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Digital Door Lock



In Electronics Access control system , we will control the door using password protection. In
thisd project we will control it using microcontroller 89C051. we will use key matrix to
enter data, if entered data will match with stored data in microcontrolller, then only it will
allow the door to open , otherwise it will remain locked. The main key in this project is
coding of password.we will use stepper motor to open the door , so that door will open step
by step. We will use LCD display to show the entered password.

It will also show the entered password match with stored password, if the password will
match then it will show access successful, otherwise it will show denied. LCD dislay will
also show clock. if entered password three times denied, then it will move the programmer in
continuous loop & will not allow to entered password.

When signal match with the stored password then microcontroller will give its output to
stepper motor circuit through port3. it will give supply to stepper motor & rx pulses from
microcontroller .

Then dooor will open.


LCD display- entered password show on LCD

Programmable- flexible- programming can be change , so this project is flexible

Component easily available

Low cost

General use for security system


1. Security System of offices,lockers,rooms

2. For cranes we can make cranes with same logic

3. For lift control- with change in programming we can change in to lift control circuit

Deptt of CSE 1 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock



LCD display
Microcontroller To show
Driving Circuit password,
KeyBoard 89C051 result
For password

DC motor drive circuit

DC motor DOOR

Deptt of CSE 2 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

Fig.1. 1 Circuit Diagram

Deptt of CSE 3 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

Working of circuit:

Supply Section of this circuit consists of a 12 volts adaptor, and a IC 7805 IC. The output of
the second regulator(IC 7805) is +5 volts, which is used for all other digital applications.

The display section uses the port 1 of microcontroller. This port is in open drain
configuration and as a result, pull up resistors should be provided for its normal operation.
The contrast of this LCD display is adjusted by changing the value of a resistor which is
grounded at the other end.

Deptt of CSE 4 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock




An open system is the normal desktop computer where you can use it for any tasks. If you
want to process text documents you can install Ms-word if you want to send mail you can use
outlook express and counts on.


An embedded system is the system where you can use it for a specific task.

2.2.1 Microcontroller:-

A microcontroller (often abbreviated MCU) is a single computer chip that executes a user
program, normally for the purpose of controlling some device hence the name

A microcontroller is differed from microprocessor in many ways. Basically microprocessors

are the devices which can process huge amount of data. A microprocessor cant do anything
on it own. Even to light a led a microprocessor needs minimum of a ROM, RAM, Latch,
Address decoders, PORT controllers. But for the same application if you take a
microcontroller you barely need a crystal and some capacitors.

So from this you can understand how versatile the microcontroller is.


PIC One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. It is based on RISC
Architecture which makes the microcontroller process faster than other microcontroller.

INTEL These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not as
sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to learn.

ATMEL Atmels AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the embedded
industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of ram even the entry stage. But it is
unfortunate that in India we are unable to find this kind of microcontroller.

Deptt of CSE 5 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

2.4 INTEL 8051

Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly language and also has a
good support for High level languages.

The memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k.

This microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn.

The 8051 microcontroller is in the field for more than 20 years. There are lots of books and
study materials are readily available for 8051.

2.5 ATMEL 89S52

2.5.1 Features

Compatible with MCS-51 Products

4K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory Endurance: 1000

Write/Erase Cycles

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz

Three-level Program Memory Lock

128 x 8-bit Internal RAM

32 Programmable I/O Lines

Two 16-bit Timer/Counters

Six Interrupt Sources

Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode

nDual Data Pointer

Power-off Flag

Fast Programming Time

Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)

Deptt of CSE 6 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock




The electrical power is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the form
of ac because of economical consideration but for operation of most of the electronic devices
and circuits, dc supply is required. Dry cells and batteries can be used for this purpose. No
doubt, they have the advantages of being portable and ripple free but their voltages are low,
they need frequent replacement and are expensive in comparison to conventional dc power

Now a days, almost all electronic equipment include a circuit that converts ac supply into dc
supply. The part of equipment that converts ac into dc is called DC power supply. In general
at the input of the power supply there is a power transformer. It is followed by a rectifier (a
diode circuit)a smoothing filter and then by a voltage regulator circuit.

From the block diagram, the basic power supply is constituted by four elements viz a
transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator put together. The output of the dc power
supply is used to provide a constant dc voltage across the load. Let us briefly outline the
function of each of the elements of the dc power supply.

Transformer is used to step-up or step-down (usually to step-down) the-supply voltage as per

need of the solid-state electronic devices and circuits to be supplied by the dc power supply.
It can provide isolation from the supply line-an important safety consideration. It may also
include internal shielding to prevent unwanted electrical noise signal on the power line from
getting into the power supply and possibly disturbing the load.

Deptt of CSE 7 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

3.1.1 Circuit diagram

In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for converting mains
AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a power supply designing of each and
every component is essential. Here Im going to discuss the designing of regulated 5V Power

Lets start with very basic things the choosing of components


Step down transformer

Voltage regulator



Lets get into detail of rating of the devices :

3.2.1Voltage regulator :

Deptt of CSE 8 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC.

7805 IC Rating :

Input voltage range 7V- 35V

Current rating Ic = 1A

Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

LM7805 Pin Diagram

3.2.2 Transformer :

Selecting a suitable transformer is of great importance. The current rating and the secondary
voltage of the transformer is a crucial factor.

The current rating of the transformer depends upon the current required for the load to be

The input voltage to the 7805 IC should be at least 2V greater than the required 2V
output, therefore it requires an input voltage at least close to 7V.

So I chose a 6-0-6 transformer with current rating 500mA (Since 6*2 = 8.4V).

NOTE : Any transformer which supplies secondary peak voltage up to 35V can be used but
as the voltage increases size of the transformer and power dissipation across regulator

3.2.3 Rectifying circuit :

The best is using a full wave rectifier

Deptt of CSE 9 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

Its advantage is DC saturation is less as in both cycle diodes conduct.

Higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).

1N4007 diodes are used as its is capable of withstanding a higher reverse voltage of
1000v whereas 1N4001 is 50V

Center Tap Full Wave Rectifier

3.2.4 Capacitors :

Knowledge of Ripple factor is essential while designing the values of capacitors

It is given by

Y=1/(43fRC) (as the capacitor filter is used)

1. f= frequency of AC ( 50 Hz)

2. R=resistance calculated

R= V/Ic

V= secondary voltage of transformer

V=62=8. 4

R=8.45/500mA=16.9 standard 18 chosen

3. C= filtering capacitance

Deptt of CSE 10 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

We have to determine this capacitance for filtering


Vac-rms = Vr/23

Vdc= VMax-(Vr/2)

Vr= VMax- VMin

Vr = 5.2-4.8 =0. 4V

Vac-rms = .3464V

Vdc = 5V

Y=0 .06928

Hence the capacitor value is found out by substituting the ripple factor in Y=1/(43fRC)

Thus, C= 2314 F and standard 2200F is chosen

Datasheet of 7805 prescribes to use a 0.01F capacitor at the output side to

avoid transient changes in the voltages due to changes in load and a 0.33F at the input side
of regulator to avoid ripples if the filtering is far away from regulator.

3.3 Working
Every electrical and electronic device that we use in our day-to-day life will require a power
supply. In general, we use an AC supply of 230V 50Hz, but this power has to be changed into
the required form with required values or voltage range for providing power supply to
different types of devices. There are various types of power electronic converters such as
step-down converter, step-up converter, voltage stabilizer, AC to DC converter, DC to DC
converter, DC to AC converter, and so on. For example, consider the microcontrollers
that are used frequently for developing many embedded systems based projects and kits used
in real-time applications. These microcontrollers require a 5V DC supply, so the AC 230V
needs to be converted into 5V DC using the step-down converter in their power supply

Steps to Convert 230V AC to 5V DC

1. Step Down the Voltage Level

The step-down converters are used for converting the high voltage into low voltage. The
converter with output voltage less than the input voltage is called as a step-down converter,

Deptt of CSE 11 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

and the converter with output voltage greater than the input voltage is called as step-up
converter. There are step-up and step-down transformers which are used to step up or step
down the voltage levels. 230V AC is converted into 12V AC using a step-down transformer.
12V output of stepdown transformer is an RMS value and its peak value is given by the
product of square root of two with RMS value, which is approximately 17V.

Step-down transformer consists of two windings, namely primary and secondary windings
where primary can be designed using a less-gauge wire with more number of turns as it is
used for carrying low-current high-voltage power, and the secondary winding using a high-
gauge wire with less number of turns as it is used for carrying high-current low-voltage
power. Transformers works on the principle of Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction.

2. Convert AC to DC

230V AC power is converted into 12V AC (12V RMS value wherein the peak value is
around 17V), but the required power is 5V DC; for this purpose, 17V AC power must be
primarily converted into DC power then it can be stepped down to the 5V DC. But first and
foremost, we must know how to convert AC to DC? AC power can be converted into DC
using one of the power electronic converters called as Rectifier. There are different types of
rectifiers, such as half-wave rectifier, full-wave rectifier and bridge rectifier. Due to the
advantages of the bridge rectifier over the half and full wave rectifier, the bridge rectifier is
frequently used for converting AC to DC.

Deptt of CSE 12 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

Bridge Rectifier

Bridge rectifier consists of four diodes which are connected in the form a bridge. We know
that the diode is an uncontrolled rectifier which will conduct only forward bias and will not
conduct during the reverse bias. If the diode anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage
then the diode is said to be in forward bias. During positive half cycle, diodes D2 and D4 will
conduct and during negative half cycle diodes D1 and D3 will conduct. Thus, AC is
converted into DC; here the obtained is not a pure DC as it consists of pulses. Hence, it is
called as pulsating DC power. But voltage drop across the diodes is (2*0.7V) 1.4V; therefore,
the peak voltage at the output of this retifier circuit is 15V (17-1.4) approx.

3. Smoothing the Ripples using Filter

15V DC can be regulated into 5V DC using a step-down converter, but before this, it is
required to obtain pure DC power. The output of the diode bridge is a DC consisting of
ripples also called as pulsating DC. This pulsating DC can be filtered using an inductor filter
or a capacitor filter or a resistor-capacitor-coupled filter for removing the ripples. Consider a
capacitor filter which is frequently used in most cases for smoothing.


Deptt of CSE 13 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

We know that a capacitor is an energy storing element. In the circuit, capacitor stores energy
while the input increases from zero to a peak value and, while the supply voltage decreases
from peak value to zero, capacitor starts discharging. This charging and discharging of the
capacitor will make the pulsating DC into pure DC, as shown in figure.

4. Regulating 12V DC into 5V DC using Voltage Regulator

15V DC voltage can be stepped down to 5V DC voltage using a DC step-down converter

called as voltage regulator IC7805. The first two digits 78 of IC7805 voltage regulator
represent positive series voltage regulators and the last two digits 05 represents the output
voltage of the voltage regulator.


A regulated power supply is an embedded circuit; it converts unregulated AC into a

constant DC. With the help of a rectifier it converts AC supply into DC. Its function is to
supply a stable voltage (or less often current), to a circuit or device that must be operated
within certain power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be
alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly always DC (Direct Current)


D.C. variable bench supply (a bench power supply usually refers to a power supply
capable of supplying a variety of output voltages useful for BE (bench testing) electronic
circuits, possibly with continuous variation of the output voltage, or just some preset
voltages; a laboratory (lab) power supply normally implies an accurate bench power
supply, while a balanced or tracking power supply refers to twin supplies for use when a
circuit requires both positive and negative supply rails).

Mobile Phone power adaptors

Regulated power supplies in appliances

Various amplifiers and oscillators


The quality of the power supply is determined by various characteristics like load
voltage, load current, voltage regulation, source regulation, output impedance, ripple
rejection, and so on. Some of the characteristics are briefly explained below:

Deptt of CSE 14 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

1. Load Regulation The load regulation or load effect is the change in regulated output
voltage when the load current changes from minimum to maximum value.

Load regulation = Vno-load Vfull-load

Vno-load Load Voltage at no load

Vfull-load Load voltage at full load.

From the above equation we can understand that when Vno-load occurs the load resistance is
infinite, that is, the out terminals are open circuited. Vfull-load occurs when the load
resistance is of the minimum value where voltage regulation is lost.

% Load Regulation = [(Vno-load Vfull-load)/Vfull-load] * 100

2. Minimum Load Resistance The load resistance at which a power supply delivers its
full-load rated current at rated voltage is referred to as minimum load resistance.

Minimum Load Resistance = Vfull-load/Ifull-load

The value of Ifull-load, full load current should never increase than that mentioned in the data
sheet of the power supply.

3. Source/Line Regulation In the block diagram, the input line voltage has a nominal value
of 230 Volts but in practice, there are considerable variations in ac supply mains voltage.
Since this ac supply mains voltage is the input to the ordinary power supply, the filtered
output of the bridge rectifier is almost directly proportional to the ac mains voltage.The
source regulation is defined as the change in regulated output voltage for a specified rage of
line voltage.

4. Output Impedance A regulated power supply is a very stiff dc voltage source. This
means that the output resistance is very small. Even though the external load resistance is
varied, almost no change is seen in the load voltage. An ideal voltage source has an output
impedance of zero.

5. Ripple Rejection Voltage regulators stabilize the output voltage against variations in
input voltage. Ripple is equivalent to a periodic variation in the input voltage. Thus, a voltage
regulator attenuates the ripple that comes in with the unregulated input voltage. Since a
voltage regulator uses negative feedback, the distortion is reduced by the same factor as the

Deptt of CSE 15 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

3.5 WHY LM 7805

An easy way to remember the voltage output by a LM78XX series of voltage regulators is the
last two digits of the number. A LM7805 ends with "05"; thus, it outputs 5 volts. The "78"
part is just the convention that the chip makers use to denote the series of regulators that
output positive voltage. The other series of regulators, the LM79XX, is the series that outputs
negative voltage. So:

A LM7805 Voltage Regulator is a voltage regulator that outputs +5 volts.

LM78XX: Voltage regulators that output positive voltage, "XX"=voltage output.

LM79XX: Voltage regulators that output negative voltage, "XX"=voltage output

The LM7805, like most other regulators, is a three-pin IC.

Pin 1 (Input Pin): The Input pin is the pin that accepts the incoming DC voltage, which the
voltage regulator will eventually regulate down to 5 volts.
Pin 2 (Ground): Ground pin establishes the ground for the regulator.
Pin 3 (Output Pin): The Output pin is the regulated 5 volts DC.

7805 IC is useful in a wide range of circuits. The major ones being:

Deptt of CSE 16 YCET, Jammu
Digital Door Lock

Fixed-Output Regulator

Positive Regulator in Negative Configuration

Adjustable Output Regulator

Current Regulator

Adjustable DC voltage Regulator

Regulated Dual Supply

Output Polarity-Reversal-Protection Circuit

Reverse bias projection Circuit

7805 IC also finds usage in building circuits for inductance meter, phone charger, portable
CD player, infrared remote control extension and UPS power supply circuits.


A Transformer is a static apparatus, with no moving parts, which transforms electrical power
from one circuit to another with changes in voltage and current and no change in frequency.
There are two types of transformers classified by their function: Step up Transformer and
Step down Transformer.

A Step up Transformer is a device which converts the low primary voltage to a high
secondary voltage i.e. it steps up the input voltage. A Step down Transformer on the other
hand, steps down the input voltage i.e. the secondary voltage is less than the primary voltage.

3.6.1 Real Time Application of Step Down Transformer

The voltage from the Power Plant or Generation Station is around 20kV. In order to transmit
this voltage over long distances, it is stepped up to 440kV using a Step up Transformer. This
voltage with increased levels is then transmitted to a distribution station.

At the distribution station, the 440kV is reduced to 11kV using a Step down Transformer.
The voltage with decreased level is then made ready for consumer use.

Before going in to the details of the Step down Transformer, we will first see the working
principle of a transformer in general.

Deptt of CSE 17 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

3.6.2 Principle of Working of a Transformer

An electrical transformer works on the principle of Mutual Induction, which states that a
uniform change in current in a coil will induce an E.M.F in the other coil which is inductively
coupled to the first coil.

In its basic form, a transformer consists of two coils with high mutual inductance that are
electrically separated but have common magnetic circuit. The following image shows the
basic construction of a Transformer.

3.6.3 How Transformer Works?

The first set of the coil, which is called as the Primary Coil or Primary Winding, is connected
to an alternating voltage source called Primary Voltage.

The other coil, which is called as Secondary Coil or Secondary Winding, is connected to the
load and the load draws the resulting alternating voltage (stepped up or stepped down

The alternating voltage at the input excites the Primary Winding, an alternating current
circulates the winding. The alternating current will result in an alternating magnetic flux,
which passes through the iron magnetic core and completes its path.

Since the secondary winding is also linked to the alternating magnetic flux, according to
Faradays Law, an E.M.F is induced in the secondary winding. The strength of the voltage at
the secondary winding is dependent on the number of windings through which the flux gets
passed through.

Thus, without making an electrical contact, the alternating voltage in the primary winding is
transferred to the secondary winding.
Deptt of CSE 18 YCET, Jammu
Digital Door Lock

NOTE: Depending on the construction of the transformer, the voltage at the secondary of the
transformer may be equal, higher or lower than that at the primary of the transformer but the
time period of the voltage i.e. its frequency will not change.


Diode bridge rectifier

Rectifier circuits are classified into two major groups i.e., single phase and three phases. In
both cases they are again classified into three main categories those are uncontrolled, half
controlled and fully controlled. If we use diode to convert this voltage we can call that as
uncontrolled, instead if we use power electronic components like SCRS we can call as
controlled rectifiers. We can control half wave or full wave according to the application

The main difference between conventional rectifier and bridge rectifier is that it produces
almost double the output voltage as a full wave center-tapped transformer rectifier using the
same secondary voltage. The advantage of using this circuit is that no center-tapped
transformer is required. In center tapped rectifier each diode uses only one-half of the
transformer secondary voltage, so the DC output is comparatively small, also it is difficult to
locate the center-tap on secondary winding of the transformer and the diodes used must have
high Peak-inverse voltage.

3.7.1 An Application Converting AC power to DC using a Bridge Rectifier

Regulated DC Power supply is often required for many electronic applications. One of the
most reliable and convenient way is to convert the available AC mains power supply into DC
supply. This conversion of AC signal to DC signal is done using a rectifier, which is

Deptt of CSE 19 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

basically a system of diodes. It can be a half wave rectifier which rectifies only one half of
the AC signal or a full wave rectifier which rectifies both cycles of the AC signal. The full
wave rectifier can be a centre tapped rectifier consisting of two diodes or a bridge rectifier
consisting of 4 diodes.

During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while
diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load During the
negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but
diodes D1 and D2switch OFF as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through
the load is the same direction as before.

The smoothing capacitor converts the full-wave rippled output of the rectifier into a smooth
DC output voltage. Generally for DC power supply circuits the smoothing capacitor is an
Aluminum Electrolytic type that has a capacitance value of 100uF or more with repeated DC
voltage pulses from the rectifier charging up the capacitor to peak voltage. However, there
are two important parameters to consider when choosing a suitable smoothing capacitor and
these are its Working Voltage, which must be higher than the no-load output value of the
rectifier and its Capacitance Value, which determines the amount of ripple that will appear
superimposed on top of the DC voltage.

3.7.2 Advantages of bridge rectifier

The rectification efficiency of full-wave rectifier is double of that of a half-wave rectifier.

Higher output voltage, higher output power and higher Transformer Utilization Factor in
case of full-wave rectifier.

The ripple voltage is low and of higher frequency in case of full-wave rectifier so simple
filtering circuit is required

No center tap is required in the transformer secondary so in case of a bridge rectifier the
transformer required is simpler. If stepping up or stepping down of voltage is not
required, transformer can be eliminated even.

For a given power output, power transformer of smaller size can be used in case of the
bridge rectifier because current in both primary and secondary windings of the supply
transformer flow for the entire ac cycle

Deptt of CSE 20 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

3.7.3 An Application Converting AC power to DC using a Bridge Rectifier

Regulated DC Power supply is often required for many electronic applications. One of the
most reliable and convenient way is to convert the available AC mains power supply into DC
supply. This conversion of AC signal to DC signal is done using a rectifier, which is
basically a system of diodes. It can be a half wave rectifier which rectifies only one half of
the AC signal or a full wave rectifier which rectifies both cycles of the AC signal. The full
wave rectifier can be a centre tapped rectifier consisting of two diodes or a bridge rectifier
consisting of 4 diodes.

Here the bridge rectifier is demonstrated. The arrangement consists of 4 diodes arranged such
that the anodes of two adjacent diodes are connected together to give the positive supply to
the output and the cathodes of other two adjacent diodes are connected together to give the
negative supply to the output. The anode and cathode of other two adjacent diodes are
connected together to the positive of AC supply whereas the anode and cathode of another
two adjacent diodes are connected together to the negative of the AC supply. Thus 4 diodes
are arranged in a bridge configuration such that in each half cycle two alternate diodes
conduct producing a DC voltage with repels.


In power supplies, capacitors are used to smooth (filter) the pulsating DC output after
rectification so that a nearly constant DC voltage is supplied to the load. The pulsating output
of the rectifiers has an average DC value and an AC portion that is called ripple voltage.
Filter capacitors reduce the amount of ripple voltage to a level that is acceptable. It should be
noted that resistors and inductors can be combined with the capacitors to form filter
networks. Here we will concentrate on capacitive filters only. In a filter circuit the capacitor
is charged to the peak of the rectified input voltage during the positive portion of the input.
When the input goes negative, the capacitor begins to discharge into the load. The rate of
discharge is determined by the RC time constant formed by the capacitor and the load's
resistance. See Timing paper for explanation of RC time constants.

Deptt of CSE 21 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock



Low cost



Flexible due to microcntroller

Easy to use- system is very easy to understand

Protection- it will also help in protecting from bank and home robberys.

Deptt of CSE 22 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock




Distributed generation (DG) has much potential to improve distribution system performance.
The use of DG strongly contributes to a clean, reliable and cost effective energy for future.
The range of DG technologies and the variability in their size, performance, and suitable
applications suggest that DG could provide power supply solutions in many different
industrial, commercial, and residential settings. In this way, DG is contributing to improving
the security of electricity supply. However, distribution system designs and operating
practices are normally based on radial power flow and this creates a significant challenge for
the successful integration of DG system. As the issues are new and are the key for sustainable
future power supply, a lot of research is required to study their impact and exploit them to the
full extent. Distributed generation based on fuel cell technology is new and a fast growing

business. Most likely fuel cell will be the dominant and attractive DG because it is modular,
efficient and environmentally friendly. A SOFC fuel cell is one of the potential candidates for
DG applications. In this thesis the behavior of the SOFC based DG system is studied under
various operation modes by performing the mathematical analysis and simulation studies.
Also, various suitable control strategies are designed for power electronic interface of SOFC
based DG to isolated load and to utility grid. The conclusions drawn from the studies are
given below:

A dynamic model of SOFC based DG system has been successfully developed in

SIMULINK/MATLAB environment that incorporates the electrochemical reaction
dynamics and major voltage losses. The operating principle of SOFC 143 and its VI and
PI characteristics have been studied considering various voltage losses.
In order to adjust the hydrogen input flow rate of SOFC, a constant utilization mode is
implemented using current .This is because an appropriately chosen constant fuel
utilization operation closely approximates the maximum efficiency operation of the fuel
cell in its operating range.
Power electronics interface is employed to convert the power generated by the SOFC into
usable form. For this, various interface topologies have been discussed.

Deptt of CSE 23 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

A DC-DC PWM boost converter is designed and is implemented in SimPower

Systems/Matlab to boost the DC voltage of fuel cell for isolated mode and for grid
connected mode of operation. For this, a feedback PI control has been designed and
employed, which provides proportionate change in duty cycle of boost converter for
varying load.
A control strategy under voltage control mode using PI controller is developed for three
phase PWM voltage source inverter (VSI) that interfaces the SOFC to a three phase
isolated load. A virtual phase locked loop (PLL) has been used that delivers the angle
essentially required for the transformation of the voltage from abc coordinate into dq o
coordinate and vice versa.
The combination of developed Simulink model DCDC boost converter and PWM
voltage source inverter is used to interface the SOFC based DG to isolated load. The
dynamic performance of SOFC based DG System has been studies for step change in
reference input and with three phase isolated load. The analysis of the simulated results is
summarized as follows:
The voltage, current and power responses of fuel cell take some time to reach new steady
value after step change in the reference power. These performances show that SOFC has
slow dynamic response during transient.
Fuel cell requires less time to reach new steady value when there is a change in power
demand compared to initial startup time. This is because the hydrogen flow rates can be
slowly adjusted to meet the change in power demand.
Designed of DCDC boost converter using PI voltage feedback controller to regulate the
fuel cell voltage for isolated mode operation gave better and quick response curve.
The simulation results show that under isolated mode of operation, change in the load
does influence the output voltage and the voltage across the load remains unchanged.
Thus, the control scheme designed and developed for the inverter functions accurately,
even with sudden change in the load. Fuzzy logic controllers are increasingly employed
for a wide range of applications in electric power system. This can be attributed to the
fact, that fuzzy logic is a powerful vehicle that allows engineers to incorporate human
reasoning in the control algorithm. It provides an effective means for capturing the
approximate, inexact nature of the real world. In chapter 4, fuzzy logic control strategy
has been employed in place of conventional PI controllers for inter facing SOFC based
DG system to isolated load. In this perspective the following points are mentioned:

Deptt of CSE 24 YCET, Jammu

Digital Door Lock

The Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for DC DC boost converter and PWM inverter have
been designed and implemented using Fuzzy tool box of the Matlab successfully.
A triangle-shaped uniformly distributed membership function has been used for fuzzy
logic controller design. The numbers of rules set for DC/DC boost converter control are
49, which are based upon the seven membership functions of the input variables.
Two fuzzy controllers are employed for voltage source PWM inverter one for direct
voltage component d v control and another for quadrature voltage component q v control.
The numbers of rules set for PWM inverter are 81 which are generated form behavior of
the system.
The design of simple boost converter with fuzzy logic controller gives better performance
for changes in load without the use of any storage devices. The use of FLC achieves
faster transient response with better rejection to load variation and attains more stable
state response.
Other dynamic behavior of SOFC based DG system with FLC and PI are studied and
compared. The dynamic behavior of the system with FLC is found to be more improved
compared to that of PI controller in terms of response time of SOFC based DG system in
following the load demand to it.
The developed fuzzy logic control method is less sensitive to step load change compared
to PI control method. In chapter 5 of this thesis the grid connected performance of SOFC
based DG has been evaluated. Control strategies for grid side inverter was designed and
for interfacing the SOFC based DG to grid. They are summarized as follow:
The interface control scheme for SOFC based DG system is successfully developed to
control active and reactive power injected by the fuel cell to the grid.
The control strategy uses the decoupling technique for control of active and reactive
power injected by the fuel cell to the grid independently. The reactive power reference is
set to zero for simplicity. A three phase locked loop (PLL) available in SimpowerSystems
of the MATLAB has been used to provide accurate phase angle reference for Park
transformation within the control scheme.
The performance of the developed control scheme has been investigated under various
cases. The simulation results of case studies show that active and reactive power
delivered from SOFC based DG can be controlled as desired and also shows the

Deptt of CSE 25 YCET, Jammu

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robustness of designed controller in maintaining the active power output and no reactive
power is injected to grid during simulations.
The performance of the developed model has also been studied under fault condition at
point of common coupling. The simulated results show that SOFC based DG system can
remain stable after clearness of the fault.
The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the voltage introduced by the SOFC based DG
system is 3.5 % which is well within the of IEEE 1547 2003 standard.


The research work presented in this thesis can be further focused on

The developed SOFC based DG system can be considred along with the other DG sources
in the microgrid such as wind, photovoltaic to study the operational interaction among the
Dg source in utility interactive/islanded operation.
The developed dynamic model of SOFC based DG system can be used along with
microturbine based DG system for combined operation to increase the efficeincy of the
complete system.The heat generated in fuel cell can be utilized for miroturbine operation
in this case.

New control scheme for power electronic interface of SOFC based DG system using
artificial intelligence can be developed for utility interactive operation .The dynamic
variation of stack voltage of fuel cell can be included in the sofc model to improve the
performance of the developed SOFC model in this work.

Deptt of CSE 26 YCET, Jammu

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Quoting US patent #4937722, High efficiency direct coupled switched mode power
supply: The power supply can also include crowbar circuit protecting it against damage
by clamping the output to ground if it exceeds a particular voltage.
Quoting US Patent #5402059: A problem can occur when loads on the output of a
switching power supply become disconnected from the supply. When this occurs, the
output current from the power supply becomes reduced (or eliminated if all loads become
disconnected). If the output current becomes small enough, the output voltage of the
power supply can reach the peak value of the secondary voltage of the transformer of the
power supply. This occurs because with a very small output current, the inductor in the L-
C low-pass filter does not drop much voltage (if any at all). The capacitor in the L-C low-
pass filter therefore charges up to the peak voltage of the secondary of the transformer.
This peak voltage is generally considerably higher than the average voltage of the
secondary of the transformer. The higher voltage which occurs across the capacitor, and
therefore also at the output of the power supply, can damage components within the
power supply. The higher voltage can also damage any remaining electrical loads
connected to the power supply.
"What's the Difference Between Single Phase and Three Phase AC Power Supplies?".
Aegis Power Systems. Aegis Power Systems. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
"Electric Vehicle Power Converters". Aegis Power Systems. Aegis Power Systems.
Malmstadt, Enke and Crouch, Electronics and Instrumentation for Scientists, The
Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1981, ISBN 0-8053-6917-1,

Deptt of CSE 27 YCET, Jammu