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Unit 2: Research Essay

Essay Outline
Name: Kimmy Pathanasap
Text: Animal Farm
Approach: Psychoanalytical theory

Thesis: In Animal Farm, Orwell uses characters actions to show their unconscious motives of id,
ego, and superego.

Context/Summary: Animal Farm consists of characters with different personalities and

perspectives. Their qualities are usually motivated by their unconscious motives or their desires.
These qualities lead to their movement towards revolution which can be seen throughout the novel.

Transition: One of the most important character who leads the revolution movement of Animal
Farm is Snowball, the first animal ruler.

Observation 1: Snowballs ego is shown by his movement during his control of the farm.

Snowball is more intelligent and innovative than Napoleon. He cares about the ideal of revolution
more than Napoleon does and set rules about animals equalities.
Snowball has a desire for comfort for his own sake; however, he still thinks as a whole about
improving the farm by building up the windmill. He represents ego due to his selfish and also his
actions to benefits the farm.
( Snowball values the ideals of the revolution more than Napoleon does, though at times Snowball
does seem willing to sacrifice the principle of animal equality for his own personal comfort.)
(The mystery of where milk went to was soon cleared up. It was mixed everyday into pigs mash.
All the pigs were in full agreement on this point, even Snowball and Napoleon.(35))
(Snowball has made a close study...full of plans for innovations and improvements(48))
Connection to thesis: The contrast actions of Snowball demonstrate his ego.

Transition: Another character that shows their unconscious motives through actions is
Snowballs opponent, Napoleon.

Observation 2: Napoleons desires for comfort and pleasure are shown through his actions of
taking control of Animal Farm.

This book first describe Napoleon as a fierce looking boar with a reputation for getting his own way.
Id- Napoleon, as one of the animals in the previous Manor Farm, had suffered because of Mr.
Jones. When Mr.Jones was driven away from the farm, Napoleons desire to live more comfortable
arises. His id has lead him to took control of the farm and violate the rules as well as torture other
animals for his own needs. His first action is to steal the milk for the pig.
( It started with the mysterious disappearance of the milk. However, after time passed the id
gained more power and it had become more visible how he was leading him into a more
comfortable life)
(No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets (67))
(No animal shall drink alcohol to excess(109))
(No animal shall kill any other animal without cause(91))
(All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others(134))
Connection to thesis: The unconscious wishes for comfort and pleasure of Napoleon effects
his actions of gaining control.
Transition: Not only the leaders actions are influenced by their desires, Boxer, one of the most
important character in Animal Farm, also shown to be affected by his unconscious mind.
Observation 3: Boxer always accept what Napoleon did because of fear and superego.

Boxer is known to be very strong and tends to be used in physical work. He is a character that
tends to stuck to his principles and that fails him from noticing the suspicion in Napoleons act.

Napoleon is always right. Boxer developed this new motto after hearing Napoleons reasons of
not holding the debates. Napoleon claims that Jones will come back if all the animals still argued
about the windmill and didnt believe that Snowball and his idea are bad. Boxer, unwilling to suffer
like in Jones time ( reins, halters, blinkers, degraded nosebags, whips (21)), wholeheartedly
believe everything Napoleon said.
( Napoleon plays his cards right and also uses fear as a motivation, the fear that Jones would
return and they all would be slaves again.) ( Boxer, who had now had time to think things over,
voiced the general feeling by saying: If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right. And from that
on he adopted the maxim, Napoleon is always right, in addition to his private motto of I will work
harder. (56))

Most loyal and faithful personalities. Boxer always do things that benefits the farm (working hard)
because of his superego. Due to the fact that he had difficulty thinking anything out for
themselves (18) and also being convinced by Napoleon that he is doing the right thing make
Boxer accept Napoleon as a leader.
(Most of the time Boxer only acted the way he did because he believed that it was the right thing
to do and not because he was stupid. Furthermore, because of his kindhearted personality he
found it hard to believe that anyone would do anything that would hurt others.)

Connection to thesis: Fear and superego are parts of the unconscious motives. Character
of Boxer shows that his actions are motivated by these desires and fears.

All three animals have shown to have unconscious motives. These uncontrollable desires have
effect their movements toward Animal Farm. Boxer does everything for the farm, Napoleon does
everything for himself, and Snowball tends to does both.