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APA REFERENCE STYLE (6TH EDITION)

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and many other fields. The APA citation
format requires parenthetical citations within the text instead of endnotes or footnotes. Citations in the text provide brief
information, the name of the author and the year of publication, to lead the reader to find the source of information in the
reference list at the end of the paper.

This handout is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), but is not a
comprehensive guide. For all rules and requirements of APA citations, please consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association.

References

Concise Rules of APA Style, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010.

Index
Title Page
1. Reference in the Text : Basic Rules 02
2. Reference in the Text : Special Occurrence 03
3. Reference in the Text : Quotations 04
4. Reference List : Basic Rules 05
5. Reference List : Examples
a. Book (print) 06
b. Book (electronic) 07
c. Chapter of a Reference Book 07
d. Print Periodicals 08
e. Electronic Periodicals 08
f. Reference Works 09
g. Thesis & Dissertations 10
h. Reports 11
i. Audio Visual Materials 11
j. Web Pages & Other Online Works 12
k. Unpublished Materials 13
l. Unpublished online Works 13
m. Archival Documents 14

[1]
CITING REFERENCES IN TEXT : Basic Rules
Parenthetical references in the text include the authors surname (do not include suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication

When there are multiple authors, precede the final name in running text by the word and. In parenthetical material, in tables
and captions and in the reference list, join the names by an ampersand (&).
o If the author's name is used in the sentence, simply include within parentheses the date of publication after the author's name
Barrow (1974) found . . .
o If the author's name is not incorporated in the sentence, include the author's last name and publication date within
parentheses
. . . (Barrow, 1974).
o If a source has two authors, cite both names every time the reference appears in the text.
. . . (Dewdney & Ross, 1994).
Dewdney and Ross (1994) found. . .

o For a source with three, four or five authors, cite all of the authors when the reference occurs first time. For any subsequent
occurrences of the same reference, use the first authors surname with et al. signifying the other authors. Follow this with the
year of the publication. Omit the year from each subsequent occurrence of the same reference falling within the same
paragraph
First text citation : Smith, Rubick, Jones, and Malcolm, 1995
Subsequent citations: Smith et al. (1995) argued that. . . .

First text citation : (Smith, Rubick, Jones, & Malcolm, 1995)


Subsequent citations: (Smith et al., 1995)

o For a source with six or more authors, include only the first author's surname followed by "et al."
Peffer et al. (1997) contended. . . .
(Peffer et al., 1997)

o If a source has a group (corporation, government agency, association, etc.) as an author, the name is usually spelled out in
every text citation. However, if the name is long and the abbreviation is easily recognizable or understandable, spell it out for
the first text citation and abbreviate for subsequent citations.

First text citation: (Association of College and Research Libraries [ACRL], 1996)
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 1996)
Subsequent citations: (ACRL, 1996)
ACRL (1996) found that. . . .

[2]
CITING REFERENCES IN TEXT : Special Occurrences
If a reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname,
Authors with same Surname first authors initials should be included in all text citations even if the year of publication differs
Among studies, we review M.A. Light and Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)

If a work has no identified author, citer the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the
title) and the year.
Use Double Quotation for the title of an article, a chapter or web page
Work with no Identified Author or on free care (Study Finds, 2007)
with an Anonymous Author Italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report
the book College Bound Seniors (2008)

For Anonymous authors,


(Anonymous, 1998)

Order the citations of two or more works within the same parenthesis alphabetically as they
appear in the reference list

Two or more work of the same authors should be arranged by the year of publication. Authors
surname should use once and for each subsequent work only the year should be used

Training materials are available (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2001,2003)


Two or more works within same Past research (Gogel, 1990,2006, in press)
parenthesis
If the same author has the publications in same year, add the suffixes a, b, c and so forth after
the year. The year should be repeated in the text citation.
Several studies (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b, in press-a; Rothbart, 2003a)

Two or more works by different authors should be cited in alphabetical order by the first authors
surname.
Clear evidence provided ( Helber, 1995; Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne , 2006)

When the original work is out of print, unavailable through usual sources or not available in
English then use secondary sources. It should be cited secondary source in the reference list and
Secondary Sources in text both original work and secondary source should be indicated.
Chambliss and Ryther (as cited in Liazos, 1985) reported

When the year of publication is very old or inapplicable, cite the year of translation used,
preceded by trans or the year of the version used followed by version
(Aristotle. Trans. 1931)
Classical Works James (1890/1983)
It is not needed to include entries in the reference list for major classical works (ancient Greek
and Roman works, classical religious works; Bible, Quran
(Quran 5:3-4)

Indicate the page, chapter, figure table or equation at the appropriate point in the text reference
Specific Parts of a source
(Thennakoon, 1963, p.96)
(Chen, 1982, Chapter 2)

Personal communications are not cited in the reference list. Include many details in the text
(such as Initials and the surname of the communicator, the exact date etc.)
Personal Communication
M. Greene (personal communication, September 29, 2005 )

[3]
CITING REFERENCES IN TEXT : Quotations
If the quotation fewer than 40 words, use quotation marks around the quote and include page numbers (if page numbers are
unavailable use paragraph number)

He stated, The impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups (Gallati, 1988, p.38), but
he did not go into much more detail.

Gallati (1998) contended that the impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups (p.38).

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it as a separate block of text without the quotation marks. The block
should be indented about a half inch from the left. Entire quotation should have double space. If there are additional
paragraphs in the quotation, it should be indented the first line of each additional paragraph.

Others have contradicted this view:


Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which
hundreds or thousands o people gather In a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
In these Instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their
ability to make direct intimate connections With those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly.
(Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)

Gallati (1998) discovered the following:


The impact of technology on student learning is best observed when conducting focus groups In addition, students willingly
discuss their experiences positive and negative - with the researcher, thus documenting the ways in which technological
advances have helped or hindered their experience as a student. (p.38)

When citing information from an online material that doesnt provide page numbers, use the paragraph abbreviation (para.) to
indicate the paragraph being cited. If the online source doesnt have visible page or paragraph numbers, cite the heading and
the number of the paragraph following it.

(Myers, 2000, para. 5)


(Lehman, 2001, Recommendation section, para. 2)

[4]
REFERENCE LIST : Basic Rules
1. Double space for each entry and use hanging indentation (the first line of an entry isn't indented, but every subsequent line in the entry is
indented five spaces).

2. Alphabetize the list of sources by the authors (or editor's) last name; if there is no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title
other than a, an, or the. Use initials for an author's first and middle names. For two or more works by an author, arrange the works by date,
oldest work first

3. Use one space after periods, colons, semi-colons, and commas.

4. With two or more authors, use all authors' names up to seven authors. Again, start with the last name and use initials for the first and middle
names for all authors. Instead of the word "and," use an ampersand (&) and separate the names with commas. When authors number eight or
more, include the first six authors names, then insert three ellipsis points and add the last authors name.

5. The publication date should appear in parentheses directly after the last author's name; put a period after the final parenthesis. For books, list
year only. For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers give the year followed by the exact date (month or month and day) on the publication
(2000, November 10). If you list two works by the same author published in the same year, alphabetize by title, unless they are part of a series.

6. Put the title of a book after the year of publication. Book titles and subtitles should be italicized. Capitalize only the first word and proper
nouns in a title or subtitle.

7. Don't put titles of articles in quotation marks or italics, and, as with a book, only the first word of the article title and subtitle and any proper
nouns are capitalized. Periodical titles are capitalized just as you would normally, and italicize the name of the periodical and the volume
number.

8. Give the location as mentioned in the title page (city and abbreviated state (if possible) for United State and if outside of the US, city and
country). The publisher's name may be shortened, as long as it is easy to recognize (e.g.: New York: Harper). When the author and publisher
are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher

9. Use p. (pp. for plurals) only before page numbers of newspaper articles and chapters in edited books, not in references to articles from
magazines and journals. In contrast, parenthetical references in the text of a paper leading to specific pages always include p. or pp.no
matter what type of source.

10. Retrieval information must be given for electronic sources. The statement should provide the URL, or website address, of the source.

11. Cite personal communications only as in text citationsdo not include them in the reference list

12. Although some volume numbers of books and journals are given in Roman numerical, APA use Arabic numbers (e.g.: Vol. 3, not Vol. III). The
Roman numerical which is a part of the title, should remain in the title (e.g.: Attention and Performance XIII)

13. Acceptable abbreviations should be used when necessary

Abbreviation Book or Publication Part


ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. Second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) Page (pages)
Vol. Volume (e.g.: Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes (e.g.: Vols. 4-5)
No. Numbers
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement

[5]
REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLES
Each reference should include four elements: (1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date (3) Title of the work and (4) Publication
Information.
If the item is available online, a retrieval statement or DOI is required after (3) Title. Exclude (4) Publication Information.

Note: Using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is the preferred method of identifying online material such as journal
articles, books and reports. For researchers, when a DOI is available, no matter whether electronic or print, include
it (Publication Manual, p.189)

DOI - Digital Object Identifier


The preferred method of identifying online material such as journal articles, books and reports. A DOI is
made up of letters and numbers and is unique to each document, like a digital finger print.

BOOKS

FOR AN ENTIRE BOOK (PRINT), USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMATS:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (nth ed.). Location: Publisher.


Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work (nth ed.). Location: Publisher.

1. One author
Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancy dancing: Stories and poems. Brooklyn, NY: Hang Loose Press.
Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theatre (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon

2. Two to seven authors [List all authors]


Elmasri, R., Navathe, S. B., Somayajulu, D. V. L. N., & Gupta, S. K. (2006). Fundamentals of database systems. Delhi, India:
Dorling Kindersley.

3. Eight or more authors [Include the first six authors names, then three ellipsis and the last authors name]

Birbeck, M., Diamond, J., Duckett, J. Gudmundsson, O. G., Kobak, P., Lenz, E., Zaev, Z. (2001). Professional XML
(2nd ed.). Mumbai, India: Shroff

4. Corporate Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC:
Author.

5. Anonymous Author [No author / editor]


Dorlands illustrated medical dictionary (31st ed.). (2007). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

6. Editor
Ermann, M. D., & Shauf, M. S. (Eds.). (2003). Computers, ethics, and society. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

7. Translator
Freud, S. (1950). Beyond the pleasure principle (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York, NY: Live right. (Original work published 1920).

Note: In-text citation would appear as: (Freud, 1920/1950)


[6]
8. Work in several volumes
Blotner, J. (1976). Faulkner: A biography (Vols. 1-2). New York, NY: Random House.

9. Conference Proceedings
Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings of CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support
for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

FOR AN ELECTRONIC BOOK, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMATS:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (nth ed.). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx


Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work (nth ed.). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

11. Electronic version of print book


Shotton, M. A (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from
http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital
Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/0071393722

12. Electronic-only book


O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the costs in Western values. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?
litemID=135

13. Electronic book retrieved from a database


Murray, T. H. (1996). The worth of a child. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from netLibrary database.

14. Electronic book on CD / DVD


Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York, NY: Random House/Listening Library.

FOR A CHAPTER IN A BOOK OR ENTRY IN A REFERENCE BOOK, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B.


Editor, & C. Editor (Eds), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

15. Article or chapter in a print Book


Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of
subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

16. Article or chapter in an electronic book


Symonds, PM. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp.11-22).
Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database.

[7]
17. Paper from the proceedings of a conference
Miller, S. (2000). Introduction to manufacturing simulation. In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, (pp. 63-
66). Retrieved from http://www.informs-sim.org/wsc00papers/011.PDF

ARTICLES : JOURNALS, MAGAZINES & NEWSPAPERS

FOR PRINT ARTICLES, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of
Periodical, vol(issue), xxx-xxx.

NOTE: The periodical title and the volume number are in italics. Issue numbers are not required if the journal is continuously paged. If
paged individually, the issue number is required and is in regular type in parentheses adjacent to the volume number.

18. Journal article


Gibbs, M. (2005). The right to development and indigenous peoples: Lessons from New Zealand. World Development, 33(8),
1365-1378.

19. Magazine article


Mathews, J., Berrett, D., & Brillman, D. (2005, May). Other winning equations. Newsweek, 145(20), 58-59.

20. Newspaper article


Hartevelt, J. (2007, December 20). Boy racers. The Press, p. 3.

21. Newspaper article with no author or no continuous pages


Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, pp. E1, E4.

FOR ELECTRONIC ARTICLES, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of
Periodical, vol(issue), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

22. Online journal article with DOI


Whitmeyer, J. M. (2000). Power through appointment. Social Science Research, 29(4), 535-555.
doi:10.1006/_ssre.2000.0680

23. Online Journal article without DOI


If there is no DOI assigned for online materials, give the URL of the journal home page
No retrieval date is needed

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and
adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

[8]
24. Online magazine article

Novotney, A. (2010, January). Integrated care is nothing new for these psychologists. Monitor on Psychology, 41(1). Retrieved
from www.apa.org/monitor

25. Online newspaper article

Gadher, D. (2007, September 2). Leap in gambling addiction forecast. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from
http://www.timesonline.co.uk

26. Online newsletter article [no author]


Six sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative conference. (2006, November/December). OJJDP News @ a
Glance.Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/htmllojjdp/news_acglance/216684/topstory.htmI

REFERENCE WORKS [DICTIONARIES, ENCYCLOPEDIAS ETC.]

27. Article in an encyclopedia


Dober, R. P. (1988). Campus planning. In Encyclopedia of architecture: Design, engineering, & construction (Vol. 1, pp. 527-539).
New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Note: In-text citation would appear as: (Dober, 1998)

28. Article in an encyclopedia [no byline (author)]


Islam. (1992). In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 22, pp. 1-43). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica

Note: In-text citation would appear as: (Islam, 1992)

29. General dictionary with an editor

Weber, C. (Ed.). (2002). Webster's dictionary (4th ed., Vols. 1-4). Chicago: Webster Press.

30. General dictionary without an editor

Oxford dictionary (7th ed.). (2000). Hinsdale, IL: Penguin Press.

31. Specific dictionary entry with an editor

Quixotic. (1990). In N. Taparia (Ed.), Oxford dictionary (3rd ed., Vol. 5, p. 345). New York: Oxford Press.

32. Specific dictionary entry without an editor


Quixotic. (1990). Oxford dictionary (3rd ed., Vol. 5, p.345). New York: Oxford Press.

33. Entry in an online reference work


Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

34. Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor


Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m- w.com/dictionary/heuristic

35. Wiki
Citing Wikipedia. (2009, July 3). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_Wikipedia

[9]
DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS AND MASTER THESIS

FOR UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATION OR THESIS, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or masters thesis


(Unpublished doctoral dissertation or masters thesis). Name of
Institution, Location.

36. Thesis (Print) : Outside of the US

Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the University of Waikato (Unpublished master's thesis).
University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

37. Thesis (Print) : From US


Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

FOR DISSERTATION OR THESIS AVAILABLE FROM A DATABASE SERVICE, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or masters thesis (Doctoral


dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database.
(Accession or Order No.)

38. Masters thesis, from a commercial database


McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's
thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)

39. Doctoral dissertation, from institutional database


Adams, R. J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral
dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/

40. Masters thesis, from the web


Patterson, G. W. (2003). A comparison of multi-year instructional programs (looping) and regular education program utilizing
scale scores in reading. (Masters thesis, University of Florida). Retrieved from http://www.uf.edu/~asb/theses/2003/

NOTE: When the dissertation and masters thesis is retrieved on the Web, it may not be clear what institution
conferred the degree. Include the name of the university in parentheses after the degree

[10]
REPORTS

FOR TECHNICAL & RESEARCH REPORT, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher

NOTE: Annual reports should consider as books

41. Government report [print]


United States General Accounting Office. (1997, February). Telemedicine: Federal strategy is needed to guide investments
(Publication No. GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

42. Government report from web


United States General Accounting Office. (1997, February). Telemedicine: Federal strategy is needed to guide investments
(Publication No. GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Retrieved from General Accounting Office Reports Online:
www.gpoaccess.gov/gaoreports/index.html

43. Non government report from web


National Center for Ethical Education, Commission on Higher Education. (2002). Statistical analysis report: Ethical education
(NCEE 97-584). Retrieved from http://ncee.ed.org/pubs/97584.html

44. Research Report

Tayama, T. (2006). Velocity influence on detection and prediction of changes in color and motion direction (Report No. 38, 1-20).
Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University, Psychology Department.

University of Waikato. (1967). First hall of residence (Information series No. 3). Hamilton, New Zealand: Author.

AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS

FOR A MOTION PICTURE, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of picture


[Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio

45. Film motion picture


Vasile, T. (Producer), & Fellini F. (Director). (2001). Roma [Motion picture]. United States: MGM Home
Entertainment.
Note: In-text citation would appear as: (Vasile & Fellini, 2001)

46. Video [DVD / CD]


American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual
attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos/

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47. Episode from television or radio programme

NOTE: For an episode from a television or radio series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list
the script writer and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Egan, D. (Writer) & Alexander. J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode], In D. Shore (Executive
producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

FOR A MUSIC RECORDING, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Writer, A. A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if


different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD,
record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (data of recording if different
from song copyright date)

48. Music Recording


Lang, K.D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

49. Map retrieved online


Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic
map].Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf

OTHER ONLINE WORKS

FOR WEB PAGES AND SIMILAR ONLINE WORKS, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. or sponsoring organization. (Last update or copyright date).


Title of page [Format, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx.xxx

50. Web Pages


Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz

Cobb, W. J. (2004, October). The culture of civil rights. Retrieved from ttp://www.voicesofcivilrights.org/civil5.html

51. Online Annual Report


Microsoft Corporation. (2009). Microsoft Corporation annual report 2009. Retrieved from
http://www.microsoft.com/msft/reports/ar09/index.html

52. Online Broacher


US Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2009, April). The redesigned (new) citizenship test [Brochure]. Retrieved from
http://www.usda.gov/documents/AvianFluBrochure.pdf

53. Online Video


Harvard University. (2009, November 16). Stem cells: Mending a broken heart [Video file]. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMtFkfcQqec

[12]
UNPUBLISHED AND INFORMALLY PUBLISHED WORKS

FOR UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript [or


Manuscript submitted for publication, or Manuscript in
preparation]

54. Unpublished manuscript with a university cited


Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of
Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

55. Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication


Ting, J. Y., Florsheim, P., & Huang, W. (2008). Mental health help-seeking in ethnic minority populations: A theoretical
perspective. Manuscript submitted for publication.

UNPUBLISHED ONLINE WORKS

FOR UNPUBLISHED ONLINE WORKS, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved


from http://www.xxxx

56. Online Discussion


Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from
http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness

57. Blog post


Wadard. (2009, June 15). Australia's climate bill may be scuttled [Web log post]. Retrieved from
http://globalwarmingwatch.blogspot.com/

58. Video blog post


Leelefever. (2007, May 29). Wiki in plain English [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
dnL00TdmLY

59. Message posted to an electronic mailing list


Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForenslcNetwork/message/670

[13]
ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS AND COLLECTIONS

FOR ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS, USE THE FOLLOWING REFERENCE FORMAT:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material].


Name of collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number,
etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

60. Handout, Lecture Notes [Print]

Brown, P. (2004). Marketing: MKTG200-04B [Lecture notes]. University of Waikato, Department of Marketing, Hamilton, New
Zealand.

61. Letter from a repository


Frank, L. K. (1935, February 4). [Letter to Robert M. Ogden]. Rockefeller Archive Center (GEB series 1.3, Box 371, Folder
3877), Tarry town, NY.

62. Newspaper article in an archive


Psychoanalysis institute to open. (1948, September 18). [Clipping from an unidentified Day ton, Ohio newspaper]. Copy
in possession of author.

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