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RUSLAN

RUSSIAN 1
A communicative Russian
course by John Langran
and Natalya Veshnyeva

This file contains the first few


pages, the alphabet pages, and
the whole of the first lesson of
Ruslan Russian 1. Picture
quality has been reduced to
give a smaller file.

Ruslan Limited

1

MAP OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

1000.
:
0

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RUSLAN RUSSIAN 1
A communicative course for beginners in Russian
by John Langran and Natalya Veshnyeva.
Fourth edition.

Ruslan Limited
www.ruslan.co.uk

3
First published 1995
Second edition 1997
Third edition 2001, reprinted 2005
Fourth edition 2008
1995, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2008 Ruslan
Copyright for the cartoons - Anna Lauchlan

Ruslan 1 Textbook (fourth edition) ISBN 1-899785-65-5


Ruslan 1 Textbook and CD pack ISBN 1-899785-67-1

Copyright notice
Teachers using the Ruslan course with learners who have purchased the
course book may copy and cut out the speaking exercise material to use
as cue cards for group work and may copy the cartoons at the beginning
of each lesson for classroom use. With these exceptions, no part of this
book may be copied, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, without the written permission of the copyright
owner. Ruslan Limited does not subscribe to the Publishers Licensing
Agreement.

Errata
Any errors or amendments will be listed on the Ruslan website at:
www.ruslan.co.uk/errata.htm

Accompanying materials
Ruslan 1 Audio CD (4th edition) ISBN 1-899785-66-3
Ruslan 1 Student Workbook ISBN 1-899785-22-1
Ruslan 1 Reader ISBN 1-899785-64-7
Ruslan 1 Teachers notes Free from www.ruslan.co.uk
Ruslan 1 CD-ROM ISBN 1-899785-08-6

Ruslan Russian 2 and 3 continue the course


to intermediate and advanced levels.

Ruslan Limited - www.ruslan.co.uk

4
INTRODUCTION

Ruslan Russian 1 is a beginners course in communicative Russian for adults


and young people. The context is modern, with a clear and systematic
approach. The course can be used by groups with a teacher or by individuals
learning on their own. As well as the Ruslan 1 Textbook, there is a Student
Workbook, a supplementary Reader, and a DTI prizewinning multimedia
CDRom version. Here is a sample screen from the CDRom:

Try out the first lesson at www.ruslan.co.uk/demos.htm

The alphabet introduction describes the sound of each letter and gives
examples in words. These are recorded on the audio CD and CDRom. There
are also examples of Russian handwriting.

The ten lessons include:


- a list of contents for you to check your progress.
- a cartoon to help teachers introduce new vocabulary. These are also
useful for practising questions and answers, and for revision.
- dialogues to introduce new vocabulary and structures, following the
adventures of Ivan, Vadim, Lyudmila and her family and friends;
- a vocabulary with new words in the order in which they appear.
- background information in English.
- grammar explanations.
- exercises based on the new language.
- reading exercises with real or semi-real material.
- writing exercises to practise the handwritten script.
- listening exercises.
- speaking exercises, with role-play situations, and suggestions
for pair work and language games.

At the end of the book you will find a key to the exercises, the texts of the
listening exercises, a grammar summary, and a full Russian to English
vocabulary for the Ruslan 1 course.

5
Acknowledgements
Thanks to all who have helped with this project, especially:
the Rossica Choir of St Petersburg, Olga Bean, Katie Costello, Ulla Frid,
Paul B. Gallagher, Anna Garofalo-Kurman, Mikhail Kukushkin, Stef de
Groot, David Harmer, Jelena Jefremova, Sergey Kozlov, Emma Lamm,
Jonathan Madden, Tanya Nousinova and Brian Savin.

Photos are by John Langran, by people listed above, from Wikipedia, and
from other public sources. Recordings are by people listed above.

Audio production is by Brian Savin and John Langran.

The authors
The authors are both experienced teachers of Russian to adults and young
people.

Natalya Veshnyeva, who wrote most of the dialogues, was born and grew up
in Moscow. She trained as teacher at Moscow Pedagogical Institute and has
taught Russian at a wide range of schools and adult education centres in the
UK and New Zealand.

John Langran, Director of Ruslan Limited, put the course together. John
studied Russian at the University of Sussex, and taught in Birmingham, where
he was head of Brasshouse Centre, Birminghams language centre for adults.
He has been Director of Studies for the Prime Ministers Enterprise Initiative in
Russia, and author of the BBC Russian Phrasebook (1995 edition).

For teachers
Teachers Notes, tests, and other materials for teachers are available free of
charge from the Ruslan website. The Teachers Notes give additional
suggestions for classroom activities, hints on teaching difficult points, and
additional photocopiable worksheets for each lesson.

Contact Ruslan Limited for a user name and password for the Ruslan teacher
pages.

Ruslan Limited operates a scheme to help learners to find a local teacher.


Details are on the website.

www.ruslan.co.uk

6
CONTENTS

Sounds and stress in Russian 9


Cyril and Methodius 9
The Russian alphabet 10
Letters in words. Handwriting 12

Lesson 1 - APP - The airport 14


No word for the or a
No verb to be in the present tense
How to ask a question by raising your voice
Masculine and feminine nouns
The possessive pronouns and , and
The personal pronouns and
Information: Moscow

Lesson 2 - A - The street 26


and - I know and you know
The prepositions and meaning to a place
Imperatives: ! - ! - ! - !
The use of - there is
Neuter nouns. The personal pronoun
Numbers 0 - 10
Information: Arbat. Bulat Okudzhava
-

Lesson 3 - - The family 38


The genitive singular of masculine and feminine nouns
Spelling rule for the letters and
Some common uses of the genitive
The genitive after negatives, and after numbers 2, 3, 4
- it is possible - and - it is not possible
Information: Russian names

Lesson 4 - ? - Where were you? 48


Infinitives in -, - and -
The full present tense of - to know
Introduction to the past tense
The prepositional case with and meaning at a place
- the familiar form of you
Numbers 10 - 100. Months of the year
Information: Russian National Holidays, Moscow and the provinces

Lesson 5 - CA - The hotel 60


The preposition c with the meaning from
Short adjectives: and
The present tense of - to speak
A note on imperfective and perfective verb aspects
The use of and for I have and you have
Information: Hotels in Russia. GUM - The State Universal Shop

7
Lesson 6 - - The restaurant 70
The verbs: , . The imperatives: ,
The accusative singular of nouns
Adjectives in the nominative case
The word for which -
Information: Russian food. A.S.Pushkin
Song: 81

Lesson 7 - - About oneself 82


Neuter forms of verbs
The preposition o - about - taking the prepositional case
Masculine and feminine nouns in - and neuter nouns -
Impersonal constructions:
Numbers above 100
Information: The River Volga

Lesson 8 - - Time 93
The time in whole hours
The nominative plural of nouns and adjectives
Short adjectives in the plural, and - necessary
The genitive plural of masculine nouns
The irregular verb - to be able to
Information: Using the telephone in Russia

Lesson 9 - - The theatre 104


Reflexive verbs in the present tense
The dative singular of nouns
The use of - to love - and - to please
The verb with and the accusative - to play a sport
The use of - time
Information: Snegurochka

Lesson 10 - - The house 114


The instrumental singular of nouns
The spelling rule for the letter o
The genitive plural of feminine and soft sign nouns
The verb with and the prepositional - to play an instrument
The verbs - to sleep - and - to sing
The declension of personal pronouns
Information: Housing in Russia

Key to the exercises 126


Texts of the listening exercises 129
Grammar Reference 132
Russian to English Dictionary 136
Dialogues marked 7 are recorded on the audio cd. The number is the cd track.
Where two numbers are given, the second is the same track with no sound effects.

Items marked  www are available as free recordings from www.ruslan.co.uk/ruslan1.htm


www in the margin indicates that there is a note for learners at www.ruslan.co.uk/ruslan1.htm
Support for teachers, including free tests, is at www.ruslan.co.uk/tests/tests.htm

8
SOUNDS AND STRESS IN RUSSIAN

You dont need perfect pronunciation to be able to get by in Russian. It is likely to


be obvious that you are a foreigner and people will be trying hard to understand
you. But if you want to progress beyond a basic level it will be well worth spending
time trying to pronounce the words as correctly as you can.

Russian pronunciation depends a lot on the stress. In words of more than one
syllable there is one stressed vowel which is pronounced more strongly, or louder,
than the others. The stress in Russian is unpredictable and has to be learnt.

In materials for learners, the stress is marked with an acute accent. For example
the stress in the word for wine is on the last syllable - - veeno. But in the
word for problem - - the is unstressed and therefore reduced.
It sounds more like the English a in dad. Listen to these words in the Alphabet
Introduction to check the difference.

In original Russian texts the stress is not marked. You have to learn it.

CYRIL AND METHODIUS

Cyril and Methodius


These were two Greek holy men, now Saints,
who have been credited with the creation of the
cyrillic alphabet.

In 863 AD they began a mission to convert the


Slavic tribes to Christianity. In the process they
translated the Scriptures into Old Church
Slavonic, and created a Slavic alphabet based
on existing Greek characters. Where there were
no characters in Greek that corresponded to
the sounds of Old Church Slavonic, they
invented new symbols. The alphabet that they
produced was amended at the time of Peter the
Great, and again by Lenin in the 1920s.

In the days of the USSR, the cyrillic alphabet was in use in all the Soviet
Republics. Today, as well as in Russia, cyrillic is the official script in the Ukraine,
Belarus, Bulgaria and Serbia.

Abbreviations used in this book:


acc. Accusative instr. Instrumental prep. Prepositional
adj. Adjective m. Masculine .. etc.
dat. Dative n. Neuter
f. Feminine nom. Nominative
gen. Genitive perf. Perfective
imp. Imperfective pl. Plural

9
THE RUSSIAN ALPHABET

The Russian alphabet has 33 characters: 21 consonants, 10 vowels


and 2 phonetic signs.

w2 Six letters are more or less similar in Russian and English:


Examples in words:

Six letters are false friends. They look like English letters, but their
sounds are different:

Examples in words:

The remaining letters are unlike English letters:


w3

Examples in words:



The two phonetic symbols (the soft sign and the hard sign ) have no
sound of their own:

wine
petrol
chocolate
?
Red Square

10
Letters and their sounds

stressed: a in father, f as in far.


unstressed: a in about.
like the ch in the German
b in bit. Sounds like p at ach or the Scottish loch.
the end of a word.
like the ts in tsar or hats.
v. Sounds like f at the
end of a word. like the ch in child.

g in gate. Sounds like k sh as in sheep.


at the end of a word.
long sch as in
d. Sounds like t at the borsch. Try to say ee,
end of a word. keep your tongue in the
same place, and say sh
stressed: ye in yes, instead.
unstressed: i in bit.
hard sign - quite rare
yo - always stressed. and has no sound of its own.
Often hardened, as in Used to separate a hard
. consonant from a soft vowel.

like the s in pleasure. There is no equivalent


in English. Start with i
z in zip. Sounds like s as in bit, and then
at the end of a word. move your tongue
lower and backwards.
like ee in eel.
soft sign. Has no sound
like the y in boy. of its own. It has the effect
of softening the preceding
k as in kill. sound.

l as in ball. a hard e, like the e in


when.
m as in man.
a soft u, like the first u
n as in new. in usual.
stressed: o as in for, stressed: ya in yak,
unstressed: a in about. unstressed: more like the
a in about.
p as in pan.

a rolled r.

s as in sit.
Listen to the CD or use the CDRom for
t as in pat. the correct sounds of the letters.
There are some more detailed phonetic www
like the oo in zoo. rules at: www.ruslan.co.uk/ruslan1.htm

11
THE ALPHABET - LETTERS IN USE

Letter Example Handwritten Translation

w4 atom

luggage

wine

gram

doctor

euro

New Year tree

journal

zoo

idea

yoghurt

crisis

lamp

menu

zero

opera

problem

rouble

sport

12
taxi

street

football

ice hockey

tsar

tea

chocolate

cabbage soup

object

music

control

expert

humour

apple

The letter and the signs and are never at the beginning of a word.

The stress marks are not used in authentic Russian texts.

In handwriting:
There are two versions of the letter - . For more practice of
the letters, use the
Some letters that are tall letters in English, for Ruslan 1 Workbook.
example k, l, are short in Russian: , .
They occupy just half the height of the line.

In , , the hook at the start of the letter is clearly defined.

Some handwritten letters are quite different in upper and lower cases.

13
LESSON 1 1

Ivan and Lyudmila meet on the plane and then arrive at Moscow
Sheremetyevo airport from London.

You will meet a number of words associated with travel and arriving at
the airport, and some basic questions and answers.

You will learn that:


K the Russians have no word for the or a.
K the verb to be isnt used in the present tense.
K the intonation rises when you ask a question.

You will learn:


K some masculine and feminine words.
K the possessive pronouns my and your in masculine and feminine.
forms - / and / .
K the pronouns and , meaning he and she respectively,
and both meaning it.

There is some basic background information about Moscow.

By the end of the lesson you should be able:


K to read some notices at a Russian airport, and to understand several
place names.
K to write some Russian letters, and to write your name.

The Ruslan 1 Workbook contains 19 additional exercises


for this lesson, including 3 listening exercises.
The Ruslan 1 Reader has a text about Igor at Pulkovo
Airport in Saint Petersburg, translation exercises, and a fun
song for learners ?
The Ruslan 1 CD-Rom contains 23 additional exercises
with sound. Lesson 1 of the CD-Rom is a free download at
www.ruslan.co.uk/demos.htm

Is this the fast bus to the airport, or the slow one?

14
15
1

w 6/11 Lyudmila
:
and Ivan in the plane
!
: !
: ?
: , !
: , ?
: , . ?
: ... ... .

w 7/12 Ivan at passport control


Official: , .
: , .
Official: ?
: , . .
Official: ?
: , .
Official: X. .

w 8/13 Ivan
:
and Lyudmila by the luggage reclaim
?
: , .
: ?
: ?
: , .
: ?
: , , .
: ?
: , .

w 9/14 Ivan going through customs


Official: .
: ? ? , . .
Official: ?
: ? .
Official: ?
: . .
Official: . ?
: , . .
Official: ?
: . .
Official: ?
: .
Official: ?
: .
Official: , .

16
. Lyudmila notices a British visitor w 10/15
dropping some papers
: , ?
: , , . , ,
?
: , .
: -1 -2?
: -2.

irrt typical
! Hello! Englishman
this vis
Msw ! Tell (me)!
ys Shrmtyv
! Exus (m)! (irrt)
and / but n
yu or
ml turist tw
fml turist
businssmn
female journalist
n
nd
I
nt
/ yur (m. / f.)
ssrt
ls / yu r wlm
x gd
hr is
thnk yu
suits
/ my (m. / f.)

whr
bg
tikt
h / it (m.)
(customs) dlrtin
sh / it (f.)
luggg www
what Trvllrs t Russi who are
aspirin carrying more than a certain
amount of foreign currency
souvenir and valuables have to fill out
ustms dlrtin form.

www
Foreign visitors must normally
btin vis bfr ntring
the Russian Federation.

17
1

www
Over 850 years old, Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, and with
more than 10 million inhabitants (2005) it is the largest city in Europe. It is the
Port of Five Seas, which are linked to the city by rivers and canals. Moscow
has four major airports, nine main stations, and a metro renowned for its
efficiency, frequency, and amazing architecture.

English-speaking nationalities, male and female:


wwww



The Russians often use / to mean anyone from
the British Isles!

There is a glossary of grammatical terminology


at www.ruslan.co.uk/ruslan1.htm

Articles and the verb to be


Thr r n rtils ( r th) in Russin, nd th vrb t b isnt
usd in th rsnt tns (I m, yu r).
Yu n therefore sy lt with just tw r thr wrds:

This is th irrt. .
I m businssmn. .
This is my luggg. .

The intntin of questions


In qustin without a question word such as what? or who?, th
vi riss n th stressed syllable of the wrd yu r sking but.

? - Is this Moscow?

? - Is this your suitcase?

18
The gender of nouns
Russin nuns can be msulin, fminin r nutr. Yu hv nly mt
th first tw s fr. Usully yu n tll th gndr by th lst lttr f th
wrd.

Most msulin nuns nd in nsnnt or -:


/ / /

Most fminin nuns nd in - , - r -:


/ (the girls name) /

In later lessons you will meet nouns with other endings.


Nouns ending in - r - are almost always neuter.
Nouns ending in - are neuter.
Nouns ending in a soft sign - can be masculine or feminine.

ssssiv rnuns
The possessive pronouns / - my, nd / - yur gr
with th nun that thy rfr t. Hr thy r ithr msulin r fminin.

Masculine Feminine


/
Ths mn h r sh fr l, nd it whn rfrring t things.

is usd t rfr t msulin nun:


? - !
? - !
is usd t rfr t fminin nun:
? - !
? - !

! - Hello! wwww
English speakers sometimes find this hard to pronounce.
If you have a standard English accent, try thinking of your donkey!
Say Does your ass fit yer fairly quickly and slurring the first D.
The result is often very close to !.

The Russian equivalent of Hi! is: !

and should only be used once a day, when you first


meet. should only be used informally, with people you know.

19
EXERCISES 1

1. Fill in the gaps with the correct word


. _______ ? /
. _______ . /
. _______ . /
. ? _______. /
. ? _______ . /
. ? _______ . /
. ? _______ . /

2. Choose the correct response


. ? .
. ? , .
. ? , .
. . .
. ? .
. . , .
. ?
. ? , .

3. You have lost your passport. What might you say?


?
?
.
.

Someone has found it. What might he / she say to you?


.
?
.
.

You thank him / her:


X.
.
.
.

And he / she might respond:


X.
.
.
.

20
! READ! 1

1. Notices at the airport. Work out which is which

wwww




Souvenirs - Transit - Check in - Luggage reclaim


Perfume shop - Red channel - No smoking - No exit
Toilet - Passport control - Exit - Flight number

2. What might intrst Russin ustms ffir?

3. Recognise the urrnis!


- - -
- -

4. Recognise the ars! Find three Russian cars!


- - - - - -
- - - - -

5. According to this list, which airport(s) would you use for the www
USA, for Western Europe, for Siberia?

-1: wwww
, , ,

-2:
, -, ,

:
, ,
:
, , ,
,
:
, ,

21
! WRITE! 1

Hr is rt f th ssngr list frm Ivns flight to Moscow.

. Work out wh th thr non-Russians are.


. Add your own name in Russian handwriting, and the names of other
people in your class.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

22
! LISTEN! 1

Listen to the dialogue on the audio CD w 16


is going through customs:
1. Nm the three itms rqustd by th ffiil fr instin.
2. Wht ws th urs f Lyudmilas tri?
3. Nm th cities sh hs visitd.
4. Has she any souvenirs? You can use the text
on page 129 to check
your answers.

! SPEAK!

1. Qustins nd nswrs but th cartoon on page 15

? - .
? - , .
? - .
? - !
? - !

2. Rl-ly (wrk in irs)

Yu r t passport control.
n rsn lys th border
guard, th thr plays a visitr.
Th visitr n did whthr
t b turist (),
businss rsn ()
or any other profession that you
know the word for.

Border guard Visitr


sk t s ssrt. Show yur ssrt.
hk sttus Sy wh yu r.
(turist / businssmn t).
sk t s vis. Show yur vis.
Rturn th ssrt nd Rsnd.
vis nd sy thnk yu.

Then change roles and start again.

23
! 1

3. mmunitin tivity
This is fr gru f l wh r hving thir first Russin
lssn. First choose your profession from the following:

- journalist
- musician
- engineer

Then walk round the room, using Russian only, and try to find the
people who have the same job as you, using words you have
learned in this lesson.

- , , ?
- , .
- .
- !

- , ?
- , .

Use just masculine forms. It would be unusual to


use the feminine form in this situation.
There is no feminine form of or .

4. /
Make a collection of objects or picture cards.
They should be either masculine or feminine. There are some
pictures for you to use on the next page.

Ask each other questions and point when you give the answer.

- - - -
- - - -

- ?
- !
- ?
- !

5.
Using the pictures opposite, ask and answer questions such as:
- ?
- .
- - ?
- .

24
w www

1 2

8 9

10

25
EY TO THE EXERCISES

1 -
1. ) . ) . ) . ) . ) . ) . ) .
2. ) , . ) . ) , . ) . ) , .
) . ) . ) , .
3. - ? - . - . -
1 - !
1. - Luggage reclaim, - Transit, - Flight number,
- Red channel, - No Smoking,
- Passport control, - Check in, - Toilet,
- Souvenirs, - Exit, - Perfume shop,
- No exit.
2. Suggested answers: , , , , , .
3. Dollar, Pound, Rouble, Euro, Japanese yen, Chinese yuan, Indian rupee.
4. Ford, Renault, Mercedes, Lada, Fiat, Jaguar, Moskvich, BMW, Volvo, Citroen, Volga,
Cadillac, Toyota. - Lada, Moskvich, Volga.
5. Sheremetyevo-2, Domodyedovo.
1 - ! Richard Branson, Mary Smith, John Phillip Thomas.
1 - !
1. Passport, visa, declaration. 2. Tourism. 3. London, Cambridge, Birmingham,
Manchester, Windsor, Liverpool. 4. Yes.

26
LISTENING TEXTS

These are the texts of the listening exercises from each lesson. The dialogues are intended
for general comprehension practice. They include some grammar points you will not have
met in the lessons, and some new words which you will find in the dictionary.

1. A
ae: a cop, oca.
w 16
a: o..., oca.
ae: A e a eap?
a: o.
ae: a.. xopo. pxa A?
a: a.
ae: C a A?
a: p.
ae: ae opo oc?
a: o, oo. a . ... pe oo: p,
p, acep, op, ep...
ae: o ac aa?
a: Oa, cep, ooaap...
ae: o a cop. poxoe.

129
27
28
LISTENING TEXTS

These are the texts of the listening exercises from each lesson. The dialogues are intended
for general comprehension practice. They include some grammar points you will not have
met in the lessons, and some new words which you will find in the dictionary.

1. A
ae: a cop, oca.
w 16
a: o..., oca.
ae: A e a eap?
a: o.
ae: a.. xopo. pxa A?
a: a.
ae: C a A?
a: p.
ae: ae opo oc?
a: o, oo. a . ... pe oo: p,
p, acep, op, ep...
ae: o ac aa?
a: Oa, cep, ooaap...
ae: o a cop. poxoe.

2. A
: Cae oca, o o a e?
w 26
pox: o a.
: A ep Coca oca ae?
pox: e, . . A a ?
: e a c, o .
pox: a, o o o ep Coca.
e po, a c ao.
: Caco.
pox: a o.

-
.

29
w 32 3. C
a: epa, a o o ?
. epa: ? o e. C o cecp. e Capca.
e Capce cecp. A e c.
a: pa? Capca?! A a o cecp?
. epa: E o a... a epa. e e a e ea.
a: a a e a?
. epa: a, e a.
a: a epco!

w 38 4. ?
a: a, a ae, o?
: a, op.
a: oe a ae?
: , oo, e ..., o... Capc o po...
A a ae, o a oe? Capc...
o... ec... a! a, o op!
a: A e op?
: o , oa! e e e.
e op. e ca e, e oe?
a: ... oce... oce Xo.
: o ae o pa?
a: o pe. .

w 51 5. OCA
.C.: !
: xa Cepe? pce! o o oop.
.C.: o ? oc? o pe?
: Ce.
.C.: e ocaoc?
: oce apc. ee oc? O a Ape.
.C.: , pepco! o eae. a ac pa.
ac pec ec?
: a, pec ec.
.C.: pepco! ?
: ? . . 293 2526.
.C.: ! 293 2526. . o pa.
: o pa.

w 59 6.
a: a, a ac?
a: c?
a: ?
a: , cac. . a.
a: A ?
a: c , c .
a: , , . ... a, c, ca
c , ca, . c, a a - c.
a: A c !
a: a, c , , ca, .

30
7.
a: a, ?
w 69
a: A... a aa... a.
a: a... ?
a: ?! a-a-a... ! .
- c, Caca.
a: ? c? c! acca .
a: Cc , cc . ac .
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31
RUSSIAN - ENGLISH DICTIONARY

This section contains the vocabulary in this book, and additional vocabulary used in the
Ruslan 1 multimedia CD-ROM, workbook and reader. Where words have more than one
meaning, the meaning(s) used in this course have been given.
and, but free (of charge)
airline business
Australia businessman / -person
/ - an Australian ticket
self-portrait to thank
administrator form
accordion near
actor pancake
allergy blouse
! Hello! (on the phone) dish, course (of a meal)
America rich
/ - an American big
American (adj.) hospital
pineapple beetroot soup
/ - Englishman / woman botanical
English (adj.) Brazilian
England brother
anecdote / joke British
questionnaire letter (character)
interval (theatre) , etc. will be
an orange bottle
aperitif snack bar
April former
Arabian (adj.) to be
argument (reason) budget
arithmetic bureau, office
army (+ acc.) to / into
artist (performing) (+ prep.) at / in
aspirin / Welshman / -woman
Afghan (adj.) waltz
airport hard currency
grandmother for you / to you
baggage Warsaw
badminton jam
balalaika you (object)
ballet your name is
balcony / etc. your
the Baltic suddenly
banana / - vegetarian
bank (money) everywhere
cash machine bicycle
bar veranda
drum evening
basketball (f.) thing, item
to run type / view
baseball video camera
white to see
Belgium visa
dress circle visiting card
free (of charge) wine
beef Stroganoff (f.) cello
bank (river etc.) tasty

32
together state (adj.)
downstairs / - citizen
attention nationality
grandson gram
granddaughter Greece
water Greek (adj.)
vodka / - a Georgian
reflexive Georgian (adj.)
to return Georgia
station (main) yes
Volga River () ... Let's ...
volleyball for a long time
question even
gates ...! Give ... !
eighteen far
eight Denmark
eighty darts
Sunday date
here is / there is dative
! Oh, really! to give
doctor dacha, summer house
time two
everybody / all twenty
always twelve
everything / all young lady
everything is OK ninety
(perf.) to insert nineteen
(perf.) to meet Father Frost
meeting / grandfather
Tuesday / - person on duty /
second attendant
yesterday really
you (polite or plural) December
(perf.) to choose declaration
luggage reclaim to do
exhibition business
exit (pedestrian) day
day off birthday
gas money
newspaper village / countryside
(m.) harmonica wooden
where (at) dessert
generator ten
Germany children
guitar kindergarten
guitarist dialogue
main sofa, couch
verb dictatorship
to say / to speak conductor (music)
year (+ gen.) for
Dutch (+ gen.) until / as far as / up to
Holland ! Good bye!
golf ! Good morning!
hill, mountain ! Good evening!
town rather, quite
hot (of food) document
living room doctor (form of address)
hotel for a long time
(m.) guest dollar

33
house / block of flats ! Hello!
dear / expensive zebra
achievement earth
daughter acquainted
friend / - acquaintance
another that means
friends Cinderella
to think zoo
shower and
uncle .. etc.
Europe to play
euro / euros idea
Egypt ! Go! / Come!
him to go (on foot)
his yen
unity (+ gen.) from
her (possessive) well-known
her (object) ! Excuse (me)!
to go (regularly, transport) icon
to her, for her caviare
to him, for him or
if imperative
to go (transport) first name
again / else industrial
New Year tree initiative
! What a pity! engineer
roasted / - foreigner
to wait instrument
then (adds emphasis) it is interesting
wife interesting
railroad (adj.) Internet
to get married (man) intimate
women's infinitive
a token inflation
to live information
journal Ireland
(-) journalist / - Irishman / woman
(perf.) to forget Irish (adj.)
(imp.) to start (something) Spain
tomorrow Spanish (adj.)
breakfast Italy
(perf.) to ask question Italian (adj.)
(perf.) to book their
(imp.) to book July
(perf.) to complete June
closed (+ dat.) towards
starter (food) to our place
hall (large room) unfortunately
in aspic office
note every, each
to get married (woman) it seems
/ - / - / - busy how
western ? How are things?
(perf.) to write down - once (upon a time)
(perf.) to fill in what kind of / which
protector calculator
to call, to phone fireplace
building Canada
here / - a Canadian

34
Canadian (adj.) ? What's the time?
canal detached house
card / map (m.) coffee
picture beautiful
card red
(m.) potato (the plant) credit (adj.)
potato (the food) (m.) kremlin, fortress
cascade (f.) fortress
cash desk armchair
cassette cruiser
cafe crisis
qualification criterion
flat xerox
drink made from rye who
bread or black bread Cuba
paraffin (adj.) where (to)
thin yoghurt cultured / cultural
kilogram (perf.) to buy
kilometre to smoke
the cinema course
cinema critic kitchen; cuisine
a cinema fine, all right
kiosk lamp
China left
Chinese (adj.) it is easy
cemetery forest
clown summer
clarinet lemon
classical lemonade
client lemon (adj.)
club to catch
key box (theatre)
book moon
book (adj.) better
carpet skis
when to love
salami (f.) love
colleague mausoleum
a well store, shop
business trip May
committee little, not much
commentary margarine
room March
- compact disk oil; butter
computer mother
of course (f.) furniture
consultant male nurse
double bass (m.) bear
(m.) control; check; test first aid point
to finish nurse (f.)
cognac international
Korea memorandum, memo
corridor manager
(m.) king menu
cosmonaut me
space my name is
campfire method
cat seat / place
meatball month

35
metro, underground natural
dream (daydream) to be located
police national
millionaire beginning
mineral to begin
! Just a minute! , , etc. our
minus not
demonstration, rally ! Don't!
for me / to me not far
a lot, many week
plural independence
mobile phone not allowed, must not
(f.) model (of a car etc.) / - a German
perhaps German (adj.)
it is possible a little bit
, , etc. my no
good boy / girl (f.) crude oil
! Well done! nothing / all right
young but
milk /- New Zealander
monastery New Zealand
frost new
ice cream (m.) zero
Moscow (adj.) hotel room / number
bridge November
motorcycle to please
to be able to ! well! (exclamation)
husband needed
man (+ prep.) about
museum about oneself
music dinner / main meal
musical to have dinner
musician exchange
we object
(+ acc.) to / onto usual
(+ prep.) at / on vegetables
by train, rail oatmeal porridge
in fact vegetable garden
outside clothing
probably one / alone
upstairs eleven
it is necessary one-room (adj.)
! Dont! lake
(f.) sign window
(perf.) to click, to press clear soup (cold, with kvas)
(go) back October
(perf.) to find he / it
name (of towns, etc.) she / it
at last it
to the left opera
written payment
a drink to pay for
to the right optimist
for example organ (instrument)
(+ gen.) opposite organisation
drug / drugs (narcotic) sturgeon
people to stay
peoples (+ gen.) from
present (time) / real reply, answer

36
to rest while / for now
father ! So long!
fatherland to buy
open polyclinic
excellent political
departure shelf
from here Polish (adj.)
patronymic name Poland
office tomato
/ - waiter / waitress to remember
very (f.) help
park Monday
stalls (theatre) to understand
partner it's time
perfume shop Portugal
passport (m.) briefcase
passport (adj.) order
passenger (+ gen.) after
small stuffed dumplings (perf.)
to have a look
first (perf.)
to build
translation to send
transportation then
break (from work etc.) because
perestroika is buried
side street why
pedestrian crossing post, post office
(above or below ground) postman
period almost
on foot post code
(f.) stove belt / zone
upright piano right (short adj.)
beer the truth
pie ? isn't it? / right?
writing (adj.) Pravda (the newspaper)
letter (correspondance) correct (adj.)
to swim holiday
plan / map practice
planet sentence (gram.) /
nephew proposal
niece President
it is bad wonderful
bad arrival
(f.) square a greeting
plus ! Hi!
(+ dat.) along to invite
- in English arrival (by transport)
- in Russian ! Come! (by transport)
on business (perf.) to arrive (by transport)
(+ gen.) in connection with adjective
victory arriving flight, arrival
was lucky ! Bring!
a present to accept
cellar to bring
(f.) signature printer
girlfriend entrance hall
train nice, pleasant
please / youre welcome problem
late provincial
! Lets go! (on foot) programme

37
programmer (+ instr.) with
programme (theatre) garden
continuation ! Sit down!
food products saxophone
project salad; lettuce
a pass samovar
to ask (a favour) a plane
(perf.) to listen self test
avenue sled
! Im sorry! boots
professional shed
occupation light (adj.) (color)
professor free (having freedom / vacant)
(perf.) to read ones own / my own etc.
! Come through! holy
/ - passer-by a saint
percent oneself
past (adj.) (sivodnya) today
straight ahead this evening
a play (theatre) a safe
fifteen a secret
Friday (m.) secretary
five secret (adj.)
fifty herring
work seminar
to work seventeen
glad seven
radio seventy
time, occasion family
Paradise September
early certificate
before sister
(perf.) to tell Siberian
revolution (f.) Siberia
registration / check-in system
flight ! Tell!
river to say
repairs ? how much?
reporter more quickly
restaurant ! Hurry up!
river (adj.) violin
Rome sweet (adj.)
/ - relative on the left
birth to follow
Christmas (m.) dictionary
(f.) role word
romantic to listen
Russia to hear
Russian audible
(m.) grand piano to look at
(m.) rouble to start with
rupee snow
Russian the Snowmaiden
fish to gather together
market cathedral
rucksack Soviet
a row quite
nearby content
(+ gen.) from juice

38
soloist theatre
nightingale text
soup from pickled or television tower
salted vegetables TV set
forty telegraph office
mobile phone telex
sauce telephone
bedroom tennis
thank you terminal
to sleep terminology
(m.) show now
specialist aunt
! Good night! typical
sponsor then, in that case
sport also
on the right only
to ask tomato (adj.)
Wednesday traditional
stadium tractor driver
station (small) tram
old transit
status three
wall thirty
poem thirteen
one hundred three hundred
to cost three-horse sleigh
table trolleybus
small table trombone
capital city trumpet / pipe
dining room labour
taxi rank toilet
country there (to)
page tourism
student / - tourist
female student you (familiar)
chair you have / at your home
chairs I have / at my home
stewardess comfortable / convenient
Saturday convenience / facility
souvenir pleasure
handbag (perf.) to find out
soup already
noun supper
bill to have supper
USA Ukraine
son / - a Ukrainian
cheese Ukrainian (adj.)
surprise street
display board in the street; outdoors
so / in this way to smile
also universal
taxi university
taxi driver exercise
public phone tired
there (at) morning
customs in the morning
customs officer teacher
cockroach female teacher
, etc. your (familiar) Wales

39
fax fur hat
fact chess
family name, last name shish kebab
February Switzerland
federation sixteen
firm six
flag sixty
flute school
foyer chocolate
camera /- Scotsman / -woman
photograph Scotland
France driver
French piece
a fruit Nutcracker
fruit (adj.) cabbage soup
pound economy
football economist
football player expert
bread express
to go (regularly, by foot) electricity
economy email
ice hockey escalator
fridge floor (e.g. first floor)
cold (adj.) , , etc. this
choir effect
good yuan (Chinese currency)
it is good / OK humour
to wnt lawyer
temple I
art (adj.) apple
tsar berry
colour(-ed) (adj.) January
a flower Japan
(f.) purpose Japanese (adj.)
cement circle (in the theatre)
centre
central
circus
numeral
young chicken
tea
an hour / one 'clock
time zone
often
(pl.) clock, watch
person
suitcase
champion
attic
black
Thursday
four
fourteen
date / number
to read
reading
what / that
...? What is ...?
champagne

40