. Here we can see great variation in temperature, the highest is 32 C and
0
lowest is 2.5 C. We can say that most of the times site remains hot.

From above analysis we can get the following ideas about the building design:

As the variation of the temperature is high throughout the year, walls should be
such that they will be able to resist the outside temperature
The orientation of the building should be such that there would be minimum
effect of temperature in the building due to orientation.
Openings should be placed in the building in such a way that moving air helps
to cool the building as most of the times of the year temperature remains high

120
Humidity 100
80
To maintain the comfortable condition
60
inside the building it is necessary to analyze Maximum
40
the humidity of the site so that it could be Minimum
20
controlled inside the building.
0
jul
jan

sep
mar
may

nov
The figure alongside shows the variation in
humidity at its maximum and minimum.
Form the chart we can say that humidity Fig 5-3: Humidity analysis
remains between 60% to 85% for most of the
time in the year and fluctuate up and down for few months in the year. Analysis of
temperature and humidity indicates that the climate at the site remains hot humid for most
of the times in the year and humidity drops down for few months in the year

From above analysis we can get the following ideas about the building design:

Air movement in the building should be good.


Ventilation should be done well in the building
Placement of the window should be done so that the air movement inside the
building is maximum.
Other provisions should be done for dehumidification if necessary.

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Rain fall

Another factor to be considered to


maintain comfortable condition inside Rain fall
the house is rainfall. Protection should
be provided from rainfall so that rooms 400
and other spaces inside the building 300
will not be affected by rain water.
200
Rain fall
The picture alongside shows the 100
analysis of rainfall for t welve months. 0
From the figure we can say that rainfall Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov
increases rapid ly from the month of
May and continues to its Fig 5-4: Rainfall analysis
maximum amount up to the month of July. After the month of July the rainfall gradually
decreases. From this we can say that at least 5 months a year buildings and the space
inside the building shou ld be protected from the rainwater. If we take a look at the
rainfall data the maximu m rainfall is 385.84 mm and the least is 6.78 m m in the month
of July and December respectively.

From above analysis we can get the following ideas about the building d esign:

Shading devices for protection from rain is necessary


Adequate rainwater drainage facility should be provided in the bu ildings

Overlay technique

For the better and suitable design for my thesis topic Film Studio in the purposed
at Sanagaun, lalitpur, Nepal above data are collected and analysis are done. Besides
this overlay technique has be en used so that suitable design solution can be f ound.

For the analysis through overlay technique following drawings are prepared and overlaid
Zoning
Views from site
Utility supply
Sun and wind
Land use

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Zoning

For this I have visited the site and took notes


about the zones like quite zone, noisy zone,
semi-quite zone, semi-noisy zone. These data
are then converted into drawing from as
shown in the figure. Main purpose of
collecting data about zoning is to know where
can the buildings be placed suitably in the
Fig 5-5: Site zoning
site.

Views from the site

For this I have visited the site and took notes


about the views that can be seen from the site
i.e. good and bad views. Main purpose of
collecting data about the views from the site
is to places the spaces that need best views in
the project. These data are then converted into
drawing as shown in figure. From figure we
can see that good views can be seen from
three sides and bad views from two sides of
the site. Fig 5- 6: Views from site

Utility supply

For this site visit has been done and notes


has been taken about the probable places
that can supply utilities to our site like
electricity, sewage, water supply etc. the
site has two potential areas that can help us
with utility supply i.e. west and south side.
Since utility supply from the south side is
not so economic as it is bit far so the most
Fig 5-7: Utility supply

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suitable one is from the west. These data are then converted into drawings

Sun and wind direction

For this site visit has been done and notes


has been taken about the wind and sun
directions. This is most important of all
because it helps to create the comfortable
condition to work and stay inside the
building. From climatic analysis we have
come to conclusion that our site has hot
humid climate for most of the year so this
data will help us to reduce that condition.
Fig 5-8: Sun and wind direction
These data are then converted into
drawings as shown.

Land use

For this site visit has been done and notes


has been taken about the land use around
the site. Knowing about this will help us
to place our facilities in side film studio
according to land use around it. Talking
about the land use around the site, site is
surrounded by agricultural land from all
the sides but at west site we can see
Fig 5-9: Land use around site
residential area as well

Following are the blowup images of the drawings for overlay technique

B. Arch. Thesis 2010


Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 101
Film Studio Design

Chapter Five

Fig 5-10: Data Collected for Overlay Technique


B. Arch. Thesis 2010
Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 102
Film Studio Design

Chapter Five

Fig 5-11: Overlay Technique


B. Arch. Thesis 2010
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Film Studio Design

Chapter Five

Recommendations from Mahony table

List of recommended specification

Layout Orientation north and south (long axis east-west)


Spacing Open spacing for breeze penetration, but protection from hot and cold wind
Air movement Room single banked, permanent provision for air movement
Openings Very small openings, 10%-20%
Walls Heavy external and internal walls
Roofs Light, insulated roofs
Rain protection protection from heavy rains
List of detail recommendations

Size of opening Medium: 25%-40%

Position of openings In north and south walls at body height on windward side
Protection of openingsExclude direct sunlight
Walls and floors Heavy, over 8h time lag
Roofs Light, well insulated
External features Adequate rainwater drainage

B. Arch. Thesis 2010


Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 104
Film Studio Design

Chapter Six

Chapter -6

Design Concept

As we know most of the potential of movie making is concentrated in Kathmandu valley more
than other part of the Nepal. So the site is chosen near to the Kathmandu. There are many ways
from where the concept may evolve for example from form of some natural or artificial things
etc. But my concept has evolved step wise which goes through site analysis.

At first the literature and case study is done on the topic and separate analysis are prepared from
them. Then they are brought together in the table from for the analysis purpose as done in the
chapter four. From the analysis table a conclusions are drawn in two different topics .They are
conclusions regarding site planning and conclusions regarding internal planning of the buildings.

Conclusions regarding the site planning gave further picture about how and where the buildings
should be placed like where should be sound stage with respect to administration block and
where should be dining facilities with respect to other facilities etc. it also gave further vision
about the circulation pattern of people and vehicles.

Conclusion regarding internal planning gave knowledge and vision about how the internal spaces
should be placed with respect to each other like where the meeting room should be placed and
where the machine room should me placed with respect to other spaces etc.

On further analysis on these two it gave me the vision about which facilities should be grouped
together in the same building and which facilities can be placed in separate building.

After finalizing requirements it was realized that a huge amount of site is needed for the
fulfillment of the project. Along with this I also realized the necessity of proper planning system
so that the conclusion drawn for the thesis project can be successfully executed. For that a grid
iron pattern of planning was chosen in which streets cross each other perpendicularly and
different pockets were created .In one pocket film production facilities were placed in another
pocket, residential facilities for film makers and staffs were placed and in another pocket staff
quarter was placed.

B. Arch. Thesis 2010


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Film Studio Design

Chapter Six

For placing all of these buildings in the pockets mentioned above overlay technique of site
analysis was used as shown in above chapter.

B. Arch. Thesis 2010


Pokhara University, Nepal Engineering College 106
Bibliography
Books
1. Chiara, Joshep De. and Callender, John Hancock Tim e Saver Standards for
Building Types
2. Marshall Long Architectural acoustic
3. Bousmaha Baiche, Nicholas Walliman Neufert Archite cts Data

Websites
4. www.Wikipedia.org
5. www.3mills.com

Thesis Report
6. Film city Prashamsha Malla 2004
7. Nitesh Shrestha Audio Visual Studio Nepal - 2004
Table 1
Location
Longitude 8522
Latitude 2742
Altitude 1337
Air temperature: C

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec High AMT
Monthly mean max. 19.6 22.2 25.9 31.9 29.2 29.4 28.6 32.0 31.2 31.7 23.9 20.5 32.0 17.3
Monthly mean min. 2.5 5.1 8.6 15.8 16.1 19.3 20.3 20.1 18.8 13.4 8.4 4.1 2.5 29.5
Monthly mean range 17.1 17.1 17.3 16.1 13.1 10.1 8.3 11.9 12.4 18.3 15.5 16.4 Low AMR
Relative humidity: %

Monthly mean max. a.m. 96.4 93 81 71.5 74.8 80.8 86.2 83.7 87.4 89 92.6 95.9
Monthly mean min. p.m. 64.6 57.7 52.1 52 62.2 72.6 81.1 81.5 80 73.2 71.5 69.2
Average 80.5 75.3 66.6 61.7 68.5 76.7 83.6 82.6 83.7 81.1 82.1 82.6
Humidity group 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Humidity group: 1 If average RH: below 30 %


2 30 - 50 %
3 50 - 70 %
4 above 70 %
Rain and Wind

Rainfall, mm 15 22 34 61 127 258 386 356 206 40 9 7 1522 Total

Wind, prevailing
wind, secondary
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

AMT over 20 C AMT 15-20 C AMT below 15 C


Comfort limits Day Night Day Night Day Night
Humidity group: 1 26-34 17-25 23-32 14-23 21-30 12-21
2 25-31 17-24 22-30 14-22 20-27 12-20
3 23-29 17-23 21-28 14-21 19-26 12-19
4 22-27 17-21 20-25 14-20 18-24 12-18
AMT over 20 C AMT 15-20 C AMT below 15 C
Comfort limits Day Night Day Night Day Night
Humidity group: 1 26 34 17 25 23 32 14 23 21 30 12 21
2 25 31 17 24 22 30 14 22 20 27 12 20
3 23 29 17 23 21 28 14 21 19 26 12 19
4 22 27 17 21 20 25 14 20 18 24 12 18
Table 2

Diagnosis: C Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Monthly mean max. 19.6 22.2 25.9 31.9 29.2 29.4 28.6 32.0 31.2 31.7 23.9 20.5 17.3AMT
Day comfort: upper 25 25 28 28 28 25 25 25 25 25 25 25
lower 20 20 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Monthly mean min. 2.5 5.1 8.6 15.8 16.1 19.3 20.3 20.1 18.8 13.4 8.4 4.1

Night comfory: upper 20 20 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20


lower 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Thermal stress: day C O O H H H H H H H O O
night C C C O O O H H O C C C

Indicators
Humid: H1 A A A A A 5Totals
H2 A A A 3
H3 A A A A 4
Arid: A1 A A A 3
A2 0
A3 A 1

Applicable when:
Meaning: Indicator Thermal Stress Rainfall Humidity Group Monthly mean Range
Day Night
Air movement essential H1 H 4
H 2,3 Less than 10
Air movement desirable H2 O 4
Rain protection necessary H3 Over 200 mm
Thermal capacity necessary A1 1,2,3 More than 10
Out-door sleeping desirable A2 H 1,2
H O 1,2 More than 10
Protection from cold A3 C
Indicator totals from table 2 Table 3
H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A3 Recommended specifications
5 3 4 3 0 1

Layout-
0-10 1 Orientation north and south (long axis east-west)
11,12 5-12 A
0-4 2 Compact courtyard planning

Spacing-
11,12 3 Open spacing for breeze penetration
2-10 A 4 As 3, but protection from hot and cold wind
0,1 5 Compact lay-out of estates

Air movement-
3-12 6 Rooms single banked, permanent provision for air movement
1,2 0-5 A
6-12 7 Double banked rooms, temporary provision for air movement
0 2-12
0,1 8 No air movement requirement
Openings-

0,1 0 9 Large openings, 40-80 %


11,12 0,1 A 10 Very small openings, 10-20 %
Any other conditions 11 Medium openings, 20-40 %
Walls-

0-2 12 Light walls, short time-lag


3-12 A 13 Heavy external and internal walls
Roofs-

0-5 A 14 Light, insulated roofs


6-12 15 Heavy roofs, over 8 h time-lag
Out-door sleeping-

2-12 16 Space for out-door sleeping required


Rain protection-

3-12 A 17 Protection from heavy rain necessary


Indicators totals from table 2 Table 4
H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A3 Detail recommendations
5 3 4 3 0 1
Size of opening-

0,1 0 1Large: 40-80 %


1-12 A 2Medium: 25-40 %
2-5
6-10 3Small: 15-25 %
11,12 0-3 4Very Small: 10-20 %
4-12 5Medium: 25-40 %
Position of openings-

3-12 6 In north and south walls at body height on windward side


A
1-2 0-5
6-12 7As above, openings also in internal walls
0 2-12
Protection of openings-

0-2 A 8Exclude direct sunlight


2-12 9Provide protection from rain
Walls and floors-

0-2 10Light, low thermal capacity


3-12 A 11Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
Roofs-

10-12 0-2 12Light, reflective surface, cavity


3-12 13Light, well insulated
A
0-9 0-5
6-12 14Heavy, over 8 h time-lag
External features-

1-12 15Space for out-door sleeping


1-12 A 16Adequate rainwater drainage

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