00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

384 Ansichten54 SeitenDec 11, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

384 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

\From Relativistic Quantum Mechanics to QED"

Chapter 2

2.1 The quantum numbers of the `anything' must be B = 1 Q = 0 in both

cases, together with S = ;1 in the rst case and S = +1 in the second

consider what are the lightest single-particle or two-particle states with

these quantum numbers.

2.2 (i) 4-momentum conservation gives p + k = p + k which may be written

0 0

0 0 0 0

and the result follows by evaluating the dot product in the frame such

that p = (Mc 0). For highly relativistic electrons E cjkj E 0

0 0 0 0 0

;4EE sin2 =2. For elastic scattering p 2 = M 2c2, and hence from the

0 0

0

0

0

using the rst displayed equation and the (approximate) expression for

q2 in terms of gives 1238 MeV=c2 (approximately equal to the mass

of the I = 3=2 resonance).

(iv) The term `quasi-elastic peak' in this context means the value of E 0

nucleon in the He nucleus, ignoring the binding energy of the struck

nucleon (i.e. it is treated like elastic scattering). Since the binding

energy is of order 10 MeV, very much less than the electron energy,

this is expected to be a good rst approximation to the kinematics. It

gives E = 355:6 MeV.

0

The struck nucleon is, however, moving by virtue of being bound inside

the He nucleus (it has a bound state wavefunction and an associated

momentum distribution). Rather than attempting a more realistic cor-

rection based on the nucleon wavefunction, we can get a fair idea of

a typical nucleon momentum by using the `uncertainty relation' esti-

mate p h =R where R is the nuclear radius. Here R 1:5fm, and

p 130MeV=c, which gives a struck nucleon speed of order v=c 0:14.

(Note that He is a tightly bound nucleus, and the formula for the nu-

clear radius R = 1:1 (A)1=3 is not really applicable - of course, we

are making rough estimates anyway.) Considering con gurations with

the outgoing electron moving parallel/antiparallel to the struck nucleon

gives a typical shift in E of order 50 MeV. Note that this is quite a

0

bit bigger than the nucleon's binding energy - the relativistic transfor-

mation has ampli ed the eect.

2.3 (i) 5.1 eV.

(ii) (a) 1.29 (b) 0.75

(iii) h1 2i = +1 for S = 1 ;3 for S = 0. Hyper ne splitting =

8.45 10 4 eV.

;

(iv) 0.57.

2.4 One-gluon exchange con nement.

Ground state expected to be at the minimum of E (r) as a function of

r, i.e. at r0 such that dE (r)=drj(r=r0) = 0.

Egr(cc) 3:23GeV.

Threshold for production of `open charm' (DD states) opens at about

3.73 GeV.

2.5 E = 2a cos 2 a j+i = cos j1i + sin j2i j;i = ; sin j1i + cos j2i.

System is in state cos j+i ; sin j;i at time t = 0 evolves to

cos expi(2a cos 2 + a)t=h ]j+i ; sin expi(2a cos 2 ; a)t=h ]j;i

at time t amplitude of j2i in this state is

cos sin fexpi(2a cos 2 + a)t=h ] ; expi(2a cos 2 ; a)t=h ]g

modulus squared of this gives result.

2.6 (iv) d = 2 R = 1mm: MP3+d 1:54 TeV.

Chapter 3

3.1 From the inverse transformation and the chain rule

@ = @t @ + @x1 @

@t @t @t @t @x1

0 0 0

we nd " !#

@ = @ ;v ; @

@t 0

@t @x1

and similarly for ; @x@1 .

0

3.2 Six. F 21 = B 3 F 32 = B 1 F 13 = B 2 F 10 = E 1 F 20 = E 2 F 30 = E 3.

Consider = 1 component of (3.17) LHS is

@F 1 = @2F 21 + @3F 31 + @0F 01

!1

= @B 3 @B 2 @E 1

; ; = ( r B ) 1 ; @E

@x @x

2 3 @t @t

which veri es the rst component of (3.8).

3.3 It is advisable in such manipulations to let the whole expression act

on an arbitrary function F (x) say, which can be removed at the end.

Thus

;

@ fe iqf (x)F (x)g

p^e iqf (x)F (x) = ;i @x ;

= ;i(;iq) @f

@x e iqf (x)F + e iqf (x) ; i @F (x)

; ;

@x

@f

= (;q) @x e i qf (x )

;

F +e i qf

; (x ) p^F (x)

multiplying this from the left by eiqf (x) gives the result after F is re-

moved.

Chapter 4

4.1(b) = i(

_ ;

_

) j = i 1(

r

; (r

)

).

;

For

= N e ip x = 2jN j2E j = 2jN j2p j = 2jN j2p .

;

4.2(ii) Consider for example i = ;i . Multiply from the left by to ob-

tain i = ;i . Now take the Trace and use Tr(i ) = Tr(i 2) =

Tr(i).

4.4(b) ( a)( b) =
iai
j bj (sum on i and j ) =
i
j aibj

= (ij 1 + iijk
k )aibj = a b1 + i (a b):

4.6(i) ( u^ )2 = 1. Hence u^ 12 (1 + u^ )

= 21 ( u^ + 1)

. Projection

operator for u^ = ;1 is 12 (1 ; u^ ):

(ii) Take

! i ! 1 ! !

N 1 N 1 +

+ = 2 (1+u^ ) 0 = 2 sin ei 1 ; cos cos sin e cos 2 =2

0 = N sin =2 cos =2ei

;

i !

and choose N = 1=(cos =2) for normalization. Possible

is ; sin =

;

2e :

;

cos =2

4.8 Consider jy for example. We have

0

jy = ! y ! = ! e i

x =2y ei

x=2!:

0 0y 0 y ;

Now

ei

x=2 = 1 + ix=2 + 12 (ix=2)2 + 3!1 (ix=2)3 + : : :

= 1 + ix=2 ; 21 (=2)2 ; 3!1 ix(=2)3 + : : :

= cos =2 + ix sin =2

as in (4.80). Hence

jy = ! (cos =2 ; ix sin =2)y (cos =2 + ix sin =2)]!:

0 y

But

! ! ! !

xy = 0
x 0 0
y 0
x
y 0 i
z

x
y 0 =
x
y 0 = i
z 0 = iz

similarly y x = ;iz and xy x = ;y 2x = ;y : Hence

jy = ! cos2 =2 y + 2 sin =2 cos =2 z ; sin2 =2 y ]!

0 y

= ! cos y + sin z ]!

y

= cos jy + sin jz :

4.10 Under (4.83):

= = e i n^ =2 ei n^ =2:

0 0 0y 0 y ;

! !

0 1 0

Now = 0 = 0 ;1 , and = , so that

e i n^ =2 = ei n^ =2

;

Under (4.90): use x = ;x.

4.11 (a) + = 2g .

(b) Taking the dagger of (i @ ;m) = 0 gives ;i(@ ) ;m = 0,

or (i @; + m) = 0 where the notation @; means that the derivative

y y y

y y

acts on what is to the left of it, i.e. on . Multiply this equation from

y

for the space components) this gives (i ;@ + m) = 0:

y

6

(c) @( ) = ( 6 ;@ ) + (6 @ ) = ;m

+ m = 0.

4.13 V^KG = iq(@A + A@) ; q2AA.

4.14 (ii) ( r)( A) =
i@i
j Aj =
i
j @i(Aj )

= (ij 1 + iijk
k )@i(Aj ) = @i(Ai) + iijk
k @i(Aj )

= r (A) + i fr (A)g:

4.15 (i) For a massive particle the direction of its momentum reverses on

transforming to a frame moving parallel to, and faster than, it this is

not possible for a massless particle which moves at the speed of light.

(ii) We give the solution in a form which adapts to the general case.

We have (E ;
xpx )uR = 0. Mulitiplying from the left by (1 ; 12
xx)

and inserting a unit operator (to rst order in x) it follows that

(1 ; 12
xx)(E ;
xpx)(1 ; 21
xx)(1 + 12
xx)uR = 0:

But (1 + 12
xx)uR = uR, and

0

(to rst order in x), which is just E ; xpx , whence (E ; xpx)uR = 0

0 0 0 0 0

as required.

(iv) See part (i). Since, for m 6= 0, we can reverse the helicity by a

Lorentz transformation, we expect that in a Lorentz-invariant theory

mass terms will mix states of opposite helicity.

(v) let BR = (1 + 12
xx) BL = (1 ; 21
xx), so that uR = BRuR uL =

0 0

= m. So we have

BL(E ; xpx)BLBL 1

= mBL. But BL 1 = BR, and part (ii) showed

; ;

=

0 0 0 0 0

m if

= BR

and = BL. Similarly for (4.99).

0 0 0

Chapter 5

5.1 Consider the term

R L @ 2 dx. We have

0 @x

@

= X A (t) r sin rx :

1

@x r=1 r L L

2

The quantity ` @ @x ' is the square of this entire series - i.e. it involves

not only terms of the form

x

2 2 2x

2

A1(t) L sin L A2(t) L sin L

etc., but also all the `cross' terms such as

2 2x

A1(t) L sin x L A 2 (t ) L sin L :

To make sure we are including all these cross terms, we use a dierent

summation index for the two independent summations when writing

the product:

Z L @

!2 Z L "X r rx #

1

dx = Ar(t) L sin L

0 @x 0 r=1

"X s sx #

1

As(t) L sin L dx

s=1

X r s Z L rx sx

sin L sin L dx: ( )

1

= Ar(t)As(t) L L

rs=1 0

We need to evaluate the integral:

R L sin r x sin s x dx

0 L

R n h i Lh io

= 0 2 cos (r ; s) L ; cos (r + s) xL dx

L 1 x

n h i h ioL

= 21 (rL s) sin (r ; s) xL ; (rL+s) sin (r + s) xL 0 :

;

Here both r and s are positive integers, so the second term vanishes.

The rst does also, except when r = s, in which case it has the value

L=2 as can be seen by evaluating the integral directly for r = s. So we

have

Z L rx sx

sin L sin L = L=2 for r = s

0

= 0 for r 6= s:

This means that in the sums over r and s in ( ), only the term in which

r = s survives, after the integral over x has been done. So ( ) becomes

X1 r 2

2

(Ar(t)) L L

r=1

and Z L 1 @

!2 L X 1

1

2

c @x dx = 2 !r2A2r :

0 2 r=1 2

Similarly for the

_ 2 term.

5.2 S = R0t0 12 mx_ 2 + mgx]dt.

Z t0 1

(a) x = at : S(a) = ( 2 ma2 + mgat)dt = 12 ma2t0 + 21 mgat20:

0

Choose `a' so that end point of this trajectory coincides with end point

of the Newtonian trajectory in (b), which is at x = 12 gt20. So we set

at0 = 12 gt20 i.e. a = 12 gt0. Then S(a) = 83 mg2t30 = 0:375(mg2 t30). (b):

S(b) = 13 mg2t30 = 0:3333(mg2 t30). (c): b = 12 gt0 1 S(c) = 207 mg2t30 =

;

5.3 (a) We want to verify that q^_ = ;i^q H^ ] is consistent with q^_ = p^=m.

We have

^q H^ ] = ^q 21m p^2 + 21 m!2q^2] = 21m ^q p^2]

= 21m fp^ ^q p^] + ^q p^] p^g using A

^ B^ C^ ] = B^ A

^ C^ ] + A

^ B^ ] C^

= 21m f2i^pg = mi p^

whence ;i^q H^ ] = p^=m.

5.4 (a) From (5.61) and (5.62), q^ = (^a +^a )=(2m!) 12 . So 21 m!2q^2 = 14 !(^a +

y

y

(b) ^a ^a ] = 1: (^a a^ + 12 )! a^] = ! ^a ^a a^] = ! fa^ ^a ^a] + ^a a^] a^g =

y y y y y

;!^a.

(c) We rst prove that a^(^a )n ; (^a )na^ = n (^a )n 1, by induction: (i) it

y y y ;

a^^a ; 1 in the rst term proves the result for n + 1 assuming it's true

y

for n. Letting this result act on j0i we deduce a^(^a )n j0i = n(^a )n 1 j0i. y y ;

Hence h0j(^a)n (^a )nj0i = h0j(^a)n 1 ^a(^a )nj0i = nh0j(^a)n 1 (^a )n 1 j0i, and

y ; y ; y ;

follows that h0j(^a)n(^a )nj0i = n!, provided j0i is normalized.

y

y y y y ; y

n! n!

= n p1 (^a )n j0i = njni: y

n!

5.6 (a) From (5.116),

Z dpk ^a(k)eikx i!t + a^ (k)e ikx+i!t]

^(x t) =

1

; y ;

2 2!

;1

Z dpk (;i! )^a(k )eik y i! t + (i! )^a (k )e ik y+i! t]:

0

^ (y t) =

1

0 0 0 0

0 0 ; 0 y 0 ;

;1 2 2! 0

Note the use of a dierent integration variable in ^ (x t), to ensure that

the operators inside the integral for

^ are treated independently of those

inside the integral for ^ . In the commutator

^(x t) ^ (y t)] there are

therefore four types of term: ^a(k) ^a(k )] ^a (k) a^ (k )], which vanish

0 y y 0

by the second line of (5.117), and ^a(k) a^ (k )] ^a (k) ^a(k )]: The rst

y 0 y 0

Z Z

dk dk (21 )2 p 1 eikx i!t e ik y+i! t(i! )2(k ; k )

1 1

0 0

0 ; ; 0 0

;1 ;1 4!! 0

Z

= dk 21 i! 21! eik(x y) = 2i (x ; y)

1

;

;1

using (E.25). The ^a (k) a^(k )] term gives the same.

y 0

(b) Z

^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2)] = d3p k Z 1

d3pk 1 0

(2) 2E

3 ;1 (2) 2E

3 ;1

0

; y 0 ;

0

y 0

0

The surviving terms are the `^a ^a ]' and `^a a^]' ones which give

y y

Z 1

dkp Z 1

dkp e ik x1 eik x2 (2)33(k ; k )

0

0

; 0

;1 (2)3 2E (2)3 2E

;1

0

;eik x1 e ik x2 (2)33(k ; k )]

;

0

0

=

1

; ; ;

(2)32E

;1

with k (x1 ; x2) = E (t1 ; t2) ; k (x1 ; x2). For t1 = t2 the integral is

Z d3k

ik (x1 x2 ) ; e ik (x1 x2 )]

(2)32E e

; ; ;

Lorentz invariant (see Appendix E) and vanishes when t1 = t2. It

therefore also vanishes at all points which can be connected to `t1 = t2'

by a Lorentz transformation. Noting that for t1 = t2 the invariant

interval (x1 ; x2)2 is spacelike (i.e. is less than zero), we deduce that

D vanishes for all x1 x2 such that (x1 ; x2)2 < 0.

5.7 We have

Z dpk ^a(k)eikx i!t + a^ (k)e ikx+i!t]

^(x t) =

1

; y ;

2 2!

Z

;1

^

@

= 1

dpk ^a(k)(ik)eikx i!t + a^ (k)(;ik)e ikx+i!t]

; y ;

@x ;1 2 2!

and so

!

1 Z dx @

2 = 1 Z

1 1

k ^a(k)(ik)eikx i!t + ^a (k)(;ik)e ikx+i!t]:

dp ; y ;

2 @x 2 (2) 2!

Z

;1 ;1

1

k ^a(k )(ik )eik x i! t + a^ (k )(;ik )e ik x+i! t]:

dp 0

0 0

0

;

0

y 0 0 ;

0 0

;1 (2) 2! 0

There are four terms when the brackets are multiplied out. For exam-

ple, the rst is

1 Z dx Z dpk Z dpk (ik)(ik )^a(k)^a(k )ei(k+k )x i(!+! )t:

0

0 0

0

;

0

2 2 2! 2 2! 0

0 0

done leading to

1 Z dp k 1 p1 (ik)(;ik)^a(k)^a(;k)e 2i!t ( ) ;

2 (2) 2! 2 2!

using ! = jk j = k = !. The three other terms can be reduced

0 0

similarly. Meanwhile,

Z dx

^ (x t) =

^_ (x t) = p ^a(k)(;i!)eikx i!t + a^ (k)(i!)e ikx+i!t]

; y ;

2 2!

and so

1 Z ^ 2dx = 1 Z dx Z dpk ^a(k)(;i!)eikx i!t + a^ (k)(i!)e ikx+i!t]: ; y ;

2 2

Z dk 2 2!

p ^a(k )(;i! )eik x i! t + ^a (k )(i! )e ik x+i! t]:

0

0 0 0 0

0 0 ; y 0 0 ;

2 2!0

1Z dpk (;i!)2^a(k)^a(;k)e 2i!t ;

2 (2) 2!]2

which cancels against ( ). Similarly, the `^a ^a ' terms cancel, and the

y y

y y

^_ (x t) = ;i

^(x t) H^ ]

Z ^ !2

= ;i

(x t) 2 f^ (y t) + @@y

gdy]:

^ 1 2

^ commutes with (@

^=@y)2, and the non-vanishing term on the RHS is

1 Z

^

;i 2

(x t) ^ 2(y t)dy]

; i Z

= 2 f^(y t)

^(x t) ^ (y t)] +

^(x t) ^(y t)]^(y t)gdy

; i Z

= 2 f^(y t)i(x ; y) + i(x ; y)^(y t)gdy = ^ (x t)

as required.

Chapter 6

6.1 The RHS is

1 Z dt Z t1 dt f^(t )f^(t ) + Z dt f^(t )f^(t ) : (A)

1 1

1 2 1 2 2 2 1

2 ;1 ;1 t1

The second term is

1 Z dt Z dt f^(t )f^(t ):

1 1

1 2 2 1

2 ;1 t1

With the usual convention for double integrals, in this expression the

integral over t2 is understood to be performed rst, holding t1 xed,

and then t1 is integrated over. We proceed by changing the order of

integration in this double integral. In order not to make a mistake, it

is a good idea to draw a diagram of the t1 (horizontal) - t2 (vertical)

plane, with the region of integration shaded over: it is the whole of the

region lying above the line t1 = t2. When we write the integral in the

other order (i.e. doing rst the t1 integral and then the t2 one) we must

be careful to arrange the limits so that the required region is covered.

The result is

1 Z dt Z t2 dt f^(t )f^(t ):

1

2 1 2 1

2 ;1 ;1

We now rename t1 as t2, and t2 as t1, showing that this term is in fact

equal to the rst in (A).

6.2 In the rest frame of C,

q q

mC = EA + EB = m2A + p2 + m2B + p2:

q

Taking the term m2A + p2 to the LHS, squaring, cancelling the p2,

and squaring again we arrive at

(m2A + m2C ; m2B)2 = 4m2C(m2A + p2):

This gives jpj as required.

6.3 (iii)

@ (t ; t )

^(x t )

^(x t ) + (t ; t )

^(x t )

^(x t )]

@t1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1

= (t1 ; t2)

^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2) + (t1 ; t2)( @t@

^(x1 t1))

^(x2 t2)

1

;(t2 ; t1)

^(x2 t2)

^(x1 t1) + (t2 ; t1)

^(x2 t2)( @t@

^(x1 t1))

1

The functions pick out only the point t1 = t2 in the terms multiplying

them, and at this (equal-time) point the

^ elds commute according

to (5.105), leading to the result ((

^_ (x1 t1) is short for @

^(x1 t1)=@t1).

(iv) Dierentiating the result of (iii) with respect to t1 we get

@ 2 fT (

^(x t )

^(x t )g = (t ; t )^(x t )

^(x t ) + (t ; t )

!^(x t )

^(x t )

1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2

@t21

;(t2 ; t1)

^(x2 t2)^(x1 t1) + (t2 ; t1)

^(x2 t2)

!^(x1 t1):

Again the functions force t1 to equal t2 in the terms multiplying them,

which become

^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2)] (t1 ; t2) = ;i(x1 ; x2)(t1 ; t2)

using (5.104) and (E.32). The remaining two terms are just T f

!^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2)g.

Since the operator ;@ 2=@x21 + m2 doesn't involve t1, it `passes through'

the -functions in the T -product, acting just on

^(x1 t1):

( 2 ! )

@ 2 @

(; @x2 +m )T f

^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2)g = T (; @x2 + m )

^(x1 t1))

^(x2 t2) :

2 2

1 1

Hence 2 !

@ ; @ 2 + m2 T f

^(x t )

^(x t )g

1 1 2 2

@t21 @x21

( 2 ! )

@ @ 2

= ;i(x1 ; x2)(t1 ; t2) + T ( @t2 ; @x2 + m2)

^(x1 t1)

^(x2 t2) :

1 1

The equation of motion for the free KG eld

^ implies that the second

term vanishes.

6.4

Z d3k

0 ^

h0ja^A (pA )

A(x1)j0i = h0ja^A (pA ) (2)3p2E ^aA(k)e ik x1 +^aA(k)eik x1 ]j0i

0 ; y

k

q 2 2

with Ek = mA + k . The ^aA(k) term gives zero on j0i. To evaluate

the `^aA^aA' term, we use (6.46):

y

0 y 0 y 0

leading to

Z

h0ja^A (pA )

A(x1)j0i = h0j (2)d3pk2E eik x1 (2)33(pA ; k)j0i

3

^

0 0

k

= q 1 eipA x1 0

2EA

0

0 0

6.5

h0jT f

^C(x1)

^C(x2)gj0i = h0j((t1 ; t2)

^C(x1)

^C(x2) + (t2 ; t1)

^C (x2)

^C(x1)j0i

Z d3 k

= h0j (t1 ; t2) (2)3p2! ^aC(k)e ik x1 + a^C(k)eik x1 ]

; y

k

Z )

(2)d3pk2! ^aC(k )e ik x2 + ^aC(k )eik x2 ]j0i + similar term multiplying (t2 ; t1)

3

0

0 0

0 ; y 0

k 0

q q

where k0 = !k = m2C + k2 and k0 = !k = m2C + k 2: The conditions

0 0 0

y 0

Z Z

h0j(t1 ; t2) (2)d3pk2! (2)d3pk2! a^C (k)^aC(k )e ik x1 eik x2 j0i:

3 3 0

0

y 0 ;

k k 0

Using

a^C(k)^aC(k ) = (2)33(k ; k ) + a^C(k )^aC(k)

y 0 0 y 0

this becomes

Z Z

(t1 ; t2) (2)d3pk2! (2)d3pk2! (2)33(k ; k )e ik x1 eik x2

3 3 0

0

0 ;

k k 0

Z d3 k

= (2)32! (t1 ; t2)e i!k (t1 t2)+ik (x1 x2): ; ; ;

k

Similarly for the (t2 ; t1) term.

6.6 We write (6.91) as

ZZ

(;ig)2 d4x1d4x2ei(pA 0

; pB ) x1 ei(pB pA ) x2

0

;

f (x1 ; x2)

where f (x1 ; x2) is given by the RHS of (6.98). Introducing x =

x1 ; x2 X = (x1 + x2)=2, the integral becomes

ZZ

d4xd4X ei(pA pB) (X +x=2) ei(pB pA ) (X x=2) f (x)

0

;

0

; ;

since the Jacobian for the change of variables is unity (for instance,

dt1dt2 ! d(t1 ; t2)d(t1 + t2)=2, etc.) The only place X appears is in the

exponent, allowing the X -integral to be done using the 4-dimensional

version of (E.26) we then get

Z

(2) (pA ; pB + pB ; pA ) d4x ei(pA pB) (pB pA)] x=2 f (x):

4 4 0 0

0

; ;

0

;

The 4-momentum -function ensures that in the exponent pA ; pB is 0

0

(;ig)2 we obtain

Z

(;ig)2(2)44(pA + pB ; pA ; pB ) d4x eiq x f (x)

0 0

which is (6.99). Substituting now the RHS of (6.98) for f (x) and per-

forming the x-integration gives a factor (2)24(q ; k), and nally per-

forming the k-integration gives (6.100).

6.7 The analogue of (6.91) for this contraction is

ZZ

(;ig) 2 d4x1d4x2 ei(pA+pB ) x1 e i(pA+pB) x2 h0jT (

^C(x1)

^C(x2))j0i:

0 0

;

Z

(;ig)2(2)44(pA + pB ; pA ; pB) d4x ei(pA+pB ) x f (x):

0 0

Inserting (6.98) for f (x) and performing the x and then the k integrals

leads to the same expression as (6.100) but with q replaced by pA + pB

- that is, (6.101).

6.8 In the CM frame,

q q

pA = ( mA + k k) pB = ( m2A + k 2 k )

2 2 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

( m2A + p2 p) and

q

(pA pB )2 ; m2Am2B = (mB m2A + p2)2 ; m2Am2B

= m2Bp2:

Hence (pA pB )2 ; m2Am2B]1=2 = mBjpj. But in this frame mB = EB,

and jpj = EA jvj.

Chapter 7

7.2 (a) The calculation is similar to that in problem 5.7.

Z Z (Z

N^0 _ y _

= i (

^ ;

^

^ ) d x = i d x

y 3 3 k (^a (k)eik x + ^b(k)e ik x)

d3 p y ;

(2) 2!

3

Z d3k

p (;i! ^a(k )e ik x + i! ^b (k )eik x)

0

0 0

0 0 ; 0 y 0

(2)3 2! 0

Z d3k Z d3k )

; (2)3p2! (^a(k)e + b (k)e ) (2)3p2! (i! ^a (k )eik x ; i! ^b(k )e

^

0

i k x

; i k

y x 0 y 0

0

0 0 ik x )

;

0

:

0

After multiplying out the brackets, the terms a^ ^b and a^^b cancel using y y

y y 0 0 y

Z Z d3k Z d3k

dx p p ! a^ (k)^a(k )ei(! ! )t i(k k ) x:

0

3 0 y 0 ;

0

; ;

0

(2) 2! (2) 2!

3 3 0

0

Z d3k 1

(2)3 2 a^ (k)^a(k):

y

The term a^^a gives the same when normally ordered (throwing away a

y

Z d3k Z d3 k

p ik x1 +^b (k )eik x2 ) p (^a (k )eik x2 +^b(k )e

0

a

(^ ( k )e ; y y 0 0 ; ik x2 )]:

(2)3 2! (2)3 2! 0

The non-vanishing terms involve ^a(k) a^ (k )] and ^b (k) ^b(k )]. The y 0 y 0

Z d3k Z d3k

p p e ik x1 eik x2 (2)33(k ; k )

0

0

; 0

(2)3 2! (2)3 2! 0

Z 3

= (2d)k32! e ; ik (x1 x2 )

;

Z

; (2d)k32! eik (x1 x2):

3

;

x1 ; x2 into ;(x1 ; x2) by a continuous Lorentz transformation, and

so the second term cancels the rst for (x1 ; x2)2 < 0.

Similar manipulations show that the two terms in the commutator can

be re-written as follows. The rst is

Z d3k

ik (x1 x2 ) = h0j

^(x )

^ (x )j0i

(2)32! e 1 2

; ; y

stroyed at x1. The second is

Z d3 k

; (2)32! eik (x1 x2) = ;h0j

^ (x2)

^(x1)j0i

; y

struction at x2. Compare the comments following (7.32). Thus for

the commutator to vanish in the spacelike region, the contributions of

these two processes must cancel, and this requires the components of

`k' to be the same in each case - that is, the masses of the particle and

antiparticle must be identical.

7.5 The LHS of the anticommutator (7.44) is

8Z

< k X (^cs(k)u(k s)e i!t+ik x + d^ (k)v(k s)ei!t ik x)

d3p

: (2)3 2! s=12

; y ;

s

Z 9

d3 k X =

ik y + d^ (k )v (k s )e i! t+ik y ) :

p

0

(^cs (k )u (k s )ei! t

0 0

0 0

y y y

s

0 0 0 ; 0 0 0 ;

(2)3 2! 0 0

s =12

0

0

From (7.41) the only non-vanishing terms involve fc^s (k) ^cs (k )g and y 0

0

y 0

0

Z d3k Z d3k X X

p p

0

0

0

y 0 y

0 0 ; ; ; 0

0

Z 3

= (2d)3k2! u(k s)u (k s)eik (x y ) +

X Xy

v(k s)v(k s)e ik (x y)]: (C )

; y ; ;

s=12 s=12

We need to evaluate Ps u(k s)u (k s) and Ps v(k s)v (k s). Prob-

y y

lem 7.8 below deals with similar expressions and gives some hints. First,

note that `uu ' is a matrix (u u is single number), and uu is its ( )

y y y

using (4.105):

s !

u(k s)u (k s) = (! + m) k

s

y

s

s !+km

y y

0 !+ms s s

s k

1

= (! + m) @ k s s k s !s+m k A :

y y

!+m

!+m

!+m

y y

We now use Ps

s

s = 1 (see problem 7.8) to obtain

y

0 !+km 1

X 1

u(k s)u (k s) = (! + m) @ k k2 A :

y

s !+m

(!+m)2

Since k2 = !2 ; m2 this becomes

!

!+m k (u)

k !;m

which is in fact the matrix m + k + ! using (4.31). For the `P vv ' y

P uu ' term.variable k to ;k so as to have

the

P v(k s)v (k s) we use (4.114) with p replaced by ;that

same exponent as the ` This means y

in evaluating

s

y

k (and E by !),

which gives !

! ; m ; k : (v)

; k ! ; m

The sum of (u) and (v) is just 2! times the unit 4 4 matrix, whose

( ) element is . Inserting this into (C ) gives (7.44).

7.6

Z Z

x (2d)3pk 2! X^cs(k)u (k s)eik x + d^s (k)v (k s)e ik x]

3

N^ = d3 y y y ;

s

Z d3 k X

p ^cs (k )u (k s )e ik x + d^s (k )v (k s )eik x]:

0

0 y 0

0 y 0 0 ; 0 y 0 0

(2)3 2!

0 0

s

0

0

Consider the term `^csc^s '. The integral over x gives (2)33(k ; k ) and

y 0

0

Z d3 k X

(2)32! ss c^s(k)^cs (k)u (k s)u(k s):

y y

0

Taking

1

2 to be orthogonal (as is conventional), problem 4.12 im-

plies that u (k s)u(k s ) = 2!ss , so that this term is

y 0

0

Z d3 k X

(2)3 s c^s (k)^cs(k):

y

The `d^s d^s ' term is handled similarly, using v (k s)v(k s ) = 2!ss .

y y 0

0

Now consider the `^csd^s ' term: the integral over x yields (2)33(k +

0

y y

0

0 y 0

veri ed from (4.105) and (4.114) that this vanishes similarly for the

`d^sc^s ' term.

0

Z Z

H^ D = d3xf^_^ ; L^D g = d3x^ (;i r + m)^ y

Z Z d3 k X

= dx 3 p c^ (k)u (k s)eik x + d^s (k)v (k s)e ik x] y y y ;

(2)3 2! s s

Z 3k X

(;i r + m) (2d)3p c^s (k )u(k s )e ik x + d^s (k )v(k s )eik x]:

0

0 y 0

0 0 0 ; 0 0 0

2! s

0 0

0

0

(;i r + m)u(k s )e ik x = ( k + m)u(k s )e ik x

0 0 ;

0

0 0 0 ;

0

= ! u(k s )e ik x: 0 0 0 ;

0

In the `^csc^s ' term, the x-integral can be done, and then the k -integral,

y

0

0

leading to

Z d3k X

(2)32! ss c^s(k)^cs (k)u (k s)u(k s )!:

y y 0

0

Use of u (k s)u(k s ) = 2!ss then gives the rst term in (7.50). For

y 0

0

y

0

0 0

0

0 0 0

0

= ;! v(k s )eik x: 0 0 0

0

Performing the x-integral and then the k -integral leads to the second 0

term of (7.50). The `^csd^s ' and `d^sc^s ' terms vanish as in the calculation

y y

of N^ .

7.8 The solution to problem 7.5 showed that

X

u(k s)u (k s) = (m + k + !): y

s

Hence

X

u(k s)u(k s) = ( 2m + k + !) = (m ; k + !)

s

= (6 k + m):

7.9

h0jT (^(x1)^(x2))j0i =

Z

k X c^s(k)u(k s)e ik x1 + d^ (k)v(k s)eik x1 ]

d3p

h0j(t1 ; t2) s

; y

(2)3 2! s

Z d3k X

p c^s (k)u (k s )eik x2 + d^s (k )v (k s )e ik x2 ]j0i

0

y 0 0

0

0 0 0 ;

0

(2) 2! s

3 0 0

0

0

Z

k c^ (k)u (k s)eik x2 + d^s (k)v (k s)e ik x2 ]

X

;h0j(t2 ; t1) (2d)3p

3

y ;

2! s s

Z d3k X

(2)3p2! c^s (k)u(k s )e ik x1 + d^s (k )v(k s )eik x1 ]j0i

0

0 y 0

0 0 ; 0 0 0

0 0

s

0

0

where in the exponents k0 = (k2 + m2)1=2 !, and k0 = (k 2 + 0 0

m2)1=2 ! . In the (t1 ; t2) part, the terms in d^s and d^s vanish,

0 y

using d^j0i = 0 = h0jd^ from (7.36) and in the (t2 ; t1) part, the

0

terms in c^s and c^s vanish similarly. In the (t1 ; t2) part we then use

y

0

y 0 0

0 0

Z 3

(t1 ; t2) (2d)k32! u(k s)u (k s)e ik (x1 x2 ) =

X ; ;

Z s d3 k

(t1 ; t2) (2)32! (6 k + m) e ik (x1 x2 ):

; ;

Z d3k X

;(t2 ; t1) (2)32! v(k s)v (k s)e ik (x2 x1 ) =

; ;

Z s d3k

;(t2 ; t1) (2)32! (6 k ; m) e ik (x2 x1):

; ;

So altogether we get

Z d3k (t ; t )(6 k + m) e i!(t1 t2 )+ik (x1 x2)

h0jT (^(x1)^(x2))j0i = (2)32! 1 2

; ; ;

; ; ;

Z d4 k

e ik (x1 x2 ) i(6 k + m) : (T )

k 2 ; m2 + i

; ;

(2)4

Consider the integral over k0 in (T ). There are poles at k0 = (k2 + m2 ; i)1=2

which is in the lower half k0-plane, and which tends to the real value

! as ! 0 and at k0 = ;(k2 + m2 ; i)1=2 which is in the upper

half k0-plane, and tends to ;! as ! 0. On the other hand, the

k0-dependence of the exponential is

e ik0(t1 t2 ):

; ;

half k0-plane for t1 ; t2 < 0, picking up the contribution from the pole

at k0 = ;! and in the lower half k0-plane for t1 ; t2 > 0, picking up

the contribution of the pole at k0 = !. This gives

Z d3k ;2i

(t1 ; t2) (2)4 2! i(! ; k + m) e i!(t1 t2 )+ik (x1 x2)

; ; ;

Z d3k 2i

+(t2 ; t1) i( ;! ; k + m) i!(t t )+ik (x1 x2 ):

e 1 2

(2) ;2!

; ;

Z d3 k

(t1 ; t2) (2)32! (! ; k + m)e i!(t1

; ; k x x2 )

t2 )+i ( 1

;

Z d3k

;(t2 ; t1) (2)32! (! ; k ; m)e i!(t2; ; k x x1 )

t1 )+i ( 2

;

as required.

7.10 The Euler-Lagrange equations for A are (compare (5.134))

!

@ L

@ @ (@ A ) = @A @L

L = ; 12 F @ A ; jem A

with F = @A ; @ A. We use a `brute force' approach. Consider

the E-L equations written out in full for one component of A , say A1:

! ! ! !

0 @ L 1 @ L 2 @ L 3

@ @ (@ 0A1) +@ @ (@ 1A1) +@ @ (@ 2A1) +@ @ (@ 3A1) = @A @ L @L :

1

We need to identify the terms in L which involve @ 0A1 @ 1A1 @ 2A1 @ 3A1.

First, note that @ 1A1 does not appear since F = 0 when = . The

relevant terms are contained in

; 12 (F01@ 0A1 + F10@ 1A0 + F12@ 1A2 + F21@ 2A1 + F13@ 1A3 + F31@ 3A1)

= ; 21 f(@0A1 ; @1A0)@ 0A1 + (@1A0 ; @0A1)@ 1A0 + : : :g

Now use @0A1 = ;@ 0A1 @1A2 = @ 1A2, etc, to pick out just the terms

involving A1, which are

1 (@ 0A1)2 ; 1 (@ 2A1)2 ; 1 (@ 3A1)2

2 2 2

;(@ A )(@ A ) + (@ A )(@ A ) + (@ A )(@ A3): (R)

0 1 1 0 2 1 1 2 3 1 1

We then nd

9

@ (@ 0A1 ) = @ A ; @ A = @1A0 ; @0A1 >

@ 0 1 1 0

=

L

@ L 1 2 2 1

@ L

@ (@ 3A1 ) = @ 1A3 ; @ 3A1 = @1A3 ; @3A1:

Substituting these expressions into the E-L equations for A1 we obtain

@ 0(@1A0 ; @0A1) + @ 2(@1A2 ; @2A1) + @ 3(@1A3 ; @3A1) = ;jem 1 (S )

or

(@ 0@0 + @ 1@1 + @ 2@2 + @ 3@3)A1 ; @1(@ 0A0 + @ 1A1 + @ 2A2 + @ 3A3) = jem 1

which is the = 1 component of (7.62) (written with the index

lowered).

Equations (D) can be written in covariant form as

@L = @ A ; @ A :

@ (@ A )

Those skilled in manipulation of indices in tensor calculus can derive

this result directly from the covariant Lagrangian (7.62) then follows

trivially.

7.11 (b) The condition (7.90) is

(A(k2)g + B (k2)k k)(;k2g + kk ) = g :

Multiplying out the brackets,

;k2A(k2)g + A(k2)k k ; k2B (k2)k k + B (k2)k k2k = g

giving (7.91).

7.12 Referring to (R) of problem 7.10, the addition of the term ; 12 (@A)2

to L means that we must add to (R) the additional terms

; 21 (@1A1)2 ; (@1A1)(@0A0 + @2A2 + @3A3):

This produces a non-zero value for @ L=@ (@ 1A1), namely

@ L = ;(@ A ) + (@ A ; @ A ; @ A ):

1 1 0 0 2 2 3 3

@ (@ 1A1)

Including then the contribution of @ 1(@ L=@ (@ 1A2)) in (S ) of problem

7.10 (with jem 1 set to zero) leads to the required equation of motion

for A1.

7.13 The (k )'s are given in (7.102)-(7.104), from which we note that,

for each value of , the only non-vanishing component of (k ) is

that in which = , which equals 1. Consider then the case = 0 in

(7.115): the = 1, 2 and 3 terms all vanish, and the only surviving

-component is = 0, for which the LHS is -1, verifying the result.

Similarly for the other cases.

7.14 For (7.119): following the same steps as in (7.87)-(7.91), we require

(M 1) where

;

M = (;k2g + (1 ; 1=)k k ):

Let

(M 1)
= A(k2)g
+ B (k2)k k
:

;

;

= ;k2A(k2)g ; k2B (k2)k k + A(k2)(1 ; 1=)k k + B (k2)(1 ; 1=)k k k2:

To match coe"cients of g on both sides we require A = ;1=k2, and

then the vanishing of the k k term gives B = (1 ; )=(k2 )2.

7.15 The Hamiltonian density is

H^ = H^ S + H^ S

0

where H^ S is the Hamiltonian density for the free complex scalar eld,

H^ S = ^ ^ + r

^ r

^ + m2

^

^

y y y

and H^ S is the interaction part. But also the general de nition of the

0

Hamiltonian is

H^ = ^

^_ + ^

^_ ; L^: y y

Now

^

^ = @ L_ =

^_ ; iq

^ A^0

y y

@

^

from (7.134) - (7.136), and

^ =

^_ + iq

^A^0:

y

Substituting for

^_ and

^_ in favour of ^ and ^ , we obtain

y y

H^ = ^ (^ ; iq

^A^0) + ^ (^ + iq

^ A^0)

y y y

;f(^ + iq

^ A^0)(^ ; iq

^A^0) ; r

^ r

^ ; m2

^

^g ; L^int

y y y y

= ^ ^ + r

^ r

^ + m2

^

^ ; q2

^

^(A^0)2 ; L^int

y y y y

7.16 Consider rst

@2 h0jT (

^(x1)

^ (x2)j0i =

y

^(x1)

^ (x2)j0i + (t2 ; t1)h0j

^ (x2)

^(x1)j0ig

y y

then the derivative passes through the -functions and we get sim-

ply h0jT (

^(x1)@2i

^ (x2))j0i. If = 0, then the dierentiation produces

y

extra terms

;(t1 ; t2)h0j

^(x1)

^ (x2)j0i + (t2 ; t1)h0j

^ (x2)

^(x1)j0i

y y

which cancel using (7.32) (at equal times (x1 ; x2)2 is spacelike). So

@2 h0jT (

^(x1)

^ (x2))j0i = h0jT (

^(x1)@2

^ (x2))j0i:

y y

Now consider

@1@2 h0jT (

^(x1)

^ (x2))j0i = @1h0jT (

^(x1)@2

^ (x2))j0i =

y y

@1f(t1 ; t2)h0j

^(x1)@2

^ (x2)j0i + (t2 ; t1)h0j@2

^ (x2)

^(x1)j0ig

y y

:

As before, if = j the derivative passes through the -functions and

we get h0jT (@1j

^(x1)@2

^ (x2)j0i: On the other hand, if = 0 we get

y

(t1 ; t2)h0j

^(x1)@2

^ (x2)j0i + (t1 ; t2)h0j@10

^(x1)@2

^ (x2)j0i

y y

;(t1 ; t2)h0j@2

^ (x2)

^(x1)j0i + (t2 ; t1)h0j@2

^ (x2)@10

^(x1)j0i:

y y

= h0jT (@10

^(x1)@2

^ (x2))j0i + h0j

^(x1) @2

^ (x2)]j0i(t1 ; t2):

y y

seen by dierentiating (7.32) with respect to a spatial component of

x2. But if = 0 then the equal time commutator is

^(x1)

^_ (x2)](t1 ; t2) = i3(x1 ; x2)(t1 ; t2):

y

Chapter 8

8.2 We use (8.25), and the mode expansion (7.16) in (8.23), to obtain

(x)js+ pi = iep4EE h0ja^(p )

^ @

^ ; (@

^ )

^]^a (p)j0i

hs+ p j^jem

0 0 y y y

s

0

p Z d3k

= ie 4EE h0ja^(p )f p ^a (k )eik x + ^b(k )e ik x]

0

0 0

0 0 y 0 0 ;

(2) 2!

3 0

Z d3k

(2)3p2! ;ika^(k)e ik x + ik^b (k)eik x]ga^ (p)j0i

; y y

;(@

^ )

^ term y

where E =

pM 2 + p2 E = qM 2 + p 2 ! = qM 2 + k2 and ! =

q

0 0 0

M 2 + k 2. We evaluate the

^ @

^ term. The a^ and ^b operators com-

0 y

mute with each other, so we can move the ^b(k) all the way to the right

where it will give zero on j0i similarly the ^b (k ) will give zero on h0j. y 0

p Z d3k Z d3 k

ie 4EE h0ja^(p ) p a^ (k )e p ;ik^a(k)e ik xa^ (p)j0i:

0

0 0 i k x y 0

0

; y

(2)3 2! 0

(2)3 2!

We then use

a^(k)^a (p) = a^ (p)^a(k) + (2)33(k ; p)

y y

a^(k)j0i = h0ja^ (k ) = 0 y 0

to get rid of all the operators. The -functions allow all the momentum

integrals to be performed, setting k = p and k = p so that ! = 0 0

0 0 0 0

ep e i(p p ) x ; ;

0

the (@

^ )

^ term supplies the p contribution to (8.27).

y 0

(x)js pi = iep4EE h0j^b(p )fsame expression for

hs p j^jem

; 0 ; 0

s

0

^ @

^ term of the current, we can move a^(k ) to the

y 0

y 0

h0j^b(p ):::::^b(k )::::^b (k)::::^b (p)j0i:

0 0 y y

this means that the above expression should in fact be

h0j^b(p ):::::^b (k)::::^b(k )::::^b (p)j0i:

0 y 0 y

We now use the commutation relations for ^b(p ) and ^b (k) to get ^b (k) 0 y y

anihilating on j0i, and similarly for ^b(k ) and ^b (p) to get ^b(k ) anni- 0 y 0

allowing the momentum integrals (in this rst term) to be performed,

setting k = p k = p, and hence ! = E ! = E k = p and k = p.

0 0 0 0 0 0

The result is

;ep e i(p p ) x

0 ; ;

0

for this rst term. The second supplies the ;ep part, and the whole

matrix element is indeed the negative of the one in problem 8.2.

8.4 We consider a Lorentz transformation along the x1-axis. Then

jx = x =

0 0y 0

ex#=2xex#=2

y

= xex#

y

y

= cosh # jx + sinh #

as in (4.86), where we have used (4.90), and (4.91) with #=2 replaced

by #.

8.5 (a) We are assuming E = E , as in the required application. Then

0

0

1 1

u (k s = 1)u(k s = 1) = (E + m)

1

1 (E+km) @ k

1 A

0

y 0 0 y y

(E +m)

( ! )

k k

= (E + m) 1 +

(E + m)2 + i (E + m)2

1

1 k k y

0 0

8.5 (b) We have ! !

= 0 and

= 01 :

1 1 2

Also !

A A

A = Ax + iAy ;Az :

z x ; i A y

1 A

2 = Ax ; iAy :

y

Generally,

i A

j = ( A)ij :

y

S = 12 fju s =1us=1 j2 + ju s =1us=2j2 + ju s =2us=1j2 + ju s =2us=2j2g:

0y

0

0y

0

0y

0

0y

0

Part (a) evaluated u s =1us=1, and u s =2us=2 is the same but with

1

0y

0

0y

0

replaced by

2. Since

1

2 = 0, we nd

y

u s =1us=2 = (E + m) i

(E +k m)2k

1 2 y 0

0y

0

and similarly for u s =2us=1. The result follows after noting that

0y

0

j

1 A

1j2 + j

1 A

2j2 + j

2 A

1j2 + j

2 A

2j2 = 2A2:

y y y y

(d)

8" #2 9

< =

(E = m)2 : 1 + k cos 2 + (k ) sin 4

2 2 2 2

S = (E + m) (E + m)

(

2 E ; m 2 )

= E ; m

(E + m) 1 + E + m cos + E + m sin

2 2

= (E + m)2 + 2k2 cos + (E ; m)2

= 2(E 2 + m2 + k2 cos )

= 2E 2 + m2 + k2(1 ; 2 sin2 =2)]

4E 2(1 ; Ek 2 sin2 =2)

2

=

and the result follows using v = jkj=E .

8.6 The manipulations are similar to those in problem 8.2 except that an-

ticommutation relations are used.

8.7 = ( 0 0). So

= ( 0 0 ) = ( 0 0):

y y y y

Hence

0 0 = (( 0)3 0( 0)2) = ( 0 0) = :

y

8.8

Tr(6 k + m) (6 k + m) ] = Tr(6 k 6 k ) + mTr( 6 k )

0 0

+mTr(6 k ) + m2Tr( ):

0

and (8.75) implies that

Tr6 k 6 k ] = 4k k + k k ; k kg ]:

0 0 0 0

8.9

L00 = 22k 0k0 ; (k k)] + 2m2:

0 0

0 0 0 0

So

L00 = 2E 2 + k2 cos ] + 2m2

= 2E 2 + m2 + k2 cos ]

and the result follows as in problem 8.5(d).

8.11 Using (8.27), (8.55), and the Fourier transform of (7.119) (compare

(6.98) and (7.58)), the term written explicitly in (8.93) becomes

(;i)2 Z Z d4x d4x fe(p + p ) e i(p p ) x1 0

1 2

0 ; ;

2

Z 4

(2dl)4 e il (x1 x2) : i;g + (1l2; )ll =l ] :;eu(k s ) u(k s)e i(k k ) x2 g:

2 0

; ; 0 0 ; ;

(2)44(l + k ; k). The integral over l can now be done using one of

0

0

in the other delta function. This gives one half times (8.95) - the other

half is supplied by the `(x1 $ x2)' part of (8.93).

8.12 Using

@e i(p p ) x = ;i(p ; p )e i(p p ) x

; ;

0

0 ; ;

0

we nd from (8.27)

@hs+ p j^jem

0 (x)js+ pi = ;ie(p2 ; p 2 )e i(p p ) x

s

0 ; ;

0

0

@he k s j^jem

; 0 0 (x)je k si = ieu (6 k ; 6 k )ue i(k k ) x

e

; 0 0 ; ;

0

external states are `on-shell' - i.e. their wavefunctions satisfy the free-

particle equations of motion, or equivalently their 4-momenta satisfy

the energy-momentum condition for a free particle.]

8.13 We have

L T = 2k k + k k + (q2=2)g ](p + p )(p + p ) :

0 0 0 0

0 0

and similarly for (p + p ) , and then drop the qq part using (8.188).

0

Then

L T = 82p k p k + (q2=2)p2 ] 0

= 82p k p k + (q2=2)M 2 ]: 0

Z

q x Z x =a

F (q ) = e (x)d x = e iq x e8a3 d3x

;j j

2 i ; 3 ;

Z

= 8a3 e i q x cos e x =a jxj djxj 2d(cos ):

1 ; j jj j ;j j

1 ei q x ; e i q x

ijqjjxj

j jj j ; j jj j

Z

F (q2) = 4a31ijqj jxje x =a (ei q x ; e i q x ) djxj:

1

;j j j jj j ; j jj j

0

One way of doing the jxj-integral is to write it as

@ Z e x =a (ei q x ; e i q x ) djxj

1

@ (;1=a) 0

;j j j jj j ; j jj j

where now the simple exponential integrals can be done, and the dif-

ferentiation with respect to a performed, after using

@ = a2 @ :

@ (;1=a) @a

This leads to (8.135).

8.15 After replacing by k , (8.161) becomes (after correcting the misprints

in it)

;e2 (k )u(p s ) ((p6 p++k6 k)2+;mm)2 6 ku(p s)

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0

(6 k + 6 p ; 6 p)u(p s) = (6 k + 6 p ; m)u(p s) = (6 p + 6 k ; m)u(p s)

0 0 0 0

that

(6 p + 6 k + m)(6 p + 6 k ; m) = (p + k)2 ; m2:

The rst term is then

;e2 (k )u u: 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

e2 (k )u u 0 0

8.16 (a) We work in the massless limit, as in section 8.6.3. We have

X (s) (u) e4 X

Me Me = su ; ;

0 0 0

(k )(k )(k )
(k )u(p s ) (6 p+6 k) u(p s)u(p s) (6 p;6 k )
u(p s )

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

e4 g g Trf (6 p + 6 k) 6 p (6 p ; 6 k )
6 p g

= su

0 0

e4 Trf (6 p + 6 k) 6 p (6 p ; 6 k ) 6 p g:

= su

0 0

We now use

6 p (6 p ; 6 k ) = ;2(6 p ; 6 k ) 6 p 0 0

(6 p + 6 k)(6 p ; 6 k ) = 4(p + k) (p ; k )

0 0

Tr(6 p6 p ) = 4p p0 0

X (s) e (p + k) (p ; k ) p p: 4

Me M(ue) = ;32 su

; ;

0 0

ss

0 0

Now

(p + k) (p ; k ) = p2 ; p k + k p ; k k

0 0 0

= ;p k + k p ; k k 0 0

since p k = p k in the massless limit for all external lines (as follows

0 0

(p + k) (p ; k ) = k (p ; p ; k ) = ;k2:

0 0 0

8.17 The interference term calculated in problem 8.16 (a) had the value

X (s) (u) e4 (p + k) (p ; k ) p p:

Me Me = ;32 su

; ;

0 0

ss

0 0

(p + k) (p ; k ) = p2 ; p k + k p ; k k

0 0 0

= ;p k + k p + Q2=2 ; k k 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0

4 ss e e 0 su

0

; ;

(s)

Me + M(ue) M(se) + M(ue)

; ; ; ;

8.18 (a) We calculate L Me using (8.185) and (8.190).

L Me = 4k k + k k + (q2=2)g ]2pp + (q2=2)g ]

0 0

0 0

0

0

so that ! = jkj k ! = jk j k , and using (8.219), the preceding

0 0 0

expression becomes

L Me = 82kk M 2 + 4k2 k 2 sin4 =2 ; 2kk M 2 sin2 =2]

0 0 0

0 0

0

0

2

= 16kk M cos =2]1 ; (q =2M 2 ) tan2 =2]

2 2 2

0

The rst factor is exactly that in (K.24), leading to the `no-structure'

cross section.

(b) Returning to line 3 of part (a):

L Me = 44k p k p + q2k k + q2p2 + 4(q2=2)2]:

0 0

0 0

4;us ; t2=2 + t2] = 4;us + t2=2]:

d =dt is then given by

d = 1 (4)2 4; u + t2 ]:

dt 16 t2 s 2s2

In the massless case we have s + t + u = 0 so that t2 = (u + s)2, leading

to the required expression for d =dt.

From (K.41), (K.46) and (K.50) we nd

k 2 2 dt :

0

dy = 2kM 2k 2 0

But in this frame s = (k + p)2 = 2kM . Hence dt = sdy and the result

is established.

8.19 (a) We shall label the 4-momentum and spin of the ingoing e by k s, ;

; 0 0

Q2 = (k+k1)2 = (p +p1)2 t = (k1;p1)2 = (k;p )2 u = (k;p1)2 = (k1;p )2:

0 0 0

The amplitude is

iev(k1 s1) u(k s) ;Qig2 ieu(p r ) v(p1 r1):

0 0

Note that the v u factor depends only on the e and e+ momenta,

;

while the u v factor depends only on the momenta of the and + . ;

(b) The spin-averaged squared cross matrix element is then

2 !X

jMj2 = 4 Qe 2 v(k1 s1) u(k s)u(k s) v(k1 s1)

1

ss1

X

u(p r ) v(p1 r1)v(p1 r1) u(p r )

0 0 0 0

r r1

0

2

Q 4

where

L(e) = 12 Tr(6 k1 ; m) (6 k + m) ]

and

L() = 21 Tr(6 p + M ) (6 p1 ; M ) ]

0

using (7.61).

(c) Using the trace theorems as in (8.78), the lepton tensors are

L(e) = 2k1 k + k1 k ; (k1 k)g ]

and

L() = 2p p1 + p p1 ; (p p1)g ]

0 0 0

0

2!

jMj = Qe 2 42p k1 p1 k + 2p k p1 k1 ; Q2p p1 ; Q2k1 k + (Q2)2]

2 0 0 0

2! 2

= Qe 2 42 u4 + 2 t4 ; Q2Q2=2 ; Q2Q2=2 + (Q2)2]

2

2!

= Qe 2 2t2 + u2]:

In the massless limit, all 3-momenta have equal modulus which (slightly

confusingly) we denote by k. Then

t = ;2k2(1 ; cos ) u = ;2k2(1 + cos )

so that

t2 + u2 = 8k4 (1 + cos2 ):

Since Q2 = 4k2 the result follows.

Crossing symmetry implies that the amplitude for

e (k s) + e+(k1 s1) ! (p r ) + + (p1 r1)

; ; 0 0

e (k s) + (;p1 ;r1) ! (p r ) + e (;k1 ;s1):

; ; ; 0 0 ;

We can therefore obtain this amplitude from the one calculated in sec-

tion 8.7 by making the replacements

p r ! ;p1 ;r1 and k s ! ;k1 ;s1:

0 0

q2(section 8:7) = (k ; k )2 ! (k + k1)2 = Q2:

0

(8:185) ! 2;k1k ; k1 k + (Q2=2)g ]

and

(8:186) ! 2;p p ; p p + (Q2=2)g ]

0 0

(d) Using the formula (6.129) for the dierential cross section for elastic

scattering in the centre of mass, and replacing jMj2 by jMj2, we

obtain

Z d Z

= d# = 6412Q2 1622(1 + cos2 ) 2 d cos

3 !1

2

= 4Q2 2 cos + 3 cos

1

;

= 4 =3Q2 2

as required.

8.20 We have

1 ;

u(p )i 2M q u(p) = iu(p ) 2 i

0 0

2M (p ; p )u(p) 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

2

Now

u(p ) 6 p u(p) = u(p ) pu(p)

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

and similarly

u(p )6 p u(p) = u(p )2p u(p) ; M u(p ) u(p):

0 0 0

Chapter 9

9.1 Using (8.206) with F1 = 1 and = 0 for the current matrix elements,

and cancelling a factor of e2, we obtain

Wel = 8M 1 X u(p s) u(p s )u(p s ) u(p s)(2)44(p + q ; p ) 1 d3p

0 0 0 0 0

0

ss 0 (2)3 2E 0

0 0

0

(2)3 2E 0

!2

d = 4q 1 (2 )4 4(p+q ;p ) d p d3k :

3 0 0

0

0 0

This is precisely the formula which which yields the cross section for

elastic e scattering (see Appendix K for the $ux and phase space

factors).

9.2 (a) Omitting the terms involving q and q from the expression (9.10)

for W , we need to evaluate

L W = 2k k + k k + (q2=2)g ];g W1 + (p p =M 2 )W2]

0 0

0 0

(8.217) and (8.218)),

p k = ! M p k = !M q2 = ;2k k

0 0 0

and so

(2p k p k + q2p2=2)=M 2 = 2!! + q2=2 = 2!! ; k k :

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

and

2!! ; k k = kk (1 + cos ) = 2kk cos2 =2:

0 0 0 0

Hence

L W = 4kk 2W1 sin2 =2 + W2 cos2 =2]

0

!2

d = 4q 1 2 =2+W cos2 =2] d k :

3 0

2! (2)3

0

0

Now (q2)2 = 16k2 k 2 sin4 =2, and (neglecting the electron mass)

0

d3k = k 2dk d#:

0 0 0

Hence

d
= 2 2W sin2 =2 + W cos2 =2]dk d#

4k2 sin4 =2 1 2

0

as required.

(b) We have

Q2 = 2kk (1 ; cos ) and = k ; k :

0 0

Hence

d cos dk = @Q2 1 @Q2 dQ2 d

0

@ cos @k

@ cos @k

0

@ @

0

2kk 2k(1 ; cos )

0

2kk0

0 1

Using d# = 2d cos and the result of part (a), this leads to (9.16)

from (9.12).

Similarly, since

x = Q2=2M and y = =k

we have

dQ2d = @x 1 @x dx dy

@Q@y2 @

@y

@Q2 @

= 1 1 Q2 = 2Mk dx dy

2M ; 2M2

0 k

1

= 2Mk2y dx dy

as in (9.19), leading straightforwardly to the formula for d2
=dxdy.

9.3 (a) The transverse polarization vectors are given in (9.38). These satisfy

( = 1) p = 0 in the laboratory frame, and also (9.40). Hence in

the product W , with W given by (9.10), only the contraction

1 X () ()W = 1 ;( = 1) ( = 1) ; ( = ;1) ( = ;1)]W

2 = 1 1

2

= 12 1 + 1]W1 = W1

and (9.46) follows from (9.45).

(b) From (9.47) the longitudinal/scalar virtual photon cross section is

S = (42=K ) ( = 0) ( = 0)W

(9.41), and satis es q = 0 (see (9.49)). Thus in the contractions

with W , terms involving q and q can be dropped. The W1 term in

` W ' is then simply (; )W1 = ;W1 (note (9.42)), while the W2

term is

1 ( = 0) p ( = 0) p W = 1 (q3M )(q3M )W

2 2

M2 M 2Q2

( q 3)2 Q 2 + (q 0)2 2!

= Q2 W2 = Q2 W2 = 1 + Q2 W2

and (9.48) follows from these results.

From (9.46) we obtain

W1 = 4K2 T

and substituting this into (9.48) gives the required result for W2.

9.4 In the limit m ! 0 the spinors

and satisfy p

= E

and

p = ;E respectively, where in both cases E = jpj: Hence

satis es p

=

jpj

which shows it has positive helicity (compare (4.67)) similarly has

negative helicity.

(b) For example,

1 + 5 1 ; 5 1

PR PL = 2 2 = 4 1 ; 2 ] = 0:

5

and

components of the 4-component spinor, but these 2-component objects

are no longer (with m 6= 0) helicity eigenstates (since, for example,

( p=jpj)

is no longer equal to

or ;

).

(c) We may write

u u = u (PR + PL) 0 (PR + PL)u:

y

sider one `cross' term:

u PR 0 PLu = u 0PL PL u

y y

= u 0 PR PLu

y

= 0:

Similarly for the term u PL 0 PR u. The only surviving terms are

y

y y

which is just uR u + uL u. Hence `R' states connect only to `R'

states, and similarly for `L' states, and so helicity (in the massless

limit) is conserved.

Note that `uR' could perhaps more clearly be written as

uR

since we form it by taking the dagger of uR and then multiplying by

0 - i.e. we take the Dirac `bar' of uR. uR is however the conventional

notation.

(d) In this case a typical cross term is

u PR 0 5PLu =

y

u 0PL 5PL u

y

= u 0 PR 5PLu

y

= u 0 5PR PLu

y

= 0

and again helicity is conserved.

(e) The Dirac mass term is

^^ = ^ (PR + PL ) 0(PR + PL ):

y ^

Consider a `diagonal' term:

y

^ PR 0PR^ = ^ 0PL PR^ = 0

y

and similarly for the other diagonal term. Only the `L-R' and `R-L'

terms survive (the daggers in the printed answer are a misprint).

9.5 Neglecting the positron and proton masses, their 4-momenta are pe+ =

(k 0 0 ;k), say, and pp = (p 0 0 p). Then

WCM2 = (p + + p )2 = (k + p)2 ; (k ; p)2 = 4kp:

e p

p

So WCM = 2 kp = 300:3 GeV.

A leptoquark of mass Mlq formed as a resonance state of the e+ and the

struck quark would appear as a peak in the eective mass of the e+ and

the quark, at an eective mass q equal to M2lq. In a simple parton model

picture, this efective mass is (pe+ + xpp) . So we expect a peak when

p2e+ + 2x pe+ pp + x2p2p = Mlq2

or, neglecting the positron and proton masses, at x = Mlq2 =WCM

2 .

d = Z dx dx 42 X e2q (x )q (x ) + q (x )q (x )](q2 ; sx x )

dq2 1 2 2

9q a a a 1 a 2 a 1 a 2 1 2

2Z X

= 9q2 dx1 dx2 e2aqa(x1)qa(x2) + qa(x1)qa(x2)] 1s (q2=s ; x1x2)

4

a

with the help of (E.29), and then writing 1=s = x1x2=q2 and = q2=s

we obtain the desired formula.

(b)

@q2 @q2

dq2 dxF = @x @x1 @x2 dx1 dx2

F @xF

@x1 @x2

= sx1 2 sx 1 dx dx

;1 1 2

= ;s(x1 + x2) dx1 dx2:

The minus sign can be absorbed by appropriate choice of limits in the

q2 ; xF integration. In the variables (x1 x2), the integration is over the

square 0 x1 1 0 x2 1. Consider performing the integration

holding x1 xed and integrating over x2, and then integrating over x1.

Take x1 = 1=2 as an example, with x2 running from x2 = 0 to x2 = 1.

In the q2 ; xF plane, this line maps into the line 2q2=s + xF = 1=2, and

it is traversed in the sense of q2=s increasing (from 0 to 1/2) but xF

decreasing (from 1/2 to -1/2). We can reverse the sense in which xF is

covered by invoking the minus sign from the determinant.

The variables x1 and x2 are given in terms of xF and by x1 ; x2 = xF

and x2 = =x1. So we have

x1 ; =x1 = xF:

Solving for x1 (which is greater than 0) we nd

x1 = 12 xF + (x2F + 4 )1=2]

and hence

x2 = 12 ;xF + (x2F + 4 )1=2]

so that x1 + x2 = (x2F + )1=2. Hence

2X

d2 = 42 e2aqa(x1)qa(x2) + qa(x1)qa(x2)] dx1 dx2

9q a

= (x +1 x )s f: : :g dq2 dxF

1 2

2 X

= (x2 +14 )1=2 49 q 4 e2aqa(x1)qa(x2) + qa(x1)qa(x2)] dq2 dxF

F a

which leads to the desired expression.

9.7 Let the 4-momenta of the incoming q and q be k and k1 respectively,

and let those of the outgoing and + be p and p1. Then the q ;

; 0

; ; + vertex is same as in problem 8.19(b). Thus in evaluating

;

T = (k ; k1)(k ; k1) (p p1 + p p1 ; (Q2=2)g )

0 0

0

Introduce the Mandelstam variables

s = (k+k1 )2 = Q2 t = (k;p )2 = (k1;p1)2 and u = (k;p1)2 = (k1;p )2:

0 0

T = 2; 2t + u2 ]; u2 + 2t ] ; (Q2=2)(;Q2)

= ; 12 (t ; u)2 + 21 (Q2)2

= ; 12 (4k2 cos )2 + 21 (4k2)2

/ (1 ; cos2 )

where k is the CM momentum.

Chapter 10

10.1 We need to calculate the Jacobian for the change of variables

fx1 x2 x3 x4g ! fx y z X g: (A)

Each of these variables is in fact a 4-vector, with (therefore) four com-

ponents, as is explicit in the notation d4x1 etc. Thus there are a total

of 16 variables altogether, and we certainly don't want to deal with a

16 16 determinant. We can however write the 16-dimensional inte-

gration element as

dx01 dx02 dx03 dx04] dx11 dx12 dx13 dx14] dx21 etc]

and imagine doing the transformation rst for the ` 0 ' components of

the two sets in (A):

fx01 x02 x03 x04g ! fx0 y0 z0 X 0g

then for the ` 1 ' components, etc. The total Jacobian will then be the

product of four 4 4 Jacobians, one for each of the components. But

since they all have exactly the same form, we shall suppress the explicit

`component' label, and write simply

@x @x @x @x

@x@y1 @x@y2 @x@y3 @x@y4

J = @x@z1 @x@z2 @x@z3 @x@z4

@x1 @x2 @x3 @x4

@x

@X @X @X @X

1 @x2 @x3 @x4

for one of the determinants. Evaluating the partial derivatives, we

obtain

1 0 ;1 0

0 1

J = 0 0 1 ;1

0 ; 1

1=4 1=4 1=4 1=4

8 9

>

< 1 0 ;1 0 1 ; 1 >

=

= 14 > 0 1 ;1 ; 0 0 ;1 >

: 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 1:

Hence the full Jacobian is unity.

Inverting the relations giving fx y z X g in terms of fx1 x2 x3 x4g,

we nd

x1 = 14 (4X + 3x ; y + 2z)

x2 = 14 (4X ; x + 3y ; 2z)

x3 = 14 (4X ; x ; y + 2z)

x4 = 14 (4X ; x ; y ; 2z):

The exponentials in (10.3) then become

p pB p pA

ei( A 4 ) (4X +3x y+2z) ei( B 4 ) (4X x+3y 2z)

0 0

; ;

; ; ;

factors only depend on the dierence in the arguments of the two elds

(see (6.98)).

10.2 The integral is

Z1 " #1

1 1 1

= ; (B ; A) A + x(B ; A)

0 A + x(B ; A)]2 0

1 1 1

1

= A ; B B ; A = AB :

k2 ; xk2 ; (1 ; x)m2A + xq2 ; 2x q k + xk2 ; xm2B + i]

= k2 ; 2x q k + xq2 ; xm2B ; (1 ; x)m2A + i]

= (k ; xq)2 ; x2q2 + xq2 ; xm2B ; (1 ; x)m2A + i]

= k 2 ; f;x(1 ; x)q2 + xm2B + (1 ; x)m2Ag + i]

0

which is just k 2 ; + i]. Note that we have replaced `(1 ; x)i + i'

0

by `i' since all that matters is the sign of this in nitesimal imaginary

part, and (1 ; x) can never be negative.

10.4 We have

%2] 2 ;g2 Z 1 Z u2du :

C (q ) = 82 0 0 (u2 + )3=2

One way of evaluating the integral over u is to substitute u = 1=2 tan .

Then

du = 1=2 sec2 d

and

(u2 + )3=2 = 3=2 sec3 :

The integral over u becomes

Z tan2 Z sin2

sec2 d = d

sec3 cos

Z 1

= cos ; cos d

2 + tan1=2) ; sin !

= ln(sec

= ln (u +1) u ; &

= 2 + 1 = 2 (u + )1=2 :

2

( 2 + )1=2 ! )

ln & + (& &

; (& + )1=2

1=2

at u = & (correcting the formula given in (10.51)).

10.5 %2]

C (q ) is given by (10.42) and its dependence on q is contained in the

2 2

quantity of (10.43). Hence

d%2] Z Z d4k ;2

C (q ) = ig 2 1 dx d

2 0

4 2 0 3

Z1 Z 4

= ig2 dx (2d k)4 (k 2 ; 2 + i)3 x(1 ; x):

0

0 0

0 0

0

0

Z dk 00

1 @2 Z dk 0 0

0

=

(k 0)2 ; A]3 2 @A2 (k 0)2 ; A]

0

which will result in a denominator (u2 + )5=2 in (10.50), so that the

u-integral is manifestly convergent, by counting powers of u at large

values of u.

10.6 Consider the counter term

Lct = 12 ZC @

^phC@

^phC

where normal-ordering is understood. Remembering that `L = T ; V ',

the corresponding interaction potential is ;Lct, and in the Dyson-Wick

expansion it is `;i' times the interaction that appears. Hence the one-C

matrix element required is

i Z hC kj@

^ @

^ jC ki

phC phC

2 C

Z d3k1

= i 2EZC h0ja^C (k) p ^a (k )(;ik1)e ik1 x+^aC(k1)(ik1)eik1 x]

y

(2)3 2E1 C 1

;

2

Z

(2d)3pk22E ^aC(k2)(;ik2)e ik2 x + ^aC(k2)(ik2)eik2 x] a^C(k)j0i

3

; y y

2

where normal-ordering is understood but not shown explicitly. The

only terms which give a non-zero vev are those in which the number of

a^ operators is equal to the number of ^a operators. One of these is

y

h0ja^C(k)(ik1)^aC(k1)(;ik2)^aC(k2)^aC(k)j0i:

y y

As usual, we write

^aC(k)^aC(k1) = a^C(k1)^aC(k) + (2)33(k ; k1)

y y

y y

then be done, setting k1 = k and k2 = k, and hence E1 = E , and

E2 = E , and k1 = k k2 = k. This term therefore nally yields

i Z k2:

2 C

The other surviving term is (after normal-ordering)

h0ja^C(k)(ik2)^aC(k2)(;ik1)^aC(k1)^aC(k)j0i:

y y

This contributes exactly the same result, removing the factor 12 as re-

quired. The 1-C matrix element of the counter term involving

^2phC is

very similar, lacking the k2 factor coming from the gradients.

Chapter 11

11.1 The Feynman rule for the counter term in the fermion propagator is

given by (a) of (11.7). The fermion analogue of (10.63) is then

S = 6 p ; m + (Z ; 1)i6 p ; m ; 2](p) :

2

For 6 p m we expand 2](p) as

d 2]

(p) (6 p = m) + (6 p ; m) d6 p

2] 2]

p=m 6

so that

S i

6 p ; m + (Z2 ; 1)6 p ; m ; 2](6 p = m) ; (6 p ; m) d

dp2] p=m

6 6

=

d

2] d

2]

i

6 pZ2 ; dp p=m ] + m dp p=m ; (6 p = m) ; m ; m

6 6 6 6

2]

i=(6 p ; m). The coe"cient of 6 p therefore yields

d 2]

Z2 = 1 + d6 p

p=m 6

d 2]

m d6 p ; 2](6 p = m) ; m ; m = m(Z2 ; 1) ; 2](6 p = m) ; (m0Z2 ; m) ; m

6 p= m

= ;m + (m ; m0)Z2 ; 2](6 p = m)

whence we require

m0 ; m = ;Z2 12](6 p = m):

;

When these values are substituted back into the rst expression for S ,

we obtain (11.10).

11.2 Consider QED for de niteness, with interaction Lagrangian

L^int(x) = ;q^(x) ^(x):

The amplitude for a typical closed fermion loop will involve (compare

(10.3)) a sequence of fermion propagators starting from a certain space-

time point and ending at the same point:

h0jT (^(x1)^(x2))j0ih0jT (^(x2)^(x3))j0i : : : h0jT (^(xN )^(x1))j0i: (A)

Note that each propagator involves elds from dierent interaction La-

grangians in a term of given order in the Dyson expansion analogous to

(6.42), since each interaction involves two elds at the same point. In

a given `Dyson' term, however, the interactions may be written in any

order within the overall time-ordering symbol T , for example (referring

to (A)) as

h0j : : : T f: : : ^(x1)A6 (x1)^(x1)]^(x2)A6 (x2)^(x2)] : : : ^(xN )A6 (x1)^(xN )]g : : : j0i

without introducing any sign changes. The product of contractions

shown in (A) is now obtained after permuting ^(x1) through an odd

number of fermion elds (namely the single eld ^(x1) and the appro-

priate number of pairs ^(x2)^(x2) : : : ^(xN )^(xN )), which produces

an overall minus sign.

11.3 The amplitude arises from the second-order term in the Dyson expan-

sion, which involves the T -product

T (^(x1) ^ (x )

1 ^ (x2)
^
(x2 ))

explicitly. Figure 11.2(b) corresponds to the contraction

h0jT (^ (x )

: : :

1 ^ (x2))j0i h0jT (^ (x2 )^ (x1))j0i : : :

which has the structure

S (x ; x ) S (x ; x )

1 2 2 1

X

= S (x1 ; x2) S (x2 ; x1)]

which exhibits the required Trace.

11.4 The result is (up to a factor of 2) the same as (8.78) with k = k + q.

0

% 2]

(q ) = % (q ) ; % (0)

2 2] 2 2]

Z

%2] ( q 2) = 8ie2 1 dx x(1 ; x)I (x q 2)

0

with Z d4k

I (x q2) =

0

1

(2) (k ; (x q2) + i)2

4 2 0

where

(x q2) = ;x(1 ; x)q2 + m2:

As noted in the text, the k -integral in I (x q2) has been evaluated in

0

( 2 + (x q 2))1=2 ! )

i

I (x q ) = 82 ln

2 & + (& &

; (&2 + (x q2))1=2

1=2(x q2)

where & is the ultraviolet cut o. The quantity % 2] (q ) involves the

2

x-integral of the subtracted quantity

I (x q2) ; I (x q2 = 0)

and we shall see that this has a well-de ned nite limit as & ! 1. We

have

( 2 + (x q 2))1=2 1=2(x q 2 = 0) !

2 2 i & + (&

I (x q );I (x q = 0) = 82 ln & + (&2 + (x q2 = 0))1=2 1=2 2

(x q )

)

& &

; (&2 + (x q2))1=2 + (&2 + (x q2 = 0))1=2 :

Now

lim & + (&2 + (x q2))1=2 = 1

& + (&2 + (x q2 = 0))1=2

!1

and

; & &

lim

!1 (& + (x q ))

2 2 1 = 2 + (& + (x q2 = 0))1=2 = 0:

2

2 Z1 " 2 #

% (q ) = ; 22

2] 2 e m

dx x(1 ; x) ln (x q2)

0

which is equivalent to (11.36).

11.7 For q2 = ;q2 m2 we write

Z

% 2] ( q 2 ) = 2 1 dx x(1 ; x) ln1 + q 2x(1 ; x)=m2 ]

Z0

2 1 q 2

0 dx x(1 ; x) m2 x(1 ; x)

q2 Z 1 dx x2(1 ; x)2

= 2m 2 0

which leads to (11.38).

11.8 In this case we are interested in q2 = ;jq2j m2. We write

Z1 2 !

2] 2 2 jq j

% (jq j) = dx x(1 ; x) ln m2 x(1 ; x) + 1

0

Z ( 2 )

2 1 j q j m 2

= 0 dx x(1 ; x) ln m2 x(1 ; x)1 + jq2jx(1 ; x) ]

Z1 ( 2! 2 !)

2 j q j

= 0 dx x(1 ; x) ln m2 + lnx(1 ; x)] + O jmq2j :

Then using 2

Z1 x x 2 !1

x ln x dx = 2 ln x ; 4 = ; 14

0 0

and Z1 !1

ln x dx = x3 ln x ; x3 = ; 91

3 3

0

x2

0

together with

Z1 Z1

x(1 ; x) ln(1 ; x) dx = x(1 ; x) ln xdx

0 0

we arrive at (11.54).

11.9 The e contributes 0.01639, the 0.00825 and the 0.00388 for a total

of 0.0285.

11.10 In the system h = c = 1, with one independent dimension which we

take to be mass (see Appendix B), the electromagnetic eld strength

tensor F^ has dimension M 2, so that the Maxwell action

Z

; 14 d4xF^ F^

is dimensionless. Hence (F^ F^ )2 has dimension M 8, and therefore

the coupling constant `E ' must have dimension M 4 so that ;

Z

E d4x (F^ F^ )2

is dimensionless.

In terms of the elds E^ and B^ ,

F^ F^ = 2(B^ 2 ; E^ 2):

Hence

E (F^ F^ )2 = 4E (B^ 2 ; E^ 2)2:

This fourth-order (in the elds) interaction will contribute to ;

scattering, which does not occur in the classical (Maxwell) theory. See

for example The Quantum Theory of Fields, volume 1, by S. Weinberg

(CUP), pages 533-4.

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.