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AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices

11/1/04 Wheels and Axles


M-101

AXLES, CARBON STEEL, HEAT-TREATED

Specification
M-101

Adopted: 1914; Revised: 1996, 2004, 2005, 2007


1.0 SCOPE
These specifications cover heat-treated axles of all sizes for passenger cars and freight cars to
designs shown in Section G. These specifications also cover heat-treated locomotive axles. The
grades of carbon steel axles are as follows:

Grade FDouble normalized and tempered. (All freight axles over 6 1/2 in. nominal di-
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

ameter at center shall be Grade F.)


Grade GQuenched and tempered.
Grade HNormalized, quenched, and tempered.
Grades F, G, and HAxles are used in heavy duty service on locomotives, cars, and other equip-
ment.
2.0 QUALIFICATION AS MANUFACTURER
Qualification as a manufacturer of axles for use in AAR interchange service must be in accordance
with Appendix C of this specification. Qualification is effective until revoked for cause by the Com-
mittee. Failure to maintain reasonable quality standards in manufacturing is an example of cause.
Axle manufacturers must meet the requirements of the AAR Manual of Standards and Recom-
mended Practices, Section J, Specification M-1003, Specification for Quality Assurance.
3.0 MANUFACTURE
3.1 Process
The steel shall be made by any of the following processes: open hearth, electric furnace, or basic
oxygen.
3.2 Discard
A sufficient discard shall be made from each ingot to ensure freedom from piping and undue segre-
gation.
3.3 Reduction Practice
The axles may be made directly from the ingot or from blooms. The total reduction from ingot or
strand-cast bloom to forging or extrusion shall be not less than 3 to 1, unless otherwise specified.
Note: The process for manufacturing strand-cast blooms shall be designed to ensure freedom from
center porosity and undue segregation.
4.0 COOLING AND HEATING
4.1 After axle blooms are produced, they shall be slow-cooled in closed containers, hoods, or fur-
naces.
4.2 Blooms shall be reheated for working in a manner that will prevent internal bursts and over-
heating.
4.3 After reduction, axles shall be slow-cooled in closed containers, covered conveyors, or in
hoods. If axles (Grades F, G, and H) are heat-treated directly from reduction, they shall be
slow-cooled following the final heat treatment.
4.4 Axles (Grades F, G, and H) that are heat-treated directly from reduction 1) shall be cooled
below the transformation temperature or to approximately 1,000 F before any reheating opera-

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M-101

tion; and 2) must not be permitted to cool below 500 F without slow-cooling as defined in
paragraph 4.3.
Note: As the temperature of the axles approaches the minimum of 500 F, a supplemental heat
source may be necessary to ensure an effective slow-cooling cycle.
4.5 When properly vacuum-degassed steel is used, the slow-cooling requirements of paragraphs
4.1, 4.3, and item 2 of paragraph 4.4 may be omitted, but axle blooms must then be pile cooled.
4.6 The slow-cooling requirements of paragraphs 4.1, 4.3, and item 2 of paragraph 4.4 may be
accomplished by piling and covering the piled blooms or axles with insulating materials in lieu of
using closed containers, hoods, furnaces, and covered conveyors. Covered piles must be capable of
providing effective cooling rates in accordance with the manufacturers procedure or specification.
5.0 HEAT TREATMENT

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
5.1 Axles for heat treatment shall be reheated gradually and uniformly to a suitable temperature
to refine the grain structure.
5.2 Normalizing
After being heated to a suitable temperature, the axles shall be withdrawn from the furnace and
allowed to cool uniformly in air. A furnace charge thus treated is termed a normalizing charge.
Cooling may be accelerated by increased air circulation, which must be controlled to provide rea-
sonably uniform cooling.
5.3 Double Normalizing
The procedure shall consist of two separate normalizing treatments. The second treatment shall
be performed at a lower temperature than the first treatment. A furnace charge thus treated is
termed a double normalizing charge. Cooling may be accelerated by increased air circulation,
which must be controlled to provide reasonably uniform cooling.
Note: A single normalizing treatment shall be permitted when all other requirements for Grade F
can be met.
5.4 Quenching
After being heated to a suitable temperature, the axles shall be quenched in a suitable medium
under reasonably uniform conditions. A furnace charge thus treated is termed a quenching charge.
5.5 Tempering
Axles shall be reheated gradually to, and held at, a suitable temperature below the critical range
and shall then be allowed to cool under suitable conditions. A furnace charge thus treated is
termed a tempering charge.
5.6 Heat treatment may be performed in either batch-type furnaces or continuous furnaces.
6.0 STRAIGHTENING
Straightening shall be done before machining and preferably at a temperature not lower than
950 F. Straightening performed at temperatures lower than 950 F shall be followed by stress
relieving or an applicable heat treatment.

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M-101

7.0 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemical composition shown in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1 Chemical composition
Grade F Grades G and H
Heat-Treated
Min. Max. Min. Max
Carbon, percentage 0.45 0.59
Manganese, percentage 0.60 0.90 0.60 0.90
Phosphorus, percentage 0.045 0.045
Sulphur, percentage 0.050 0.050
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

Silicon, percentage 0.15 0.15

8.0 LADLE ANALYSIS


8.1 An analysis of each heat of steel shall be made by the manufacturer to determine the percent-
age of carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon. The chemical composition thus deter-
mined shall be reported to the purchaser or purchasers representative and shall conform to the
requirements of paragraph 7.0.
8.2 Identification of Heats in Consecutive Strand Castings
If more than one heat is consecutively strand cast at one time, ladle analyses shall be obtained of
each heat. If the ladle analysis of one heat does not meet the requirements of the specification, the
bloom or blooms that comprise a mix of the two consecutive heats shall be deemed to be outside the
requirements of the specification unless additional chemical analyses prove compliance. If both
ladle analyses are in compliance with the specification, the heat number assigned to the cast prod-
uct shall remain unchanged until all of the steel in the bloom is from the following heat. Alterna-
tively, when all of the mixed portion of two consecutive heats is in one bloom, that bloom may be
given the heat number that comprises the larger portion of the bloom on either side of the mixed
portion.
9.0 CHECK ANALYSIS
Analysis may be made by the purchaser from one axle representing each heat. The chemical com-
position thus determined shall conform to the requirements of paragraph 7.0, subject to tolerances
included in Table 9.1. The sample for these analyses shall be taken from one end of the test axle or
full-size prolongation at a point midway between the center and surface. If drillings are taken,
they shall be obtained using a 5/8-in.-diameter drill, or turnings may be taken from a tensile test
specimen.
Table 9.1 Permissible variations for check analysis
Permissible Variations, Over the Maximum Limit
or Under the Minimum Limit
Elements Percentage
Manganese 0.030
Phosphorus 0.008
Sulphur 0.008
Silicon 0.020

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10.0 TENSION TESTS


10.1 Grades F, G, and H axles shall conform to the requirements in Table 10.1.
Table 10.1 Tensile requirements for carbon steel heat-treated axles
Size Tensile Yield Elongation Reduction
(Solid Diameter or Thickness) Strength Strength in 2 in. of Area
(in.) (psi) (psi) (percentage) (percentage)
Grade Over Not Over Min. Min. Min. Min.
F 8 88,000 50,000 22 37
(Double Normalized
and Tempered)
G 4 90,000 55,000 20 39

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
(Quenched 4 7 85,000 50,000 20 39
and Tempered) 7 10 85,000 50,000 19 37
H
(Normalized, 7 115,000 75,000 16 35
Quenched, 7 10 105,000 65,000 18 35
and Tempered)

10.2 The size classification shall be determined by the finished diameter of the journal.
10.3 The diameter of the test prolongation shall be at least equal to the as-formed diameter of the
journal.
10.4 The tensile properties for all grades listed in Table 10.1 shall be determined by the
procedure described in ASTM A 370, Standard Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of
Steel Products. The yield strength shall be determined using the 0.2% offset technique. A
Class B2 or more accurate extensometer shall be used.
10.5 The use of automated devices that determine the offset yield strength without the need for
plotting a stress-strain curve are acceptable.
10.6 Tests shall be made only after final heat treatment of Grades F, G, and H axles.
11.0 TENSION TEST SPECIMENS
11.1 Tension test specimens shall be taken from the test prolongation or an axle in accordance
with the provisions of paragraph 12.0.
11.2 Unless otherwise specified, the axis of the specimen shall be located at any point midway
between the center and surface of the axle or full-sized prolongation and shall be parallel to the
axis of the axle.
11.3 Tension test specimens shall conform to dimensions shown in Fig. C.1.
11.4 Tension tests from the prolongations shall have minimum tensile strength and yield point
values 5% greater than shown in Table 10.1. For example, Grade F tension tests from axle prolon-
gations shall have 92,500 psi minimum tensile strength and 52, 500 psi minimum yield point.
11.5 Tension test specimens from axles shall be taken from the journal of the axle at the
mid-radius, halfway between the surface and center, with the gauge dimension parallel to the axis
of the axle. For tensile specimens removed from the prolongation, samples shall be taken from the
mid-radius, halfway between the surface and center, with the gauge dimension parallel to the axis
of the axle.

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M-101

12.0 PROLONGATION FOR TEST


12.1 For test purposes, prolongations shall be attached to at least 5% of the axles in each size
classification of each heat in each heat-treating lot.
12.2 If axles with prolongations have been expended, then axles may be used for test procure-
ment.
12.3 Test reports shall state prolongation sizing prior to test or the use of axles for test.
13.0 MICROSCOPIC TEST FOR HEAT-TREATED AXLES (GRADES F, G, AND H)
13.1 A specimen, representing each size classification of each heat in each heat-treatment lot,
shall be taken for microscopic test from the tension test specimen. This section for microscopic test
shall be cut from the large undistorted portion of the tension test specimen in such a way as will
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

give a face transverse to the axis of the axle.


13.2 The face shall be polished practically free from scratches and shall be etched to define the
microstructure. The specimen shall be examined under a magnification of 100 diameters.
13.3 The entire specimen shall show a uniform, fine-grained structure, and shall have a grain
size of 5 or finer as measured in accordance with ASTM Standard Method E112, latest version.
14.0 NUMBER OF TESTS
14.1 Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, mechanical tests for grades and sizes shown in
Table 10.1 shall be made from heat-treated axles as covered in paragraph 14.2
14.2 One test per grade, per heat, per size classification is required, but each test shall represent
no more than 70 axles, including the test axle. The axles represented by this test shall be called a
heat-treatment lot. Each heat-treatment lot of axles shall be heat-treated together, whether in
batch-type or continuous furnaces. In the event that the mechanical properties of a test do not con-
form to the requirements specified, all of the axles from the heat-treatment lot are to be retreated in
accordance with paragraph 15.2 of this specification.
14.3 If any test specimen fails because of mechanical condition of the testing apparatus, it may be
discarded and another specimen taken.
15.0 RETEST
15.1 If the results of the mechanical tests of any lot do not conform to the requirements specified
because a flaw developed in the test specimen during testing, a retest shall be allowed if the defect
is not caused by ruptures, cracks, or flakes in the steel.
15.2 If the result of the mechanical test of any lot of Grade F, G, or H axles does not conform to
the requirements specified, the axles may be retreated, but not more than three additional times,
and retests shall be made in accordance with paragraph 10.0.
16.0 ULTRASONIC TESTING
16.1 Ultrasonic testing is required for all heat-treated axles.
16.2 Time of Inspection
Inspection shall be made after axle ends are machined and centered, but prior to drilling the cap
screw holes.

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M-101

17.0 TEST EQUIPMENT AND INSPECTION PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS


17.1 Test Equipment
The instrument or ultrasonic flaw detector shall be a pulse-echo-type, broadband pass amplifier
with the capability of operating transducers in the range of .4 MHz to 10 MHz.
17.1.1 The ultrasonic transducer shall be operated at a 2 1/4 MHz frequency for both penetrabil-
ity and discontinuity detection for heat-treated axles or equivalent such as ISO 9712 or other
national standards that have similar testing and certification requirements and have been
reviewed and deemed acceptable by the AAR. When equivalent processes are used, applicants
will forward their specifications to the AAR with their application under the provision of Appendix
C.
17.1.2 The instrument may use various transducers or piezoelectric elements ranging in size

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
from 3/4-in. to 1-in. diameter or 1-in. square. The transducer type is at the option of the axle man-
ufacturer. Other transducers of similar response capability as those described may be used.
17.1.3 Single or multiple transducers may be used for scanning. However, the signal for each
transducer in a multiple set shall be individually monitored.
17.1.4 Ultrasonic test instrumentation shall be calibrated and certified annually or whenever
repairs are made or parts replaced that may affect the performance of the instrument.
17.1.5 A suitable couplant shall be used between the test surface of the axle and the transducer.
The transducer face, test surface of the axle, and couplant shall be free of contaminants that would
affect the quality of sound transmission.
17.2 Personnel Requirements for Ultrasonic Inspection
17.2.1 All personnel engaged in ultrasonic operations will be qualified to NDT (nondestructive
testing) Level I according to the qualification requirements as defined by the American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, latest edition.
17.2.2 All personnel conducting inspection setups and machinery setups will be trained and qual-
ified to meet the criteria for NDT Level II for ultrasonic testing as defined by the American Society
for Nondestructive Testing, Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, latest edition.
17.2.3 Each manufacturer will employ the services of an individual who will be trained and qual-
ified to meet the criteria for NDT Level III for ultrasonic testing as defined by the American Soci-
ety for Nondestructive Testing, Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, latest edition.
17.3 Records
Each facility shall maintain the following:
A procedure specification for each of its qualified ultrasonic testing procedures
A copy of each of its qualified ultrasonic testing procedures posted in the ultrasonic testing
area
Records of test results
Certification records, based on the requirements in paragraphs 17.0 through 17.2.3, for all
qualified personnel engaged in ultrasonic inspection testing. These records shall be
attested by a responsible official of the facility and shall be accessible to the AAR represen-
tative.

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M-101

18.0 INSTRUMENT SENSITIVITY, SCANNING, AND DISTANCE AMPLITUDE


CORRECTION
18.1 Instrument Sensitivity
18.1.1 Prior to testing the instrument, sensitivity shall be adjusted to produce an indication of
the amplitude specified in Table 18.1 below from a reference test block 16 in. long, manufactured
from a Grade F axle forging having a 1/8-in.-diameter, 1-in.-deep, flat-bottom hole drilled perpen-
dicular to and at a distance of 15 in. from the test end face of the axle section.
Table 18.1 Instrument sensitivity setting
Indication Amplitude
[% Full Screen Height (FSH)]
Heat-treated axles 20
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

18.1.2 Reference blocks shall be kept free of dirt, rust, grit, or defacement and shall be inspected
semiannually for compliance with a surface finish of 80 in. to 125 in. Inspection certification
records shall be maintained and shall indicate inspector, inspection date, and surface finish.
18.1.3 At the sensitivity established in paragraph 18.1.1, the instrument shall detect in
heat-treated reference axles a flat-bottom hole of the size and distance specified in Table 18.2.
Table 18.2 Required size (flat-bottom holes) detectable at various distances from end faces
Test Distance up to 15 in.
Heat-treated axles 1/8 in.
Test Distance 15 in.30 in.
Heat-treated axles 1/4 in.
Test Distance Over 30 in. to Mid-Length
Heat-treated axles 3/8 in.

18.2 Scanning
18.2.1 Scanning shall be performed from both end faces, which shall have a surface finish not
exceeding 125 in. finish. The scanning shall include the maximum end face area obtainable by
manual or automated inspection techniques.
18.2.2 The end faces of the axles and the surface of the transducer shall be free of dirt or grit dur-
ing testing. Periodic tests shall be made during production testing against the reference block
described in paragraph 18.1.1 and adjustments shall be made to instrument controls to ensure
compliance with the specifications.
18.2.3 During scanning, the amplitude of the indication from the end face opposite the trans-
ducer shall be monitored. The amplitudes of all discontinuity indications shall be evaluated not
only with respect to the distance from the test surface (see paragraph 18.3), but also with respect
to the effect on the back reflection amplitude (see paragraph 19.1). During the discontinuity
inspection test, an additional 6 dB minimum shall be added to the reference or sensitivity level for
scanning purposes. All discontinuity evaluation shall be performed at the original recorded sensi-
tivity level prior to final disposition.
18.2.4 Results of scanning of each axle shall be recorded by axle serial number. Records of results
shall be maintained for at least 5 years.
18.3 Distance Amplitude Correction
The amplitude of an ultrasonic indication must be considered in relation to its distance from the
testing surface to evaluate its significance. This can be accomplished by an electronic device or by
distance-amplitude curves (DAC) that are described in Appendix B, paragraph 2.0.

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19.0 REJECTION
19.1 Longitudinal Penetration
Axles that do not produce a 40% minimum full screen height (FSH) back reflection from the end
face opposite the search unit shall be rejected or made acceptable by heat treatment.
19.2 Discontinuity Test
The axle shall be rejected if the amplitude of any discontinuity indication exceeds the indication
levels obtained from the flat-bottom holes listed in Table 18.2, considering the distance amplitude
correction as described in paragraph 18.3
20.0 RECALIBRATION
Check the calibration of the instrument using the calibration block and technique previously
established when any of the following occur:

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
20.1 Every 4 hours of continuous use
20.2 Change in operators
20.3 Change in transducers, cables, and other accessories
20.4 Loss of power or equipment malfunction
21.0 DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES
21.1 For other than the standard freight and passenger car axles referenced in this specification,
standard tolerances and allowances will apply, if not specified in axle drawings provided by the
purchaser.
21.2 Axle centers shall conform to Fig. C.5.
21.3 For all axles ordered for finished end facing by the purchaser, the overall length shall range
from 1/8 in. to 1/4 in. over the specified minimum length.
21.4 Rough machined journals and wheel seats shall be 1/8 in. to 1/4 in. over the finished diame-
ters and longitudinally 1/8 in. to 1/4 in. of metal shall be allowed at each change of cross section for
finish machining.
21.5 The smooth machined body shall be to the specified size, with no more than 1/8 in. over on
the diameters and shall have no more than 1/8 in. allowance longitudinally at each change of cross
section, unless specified otherwise in Fig. C.3.
22.0 WEIGHT
The approximate weights of the passenger and freight car axles covered by this specification are
shown in M-101.
23.0 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
23.1 Axles shall be machined to a smooth machined finish between the wheel seats. The wheel
seats and journals shall be rough machined; the rough machining shall be free from objectionable
ridges and chatter marks. Journals, dust guard seats, and wheel seats of axles supplied in finished
form will comply with applicable provisions of the AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended
Practices, Section G, Part II, Wheel and Axle Manual.
23.2 Finish
The axles shall be free from injurious defects. The machining shall be done in a workmanlike man-
ner.
23.3 The interpretation of injurious defects in axles shall comply with Appendix A, Interpreta-
tion of Defects Considered Injurious in Axles.

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24.0 MARKING
Axles shall be legibly cold stamped with characters not less than 1/4 in. high in accordance with
the AAR standard marking requirements shown in Fig. C.2.
25.0 INSPECTION
25.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall have free entry, at all times while the work
on the contract of the purchaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturers works that
concern the manufacture of the material ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free
of charge, all reasonable facilities and necessary assistance to satisfy the inspector that the mate-
rial is being furnished in accordance with these specifications. Tests and inspection for acceptance
shall be made at the place of manufacture.
25.2 The purchaser may make tests to cover the acceptance or rejection of the material in pur-
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

chasers own laboratory or elsewhere. Such tests shall be made at the expense of the purchaser.
25.3 The inspector shall examine each axle in each heat for workmanship, defects, and confor-
mity to the dimensions given on the order or drawing. If in this inspection defects are found that
the manufacturer can remedy, manufacturer may correct such defects.
26.0 REJECTION
26.1 Any axle that fails to meet the requirements of these specifications will be rejected.
26.2 Axles that show injurious defects subsequent to their original inspection and acceptance at
the manufacturers works or elsewhere will be rejected and the manufacturer shall be notified.
27.0 REHEARING
Samples of axles tested in accordance with these specifications that represent rejected material
shall be held for 14 days from date of the test report. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of
the tests, the manufacturer may request a hearing within that time.
28.0 CERTIFICATION
Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order, a manufacturers certification that the
material was manufactured and tested in accordance with this specification, together with a
report of the test results, shall be furnished at the time of shipment.
29.0 The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the
purchaser. Details shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser.
29.1 Microscopic Tests
The prolongation from the largest axle in each heat shall be sawed normal to the axis of the axle
and shall then be split longitudinally. The transverse and the longitudinal face shall be etched for
microscopic examination. Reference shall be made to Specification ASTM E381, Standard Method
of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets, Blooms, and Forgings.
29.2 The purchaser may specify axle wheel seat diameters 1/8 in. larger than those shown under
dimension I in Fig. C.3.
30.0 This specification includes Appendices A, B, C, Figs. C.1 through C.5, and M-101.

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APPENDIX A M-101

APPENDIX A
INTERPRETATION OF DEFECTS CONSIDERED INJURIOUS IN AXLES
1.0 The conditions that have been most difficult for inspectors to evaluate are light lines visible to
the normal unaided eye, variously described as actual seams, hairlines, stringers, shadow seams,
ghost lines, etc., that appear after the axles have been finish-machined and burnished or ground. It
is therefore advisable to describe these conditions in more detail.
2.0 The interpretation of injurious defects as enumerated below is not to be considered as
precluding other unforeseen or objectionable conditions not specifically listed. The right of the
purchaser is reserved to reject temporarily such axles and make final settlement on the basis of
further negotiations between representatives of the manufacturer and the purchaser who are
especially qualified to decide such questions.

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
3.0 Any transverse or circumferential seams, cracks, or laps of indeterminate depth on the axle
surfaces other than the discolorations listed in paragraph 4.0, regardless of their location, are
considered to be injurious and are cause for rejection without further machining.
4.0 Ghost lines, shadow marks, or other similar discolorations, visible to the normal unaided eye
that are not actual separations in the metal are not considered injurious, regardless of location.
5.0 Any longitudinal discontinuity, variously termed hairline, stringer, or fine seam, in machined
fillets is considered to be injurious and is cause for rejection without further conditioning.
6.0 JOURNALS AND DUST GUARDS
6.1 Roller Bearing Axles
Fine longitudinal discontinuities on the finished (burnished or ground) surfaces variously termed
hairlines, stringers, or fine seams are not considered injurious if they meet the following condi-
tions:
6.1.1 Must not extend into fillets.
6.1.2 Must not be over 3/4 in. long individually in the journal or 1/2 in. long individually in the
dust guard seat.
6.1.3 Total length of such imperfections over 1/4 in. long must not exceed 2 in. in any one end of
axle.
7.0 WHEEL AND GEAR SEATS
7.1 Freight Car Axles (Roller Bearing)
Longitudinal seams in wheel seats of freight car axles are not considered injurious if they meet the
following conditions:
7.1.1 Must not extend into the dust guard or body fillets.
7.1.2 Must not be over 2 in. long individually.
7.1.3 Total length of such imperfections, 1/4 in. to 2 in. long, must not exceed 4 in. in any one end
of axle.
7.2 All Other Axles
Longitudinal discontinuities on the finished machined surface of wheel and gear seats, variously
termed hairlines, stringers, fine seams, tight seams, surface imperfections, etc., are not considered
injurious if they meet the following conditions:
7.2.1 Must not extend within 1 1/2 in. of either end of wheel or gear seat.
7.2.2 Must not be over 1/2 in. long individually.

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M-101 APPENDIX A

7.2.3 Total length of such imperfections, 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. long, must not exceed 3 in. in any one
end of axle.
8.0 AREAS BETWEEN WHEEL (AND GEAR) SEATS (BODY)
8.1 Machined Bodies
Longitudinal discontinuities on the finished surfaces, variously termed hairlines, stringers, or fine
seams, are not considered injurious if they meet the following conditions:
8.1.1 Must not extend into fillets adjacent to wheel or gear seat.
8.1.2 Must not be over 1/2 in. long individually.
8.1.3 Total length of such imperfections, 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. long, must not exceed 1 1/2 in. in any
12 in. of body length.
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

8.1.4 Axles containing longitudinal discontinuities in the body in excess of those described in
paragraphs 8.1.2 and 8.1.3 above may be reconditioned by grinding or machining, provided the
diameter is not reduced below the specified limit.

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APPENDIX B M-101

APPENDIX B
DISTANCE AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
1.0 ALTERNATE REFERENCE STANDARDS
Alternate references may be used to establish the test sensitivity if they are cross-referenced with
the reference test block described in paragraph 18.1.1. For example, the following are alternate
references for heat-treated axles that give equivalent sensitivity: 1) a 1-in. indication from a #1
series A Alcoa block; and 2) a 1 1/2-in. indication from an ASTM E-127 block #1-0300.
2.0 DISTANCE-AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
The amplitude of an ultrasonic indication from a given discontinuity size varies with its distance
from the test surface. To compensate for this effect, a distance-amplitude relationship is employed.
The relationship can be established by an electronic device or by curves. Because the dis-

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
tance-amplitude relationship is influenced primarily by the ultrasonic transducer and instrument,
it is necessary to relate this factor to the specific equipment used. Appropriate distance-amplitude
curves shall be developed. A typical example is shown in Fig. B.2 as related to the axle in Fig. B.1.
3.0 SPURIOUS ULTRASONIC INDICATIONS FROM CONTOUR VARIATIONS
Because an axle varies in cross-section, it is possible to produce spurious indications, particularly
at changes of cross-section. These must be recognized and are not reason for rejection. It is not
practical to define these indications in the specification, but the competent operator or technician
will recognize these spurious indications as responses from axle contours.
4.0 NEAR-FIELD RESOLUTION
It should be recognized that detection of discontinuities near the test surface is limited by the
ultrasonic test frequency. In the case of heat-treated axles, this is approximately 1 in. from the test
surface.

Fig. B.1 Showing location of reference holes in axles

Fig. B.2 Typical distance-amplitude curve for heat-treated axle (as determined with a Sperry reflectoscope, Type UM
using a 1 1/8-in.-diameter, 2.25 MHz quartz transducer)

G [M-101] 12 11/1/04
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
M-101 APPENDIX C

APPENDIX C
QUALIFICATION OF MANUFACTURERS PLANT AS A PRODUCER OF
AXLES FOR AAR INTERCHANGE SERVICE
1.0 Applications for approval are to be submitted to the AAR. AAR prefers electronic
submissions. However, if an electronic copy is not provided, then applicant should provide 15
copies of the printed documentation. Applicants should provide brochures and information that
will provide a general description of the plant and the equipment to be used in the production of
axles. In the event it is desired to deliver mounted wheel sets, information indicating that
equipment is available to comply with the wheel mounting requirements of the AAR Manual of
Standards and Recommended Practices, Section G, Part II, Wheel and Axle Manual, should be
included.
2.0 After satisfactory review of the data submitted with the application, the Committee will
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

authorize the applicant to contact the AAR for information concerning product testing. This will
consist of the applicant furnishing three axles, at applicants expense, for testing by the AAR. All
costs are to be paid by the applicant upon notification of the testing charges.
3.0 Subsequent to the satisfactory completion of the tests and approval by the Committee of test
results, the AAR will inspect for proper equipment the plant where the axles are to be produced
per S-649. If mounted wheels are to be provided, an AAR inspection will be arranged for the wheel
shop. These inspections will require that all costs be paid by the applicant. Upon the granting of
AAR approval, company marks to be stamped on the axle end face will be assigned.
4.0 All plants desiring to maintain their status as an AAR-approved manufacturer of axles for
use in AAR interchange service must be inspected as described in S-649. The costs of inspection
are to be borne by the axle producer. In the event that a facility fails to satisfy inspection or testing
expense obligation, the AAR, in conjunction with the Committee, reserves the right to withhold or
withdraw approval.
5.0 In the event that a facility ceases production for less than a year and has not received its
scheduled annual inspection, an inspection of the facility is required prior to the delivery of any
items for use in interchange service. In the event a plant ceases production of axles for AAR
interchange service for more than 60 days and less than 1 year, the AAR must be notified no later
than 2 weeks prior to reopening.
6.0 In the event a plant does not receive its annual inspection or ceases production of axles for
AAR interchange service for more than 1 year, requalification will be required prior to delivery of
any items for use in AAR interchange service.
7.0 In addition to the foregoing, axle manufacturers must meet the requirements of the AAR
Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices, Section J, Specification M-1003, Specification
for Quality Assurance.
8.0 All plants desiring to maintain their status as an AAR-approved manufacturer of axles for
use in AAR interchange service must also have their steel suppliers and heat-treating
subcontractors inspected if they do not use their own facility. These inspections will be made in
conjunction with the facility inspection, and the cost will be borne by the applicant.

11/1/04 G [M-101] 13
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
APPENDIX C M-101

NOTE:
THE GAUGE LENGTH, PARALLEL SECTION, AND FILLETS SHALL BE AS SHOWN, BUT THE ENDS

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
MAY BE OF ANY SHAPE TO FIT THE HOLDERS OF THE TESTING MACHINE IN SUCH A WAY
THAT THE LOAD SHALL BE AXIAL.

Fig. C.1 Standard round tension test specimen with 2-in. gauge length
Paragraph 11.3

G [M-101] 14 11/1/04
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
M-101 APPENDIX C
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

AAR STANDARD AXLE MARKINGS


NOTES:
1. LABORATORY ACCEPTANCE STAMPFOR USE BY PURCHASER TO SIGNIFY
ACCEPTANCE OF AXLES SO MARKED PRIOR TO SHIPMENT BY PRODUCER
2. SERIAL NUMBER.
3. MANUFACTURERS NAME OR BRAND
BF Bumar-Fablock S.A. Chrzanow. Poland SSD Standard Steel LLC. Burnham,
Pennsylvania
BSa/ Bethlehem Steel Corporation Johnstown, PA
SW SWASAP Works Germiston, South
CAF Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) Beasain, Spain
Africa
CBa/ Cobrasma Brazil
Ta/ British Steel Trafford Park
CF Valdunes (formerly Creusot-Loire) Dunkerque, France Works, England
CHB Baotou Baotou Inner THM or TZ Taiyuan Heavy Machinery (Group) Co. LTD. Taiyuan, Shanxi
Mongolia PRC Province, P.R.C
CHT Jinxi Axle Company LTD. (Formerly Norinco Jinxi) Taiyuan, Shanxi TW plus a/ Hawker Siddeley Trenton Canada
Province, P.R.C
UF Ural Forge Chebarkul, Russia
DDAP DDAP/RAX Dneprderzhinsk,
USS-Fa/ United States Steel Corp. Fairfield Works
Ukraine
USS-Ga/ United States Steel Corp. Gary Works
DSS JSC Dneprospetsstal, Zaporozhye (DSS) Zaporozhye,
Ukraine USS-Ha/ United States Steel Corp. Homestead Works
HM Huta Gliwice-Osie Sp. zo.o Gliwice, Poland V Valdunes (formerly Creusot-Loire) Valenciennes,
France
JAW Standard Forged Products Johnstown, PA
WAP Rail Wheel Factory Indian Railways (Formerly Yelahanka,
KWa/ Klockner West Germany
Wheel and Axle Plant) Bagalore, India
L Lucchini Siderugica Spa (Formerly Temi) Lovere, Italy
ZB Bonatrans a.s. (Formerly ZAD) Bohumin, Czech
LCKZ LugCentroKuZ Lugansk, Ukraine Republic
LP Huta L. W. (Formerly Lucchini Poland) Warsaw, Poland
a/ No Longer in Production
MKa/ Makrotek Mexico
MRF Standard Forged Products McKees Rocks,
Pennsylvania 4. MONTH AND YEAR MADE
MW MWL Rodas & Eixos LTDA (Formerly Mafersa) Cacapavz, Sao 5. GRADE OF AXLE
Paulo, Brazil F =Double Normalized and Tempered
RW S. C. SMR S.A. Bals, Romania G =Quenched and Tempered
SCOTa/ Scot Forge Clinton, Wisconsin H =Normalized, Quenched and Tempered
SFC or Sa/ Standard Forgings 6. HEAT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
SMI Sumitomo Metal Industries LTD. Osaka, Japan
SPTa/ British Steel Templebourough
Works, England

General Notes:
Refer to the latest mechanical division circular letter listing of AAR-approved axle manufacturers for current approval status. All marks will be deeply and legibly stamped with
characters not less than 1/4 in. high. All marks for freight car roller bearing axles must be located adjacent to the periphery of the centering hole. Manufacturers must finish one
end of the axle for stamping. The above are the minimum marking requirements, but the locations on individual items may vary from that illustrated.

Fig. C.2 AAR standard marking requirements


Paragraph 24.0
11/1/04 G [M-101] 15
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
APPENDIX C M-101

NOTE: V DIMENSION DESIGNATES MINIMUM LENGTH OF FULL THREAD. DEPTH OF DRILLED


HOLE MUST EQUAL V DIMENSION PLUS 7" MAXIMUM.
CHECK LOCATION WITH GAUGE 8
SHOWN ON MSRP SECTION G-II MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE VARIATION IN JOURNAL DIAMETER AT ANY PLACE MUST
Fig. 5.8 NOT EXCEED .001 INCH AND THERE SHALL BE NO ABRUPT CHANGES OR STEPS
OVER THE LENGTH OF THE JOURNAL.
T U.N.C.2B TAP
3-HOLES COUNTERSINK 1/8" 1" OVERALL LENGTH
O 16
LARGER THAN BOLT DIA. CL TO CL OF JOURNAL
BOLT DIA. T REMOVE N
SHARP CORNERS. BREAK 1"R + 01" 3"R
SHARP +0 1
2 E E
1"R
CORNER V 1
2 1" 16
16
120

120

J
R

K
G

I
AXLES SHALL BE MACHINED TO 250 in.
120 X B C D 2" MAX. BETWEEN WHEEL SEATS

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
1" + 0
STAMP ( * L)3'11
4 1"
IDENTIFICATION MARKS 161" 4
ON THIS SURFACE. W M
MACHINE CHAMFER TO
U 161"
250 in. MAX. MATERIAL AAR SPECIFICATION
1"
1"
M101
16 R. MIN. TO 8 R. MAX.
ENLARGED SECTION SHOWING OPTIONAL * THE L DIMENSION NEED NOT BE CORRECTED FOR
RADIUS WHEN USING CONTOUR GRINDER LENGTH EACH TIME THE WHEEL SEATS ARE TURNED

NOTES:
1. I DIMENSION TOLERANCE IS +0.015 0.015.
ON NEW AXLES MACHINE 3 in.
RADIUS AT SPECIFIED
2. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RUNOUT BETWEEN G AND H IS .006" TOTAL DIAL INDICATOR. DIMENSION L FOR ANY
3. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RUNOUT BETWEEN G AND I IS .008" TOTAL DIAL INDICATOR. WHEEL SEAT DIA.
4. FOR 7" 12" JOURNALS, END CHAMFER IS 4 15' 5/8" 1/8".
L*

3"
5. REQUIRED FOR PRESS FIT OF ROLLER BEARING BACKING RING WHERE THE H
DIAMETER IS TOLERANCED. FINISH TO 125 IN. MAXIMUM WHEN TOLERANCED. 2"
6. THE "W" DIMENSION CANNOT EXCEED THE TOLERANCE LIMITS OF THE GAUGE SHOWN IN
MSRP SECTION G-II, FIG. 5.26.
OVER SIZE DIA.

7. RUNOUT ON JOURNAL SURFACE G, WHEN ROTATED ON CENTERS, MUST NOT EXCEED


.015" TOTAL DIAL INDICATOR.
WORN DIA.
NEW DIA.

8. DIMENSIONS B AND N ARE CONSIDERED ENGINEERING DATA FOR TRUCK DESIGN AND

1"
+
8
0
DO NOT NECESSARILY AGREE WITH AXLE MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES.

J
9. JOURNAL FINISH MUST NOT EXCEED 63 IN., IF GROUND OR TURNED ONLY. IF TURNED
AND ROLLED, THE TURNED FINISH MUST NOT EXCEED 125 IN., AND THE ROLLED FINISH ENLARGED VIEW SHOWING
MUST NOT EXCEED 16 IN. CONDITION AT FILLET JOINING
BODY PORTION OF AXLE TO
INSIDE EDGE OF WHEEL SEAT.

Fig. C.3 Axle for freight car roller bearingraised wheel seat (page 1 of 2)
Standard 1963; Revised 1984, 1998; Effective March 1, 1985
Paragraph 21.5 and Paragraph 29.2

G [M-101] 16 11/1/04
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

11/1/04
M-101
11/1/04

CLASSIFI- DIMENSIONS
CATION SIZE OF
OF AXLE JOURNAL B C D E G H I J K M N O R T U V W X Y
D 5 1/2 10 5 1/2" 1 3/4" 7 5/8" 3" max 5.1915 6 3/8" 7 9/16" 6 3/4" 5 7/8" 62 1/2" 77" 86 1/8" 1 3/4" 7/8" 9 66" 1 7/8" 10 1/6" 1 1/4" 28"
min. 5.1905 + 0/- 1/4
E 6 11 5 15/16" 1 13/16" 7 5/8" 3" max 5.6915 7.032 8 1/4" 7 5/16" 6 7/16" 62 1/2" 78" 88" 1 15/16" 1" 8 66 1/8" 2" 10 15/16" 1 1/4" 28"
min. 5.6905 7.030 + 0/- 1/4
F 6 1/2 12 6 7/16" 1 13/16" 7 5/8" 3" max 6.1915 7.532 8 3/4" 7 7/8" 7 3/8" 62 1/2" 79" 89 5/8" 2 1/8" 1 1/8" 7 66 1/8" 2 1/8" 11 3/4" 1 1/4" 28"
min. 6.1905 7.530 + 0/- 1/4
G 7 12 5 15/16" 2 5/16" 7 5/8" 3" max 7.004 8.002 9 1/2" 8 9/16" 8" 62 1/2" 79" 89 1/4" 2 5/16" 1 1/4" 7 67 1/8" 2 1/4" 11 1/16" 5/8" 415"
min. 7.003 8.000 1/8

G [M-101] 17
K 6 1/2 9 4.853" 3.397" 7 5/8" 3" max 6.1915 7.532 8 3/4" 7 7/8" 7 3/8" 62 1/2" 79" 87.156" 2 1/8" 1 1/8"7 69.294" 2 1/8" 8.931" .250" 10
min. 6.1905 7.530 0.20
Wheels and Axles

L 68 4.457 3.293 7 5/8" 3" max 5.6915 7.032 8 1/4" 7 5/16" 6 7/16" 62 1/2" 78" 85.5" 1 15/16" 1" 8 69.086" 2" 8.207"
min. 5.6905 7.030
M 79 4.750 3.500 7 5/8" 3" max 6.5040 7.532 9 1/2" 8 9/16" 8" 62 1/2" 79" 87.500" 2 1/8" 1 1/8" 7 69.500" 2 1/8" 9.000"
min. 6.5030 7.530
Fig. C.3 Axle for freight car roller bearingraised wheel seat (page 2 of 2)
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
APPENDIX C
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
APPENDIX C M-101

Freight Car Axles


Class Size (in.) A (in.) B (in.) C D (in.) E
D 5 1/2 10 3.5000 6 3/16 5.195 2 3/8 .740
E 6 11 3.8750 6 11/16 5.695 2 5/8 .850
F 6 1/2 12 4.2500 7 3/16 6.195 2 7/8 .955
G 7 12 4.6250 8 7.008 3 1/2 1.080
K 6 1/2 9 4.2500 7 3/16 6.195 2 7/8 .955
L 68 3.8750 6 11/16 5.695 2 5/8 .850
M 79 4.625 7 3/16 6.508 2 7/8 0.955
Amtrak Passenger Car Axles

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
D 5 1/2 10 3.0000 6 1/2 5.507 1 7/8 .636
E 6 11 3.5000 7 6.007 2 3/8 .749
F 6 1/2 12 3.8750 7 1/2 6.507 2 5/8 .749

MATERIAL: ASTM A-576, GRADE 1045 OR EQUIVALENT. PARTS TO BE HARDENED AND SURFACES MARKED G ARE TO BE GROUND. BREAK SHARP CORNERS. TOLER-
ANCE ON ALL DIMENSIONS TO BE 1/64 IN. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

Fig. C.4 Pin-type gauge for cap screw holes in ends of roller bearing axles
Standard 1979; Revised 1982, 1998

G [M-101] 18 11/1/04
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
M-101 APPENDIX C
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

NOTE:
DEPTH OF COUNTERBORE IN ROUGH AXLE SHALL BE INCREASED FROM THAT SHOWN TO COMPENSATE FOR STOCK ALLOWED TO FACE AXLE. WHEN SECONDHAND
AXLES ARE RECENTERED, DIAMETER AND DEPTH MAY BE INCREASED SUFFICIENTLY TO PRODUCE AN ACCURATE 60 CENTER.

Fig. C.5 Axle centering and gauge for axle center and lathe center
Adopted 1944; Revised 1966, 1979
Paragraph 21.2

11/1/04 G [M-101] 19
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Wheels and Axles
APPENDIX C M-101

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

G [M-101] 20 11/1/04
AAR Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices
11/1/04 Wheels and Axles
RP-622

WEIGHTS OF MACHINED-FINISH, RAISED WHEEL SEAT AXLES

Recommended Practice
RP-622

Adopted: 1966; Revised: 2007

Nominal Weight (lb)


Classification Size of Journal Rough-Turned Journal and
of Axles (in.) Wheel Seats
Freight Car Passenger Car
IMPLEMENTED 01/07

D 5 1/2 10 810 840


E 6 11 975 1005
F 6 1/2 12 1175 1220
Roller
G 7 12 1415
Bearing
K 6 1/2 9 1168
L 68 900
M 79 1325

11/1/04 G [RP-622] 1
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Wheels and Axles
RP-622

IMPLEMENTED 01/07
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

G [RP-622] 2 11/1/04