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1.1 Background of the study

Work in the Ghanaian context has been regarded as a major source of income for the family

and the members of the family thereof since employees must combine demands of their work

and family domains. This is because of globalization and changing demography of employees.

In view of this, Voydanoff (2015) conceptualized that there exist two types of conflict. He

explained that when individuals have limited time to fulfil their responsibilities towards family

due to work demands, it can be termed as work to family conflict whereas family to work

conflict is experienced when difficulties are encountered in focusing on their job because of

the interference from family demands (Voydanoff, 2015).

According to Md-Sidin et al. (2010), social support can be seen through the direct effect of the

actions taken during work to family conflict. Literature such as Cinnamon and Rich (2002) has

established that lack of social support, be it emotional or physical, received by employees from

their spouses in terms of household management and work leads to work-family conflict. In a

similar perspective, Hams and Kacmar (2006) is of the view that the support from families is

a major predictor of in reducing work-family conflict. Adam (2008) also corroborated these

findings that, lack of support will be the cause of an individual experiencing work family

conflict if there is a continuous exposure in daily life. Furthermore, the presence of children,

number and age of children, marital support, family roles, and the availability and suitability

of childcare has been found to lead to work-family conflict. (Mullen et al., 2008; Grzywacz

and Demerouti, 2013; Poelmans et al., 2013). Once an individual experience a high level of

work and family conflict, the person is more likely experience job dissatisfaction. When a work

role conflicts with a non-work role, it will reduce the role satisfaction (Zhao & Namasivayam,

2012). In addition to this, Karatepe and Uludag (2008) is of the view that work to family

conflict decreases marriage satisfaction and the intention to quit from also increases.

Karatepe and Baddar (2006) defined that there were two types of tension sources in work-

family interactions, namely work to family conflict and family to work conflict (Lin, Chen, &

Sun, 2015). The phenomenon of work-family life conflict is therefore bidirectional dimension

and nature (Porter and Ayman, 2010; Rotando and Kinsaid, 2008). This suggests that

workplace issues interfere in family issues, and home issues interrupting in work activities

respectively. Again, Parasuraman and Slimmers (2001) indicated that work-family life conflict

can be either time-based, strained-based, implying a situation when the time devoted to one

role makes it difficult to fulfil the requirements of the other role, and when strain generated in

one role intrudes into the other role respectively. However, a third type of conflict which

indicates an incompatibility in terms of behavioural patterns that are desirable in the two

domains (Yang et el., 2000) as cited in (Erkmen & Esen, 2014).

In establishing the causes, the presence of children, number and age of children, amount of

marital support, family roles, and the availability and suitability of childcare (Mullen et al.,

2008; Grzywacz and Demerouti, 2013; Poelmans et al., 2013) has been found to lead to work-

family conflict. Work-family conflict can also evolve from employees failure to maintain the

lines separating work domain and family domain, such as provision for family care, which

results in a care dilemma (Malik and Khalid, 2008). Further, the current study argues that the

social support received and not received by employees can cause work-family conflict. In view

of this, social support can be general or work-family specific. Moreover, Ayman and

Antani(2008) are of the view that it is important for employees who are active multiple life

domains to have a large and diverse support networks which can provide them with support.

In furtherance, Kossek et al. (2011) in his meta-analysis revealed that both the type and source

of social support an employee received matters for work-family conflict.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of work and family life conflict has attracted numerous attentions of researchers in

the last few decades because its a global threat to every organization (Ayman & Antani, 2008).

Despite this, employees still experience more conflict between work and personal life as they

continue to pursue the quality of life that they need (Ahmad, 2008). Thus, successfully

balancing work and family life is one of the major challenges facing employees currently. It

has been found that due to work-family life conflict most working people remain single just

because they are unable to fulfil work and family demands (Kasper, Schmid & Mayer, 2005).

Considering the traditional roles performed by the Ghanaian woman as compared to the males,

there is the need to investigate the influence of gender on work-family life conflict. Work-

family conflict has also been found to have a significant relationship with turnover intentions

conflict and it is a significant predictor of actual turnover (Noor & Maad, 2008; Yavas, Babakus

& Karatepe, 2008). Also, Anderson, Coffey and Byerly (2002), is of the view that work-family

conflict leads to stress, emotional exhaustion and cynicism in employees of an organization

(Wang, Chang, Fu & Wang, 2012). Thaden (2007) revealed that higher turnover rates disrupt

continuity of care, and harm workers ability to achieve critical case management functions.

Research has established that childcare support, number of children and age of children born

to couples have a significant influence on work-family conflict (Acheampong, 2013) However,

literature on the influence of work-family conflict has mainly being investigated in western

countries, with little literature pertaining to the Ghanaian setting. This has necessitated the need

for the current study.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The overall aim of the study is to examine work and family conflict among employees in the

banking sector within Kumasi Metropolis-Ghana. The study specifically seeks to:

1. Identify the nature of work and family life conflict experienced by employees.

2. Outline the causes of work and family life conflict among employees in the banking sector

within Kumasi Metropolis-Ghana.

3. Determine whether gender influence work and family life conflict among employee in the

banking sector.

4. Identify the effects of work and family life conflict on employees.

1.4 Research Questions

The study, in attaining its objectives will provide answers to the following questions;

1. What is the nature of work-family life conflict experienced by employees?

2. What causes work-family conflict among employees in the banking sector within Kumasi


3. Does gender influence the experience of work-family conflict among employee in the

banking sector?

4. How does work-family conflict affect employees?

1.5 Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between work-family conflict and gender of employees.

H1: There is a significant relationship between work-family conflict and gender of employees.

H0: There is no significant relationship between work-family conflict, and employee turnover


H1: There is a significant relationship between work-family conflict, and employee turnover


H0: There is no significant relationship between work-family conflict and social support.

H1: There is a significant relationship between work-family conflict and social support.

1.6 Justification of the study

Majority of employees in recent times, are dual earners for their families, that is, playing

domestic and work roles, and they are more likely to turnover or reduce working hours in

favour of family schedules, most importantly women (Ammons & Edgell, 2007; Stone, 2007).

In this regard, changes in the work environment through workplace initiatives and policies

would certainly enable employees deal effectively with both work and family responsibilities

(Kelly, Moen & Tranby, 2011).

The study will augment the literature gap on work-family conflict incorporating the gender

dimension. Therefore, unravelling gendered responses to work-family conflicts is necessary

(Moen & Roehling, 2005).

Further, enormous demands have been brought to bear on organizations to adopt family-

responsive strategies and be more family friendly (Cohen & Single, 2001) to enhance employee

performance while maintaining a balance between their work and family roles. Hence, a

research into work-family conflict on employee is appropriate.

1.7 Significance of the study

It has been established that employee creativity and performance is vital to the survival of

modern enterprises in the current competitive markets. Thus, a study on factors that could

promote or constrain creativity is important such as work-family conflict. As such findings of

the study will inform employers, human resource practitioners and employees on the impact of

WFC on employee creativity to enhance policy formulation and implementation. Secondly, to

reduce and eliminate the negative impact of WFC on employees and the organization, it is vital

to identify strategies that potentially can offset their negative impact on employees, which will

be recommended by the current study.

Further, findings on gender as a mediating factor on work-family conflict will provide insight

on how both genders experience the problem as against the traditional notion of females being

the only ones who experience work-family conflict.

The study will therefore inform supervisors and managers on the practical approach of using

family supportive supervisor behaviours to address the issue of WFC to facilitate employee

effectiveness at work and home. Many contemporary researchers have concentrated on

employee creativity as a critical resource for organizational survival. Hence, the findings of the

study will add to the paucity of literature in the area in the Ghanaian setting and serve as a

source of reference and direction to future researchers in the area

1.8 Scope of the study

Contextually, the study will focus on work-family conflict among employees in the banking

sector. Further, the study will investigate the nature of work-family conflict, causes, gender as

moderator, and effect work-family conflict has on employees. Despite numerous banks in

Kumasi metropolis and Ghana as a whole, the study will focus on Ghana Commercial Bank,

Ecobank and HFC Bank branches located in Kumasi, Ghana because of high number of both

male and female employees compared to the other banks available within the Metropolis.

1.9 Organization of the study

The study will be organized in five different sections. That is, the study will be conducted in

five chapters. The first chapter, one will focus on giving a background to the problem,

establishing the problem, objectives to be achieved, hypothetical statements, significance of

the study, organizational of the study, as well as definition of terms as applied in the study.

The second chapter, chapter two of the study would focus on reviewing relevant literature,

considered key to the study. This chapter will focus on explaining key terms in the problem,

reviewing theoretical bases of the study as well as reviewing empirical data on the problem and

related concepts in the study, along the stated objectives of the study. The study would further

establish how findings from other scholars globally, relate to the current study.

The third chapter, chapter three will focus on the various methods that will be employed in

conducting the study. That is, the chapter will constitute the research design, population and

sample size, sampling techniques, sources of data, methods of data collection and ethical

considerations that are key to the success of the current study. The fourth chapter, which is

chapter four of the study will focus on analysis of data obtained from the field and sociological

interpretations of the study. The last chapter will focus on providing summary based on the

findings from the study and provide conclusions as well as recommendations for further

research and policy.

1.10 Definition of terms (Operational definitions)

I. Work-family conflict a situation where roles carried out by an individual in the

family domain contradict duties or roles in the domain of work.

II. Employee an individual who works for a bank.

III. Bank a financial institution that deals with monetary transactions with individuals.