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HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

UNIVERSITI SELANGOR (UNISEL)


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DIVISION
KAD 3131:LABORATORY 2
(HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY)

EXPERIMENT 1 : CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)


TEST

NAME :MUHAMMAD FARHAN BIN IBRAHIM


MATRIC NO :3153008811
GROUP :1
GROUP MEMBERS: 1.MUHAMMAD EFENDI BIN ASMAT
2.MOHAMAD ADLAN BIN ZAMRI
3.MUHAMMAD AFIF RUSYDI BIN MD KHALIL
4.NUR IZZATI EMALIA BINTI AZHAR
5.ERIN MARISSA BINTI RAMLAN
6.MAIZATUL AQMAR BINTI YUSUP
7.ZAILA MAIZUROH BINTI ABD MUIN

LECTURER :PUAN SYARIFAH ANOM BINTI IBRAHIM


TECHNICIAN :ENCIK HELMI JAMAL
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

LABORATORY EVALUATION FORM


Course & Course Code KAD 3131 LABORATORY 2
(HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LAB)
Experiment CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) TEST
Date of Experiment

Students Name MUHAMMAD FARHAN BIN IBRAHIM


Matric No. 3153008811
Group 1
Lecturers Name SYARIFAH ANOM BT IBRAHIM
Techician ENCIK HELMI JAMAL
Course Learning
Outcome(CLO)
Date of Report
Submission
TOTAL MARKS(Taken from rubric evaluation
form)
Comments

Examiner Signature
Date
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) TEST


Muhammad Farhan Bin Ibrahim1, Muhammad Efendi Bin Asmat2, Mohamad Adlan Bin Zamri,
Muhammad Afif Rusydi Bin Md Khalil4, Izzati Emalia Bt Azhar5, Erin Marissa Bt Ramlan6, Maizatul
akmar Bt Yusup7, Zaila Maizuroh Bt Abd Muin8

Abstract
The CBR or California Bearing Ratio is defined as the ratio of the force per unit area
required to drive a cylindrical plunger of 50mmdiameter at the rate of 1.25mm/min
into a soil mass to that required to drive the same plunger at the same rate into a
standard sample of crushed stone. The CBR test is essentially an arbitrary strength test
and hence it is mainly used to evaluate the strength of soil subgrade. It cannot be used
to evaluate the soil properties like cohesion, angle of internal friction, or shearing
resistance.
Keyword: CBR Test

Introduction
The California Bearing Ratio test or The CBR test measures the shearing
CBR test as it is usually termed, is an resistance of a soil under controlled
empirical test first developed in moisture and density condition. The
California, USA, for estimating the CBR number is obtained as the ratio of
bearing value of highway sub-bases the unit load required to affect a certain
and subgrades. depth of penetration of the penetration
piston into a compacted specimen of
This test was first developed by the
soil at some water content and density
California Division of Highways as a
to the standard unit load required to
method for evaluating the stability of
obtain the same depth of penetration
soil sub grade and other flexible
on a standard sample of crushed stone.
pavement materials. This test can be
performed in the laboratory on The CBR number is usually based
prepared samples or in-situ on location. on the load ratio for a penetration of
It is important to appreciate that this 2.5mm. If, however, the CBR value at
test, being of an empirical nature, is a penetration of 5.0mm is larger, the
valid only for the application for which test should be redone. If a second test
it was developed, i.e. the design of yields also a larger CBR number at
highway base thicknesses. 5.0mm penetration, the CBR for 5.0
mm should be used.
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

OBJECTIVE any holes formed when scraping the


specimen flush with the mould. For
To determine the CBR value for
coarse-grained soils, use any soil
subgrade material.
particles which are smaller than the
APPARATUS hole.

1.Cylindrical mould 7) Record the reading of the


force-measuring device as the initial
2.Measuring apparatus zero reading (because the seating foce
3.CBR Machine is not taken into account during the
test) or reset the force-measuring
4.Mechanical Compaction Rammer device to read zero.
5.Sieves 8) Start the test so that the plunger
6.Spacer disk penetrates the sample at a uniform rate
of 1mm/min. Record readings of the
PROCEDURES force gauge at intervals of penetration
1) Prepare approximately 4.5kg of of 0.25mm , to a total penetration not
fine-grained material to the optimum exceeding 7.5 mm.
moisture content of the soil as
determined by the appropriate
compaction effort. If its desired to cure
the soil for a more uniform moisture
distribution, mix the soil with
necessary percentage of moisture &
store in a sealed container for about 12
to 24 hours prior to the test.
2) Just before making the compacted
mould of soil, take a representative
water content sample (at least 100g for
fine-grained soil)
3)Weight the mould less base plate and
collar.
4)Clamp the mould to the base plate,
insert the spacer disk in the mould and
cover with a piece of filter paper.
5)Compact the soil according to BS
1377 using an automatic CBR / Proctor
compactor. Take a final representative
water content sample from the
remaining soil.
6) Remove the collar and trim the
specimen smooth and flush with the
mould. Using fine-grained soil, patch
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

Penetration of Force gauge reading (division) Force on plunger (kN)


plunger (mm)
Top Bottom Top Bottom
0 0 0 0 0
0.25 16 30 0.0384 0.072
0.50 30 50 0.0720 0.120
0.75 40 70 0.0960 0.168
1.00 50 110 0.1200 0.264
1.50 75 140 0.1800 0.336
2.00 105 170 0.2520 0.408
2.50 125 205 0.3000 0.492
3.00 147 250 0.3528 0.600
3.50 185 310 0.4440 0.744
4.00 213 340 0.5112 0.816
4.50 238 370 0.5712 0.888
5.00 250 420 0.6000 1.008
5.50 285 455 0.6840 1.092
6.00 305 490 0.7320 1.176
6.50 340 510 0.8160 1.224
7.00 375 550 0.9000 1.320
7.50 398 590 0.9552 1.416

Mass of mould (m1) g 5.796


Mass of mould (m2) g 10.715
Mass of soil (m2 m1) g 4.919
Volume of mould cm3 2316.56
m2 m1
Bulk density, =
Mg/cm3 2.123 10-3

Dry density, d = 1+
Mg/cm3 1.879 10-3
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

Container No. 1 2 3

Mass of container (m1) g 39.9 39,9 -

Mass of wet soil + container (m2) g 126.9 153.1 -

Mass of dry soil + container (m3) g 114.8 138.3 -

Mass of moisture (m2 m3) g 12.1 14.8 -

Mass of dry soil (m3 m1) g 74.9 98.4 -

Moisture content, -
m2 m3 % 16.2 15.0
= m3 m1

Average moisture content % 15.6

CBR value at penetration of


Penetration of 2.5mm 5.0mm
Percentage % %
Top 2.27 3
Bottom 3.73 5.04
Average 3 4.02
Accepted CBR = 4.02
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

SAMPLE CALCULATION
Bulk density,
2 1
=

10.715 5.796
=
2316.56
= 2.123 10-3 Mg/cm3

Dry density,

=
1+
2.123 103
=
1 + 0.13
= 1.879 10-3 Mg/cm3

Moisture content, w
2 3
= 100
3 1
126.9 114.8
= 100
114.8 39.9
= 16.2%

Average moisture content


16.2 + 15.0
=
2
= 15.6
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

Load against Penetration value


1.4

1.2

0.8
Load , N

Top
0.6
Bottom

0.4

0.2

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Penetration v,mm

DISCUSSION After that, we must make sure the


apparatus is set up correctly, especially
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is a
the mould. The screw must be tightening
compressive nature penetration test. The
perfectly to hold the soil during
test is specifically used to determine the
compaction stage. This allow the soil
mechanical strength as well as the
compacted completely. Then, during the
potential strength of road sub grades and
penetration test, the assembly must be
base courses materials including the
turn upside down. This is because after
recycled material generally used for road
the compaction, the lower part of the
and airfield pavements. So, the test must
soil will get the maximum compaction.
be done carefully to get the precise
So, the penetration must be subjected to
result and have a few precautions that
the bottom part of the soil as it has a
should be alert.
highest strength.
First, the sample should dry enough to
get the maximum strength. As we know,
the strength of soil will be decrease due
to high rate of moisture content in the
soil. Thus, the sample must be placed in
the oven for at least 24 hours to
minimise the rate of moisture content.
Moreover, if the soil is in the wet
conditions, it will not strong enough to
withstand the pressure from rammer.
HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY JOURNAL

CONCLUSION cement, calcium chloride or lime are


mixed into the soil then it is compacted.
The sub-grade layer of pavement is,
The sub-grade soil can also be excavated
essentially, the underlying ground. It is
and mixed with gravel then compacted.
also known as the formation level which
From this experiment, the value of
can be defined as the level at which
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) for
excavation ceases and construction start
tested soil is determined. The value for
where it is the lowest point of the
CBR is actually 4.02 at 5 mm of
pavement structure. Most sub-grade
penetration) This method covers the
improvement is accomplished by
determination of the CBR of pavement
compacting the soil. In extreme
subgrade, sub base and base course
situations, when the soil is particularly
materials from laboratory compacted
bad or the loads high, soil stabili1ation
specimens. The objectives are well
can be used. In this process, Portland
determined.

REFERENCES
i. http://www.outbackroads.com/reports/4th_type_2_trial_test_CBR.pdf
ii. http://www.aboutcivil.org/california-bearing-ratio-test.html
iii. https://www.scribd.com/document/214017628/California-Bearing-Ratio-Print