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JUSTINNE CAS SANTOS

INFLUENT

BAR RACK Screening

GRIT
Grit
CHAMBER

PRIMARY Sludge
CLARIFIER

AERATION Sludge
TANKS Return Activated Sludge

SECONDARY
CLARIFIER

DISINFECTION

EFFLUENT

Influent is the start of the process which the waste water enter.

Bar Rack is which the start of treating the water. In this stage the solids are removed, such as sticks, rags, and other
debris in untreated wastewater by interception. By use of fine screening even floatable matter and algae are
removed.
Grit Chamber, were the grit is removed consisting of sand, gravel, cinders, or other heavy solid materials that have
subsiding velocities or specific gravities substantially greater than those of the organic putrescible solids in
wastewater.

Primary Clarifier is a basin where water has a certain retention time where the heavy organic solids can sediment
(suspended solids). This involves the separation of organic solid matter (or human waste) from the wastewater. This
is done by putting the wastewater into large settlement tanks for the solids to sink to the bottom of the tank. The
settled solids are called sludge.

Aeration Tank was mixed with activated sludge and the mixed liquor was aerated. Air is pumped into the water to
encourage bacteria to break down the tiny bits of sludge that escaped the sludge scrapping process. By aerating the
mixed liquor the aerobic processes will be stimulated, the growth rate of bacteria will be must faster.

Because the bacteria deplete the substrate, flocculation takes place . The soluble substrate becomes a solid
biomass. These flocks of biomass will sediment in the Secondary Clarifier.

Next, the almost treated wastewater is passed through a settlement tank. Here, more sludge is formed at the bottom
of the tank from the settling of the bacterial action. The water at this stage is almost free from harmful substances
and chemicals. The water can flow over a wall where it is filtered through a bed of sand to remove any additional
particles. At the end of the process the effluent water is treated to Disinfect it and make it free of disease-causing
organisms.
JUSTINNE CAS SANTOS
Pump is a mechanical device using suction or pressure to raise or move liquids, compress gases, or force air into
inflatable objects such as tires. The symbols for pumps may closely resemble those for compressors.

Centrifugal pump is rotodynamic pump that uses a revolving impeller to add to the force and pressure of fluids.

Gear pump provides continuous, non-pulsing flow making it ideal in chemical installations.

Sump pump is widely used to remove accumulated water from a sump pit or other location.

Vacuum pump is applied to improve the efficiency of steam heating systems in many ways. The most important
consideration is the rapid and efficient removal.

Screw pump is the Archimedes screw pump that is still used in irrigation and agricultural applications.

Tank is for storing process fluids of various types, under different process conditions.

Onion tank refers to an open top collapsible bladder designed for use as a mobile storage solution when recovering
contaminants.

Compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a medium and compresses it to a smaller volume. A mechanical or
electrical drive is typically connected to a pump that is used to compress the medium.

Axial compressor is widely used in gas turbines, such as jet engines, high speed ship engines and small scale
power stations.

Reciprocation compressor is typically used where high compression ratios are required per stage without high flow
rates, and the process fluid is relatively dry.

Rotary compressor is a type of gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement mechanism.

Mixing is a device that combine or put some materials together to form one substance or mass.

Mixing vessel is a container that is used to blend several components together.

Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat energy between two process flows. Heat exchangers transfer heat
energy through conductive and convective heat transfer.

Cooling towers transfer heat energy to the outside air through the principle of evaporation.

Cooler is a device, container or room that cools air through the evaporation of water or keeps air cool.

Turbine driver is used to drive pumps and fans at petrochemical plants.

Furnace is a device for heating a continuous current of air by means of a fire contained within the apparatus and
without mingling the fresh air with the products of combustion.

Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.


Oil burner is engineered from the ground up exclusively to burn waste oils.

Automatic stoker is applied to supply hot water to central heating systems.

Plate tower is used extensively in many processes and industrial applications.

Packed tower is a type of packed bed used to perform separation processes.

Elevator is used to control the position of the nose of the aircraft and the angle of attack of the wing.

Mixing reactor is widely used in the chemical industry to promote mixing.

Gate valve is a device used to control the flow of liquids and gases.

Check valve, also known as one-way valve, is to prevent the line of medium back.

Globe valve is a mechanism used to control or stop the flow of liquid or gas through a pipe.

Ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which controls the flow through it.

Butterfly valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange.

Angle valve is oriented at an angle of 90 deg of gate valve.

Major pipeline is used to connect the equipment in any position.

Major straight line is used to connect the equipment in the same horizontal or vertical position.

Process connection help to create the process flow between equipments. Double click process connection to edit
description.

Water Treatment is the industrial-scale processes that makes water more acceptable for an end-use.

Absorber is a device which holds liquid for the absorption of refrigerant vapor or other vapors.

Clarifier is a device for filtering a liquid.

Aeration Basin is a holding and/or treatment pond provided with artificial aeration to promote the biological oxidation
of wastewaters.

Digester is a vessel used to produce cellulose pulp from wood chips by cooking under pressure.
Oxygen-Demanding Substances - Organic matter and ammonia are oxygen-demanding substances. Oxygen-
demanding substances are contributed by domestic sewage and agricultural and industrial wastes of both plant and
animal origin, such as those from food processing, paper mills, tanning, and other manufacturing processes. These
substances are usually destroyed or converted to other compounds by bacteria if there is sufficient oxygen present in
the water, but the dissolved oxygen needed to sustain fish life is used up in this break down process.

Pathogens - Disinfection of wastewater and chlorination of drinking water supplies has reduced the occurrence of
waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, and dysentery, which remain problems in underdeveloped
countries while they have been virtually eliminated in the U.S. Infectious micro-organisms, or pathogens, may be
carried into surface and groundwater by sewage from cities and institutions, by certain kinds of industrial wastes,
such as tanning and meat packing plants, and by the contamination of storm runoff with animal wastes from pets,
livestock and wild animals, such as geese or deer. Humans may come in contact with these pathogens either by
drinking contaminated water or through swimming, fishing, or other contact activities. Modern disinfection techniques
have greatly reduced the danger of waterborne disease.

Nutrients - Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are essential to living organisms and are the chief nutrients present in
natural water. Large amounts of these nutrients are also present in sewage, certain industrial wastes, and drainage
from fertilized land. Conventional secondary biological treatment processes do not remove the phosphorus and
nitrogen to any substantial extent -- in fact, they may convert the organic forms of these substances into mineral
form, making them more usable by plant life. When an excess of these nutrients overstimulates the growth of water
plants, the result causes unsightly conditions, interferes with drinking water treatment processes, and causes
unpleasant and disagreeable tastes and odors in drinking water. The release of large amounts of nutrients, primarily
phosphorus but occasionally nitrogen, causes nutrient enrichment which results in excessive growth of algae.
Uncontrolled algae growth blocks out sunlight and chokes aquatic plants and animals by depleting dissolved oxygen
in the water at night. The release of nutrients in quantities that exceed the affected waterbodys ability to assimilate
them results in a condition called eutrophication or cultural enrichment.

Inorganic and Synthetic Organic Chemicals - A vast array of chemicals are included in this category. Examples
include detergents, household cleaning aids, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, synthetic organic pesticides and
herbicides, industrial chemicals, and the wastes from their manufacture. Many of these substances are toxic to fish
and aquatic life and many are harmful to humans. Some are known to be highly poisonous at very low
concentrations. Others can cause taste and odor problems, and many are not effectively removed by conventional
wastewater treatment.

Thermal - Heat reduces the capacity of water to retain oxygen. In some areas, water used for cooling is discharged
to streams at elevated temperatures from power plants and industries. Even discharges from wastewater treatment
plants and storm water retention ponds affected by summer heat can be released at temperatures above that of the
receiving water, and elevate the stream temperature. Unchecked discharges of waste heat can seriously alter the
ecology of a lake, a stream, or estuary.

Plasticisers and flame retardants are still used in many products for household and industrial applications. Among
the organic pollutants present are benzenes allophanamides, adipates (esthers of hexandioic acid), phthalates
(esters of phthalic acid, among which DEHP is the most common), and several phosphate esters. (2-chloroethanol
phosphate) and TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) are used in flame-retardant compositions in textiles, plastics as well as in
other products.

Preservatives and antioxidants are constituents of household and industrial products, and among the organic
pollutants linked with these compounds are parabens (esters of hydroxybenzoic acid), and also substituted phenols
and quinones are among the constituents.

Solvents both chlorinated and non-chlorinated (alcohols, ethers, ketones) are present in a large range of products
such as car shampoos and degreasing products, household cleaners and degreasing agents from vehicle
maintenance and production. Chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and trichloroethane, are in increasingly
wide use: the amounts consumed in France per year are 24,000 and 28,000 tonnes, respectively. The principal
sources of diffuse pollution from chlorinated solvents are due to artisanal activities such as metal finishing activities
and dry cleaners.

Fragrances from households, beauticians and hairdressers, generate mixtures of terpenes and synthetic musks
(galaxiids), and are also found in industrial detergents. These are covered in more detail in Case Study E, Section 6.

Pesticides and herbicides are also a common component of the urban wastewaters and they result from road and
rail weed treatment, and from gardens, parks and urban woodland areas. They include the thiazine group, the phenyl
urea group (e.g. chlortoluron, isoproterenol and diuron), the phenoxy acid group
Republic Act No. 9275

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES

"Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004."

SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. - The State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with
the protection, preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh, brackish and marine waters.

SECTION 3. Coverage of the Act. - This Act shall apply to water quality management in all water bodies: Provided,
That it shall primarily apply to the abatement and control of pollution from land based sources: Provided, further, That
the water quality standards and regulations and the civil liability and penal provisions under this Act shall be enforced
irrespective of sources of pollution.

SECTION 5. Water Quality Management Area. - The Department, in coordination with National Water Resources
Board (NWRB), shall designate certain areas as water quality management areas using appropriate physiographic
units such as watershed, river basins or water resources regions. Said management areas shall have similar
hydrological, hydrogeological, meteorological or geographic conditions which affect the physicochemical, biological
and bacteriological reactions and diffusions of pollutants in the water bodies, or otherwise share common interest or
face similar development programs, prospects or problems.

SECTION 6. Management of Non-attainment Areas. - The Department shall designate water bodies, or portions
thereof, where specific pollutants from either natural or man-made source have already exceeded water quality
guidelines as non-attainment areas for the exceeded pollutants. It shall prepare and implement a program that will
not allow new sources of exceeded water pollutant in non-attainment areas without a corresponding reduction in
discharges from existing sources; Provided, That if the pollutant is naturally occurring, e.g. naturally high boron and
other elements in geothermal areas, discharge of such pollutant may be allowed: Provided, further, That the effluent
concentration of discharge shall not exceed the naturally occurring level of such pollutant in the area: Provided,
Finally, That the effluent concentration and volume of discharge shall not adversely affect water supply, public health
and ecological protection.

SECTION 7. National Sewerage and Septage Management Program. - The Department of Public Works and
Highways (DPWH), through its relevant attached agencies, in coordination with the Department, local government
units (LGUs) and other concerned agencies, shall, as soon as possible, but in no case exceeding a period of twelve
(12) months from the affectivity of this Act, prepare a national program on sewerage and septage management in
connection with Section 8 hereof.

SECTION 9. National Water Quality Management Fund. - A water quality management fund, to be administered by
the Department, in coordination with other concerned agencies, as a special account in the National Treasury is
hereby established.

SECTION 10. The Area Water Quality Management Fund. - The area water quality management fund is hereby
established for the maintenance and upkeep of the water bodies in a water quality management area. The fund shall
be utilized for the grant of rewards and incentives for entities whose effluent discharges are better than the water
quality criteria of the target classification of the receiving body of water, loans for acquisitions and repairs of facilities
to reduce quantity and improve quality of wastewater discharges, and regular maintenance of the water bodies within
the management area.

SECTION 11. Water Quality Variance for Geothermal and Oil and Gas Exploration. - The Department may provide
variance in water quality criteria and standards for geothermal exploration that encounters re-injection constraints:
Provided, That there shall be provision for adequate protection of beneficial use of water bodies, downstream of the
geothermal project: Provided, further, That this provision may be applied to oil and gas exploration as determined by
the Department.

SECTION 12. Categories of Industry Sector. - Within twenty-four (24) months from the effectivity of this Act, and
every two (2) years thereafter, the Department shall, through due public consultation, revise and publish a list of
categories of industry sector for which effluent standards will be provided for each significant wastewater parameter
per industry sector.

SECTION 13. Wastewater Charge System. - The Department shall implement a wastewater charge system in all
management areas including the Laguna Lake Region and Regional Industrial Centers through the collection of
wastewater charges/fees. The system shall be established on the basis of payment to the government for
discharging wastewater into the water bodies.

SECTION 16. Clean-Up Operations. - Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 15 and 26 hereof, any person who
causes pollution in or pollutes water bodies in excess of the applicable and prevailing standards shall be responsible
to contain, remove and clean-up any pollution incident at his own expense to the extent that the same water bodies
have been rendered unfit for utilization and beneficial use: Provided, That in the event emergency clean-up
operations are necessary and the polluter fails to immediately undertake the same, the Department, in coordination
with other government agencies concerned, shall conduct containment, removal and clean-up operations. Expenses
incurred in said operations shall be reimbursed by the persons found to have caused such pollution upon proper
administrative determination in accordance with this Act. Reimbursements of the cost incurred shall be made to the
Water Quality Management Fund or to such other funds where said disbursements were sourced.

SECTION 18. Environmental Impact Assessment System Programmatic Compliance with Water Quality Standards. -
The. Department may allow each regional industrial center established pursuant to Republic Act No.7916 (PEZA law)
to allocate effluent quotas to pollution sources within its jurisdiction that qualify under an environmental impact
assessment system programmatic compliance program in accordance with Presidential Decree No. 15867 and its
implementing rules and regulations.

SECTION 24. Pollution Research and Development Programs. - The Department, in coordination with the
Department of Science and Technology (DOST), other concerned agencies and academic research institutions, shall
establish a national research and development program for the prevention and control of water pollution. As part of
said program, the DOST shall conduct and promote the coordination and acceleration of research, investigation,
experiments, training, survey and studies relating to the causes, extent, prevention and control of pollution among
concerned government agencies and research institutions.

SECTION 32. Implementing Rules and Regulations. - The Department, in coordination with the Committees on
Environment and Ecology of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively and other concerned
agencies shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations for this Act, within one (1) year after the enactment
of this Act: Provided. That rules and regulations issued by other government agencies and instrumentalities for the
prevention and/or abatement of water pollution not inconsistent with this Act shall supplement the rules and
regulations issued by the Department, pursuant to the provisions of this Act.

The draft of the implementing rules and regulations shall be published and be the subject of public consultations with
affected sectors.

There shall be a mandatory review of the implementing rules and regulations and standards set pursuant to the
provisions of this Act.