Sie sind auf Seite 1von 1226
—— FERDINAND D. LESSING ——_ General Editor MONGOLIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY Compiled by MATTAI HALTOD JOHN GOMBOJAB HANGIN SERGE KASSATKIN and FERDINAND D. LESSING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS BERKELEY AND LOS ANGELES 1960 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. ©. 22 eee wi MONGOLIAN ALPHABET... . . om SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY... . . cece oR LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ~ ‘MONGOLIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY... 6... 1 CYRILUC INDEX. = 1089 INDEX OF AMBIGUOUS READINGS........ UST SUPPLEMENT: Mongolian Buddhist Terms and Phrases 1159 ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.........- not INTRODUCTION History of the Mongolian Dictionary Project In our time, when all the languages of the world and especially those of the Orient have become the object of scientific research as well as practical study, the publication of a Mongolian - English Dictionary does not sm to need justification, Yot, because the Mongolian sector of this field of research is still ttle cultivated, although the spade- ‘work was done more than a hundred years ago, a few notes on the events that led to the compilation ofthis dictionary may be of interest. ‘The father of Mongolisties 1s the Dutch scholar, I.J.Schmidt (1779-1847). Living {in Russia, he became interested in Mongols, and took up the study of their culture and language. He published the results of his research in a mumber of valuable works, comprising several texts with translations, a grammar, and a small dictionary (1885 ). His dictionary was soon superseded by the monumental work of the Polish scholar 5.B.Kowalewski, whose "Dictionnaire Mongol-Russe-Frangais," was published in three volumes in Kazan, 1844-1049. It included a substantial part of the difficult Bud ‘st terminology with Tibetan and even some Sanskrit equivalents. In this sspect the book is even now without parallel in Mongolian lextcography. Golstunski's "Mongolian ‘Russian Dictionary," which was published in I )-1896, was basically a reviston and ex- pansion of Kowalewski's work, without the Buddhist terms, however. ‘Authough the work of these two ploneers created much interest in Mongotian studies in Russia, it aroused very Uittle response elsewhere in the Western worl Infact, systematic study of the language outside of Russia did not begin until the last years of the nineteenth century, when my teacher, Professor W.Grube (1855-1908 ), fan outstanding Sinologue and a student of the eminent Russian Orientalist W. P. Wasstlyey (0818-1900), inaugurated courses in Mongolian atthe University of Berlin. In the United tates, the first seat of learning to include the Mongolian language 4m ts curriculum was the University of California, Berkeley, where instruction has been ‘offered since 1996, ‘This course had to start from scratch: there were no substantial faciiies for study. A few years later, the general upsurge of American interest in ‘uncommon languages" that followed the outbreak of World War II led to the initiation fa special intensive course in Mongolian at the same Universty and this made even more evident the need for instructional material in English, As a first step in pro- viding this, 1, although not a Mongolist in the strict sense of the word —for until 1942 1 hademcentrated my research chiefly on Mongolian Buddhist texts — submitted to Dr. Robert G. Sproul, the President of the University, a plan for tie compllation of a Mongo- lan dictionary. ‘The original plan, which met with Dr. Sproul's full approval, called for a ‘lctionary in three parts: (1) Mongolian-English, (2) English-Mongolian, and (3) Dictlona~ ry of Buddhist Terms in Mongolian, Tibetan, and Sanskrit, The work began in 1942 with a ‘minimum of personnel and a minimum of source material: the staff consisted of myself, Dr. Richard C, Rudolph, now Professor of Chinese at the University of California, Los ‘Angeles, and one part-time secretary. Our source materials were limited to the Mongo - an-Russian dictionary of modern terms by Cheremisov and Rumyancev, loaned to us by Prof. Gaylord Simpson, now at Harvard University, to whom I feel deeply grateful on this account. ‘The work was begun with the hope that even with no more material than thieat hand Something useful might be produced within afew years, Unfortunately Dr. Rudolph left the University shortly after work on the dictionary had begun, and there wasno one who could take his place. 1 continued to spend what time I could spare from myother duties fon the compilation, but after the war in Asia was over and communication with Mongolia was restored, I found that the linguistic picture in Mongolia had changed radically. A Literary revolution, inapired by new political developments, had swept away the Uterary languaige in which all serious works — auch as annals, inscriptions, and official documents, ‘as well as the Buddhiet Scriptures — had been composed for the past seven hundred years, and replaced it with the spoken language, namely the Khalkha dialect. The Uigur-Mongolian script had been relegated to the dustbin and, after a short-lived attempt to use the English alphabet instead, Cyrillic characters, notwithstanding their shortcomings, were taking its place. Many old texts, and much new material, were being published in this new form Where there had been almost no source material before there was now so much that 90 single worker could hope to exploit it within the available time. Further, it became obvious that free access to China would soon be impossible, and I felt impelled to make one last trip of exploration there before the gates were closed ‘This trip was made in 1947-1048, When I returned to Berkeley, funds for even clerical assistance were no longer available, The Mongolian Dictionary Project seemed to have capsized inthe maelstorm of world affairs 1 was salvaged by the concurrence of two events, In 1949 I reached the status of ‘par- tial, and an 1952 that of full emeritus, and was thus able to spend the greater part of ny time on the dictionary. ‘The second favorable event took place in 1950: the Insitute of East Asiatic Studies was founded, Its first director, Professor Woodbridge Bingham , placed the Mongolian Dictionary Project within the framework of the Institute with a staff of sts ownunder my direction. Following the reorganization of the Insitute in 1087 as part of Ye Institute of International Studies, this arrangement continued under the Committee on International Studies, of which Professor Paul S. Taylor was chairman, and Professor ‘Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr. executive secretary. The staff comprised a research Linguist, Mr. Serge Kassatkin; a Mongolian research assistan', Mr. Mattal Haltod; and later, a secretary, Miss Zoya Pourtova, Mr, Kassatkin brought with him an enviable knowledge of the languages needed on the project, namely his native Russian, English, several European languages, both spoken and written Japanese and Chinese, and a basic knowledge of Mongolian, especially of its gram- mar, Far from limiting himself to the office schedule, he gave many hours of extra work to the project, hours that he could ill spare from his own personal research, After sever- ing his relations with the Institute in order to accept a position on the academic staff of the University tn 1959, he continued to give voluntary assistance until the dictionary was ready {or publication. Mr, Haltod, our first Mongolian assistant, had not only a thorough and specific know- ledge of his native language, acquired by practical experience in lexicographical and grammatical research, but also a sound understanding of Japanese and Chinese, His zeal and thoroughness throughout his tenure deserve warm recognition. He left the Project for reasons beyond his and our control. [A most satisfactory replacement for Mr. Haltod was found in the person of Mr. Hangin, ‘who, besides having a fine command of Mongolian, Chinese, and Japanese, knows well both written and spoken English and even acquired a knowledge of Russian during his tenure, He had earlier helped prepare a Mongolian reader and other teaching materials. He,too, has the remarkable interest in minutiae so indispeasable to a lexicographer. For a short period in 1952 the staff had the privilege of working closely with the ‘eminent Mongols, Professor Nicholas Poppe, of the University of Washington. The value of the energetic assistance and authoritative advice he gave so generously, even after hi fotficial connection with the project had ended, is acknowledged with great appreciation We were also particularly fortunate in securing the services of Miss Zoya Pourtova She did not limit her efforts to turning out a completely satisfactory typeseript; the im- portant Cyritlie index, containing some $2, 000 single entries, is almost entirely her work Mr, Albert Dien, a graduate student in the Oriental Languages Department, joined ‘the staff in 1959-60 as a research assistant. His Linguistic competence enabled him to prepare with me the index of ambiguous readings, an addition which should prove a great convenience to users, It may seem surprising that with such a competent staff I should not have been able to bring the project to a speedy conclusion, but a number of unanticipated events interfered with progress. Each time new lexicographical material became available, it was neces ~ sary to revise the work already done, making improvements and corrections. After a final draft of the dictionary had been prepared, a file of a modern Mongolian newspaper ‘was received and several hundred new words had to be added in their proper alphabetical positions. Because of the official adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Mongolian govern- ment, it was decided to add the modern forms of the keywords, as far as feasible, and to prepare a complete index of these forms. This was tantamount to preparing a dictionary {in two languages as far as the keywords were concerned, Then, when a typewriter with the ‘old Mongolian seript (the property of Mr. Hangin) became available, it seemed advisable to Increase the dictionary's value by giving the script form of each keyword, and this in turn ‘made the compilation of an index of the dubious or ambiguous readings inherent in the Uigur- ‘Mongolian script a necessity, ‘As the mumber and complexity of problems became evident, the original plan of issuing fa dictionary in three parte had to be abandoned: neither time nor money waa available for ite fulfillment. ‘The plan for an English-Mongolian dictionary that would complement the Mongolian-Eng- lish was first amended to one calling for a simple English index to the definitions in the main Gictionary. It was (nally decided to eliminate even this, but its mentioned here because the cholce of English definitions was partly determined by the original plan. ‘Tho list of Buddhist terms given on pages 1159-1192 18 all that remaine of the original plan for a third volume. It was at one time believed that it would be impossible to include even a selected list of the more important-terms, but when the main dictionary had been com- pleted, it became evident that a supplement containing auch terms could be accommodated Consequently, with the assistance of Dr. Alcx Wayman, Ihurried to compile such a list. Be- cause of the Limited time at our disposal, there are doubtless inaccuracies, omissions, and inconsistencies, bit the Ist should be of asd to the reader of simple Buddhist texts, Our ‘main source was the Mahavyutpatti, and extensive collection of Buddhist terms in Sanskrit ‘with ‘Tibetan equivalents that was compited in the ninth century, and to which Mongolian was ‘added inthe eighteenth century. Other sources included old Buddhist texts and Kowalewski's dictionary, While the work on-the main dictionary was in progress, I had begun collecting "uncom - mon" oF “rare” words {rom various books and articles written by Western Mongolists. On- ly a small selection of these, wath indication of the sources, could be accommodated in the Uist of Adattions and Corrections on pages 1195-1216. Acknowledgements In concluding this historical sketeh, 1 wish to express my profound gratitude tothe many persons who have shown interest, or taken part in the work which has occupied me during the last eighteen years. Without the encouragment of Dr. Robert Gordon Sproul, President of the University of California, Emeritus, the dictionary might have never been begun. With- fut the sympathetic attitude of his successor, President Clark Kerr, it might never have been finished, Professor Woodbridge Bingham, with insight and patience, charted the course of the dictionary from 1950 to 1987, After the reorganization of the Insti- tute of East Asiatic Studies, Professor Paul §. Taylor and Professor Thomas C. Blaiséel, Jr. helped preserve the dictionary, Dr. Esther Morrison, assistant to the Executive Secretary of the Institute of International Studies since 1956, has followed the progress cof the work with understanding; her efficiency and her encouragement have helped us ‘at all times. My sincere appreciation also goes to Mr. John S. Gildersleeve of the Uni versity of California Press for his skilful editorial assistance Sources, Scope and Arrangement ‘the dletionary has been compiled {rom sources of the following type: dictionaries in Russian, Japanese, Chinese, French, German, and English; printed texts, chiefly histo~ ical, such as the Altan Tobel and Erdeni jin Tobei (Sayan Secen); such modern publica - ons as textbooks, newspapers, and magazines, Excluding the strictly archaic language, the dictionary contains the vocabulary of a periods from 1940 on, including the modern terminology developed since sovietization, A Limited number of religious terms, largely those that have become part of the common hn age, have been included in the main body of the dictionary; strictly technical Budthist terms and expressions, however, are presented in a special Supplement, Mongolian words have been transliterated into the English alphabet (with the addition d 1, G, K, @ 8, Z) and arranged alphabetically according to this transliteration of their I~ terary form. ‘The modern Cyrillic transcription of each word follows on the same Line as the main entry, separated from it by a solidus; the old Mongolian script form of the word is given directly below the entry —_words that have been divided in order to fit a limited space should be read from left to right. Etymological explanations, if any, and references to alternative forms are given in brackets on the first line under the key word. ‘The designation of the part of speech (¥.t., ‘vats, adj,, adv., ete.) precedes the definition. It should be noted, however, that for many words there is no formal differentiation between, for instance, substantive and adjective, of adjective and adverb, and the designation can give only an approximation of the function of the keyword, In the transite jon is tion of verbs, endings are dropped and the om Inecied by a hyphen, although these endings are given for the old Mongolian and Cyrillic forms, As far as feasible, the various meanings of the keywords are arranged in abgieal ‘sequence, the basic meaning, if ascertainable, coming first. Words closely related se - rmantically are separated from one another by commas; more distantly related words or ifferent parte of speech are set olf by semicolons, ‘The definitions of most Keywords are followed by examples of usage, given on sepa - rate lines, in which two hyphens (==) represent the keyword. For words with two or more widely divergent meanings, the definitions are Usted separately (and designated a, b.evete.}, and examples are given under each definition. If a word has several vari- ant forms, it is, as a rule, defined under the most common form, the examples are giv- cen there, and cross references are made from the variants. ‘Optional inclusion of letters in Mongolian words, and of words in the examples, is indicated by giving the letters or words that may be included in brackets Ita word, oF a particular definition of a word, was found only in one source and could not be verified, that source ts given in brackets preceding the definition: (Ko. Kowalewski, [Go.] - Golstunski, [SH] - Secret History, ete. (See List of Abbreviations If a Mongolian word or compound 1s a loan-translation of a foreign wordor phrase, this is indicated in parentheses, immediately following the definition oF example, ‘Transliteration For technical reasons we nave nat always followed current usage in the transliteration of Oriental scripts. Deviations {rom commonly accepted forms are here listed sepa - rately for each language. For Mongolian we write: a instead of ayt fi instead of evi y snstead of § In the sutlixes iar/ijer, bar/ber, aca/ece, ilan/ien, © ts always used instead of 2 ete Palatalization before 1 can be readily ascertained by referring to the Cyrilic form of the keyword in question, therefore diacrities indicating palatalization have been omitted. Sanskrit, ‘The palatal 5 (9 is written g and the retroflex ¢ (g) shi The dot is not used on the anusvara m unless its omission would cause ambiguity; the dot is also omitted from guttural, palatal, and cerebral (retroflex) 9 if the structure of the word permits it. Tiretan, For Tibetan we write nig instead of ny wstead of dda instead of ds ah instead of sh & represents the palatal s h represents the a chung ‘The silent basis of initial vowels is indicated by an apostrophe. ‘The bases of the words are not marked by capital letters, and the individual syllables are not separated by hyphens or dots, but simply by spacing: dod pa, not hDod-pa or dod: pa, ‘ete ‘Chinese transcriptions are those given in "Chinese-English Dictionary", H.A. Giles , 2nd eattion, Berkeley, California Lg 2 May 0, 180 Duman. OCae 7 MONGOLIAN \LPHABE I (According to Vladimircov's Comparative Grammar) Initial Medial Final Old value 1 er ie a 1 : =y17 e 4 a o4 i SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY. AAltan Tobe, The Mongolian Chronicle Altan Tobel, Text, “Translation, and Critical Notes by Charies Bawden, Gbitinger Asiatisehe Porschungen, Band 8, Wiesbaden, 1985. BobrovnikovAGrammatika mongol'sko-kalmyckogo Sadyea, Kazan’, 1098. Ceremisov, KM. and Rumyancey, G.N._ Mongol'sko- uss) slovar™” Moskva-Leningrad, 1997, Edgerton, Franklin, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Maven, 1959 Giles, H.A, Chinese-English dictionary, 2nd ed ‘Shanghai-London, 1912, Golstunsky, K.F. Mongol'sko-russkij slovar'. Vol. I= 4 “iaos-t098. Grube, W., Proben_ der mongolischen Umgangssprache ‘wiener "Zeitschrift tr ae Kunde des Morgen andes, vill 1908. XK, 190 Grubov , Vat. Konspel (lory Mepgolsot Narodnot Republik. Moskva, 1986. Gunzel, 8.4. Mongol-English Practical Dictionary. ‘Chicago, 1949-1883. Haenisch, E, Beitrige mur mongolischen Schrift und Yoiksaprache. Mitteilungen des Seminars {tr Orlentaliache Sprachen, Berlin, 1928, 1996. Mambis, L, Grammaire de la langue mongole ecrite ‘premiere partie}. Paris, 1986, Stockholm, 1940 Karlgren, B, Grammata Serica. Kazakevié, B.A. Sovremennaya Mongol'skaya Toponi- ‘mika. Leningrad, 1994. t?* TOR ‘Mongol'sko-russko-francu2ski} Kovalevski, Osi fy SMolimes: Razan'loaas40 siovar Lessing FD. Yung-o-kung. An Iconography of the ‘amalst Cathedral in Peking: 4 Reposts from {Ge Scientific Expedition to North-western Provinces of Cniea under Leadership of Br, Sven Hecin} in Collaboration with Br. Monet” Votume 1. Steknlmy 1b. x Lubsandendev. Mongol'sko-russki} slovar". Moscva, 1984, Mahivyutpatt! . Dictionnaire bouddhique, tetragiott, (Sanskrit, ‘Tibetan, Chinese, Mongete) Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, 1060-* Mahivyutpatti, ed, Sakaki. Tokyo, 1916 Mathews, RH. Chinese-English dictionary, Revised edition. “Cambridge, Mass. 1942, Mostaert, A. Dictionnaire ordos. Pt. 1 = Il. Peking, wiLib, Mostacrt, A. Sur quelques passages de_tiistotre dee Mongols” Harvard: doutnal of Orvental Staases, vols 13, 16) and is. Polliot, Paul. Les mote 2 hoinitiale, ete, Journal “Astatiqie, "Avril-uln, pp. 199-263 Poppe, N. Grammar of the Mongolian Written ‘Language. Wiesbaden, 1954 Poppe, N,_tGhalehacmongolische Grammatk, Wies- ‘baden, 1951. er Ramdstedt, G.J. Kalmilekisches Worterbuch. Helsinki, i935. Rikagun-sh . MBkonge Daiiten, 3 volums, Tokyo, 1933-1036, Rindine, A.R, Kratkij mongol'sko-russkislovar' Sidsion Tot, Troxel, D. Mongolian Vocabulary. Washington, D.C. , 88 adimircov ,B. Ja Mongo'skl)sbornik rasskazoy Viadienh ‘iz "Pancatantra, Petrograd, 1921. Viadimircoy, B, Ja. Sramitelnaja grammatia Srongol'akogo. pis}menncee.lasyka, 2 ShalkSaskogo narecija. Leningrad, 1929, LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS aa. adjective Mongolian av. aeverb Mancha as tan Geret Masculine gender mat, Siatomy, anatomic{aty] Mathew, Dietonary mie Sneient measure rox. Spproumately, approximative metaphorical re Sane military a ‘Alan Tobet A. Mostaert (Dictionary) trib, atisbutively Modal sual, aouliary ultiplicative numeral Bal. Blotogteat ‘mythological Bo. Bodhisattva nou Bain Beha a, omen actoris| Ba yuddhist. descriptive noun card, ‘cardinal Stegaive, negation ae spuative nominative _ ese, foun proper Sho. Sheremisov omen uous chemical mamerals) confer ‘Sbaolete ‘Tasetcal ‘Seomatopocia collective ait olloqulal oPeinal ‘Someanive eriginat ‘ongunetion Pat onlemporale, contemporal participial, participle conver Passive Sooperative phiral, plurative opulative Ro'Popee, Grammar compound potitical Semonetative Possessive Gerived, derivative ostposition ‘Siminative Present. ‘Satribative Preclassical cclemastic Dresieate, predicative Eagerton Preposition elevated resent participle spintolary pronoxn eopecialy ronominal Erdent jin Tobei Part ‘Skalamallon which seo Sn. oer Se amate a uray Feelproeal i tom Fellenve Ee. {requentative rate ee Ae Rinchine rain. amma Sansirt olatunaky Secret History oR i singular 8s Grammata Serica Sayan Secen So. i substantive fend. aye ‘sulle Hat Ristorieal, history See above fon! onorifie Syronyea ous) t intransitive foetan is Bea Tron inp. cA. rexel Import. Eranacription intra traneiatea, translation inter), interjection Hrrough Intertog. interFogative areioh Kaz, Vik, Ranakerich vero i. 8, Kowalowski (Dictionary) verb intransitive Tait, Buriaufer’ ( Siro-ranica) Viadimirtsoy i erally ero passive Umit. umiting ‘Verb Feolprocal loc. Toeative vero transiave a ethbeandendey Juigariem Fing-ho-kung MONGOLIAN- ENGLISH 4 4 ALE, / ge “ yo [+a-a] inter}, Al Ont Welt <= jam[blar satxan bull Ab, how beautiful it ts! kegerykel! Oh, what a pity! tege! Yes, do that! s+) telmy yy ? Oh, ts that 607 Ak, 39, 00, 08 ‘Exclamation used in direct address following the person addressed: Ol eke xayan a! © Great Emperor! keyked e! Children! nkyd ¢ 1 Friends! Comrades! inter}. Suffix of the dattve-locative case and adverbs. certg yn alban-a tataxu, To draft for milltary service daruixan-s. Iomediately, forthwith ene aabear-s. In te meantime, at this juncture, yarar-n, In the place; to the place. Weley UK. and copul. To be (not all forms of tis verd are used; see examples also under abacu, abasu, atal-a, ax, az, an), 1. Past tense used instead of azuyu (@.¥-). bi ene yazar --suyal. Let me stay at this place ut ‘There is. keylljon --ysayar edyr udabe. ‘waiting for many days sain sayatazi --mul uu? How are you? ‘it ‘are you living well?) tegyn y --ysan yazar. The place where he had been, tein --mul-a. It is or were #0, tende --tuyal. [Let him] be there! tere oruzu trekyl dy bi sayuru =-bal, When rhe came in I was altting. rout [i] nave ven / ows See Ay 1 Low Intensifying particle before certain adjectives and adverbs with initial, = Adall, Absolutely similar or Identical => ariyun, Completely clean or pure; holy, immaculate, very fo a, Witcheraft, sorcery, charms; temptation, allurement, enticement. <= tur onuni, To be allured, yield to temapta- tion, abi 4) To take, grasp, get hold of, eu ireky. To bring. vet take away; to cu odeu, To take away, carry off. uyad tre! Take and come! Bring! var tayan ~-mu, To take in one's hand{s} xojar yar ter ~-xu. To take or receive with both hands (out of politeness). isij-e mu. To take as an example: b) Toreceive, obtain, gain, procure, acquire; to collect (as taxes); t0 bey: to absorb, draw in; to adopt; to concetve. ama --xu, To promise, pledge. ami --m, To save life; amisx-a --xu, To breathe; to take a short rest, famtz --xu, To acquire a taste for ary-a Kemzij-e --mu, To take measures or steps. =i, To hire for work, clgtg ‘==, To absorb moisture. clmege --xu.. To obtain informacion, egyn ece ~-cu yzobesy. Locking from this viewpoint, ekener, --ni, To take a wife, marry. ‘ezelen --xu. To take possession of; to occupy. ergel --mu, To take a wife, marry. kegelt --mi, To becorie pregnant (of animals), kyeyn a, To gain strength; to grow fat (of antmals), kylijen =-xu, To accept, recelve. 95 --mu, To avenge, take reveng fat mu, To catch a cold. fanay-a --xu, To conceive an idea, grasp the ‘meaning. anal --xu, To get someon ‘opinions. to take a rest to take a breath; antl ds ‘opinion, gather AB. senig To become suspletous, lara --2u, To gain weight, grow fat (of animals). lerigyn 1 =m. To take first place uss om, To get water; to absorb water; to be fodiea. zurljan xu, To receive; to collect; to ¢on- fiscate ‘yee --mu, To be receptive to somebody's request; to take or follow advice. yee jl wu. To interrogate, question, give a hearing ; to receive testimony oF statement. yyr —-xu. To smell or get the odor or scent of. yrecllezy ~-xu. To adopt 2 child yeygyr ~-xu. To occupy first place, stand at the head of ziruy --xu. To take a photograph, have one's pletare taken, ©) To remove, take off fami --ws, ‘To take one's life, Kill. See also b. femegel --xu. To take off 2 sada. rmalay-a ben xu, To lake off one's hat or cap. toluyai --xu. To decapltate uryuca --mu. To reap, harvest. @) As an auxiliary verb preceded by im- perfect or modal converbs describes the action as performed in the interest, on behalf, at the wish, or in the direction of the subject, bicizy --mi. To write down or note, surcu --xu, To learn, study. tatan xy, To attract to oneself; to win (as sxpporters, etc.); to reerult. ‘To take notice To bay, udaldun m0 ¢) As an auxiliary verb preceded by the perfect conver describes the action a8 momentary, 1 Grab nim! Grab it si, To trike @ Liow. bartvad caketyad {) The modal and perfect converbs of this verb preceded by the ablative case have the meaning of "beglaning with, from, since. ‘kin vee From the beginning orlyge ece --uyad. Since morning. tende ece --uyad ende kyrtel-e. to here ece From there ABAT-A,1 ABA, 2. as 'B. Chase, hunt, battue goryge. Hunting kiky. To go hunting. talbbeu. To begin a hunt; game on a battue, trans, ‘The hunters. spread out for the battue surljaxu. To calla finish to a*hunt zarlaxu, To invite or call for a hunt, ang ~~. Hunting, trapping. toencizele the 7 weave) J mean abnyaci-, abuyaci- ; contraction of abuyad j oct- ]¥.t To remove, take away with one, carry aff smi poky. To lake something to a person, de- ver to, cayaza ber --mu, To execute, put to death; prosecute according to law. eirey --mu. To drag away. ayudar --mu, To summon, call, recall tw toga wm Toho tnes home ymew / sus FT md saci. yogcrroi./sosnwvane v. caus. of abaci-. apAcU / Bu {/ [concess. conv. of a-] Though, although, 7 neverthele bul ==, Although there ts Although It is 30, ABAD / a8 {, . Intensifter of negatives: (noQ at all, absolutely (aot) troky ygel. Does not come back at all. sky ygel. Does not grow at all ABAT-A,L / ara 1. Paternal uncle. ‘axa, Father's brother, uncle, bergen. Wife of father's brother. egect. Aunt (father's. sister). eke. Sister of father, aunt on father's side; ‘wife of father's brother, ABAT-A, 1 Husband of father's sister c+ kyrgen axa Relatives on the futher's side, bay-a --. Father's younger brother. joke --. Father's elder brother. ABAT-A, 2. aerk pat pagrace ja. ‘ABATAL ABATALDAL ‘ AparaLt / BAL PALA. BARI / np. Abaga, tribe inhabiting the Bastern and ‘Western Abaga banners in the Shilingot league of Inner Mongolta, See bac: sera 1. Wife of a prince: lady; during the Manchu period was used in the meaning of M age (Q.¥.); Sometimes used instead of aural (4.¥.) ABAPAILA AERA j vat To call someone an abayai (q.¥.): to qe treat politely ‘ABATAITAL anradien [3] Bas navn ote, mars AEA 1, A shamanistic tdol; a mask representing 8 shamanistic god; larva, chrysalis, AERA [=aball | n. The first wife or husband; ‘mate wife or husband, <= ekener, Legiti- First wife, legitimate wite First husband, legitimate hustiand. SBATAXAL [ Buriat and Kalmuk | a. spider. ‘Term of adiress expressing respect or endear ment (obs. ) vel. To hunt tn a group oF in a battue See abayall atstPa [+abira-] vit. To climb, clamber, oF ‘upon something; to climb over oF across. ot aBcirutyy som ebesy, Clinibing plant, vine som. yareu. To climb up. apapiur-a—ssssra pdm. The act of aac asu con, cant of a= | ym ane. aoav i Interjection of fear'or indignation; oh! ahl £ owxat —/ ao An princess: angers ong tay penne. / aeuans anuealds- | v.i, To be in contact, be coord- nated; to correspond mutually, agree, xovurundu ben --«s. To agree mutually eaattassoan: “ALDUT-A(N) aun [= abuealduy-ain)] ». pondens veel jartj-a. ‘Mutual contact oF corre Interaction, Incoherent. speech. Name cr SALDUTATAL ABUARIARTAR [+abeatduatu ] adj. Having mutwal contact or correspondence. Stay “ALDUTATU ‘See abealduyatat ABUAMIAAT sap 3 \CALDUTUL- AEUARIY YHA [. caus, of abealds-] v.t, To bring in con tact, coordinate; to adapt, ft. fonul i yiledylge deger-e theory with practice xa, To coordinate Soin pe gelacaoanp Sy Ae J, vs. To shrink, contract, 4pcuru[y] apy (ach. Tight (of clothes); narrow, cramped, small (of space); vivid, hasty; 7 lwss, pushing, impatient, rest ABCIMAL, ‘spgpKan GE Cie crane} srs, contrat seman ‘ABCIRA- ABFA $4 {a contraction of abeu treky J v.t. To bring. 4BcIRATUL- neyo aAx ¥. caus, of abelra-. BcIRE- Same as abetra- ABDAR aaAP 1a. Trunk, chest. fll du eriky ber ~~ tayan erl, Instead of look Ing for something] at your neighbors, look [for It] in your own chest (prover®) SBDAR-A Same as abdar. ABDARLA- —/—onaranx vot. To put ina trunk or chest sn 1. Intestines (obs. ‘ABIDA [aviast yeot geretty, 8, Amitibia Jn. "He who possesses ..meamirable splendor, the Buddha Amitibha who presides over the western Paradise = burnin, dame as above layan =. The Red AmiG20h (ved i his ual color when representedin& paat~ ing. BYRAQ)—/ BUA) 4 1. Sound, tone, volee; noise. = varvans, To make a sound. - =n zyi. Phonetics. on apt fin blclg, Phonetic writing. So yeel. Soundlens; tacit; voiceless, mute ypuas/sseaac 8. abhydsa, "practice," but n meaning It often corresponds more to Buddh. Sanskrit visand, 7. bag ehags } n. Passion; inclination, tendency, pre- Aisposition, propensity; talent, gift. ABLIT-A bilig. Talent, git eldaburt,, Talent, gift, ability. mayutal. Having a bad tendency. tur singgeky. To abandon oneself to passion tur xudmuydaysan sedkll. A mind agitated by passton. <- veel, Untatented, torylkt =~ Innate talent ABUASLIT = / _ABuAACRAT Fay. Talented, gited SBUATAL / sovaTAi {+ abiate ] adj. Having sound or votce; auble, ABUATU / sna 8) seo abijatal ABR / ABP siber. Onomat, expressive of whisper. - siber jarilcaxu, To whisper to each other. PP ae son age Ps se C/A [= abtety, 8. abhipeka ] i. Consecration by ‘sprinkling holy water, consecration in general ( as of kings, buddhas, saintly persons, laymen); powers conferred through consecration or blessings; dalnment, + abau. To receive consecration or ordainment, olm. To receive consecration or ordainment. ~ peky. ‘To bestow consecration, ordain & ‘monk or priest ABISUN / ABbCAH ‘The wife of an elder brother in relation to the wife of a younger brother. s+ agin, Sisters-in-law, LA vet, To allure, seduce; to hurt through’magie ‘incantations. Lir-A / apmarA 1. Dtet protit; bribe; ABLITACI BUIrAcE — /- ABDIPAS 1h. and adj. Extortloner, taker of bribes; ‘mercenary person; venal, mercenary, avartelous, ABLIFALA- / ABBTAIAK ¥.t. To make lic profit, take bribes, extort i ‘money. Apu [Ar, toile ] n, Class of malevolent demons. ABSA) —/ ABCA) -, Coffin, casket =+ dur oruyulm, To place in a coffin, ABSALA- /aBoaAX 41 vets To cetfin, apTA- sara [¥. pass, of ab- ] To be taken or selzed; to ‘be taken out; to be capable of being taken; to be overtaken; to suffer from; to come or be under the influence oF power of. algun dur --xu, To be seized by the enemy. kyeyn dy =m, ‘To come under [somebody's] power; to yleld to force. lumun dir --mu, To be carried away by water; ‘to sutfer from a flood, ABTATDA- /apraranx Hh ¥. pass, of abta-, 4BraL / x07 adj, Possessing the gift of witcheraft, ‘ABTARA- wt / sBTPAK Tobe destroyed; tobe carried away; ta be conquered; to be defeated; to be exhansted (as by illness or work). ain dur --xu, To be defeated in war, degeremel dyr --xu. To be carried away by bandits ‘umun dur --xu, To be carried away by flood. ApTasr. —/ antacKH: vl, To beunable to bear; to yield, give way; to be'seized or attacked. Apurap aoe ABULCA- ABU / AB, AAD J (re) a Faner, granataner, esp, apptieg to an old father (endearing) + zangtal. Behaving like an adult (of a child) ABUCA —/ —ABti(A) 1. Taking, receiving, accepting; reception, adoption; manner or method of doing, procedure, var un =~. Practical knowledge; ski. gpucar-a aaa. Same as abuca Aayeapy. /ssuatas hy weal AAYEALDUE-AB) /rou4azan See abcalduy-a(n). FACI- See abact- 7 wBARL Perfect converb of ab-. See ab-, a andf, ABUTAL / ABrAA, yah ‘A title of respect used in addressing one's Seniors: Sir, Mister. Cf. abayal blam-a --. Reverend Lama Gendm =~. Mr, Gendun lungsiyel -- nar. Respected or dear readers. xalraty nojan -- minu, My Dear Sir: ( begin- ning a letter). purer soars [pres. part. of ab-] n. One who takes or receives. kkylijen --. One who recelves or takes; sue cessor; radio receiver, yudaldun ~~. Buyer, purchaser. ABUTUL- — / aByYmAC ¥. caus, of ab yey ben --mu, To have one's hair cut or shaved ABULCA. —_/ABAmiAK [ ¥ coop. of ab- ] To take oF receve jointly ‘ OF mutually; to link, join; to fight j cach other. ABULCA- yal --xu, To catch fire, ignite tangyarly ~-mu. To take a utual oath; to swear to each other ‘ang ijen ~~. To get used to each other, ABULCAT-A/ ABARLAR ‘8, Mutual connection or relation; coherence, » consistency, loge. + ywel, Disconnected; Incoherent, absurd, 5 {Mlogtcal ABULCATATAL = / ABAMIAATHL ad). Coherent, connected; consistent, logical, ABULCATUL- — / ADAMYIAX ¥. caus, of abutea- ABULDU- — / BAUR [¥. ree, of ab- ] To seize or hold each other, , Interlock, stick together, be glued together; to fight each other ABULY-A / ADmATE 1, Phe act of ab-; a thing to be taken; some- 7 thing te whieh one has‘s claim; claim; C fa det to be collected; the ability of taking, absorbing, or understanding. -- Ji abuyel. Debt collector sxevlge. Receiving and giving; things to Le received or given; debts to be paid or collected. yar un --. Guidance; practical reference or guide, study aid; manual. bolyaxy, To make something a guide, take as guidance. ABULTACL —/—aenare 8, Collector; receiver of money, gifts, taxes, 7 bribes, ete. ABULTAL Apamtatt dj. Good oF advantageous to be taken or 7 acquired; that which should be taken, received, oF accepted ABUMATAL 7 seawrat {, adj. Receptive; inclined to receive; venal; p Imitative; docile; intelligent, capable. yge --. Compliant, obedient ABURTUDA- ABUMTATAL / — ABAUIDAD Same as abumaya. ‘BUN [ modal conv. of at | See also ab-, £ URA- /ABPAK Vt. To save, rescue, help, deliver, preserve Lite ; to protect xu dyse. Lifebett smu ongyuca, Lifeboat. amin 1 --xu, To save a life; to grant life (to one condemned to death, ete.) orellang ‘ece --xu. To save from the circle of transmigration, ABURATCI / ABPATY 1, Savior, rescuer; deliverer; protector ArDA-—/ _avearaax p ato abere golan — / tran Gavan, reste, peesreation; potction “any. by al) relag taken inthe tay” compat, pty tberton rig. o sek elation, protectin, er ete (a with he Bue), == oer Ieee thas to you (conventional phrase used in the epistolary style to express fratitude or appreciation). SBURE-A See aburyt ABURTU / ABPATA [abury-a Jadj. andn. Gigantic, colossat, huge, enormous, vast; glant; titan; highest rank of wrestlers; champion. eke. Huge, enormous, vast. moval. Boa constrictor, python Chess champion. Riyasu. Huge fish; shark sitaraet, SBURTUDA- / ASPAPAIAX vl To be gigantic, colossal, huge, or enormous; to be superior. ‘ABURT gpunt | / ADAP ‘a, Conduct, behavior; manners; character; ‘laposition, temperament, temper. ~ ygel. Capricious ang = zang --. Character, diaposition, temperament; behavior. maya --. Bad behavior or character. nomuxan dplygen --. Gentle or calm disposition ‘yee ~~. Speech and manners. ABURIDA dv. Habitually, usually, always, permanently, consistently. ‘sBURDA- Same as aburila-- SBURILA- —/— aBveaAx vl, To behave. maya --ru. To misbehave, behave improperly. gpurrrar /xverait fad). Having a certain character or disposition; behaving in a certain manner. ABXUTUL-— / ABOYIAK [= abmul- ] v. caus, of ab-, tary --mu, To fatten (of cattle) yayn SJen ~-xu, To have one's hair cut or shaved. it oo 7 wBaKK ‘aozar-a i Instability of character. 7 wBSKAIAX ‘To show an unstable enaracter ABZATALA- yt. BZATATAL —/ ABSAATACL fad). Unstable, inconstant, changeable ( of charactor) sca / at [Imperative] Give me! Bring! togyn nadir --1 Bring it, him, or her to met ean) / ula) . 1, and adj. Bifurcated branch of a tree; fork; Filtehork; biturcation; bifurcated, split; ACI, 1 ambiguous; contrary, conflicting. kele, Secret jargon. nelleky. To settle a conflict by a con- ference between votn sides tuyural. Clett hoot. tuyuraltan, Cloven-hoofea animals. salayatal. Branched. having bifurcated = seas tabi coxa ‘en aaron i ere Pec eens eel viet wai wrayer ene, isaea sera ear Pam yrs Sa Top wi apt; © ase cece Tec fopta / sw Scr cmerateremen ene foams Lo ae oem eas eastereme eae rare ae ee eee ft entre ame cpearct./ mem i v. caus, of acara-. cra / oat i {acta ] aif. Forked, tfureated,two-pante i" / kata see sen. i, hf ot ee Devt conegrerce, ret <= toring to, an ty noma 7 tate. orca avr reite Sentcece s+ tan Paver ged np, rovind) adr, Sent saver, <= saneyal” Sipeace iam po bers Tonka to, er, hat, Act, 2. yea. / ae ‘a. Grandson, granddaughter; nephew, niece (used only in reference to one's son's ‘oF brother's children). xkybegyn. Grandson, nephew. ein. Granddaughter; niec = yr-e. Children, offspring, posterity, descendants, as. . To load a vehicle or animal; to burden, ppt on the back; to pile up; to accumu- late; to throw one's opponent in wrestl- Ing over one's back oF thigh. wom temege. Pack camel. actj-a =-m, To load. terge --xu, To load a car or cart. aciret. / xwre a, Loader, FP alle ACI-A(N) — / AMAA(H) a ee porate 2 acon eee as eee tegegebyri. Transportation of freight or goods; shipment, CHALA- AURAIAX { ve Toad, barn. cILA- vt xu eee Denevotence, be benevolent; to treat with {lial plety; to benefit, be Dbeneficlal; to recompense, return & favor. ‘ecige eke ben --xu, To dleplay filial pety to one's parents fone nom namaji --fu bain-a. This book ‘bonefits me greatly. jomaL / AE 1B. Benevolence, benefaction; boon; filial piety. cur, 3 ACILALTAL §—/avaanrait f(r acuiattu | adj. Having or showing bene- volence or filial piety. + kybegyn, Obedient son. ScuALTU | / kuna? See actlaltat }} = nom. Chinese Canon of Filial Piety ( Ch, { hslao-ching £8). ACHAMZI = / aunAwx JH a. Benevorence; tial piety. ACILT-A(N)—/AURAPA 1, The act or process of loading; load, burden; ‘any means of transporting freight. 2 L --2u mal. Beast of burden, jcmar = / Kaur 1, Saddlebag; a bag for carrying personal Delongings. Aerral / aman a) [=acitu ] adj, Benevolent, gractous; be- neficlal; deserving gratitude, + kymyn, Benefactor. b) Thank you (used only to express deep gratitude). + bolul-a, Iam very grateful to you. cru, / wer See acital, a. 4cu / kt fn. Needle for weaving nets, cur, 1. / AtAr 1. Payment or remuneration for work, wages delivery fee; reat. bm. ‘To deliver something for a fee arlly-a. Fee, remuneration. plysy. Payment for work, wages. ylegeky. To make an offering to the spirit of the mountain when crossing a mountain pass or a gorge. cur, 2. [4Go.] adj, Fluent (of speech) acur, 3. / nar fn. A "tooth in the old Mongolian script, also called aidy. ACUTDA- 3cyrpa- — /auarnax vet, and 1, Tolire a workman by the day; to work by the day. ACUTLA-— / auArUax vet, Tohtre; to engage to deliver ‘something ACURA Same a8 ace ADA / Mt { ‘ADABASI [+ adabist ] adv. Roewe Evil ppirit; demon, devil; rulsance; obstacle, hindrance, cldkyr. Devil, evil spirit. i yldeky. ‘To exoreise demons. ngkyeeky. To be possessed by demons, tyldeer. Obstacle + yaeltel. Viclous, evil. kymyn y ~- bobu. To become a nutsance to 7 Maa ‘To prick, stab, or cut onesel. / eas ‘ordinarily, very much; ‘well; certainly. saixan, Very charming! ‘spapist ypar See adabast / war nn, and adj. End, finish; extremity; estuary, lower part or mouth of @ river; last; extreme, farthest (as a frontier, limit, fF region); the worst,of the lowest quality tayan, At least; to the very last fu imu, At the very end, un. Last, extreme, = ygel. Neither beginning nor end; less, infinite, Limitless; confused, mixed up, entangled. ekin ece abuyad -- tu kyrtel-c. ning to end. youl un --. Mouth of a river , estuary. xymyn y --. Villain, scoundrel. et end From begin object of aversion; Extremely, exceedingly, extra- ‘excellently, very ADALL TA. / nar vl, To hurry, speed, strive. PEM lo Ee \DATLA- / — AMATAK Yl, ‘To come to an end, finish; to be at the end. ~-2u treky. ‘To come at the end, come last TUN), ete, See aduyu(n), ete. ‘Soarusuey) FP se enn. ~ ADAIR, 2, /AaNIE = adar, 2] adj. Whimsleal, capricious. nang. Whim, caprice, fancy Lf aaaie = adar, 1.] n. Thin boards, reeds, or straw put under the roof tiles. ADAIRLA-, 1, /analiPaax [adarla-, | v.t, To lay boards, reeds, or straw under the roof tiles; to tulld an , animal shed (usually consisting only of ‘a roof and a rear wall) ADAIRLA-, 2. / anafteaax [= adaria- ] ¥.4, To be whimsical or capricious. ADALA- — / ALIAK v.t, and, To obsess, bewiteh; to maitreat, treat a8 a nuisance; to rage like one possessed, LATDA- — / ALTATHEX [v. pass, of adaia- } To be obsessed, bewitched to be maltreated, DALI aaa adj., adv., and postpos. The same, identical; equal; similar, resembling, analogous; similarly, tdentteally, equally; in the same way, just as. bole, ‘To become similar or identical, = busu. Not identical, dissimilar, inequal; aifferent. s+ erke, Equality of rights. ‘ADALL s+ udkataiyge. Synonym. -- ygel. Not the same, dissimilar. farban 2il yn uridaki Iuy-a nigen the same as ten years ago. igen =~. The same, equal udt-a =~ yee, Synonym, urid un ==, As before. ADALIBTUR — / ABtABTAP ‘adj, Somewhat similar, more or leas the same. ApALICA- 1 vet. and 1, To compare; to be{come] or make Identical or similar. DALICAL Lon. Comparison; example. ID. / AIDA j Yel, To be{come] Identical; to resemble, ‘ADALDKA- / amunrax Vet. To compare, liken, collate; to make simi- . lar; to equalize; to treat as identical --vasu. For example; for instance. isijelen --m, To quote an example, exemplify. ADALIDKATUL- / amurryyaax { ied caus, of adalidxa-. a PE 4 bo LISA- /AIVUICRK { {1 vil. To befcome] Identical; to resemble. jcc eo Spal scopsrans jeseneue pee wut) apie fige eos eae sek / sams Sees Gee caceeee oem eee eames ADALISKA- i v.t, ‘To make similar, ADARMAATAL SDALIKAN / Ayana qi Ad). Identical, equlvalent, the same, similar, ADAM / An 1a. and adj. Pace, step; (anteton pyacts- 7? i ADAR, 1. /AIAAP 4 See adate, 1 ADAR, 2. / AIAP See adatr, 2, fast, swift, nimble 7 amssaiax To be quick or swift (of a horee). fee A. 3 adj. Uneven, rough; . bumpy. ADARA- / auPax j 4, vt Tobe stubborn, act contrary ADARAT-A/AIPAR ‘ZL adj, anda. stubborn, stubbornness, ARIA ADARATATAL —/ —AMPAATAA adj. Stubborn. ra BEST eens soins of ioe ADARLA-/ AIAAPIAK fi See adatrla-, 1 and 2 ADARMAT-A /AIAPUAA 1a. Pretence, simulation; whim, caprice; craftt- varyam, To pretend, simulate, feign "ALA- — / ATAPARAEAX v.t, To pretend, simulate, feign. TATAT / ARAPEAATADL Fad}. Cunning, crafty; clever; intricate. Kicetel. Intricately made. kymyn, Pretender, simulator; crafty person. ADARUU ApARUU / AIP <+ bydyryy yazar, Uneven or rough ground or terratn, ADASK-A/—AICATA fn, Worn-out horse, jade; raw hide used as a ‘mat oF rug. mori, Worn-out horse. v ATA / ta ad), and adv. Possessed by a demon; devilish; quick, lively; very, exceedingly. styardavu. To make excessive demands. DU-A / Aba j [|S. adya] n. Sun; Sanday (obs.). “ype / sue q [ Shortened from 8. adhishthina, see adlstid | 1. Blessing, benediction; consecration, bestowal of miraculous power by a dtty, panacea; smallpox (euph., ef. eayan vurxan) ~ atns, To receive a blessing ~ seky. To give a blessing ADISLA- | / xmtomX v.t, To bless, pronounce a benediction, con- secrate, dedicate fan yazar. Blessed ground; blissful place. rn takixu. To make an offering, sacrifice ADILAL = /Aaicmaa {i 8, Blessing. Appar / amcowt {3 [=adistu ] adj. Blessed, consecrated, bltsstul. gost / Aworan See adi, JDISTIDLA-—/ — atorinaax 5, hallow, consecrate { vet, To bles ADBTIDLAL «= / awommaT 1, Consecration, blessing. ’psru | / | Nyon See adistal ADKAT ADRs / APEC [R. anpec]a, Address (as on a letter). SDRISLA- / aPepmax { { vt, Toaddress (as a letter). DUTUIN) —/ARYY (iH) [= adayu(n)] n. Herd of horses; + mal, Domestic animals, cattle. +n 1 zaklre. Jamun, Superintendeney of the Imperial stables (hist.). s-n uw cllayun, A long rldge covered with con- tinuous rows of weathered rocks or in- dividual huge boulders. kymyn, Horse-herder. xasij-a, Stable or shelter for horses horse. gpyrucny) agers (iti) n, Herder of horses, keeper of a herd of horses. ‘One of the four Imperial pastures of the ‘Chahar league; the people of that area, who were charged with tending the Imperia) horses ADUTULA- —/ anvyaax v.t. To tend or herd cattle; ‘care of children, keyked 1 --1u. ‘To nurse or take care of children,