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Corus Construction & Industrial

Slimdek residential pattern book

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Introduction to Slimdek
The Slimdek construction system 1

Technical aspects of Slimdek


Introduction 3

Asymmetric Slimflor Beams (ASB) 3
Deep decking 4
Openings in the slab 5
Edge beams 6
Tie members 8
Connections 8
Columns 9
Discontinuous columns 10

Slimdek in an unbraced structure 10
Fire resistance 11
Acoustic insulation 11
Attachment of cladding to edge beams 13
Service integration 14

The application of Slimdek


Chosen building for study 15
Building form 16
Structural grids 17
Plan form and room layouts 18
Floor layout 22
Structural options 22
Material usage 28

Steel balconies and parapets


Types of balcony 29

Balcony attachments in Slimdek 30
Parapets and balustrades 32

References 35

Figure 1.1
Slimdek plan form and room layouts - Page 18 6 storey apartment
block at Portishead
Marina.

Figure 1.2
4 and 6 storey
apartment buildings
at Penarth Marina,
Cardiff.
Introduction to Slimdek

Introduction to Slimdek
Slimdek is a shallow depth steel floor system that offers particular
advantages in multi-storey residential buildings.

Steel framed construction has for Slimdek floor system Slimdek floors achieve inherent fire
some years dominated the UK Slimdek is a fully engineered floor resistance of up to 60 minutes with
market for multi-storey solution that has been developed to no added fire protection, reducing
commercial buildings due to its offer cost-effective shallow-depth costs and speeding up programme
cost, speed and quality benefits. floors for multi-storey steel framed times. The relative light weight of
The proven values of structural buildings with grids of up to steel frames also leads to savings
steelwork are now being taken 9m x 9m. The system simplifies the on foundation costs.
advantage of in the fast growing planning and servicing of a building
multi-storey residential building resulting in significant cost and
market. The Corus Slimdek floor speed of construction benefits.
system offers particular
advantages in multi-storey Reductions in floor depth of up to
residential buildings. It provides a 400mm per storey, compared with
shallow floor depth and can conventional construction, can be
achieve 60 minutes fire resistance achieved using Slimdek.
with no added protection. This offers the potential for extra
New research has also shown that floors to be accommodated within a
Slimdek separating floors given building height or alternatively
comfortably meet the acoustic a reduction in total building height
insulation requirements of the and consequent savings on
new Part E (2003) Building envelope costs.
Regulations.
Introduction to Slimdek

The key features of the system are: Slimdek has been widely employed This brochure focuses on the
in the commercial sector, and its practical application of Slimdek in
A shallow composite slab, which advantages are now being realised a mixed-use residential and
provides excellent load resistance, in residential applications. It has commercial building in an urban
diaphragm action and robustness. been used in major residential area. This building type allows us to
An Asymmetric Slimflor Beam projects in Glasgow, Manchester, examine a variety of design and
(ASB), which achieves efficient Cardiff, Portsmouth, Bristol and detailing issues. It is a six-storey
composite action without the need London. Recent examples of building, with car parking below
for shear studs. residential building projects are ground and retail outlets at ground-
An inherent fire resistance of up to illustrated in Figures 1.1 and 1.2. floor level. The same floor grid is
60 minutes with ASB fire- used for the car park and
engineered (ASB (FE)) sections. Slimdek can be combined with apartments, which removes the
Lighter, thinner web ASBs, which other components, such as need for a transfer structure. Two
can be used unprotected in rectangular hollow sections (RHS) plan forms are illustrated, to show
buildings requiring up to 30 for columns and edge beams, light the versatility that exists with
minutes fire resistance or in fire- steel infill walls and separating walls Slimdek construction.
protected applications. that are directly supported by the
SD225 deep decking, which can composite floor, as well as roof-top
span up to 6.5m without propping penthouses and mansard roofs
(depending on slab weight). using light steel framing.
Light weight construction.

Figure 1.3 Components of Slimdek

Figure 1.4 Slimdek installation on site. Figure 1.5 Typical column-free space Figure 1.6 Slimdek used in a major
achieved using Slimdek. renovation project in Covent Garden, London.

2 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Technical aspects of Slimdek

Slimdek comprises a composite slab, formed on deep decking, which is


supported on the bottom flange of Asymmetric Slimflor Beams.

Slimdek comprises a composite Asymmetric Slimflor Beams A range of 10 ASB beams is


slab, formed on deep decking manufactured with the properties
(designated SD225), which is given in Table 2.2. Fire-engineered
supported on the bottom flange of ASB beams (designated as ASB(FE))
Asymmetric Slimflor Beams (ASB)
achieve 60 minutes fire resistance
see Figure 1.3. The typical span without any additional fire
capabilities of ASB beams and deep protection, whereas ASB beams
composite slabs in Slimdek are set achieve 30 minutes fire resistance,
out in Table 2.1. increasing to 120 minutes when
additional protection is applied to
Table 2.1 Typical span capabilities of ASB
the soffit.
beams in Slimdek.
Slimdek supported by ASBs.
Beam Designation Beam Beam For construction the minimum slab
Span (m) spacing (m)
The Asymmetric Slimflor Beam depth in Table 2.2 is defined either
Fire Resistance of 60 mins:
(ASB) is a hot-rolled section in by 35mm cover to the ASB or 70mm
280 ASB (FE) 100 6.0 6.0
which the degree of asymmetry topping to the decking (this topping
280 ASB (FE) 136 7.5 6.0
between the widths of the top and depth does not reflect any acoustic
300 ASB (FE) 153 7.5 7.5*
300 ASB (FE) 185 9.0 6.0
bottom flanges is approximately requirement). A view through an
300 ASB (FE) 249 9.0 9.0* 60%. The top flange has a raised rib ASB beam and the composite slab
pattern rolled into it to provide is shown in Figure 1.3.
Fire Resistance of 30 mins** composite action with the concrete
280 ASB 74 7.0 6.0 encasement, without the aid of a
280 ASB 105 7.5 6.0 mechanical shear connector.
280 ASB 124 7.5 7.5*
300 ASB 155 9.0 6.0
Table 2.2 Dimensions of ASB beams and minimum slab depths.
300 ASB 196 9.0 9.0*

* Propped slab during construction Width of Flange Thickness Minimum


** Additional fire protection required for R60 Designation Mass Depth Slab
Top Bottom Web Flange Depth
kg/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
300 ASB (FE) 249 249 342 203 313 40 40 340
300 ASB 196 195 342 183 293 20 40 340
300 ASB (FE) 185 185 320 195 305 32 29 325
300 ASB 155 155 326 179 289 16 32 325
300 ASB (FE) 153 153 310 190 300 27 24 320
280 ASB (FE) 136 136 288 190 300 25 22 300
280 ASB 124 124 296 178 288 13 26 300
280 ASB 105 105 288 176 286 11 22 300
280 ASB (FE) 100 100 276 184 294 19 16 295
280 ASB 74 74 272 175 285 10 14 295

Notes: ASB (FE) are fire engineeed sections

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 3


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Deep decking
600
Deep steel decking (SD225) spans 100 400
between the bottom flange of the 240
30
ASB beams and supports the wet 8
30
concrete during construction.
7 Horizontal
The embossments formed in the ribs
Service hanger
decking achieve excellent 37 15 35 (typical detail)

composite action with the concrete, 195 Vertical


embossments
assisted by bar reinforcement. Light 30 35
mesh reinforcement is provided in
the concrete topping for crack 30 33

40 100
control purposes.

A cross section of SD225 is shown Figure 2.1 Cross-section through SD225 deep decking showing service attachments.

in Figure 2.1. Each decking element


is 1.25mm thick and 600mm wide
and has special attachment points 50 Deck cut-out 15
for service and ceiling hangers.
Cover
The SD225 decking is provided with Slab to top
topping
of beam
end diaphragms and cut-outs to
allow placement and retention of the
concrete around the ASB beams, 225

as illustrated in Figure 2.2.

End diaphragm
A cross-section through the
composite slab in Figure 2.3 shows 50mm nominal bearing

the positioning of the bar Figure 2.2 Detailing of SD225 decking at ASB beams.
reinforcement. A minimum concrete
cover of 80mm over the decking
ensures fire resistance and acoustic Mesh reinforcement

insulation, although it may be


necessary to increase this cover
depending on the size of the ASB
selected (see Table 2.2). The typical
slab depth for residential 50mm
16, 20,25 or
Main reinforcement 32mm diameter
applications is 300mm to 330mm, Axis
which creates a floor depth of
approximately 400mm when Figure 2.3 Cross-section through composite slab.
combined with acoustic insulating
layers and a suspended ceiling.
The typical span capabilities of Table 2.3 Reinforcement requirements (bar diameter) in deep composite slabs for 60 minutes
fire resistance.
deep composite slabs using
SD225 decking are presented in Slab Bar size (diameter, mm) for Span of slab (m)
depth
Table 2.3.Temporary propping is not (mm) 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0
generally required for spans up to 300 16 16 16 20 20 25 32 N.A.
6m. Spans may be increased to 9m 320 16 16 20 20 20 25 32 32
if two lines of temporary props are 340 16 20 20 20 25 25 32 32
used during construction. Services Propping No propping Single line props required Double line props required
can be passed through openings in generally

the ASB beams and between the Grey area shows propping requirements for each slab.
N.A. = not generally applicable because natural frequency of slab is less than 5Hz.
ribs of the slabs.

4 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Openings in the slab ASB


beam beam span/16
Opening may be positioned T12 bar x
beam span/ for composite
1500 long 300 beam design
16*500
between the ribs of the decking
without affecting the load-bearing Opening
Minimum A142 Additional top
capacity of the slab. The maximum 1000 mesh throughout reinforcement
width of these openings is 400mm. Additional
1000 bottom
Wider openings may cut through reinforcement
B to adjacent ribs
one or more ribs, in which case it is (by engineer)
400
necessary to reinforce the slab to
distribute the forces to the adjacent Opening
ribs. A standard edge trim is pre- A A
2000
fixed as a box around the opening.
Centre-line
of ribs
The maximum recommended size of beam span/16
for composite
opening is 1000mm x 2000mm B beam design
ASB
before additional trimmer beams are beam
required. Details of permitted Curtailed Transverse End Transverse
bar bar diaphragm bar
openings and additional
reinforcement around the openings
are presented in Figure 2.4. Temporary Edge trim Temporary Temporary Edge trim Temporary
prop fixed as 'box' prop prop fixed as 'box' prop

Openings next to columns should Section A - A Section B - B

be detailed to avoid the ASB and tie Figure 2.4 Detailing of openings in the slab in Slimdek.
members. For these cases, the
close proximity of the openings to
the ASB does not affect the
Column (UC) Service pipe
composite strength to the same (max. 150 dia.)
Mesh
degree as when openings occur in reinforcement

the span. As a consequence, some


relaxation of the dimensions given
in Figure 2.4 is possible. The SD225
decking
recommended minimum distance
from a grid line to the centre-line of A A
Setting out level
a 150mm opening is 225mm, or
200mm for a smaller opening. It is ASB

also possible to accommodate a Tie beam Welded


stiffener
minor notch in the bottom flange of
225 min.
the ASB near the end connection to
provide an opening for a service
Service
pipe, but this should be detailed in Connecting pipe
bolts
order to allow for fabrication before
225 min.
delivery to site. A detail showing the
provision of a service pipe close to
an ASB near a column is presented
in Figure 2.5.

Welded stiffener
Tie beam
Rebar

Section A - A : Plan view

Figure 2.5 Provision of a service pipe close to an ASB in a Slimdek floor near to a column.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 5


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Edge beams
If the configuration of windows and
cladding allow then a downstand
beam can be used as an edge
beam. However, where this is not
possible then two alternative forms
of edge beam are recommended
ASB or RHS (Rectangular Hollow
Sections).

10 mm dia. additional
ASB beams may be designed in two L-bars at 300 mm centres
alternative configurations: 200 55 1000

1. ASB encased in concrete for fire


30

resistance and effective composite


action, as illustrated in Figure 2.6.
50
In this case, the edge of the slab is
150

detailed at 200mm from the centre-


line of the beam to allow for fixing of
the edge trim, and placement of the
concrete and L-bar reinforcement. Edge
trim
End diaphragm A142 mesh
2. ASB partially encased in
Figure 2.6 Encased ASB details at edge beam.
concrete, as illustrated in Figure 2.7.
In this case, no composite action is
developed and the fire resistance is
20 mm L-bar (10 mm)
reduced to 30 minutes, unless bolt hole at 300 mm centres A142 mesh

additional protection is applied. The


30

edge of the slab may be detailed at


100mm from the centre-line of the
beam (actual distance is half the
flange width or 95mm). To anchor
Mineral
the slab, an L-bar is placed in holes wool
infill
pre-drilled in the ASB. The edge trim
allows for a thin concrete topping.

End diaphragm
The advantage of the second option
is that any eccentricities in the ASB cut away by 55 mm (if necessary)

column connection are reduced.


Figure 2.7 Partially encased ASB details at edge beam.
However, the disadvantage is that
the projecting flange of the ASB has
to be cut away (depending on the
cladding system), and additional
insulation is required to reduce cold
bridging.

6 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS)


may be used as either composite or
non-composite edge beams. Non-
composite beams are illustrated in
Figure 2.8. RHS edge beams
Rigid insulation in Light steel stud wall
provide an attractive option because external cavity with 2 layers of gypsum board
of their ease of detailing at the Optional additional Separating strip
insulation (to reduce Proprietary
faade line. Furthermore, their high U value) battened
torsional stiffness facilitates Acoustic sealant raft floor
Cavity
eccentric connections, for example,
of cantilever balconies. When the
edge beam is used only as a
Halfen or similar
cladding support, torsional stiffness stainless steel
is still required because of the brickwork support

eccentric load from the cladding. Cavity barrier to


floor/wall junction Deep composite
15 mm min. metal deck floor Resilient bars 12.5 mm
plasterboard timber battens, plasterboard
For composite construction, shear External brickwork resilient strip Trapezoidal or metal frame
tied to inner stud wall profile ceiling
connectors may be welded to the Acoustic sealant
top flange of the RHS to increase Deflection head
its spanning capabilities by
composite action. However, the slab
Figure 2.8 Non-composite RHS edge beam supporting brickwork.
depth needs to be taken as 85mm
above the RHS section, which
makes the 300mm RHS impractical
in composite construction (see
Table 2.4). The sizing of the RHS Table 2.4 Section dimensions of RHS Slimflor edge beams.

sections generally depends on the Minimum Slab Depth (mm)+


orientation of the slab and the Designation Thickness Mass * Depth Non-
of RHS (mm) (kg/m) (mm) Composite
composite
cladding load. For scheme design
8.0 70 215 295 295
purposes, the RHS sizes given in 200 x 150
(240 x 15 plate) 10.0 79 215 295 295
Table 2.5 may be used. 12.5 91 215 295 295
8.0 76 265 295 335
250 x 150
(240 x 15 plate) 10.0 87 265 295 335
12.5 100 265 295 335
8.0 94 315 300 N.A.
300 x 200
(290 x 15 plate) 10.0 100 315 300 N.A.
12.5 126 315 300 N.A.

* including 15 mm plate + Slab depth applies to R60 fire resistance

Table 2.5 Approximate section sizes of RHS edge beams supporting brickwork.

Beam span (m) < 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0

200 x 150 12.5 or


Non-composite 200 x 150 x 8 300 x 200 x 10 N.A.
250 x 150 x 10

Composite 200 x 150 x 8 200 x 150 x 10 200 x 150 x 12.5 200 x 150 x 12.5

Data for 6m span slab onto RHS

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 7


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Tie members Beam-to-column connections with Hollo-bolt connections. Hollo-bolts


Tie members are required to provide ASB or RHS beams should generally require the formation of a hole of
robustness by tying columns at each be made by full or extended end 1.7 x bolt diameter. As a result of
floor. Generally, tie members are in plates in order to ensure adequate this, the maximum diameter is
the form of inverted Tees. Smaller shear and torsional resistance due generally 20mm to allow for edge
UB or RHS sections with a welded to out-of-balance loads (primarily distances and gaps. A typical
plate are often used where the tie during construction). For UC section external RHS column connection
beam supports other local loads. columns, beam-to-column with a RHS Slimflor edge beam is
Figure 2.9 illustrates a typical Tee connections are generally made to shown in Figure 2.11.
section; this allows for sufficient the column flange. Where
placement of a Z-section where the connections are made to the column At RHS columns, it is often difficult
deck layout is not in multiples of web, it may be necessary to weld a to attach ASBs on adjacent sides.
600mm. The depth of the Tee is plate between the tips of the column This may be achieved by using
taken as not less than span/40 in flanges to avoid cutting back the alternate extended and flush end
order to avoid visible sag. ASB section. A typical external UC plates, as illustrated in Figure 2.12.
column connection with an ASB This approach is only applicable for
The Tee section does not participate edge beam is shown in Figure 2.10, columns with a minimum width of
in resisting loads applied to the slab, and in Figures 3.15 and 3.16. 200mm. In other cases, welded
so reinforcement is placed in the T-stubs may be used to attach the
ribs adjacent to the Tee. This does For RHS columns, connections can beams.
not generally require fire protection, be made using Flowdrill or
where it is partially encased in the
slab. The Tee may be attached by an Decking cut to suit
setting-out requirement Mesh reinforcement
end plate to the column web or to a
stiffener located between the
column flanges. This same stiffener
may act as a compression stiffener
in a moment-resisting connection to Reinforcement
bar
the major axis of the column.
600
ASB bottom flange Z section Tee section
Connections cut from
UC or UB
Slimdek has been developed
primarily as a flooring system for Figure 2.9 Inverted Tee section as a tie member.
braced steel-framed buildings.
Typically, the beams and slabs are
analysed as simply supported
elements. Continuity, which is ASB end plate
Perimeter UC
inherent within the system, is only
partially used for the serviceability
criteria. It is possible to use the ASB
beam as part of a sway frame,
provided extended end plate ASB
internal
connections are used. In this case, beam
columns must be analysed for ASB edge beam
combined bending and
ASB edge beam
compression.

Figure 2.10 External UC section column connection to ASB edge beam.

8 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Perimeter RHS Hollo-bolts


column (or UC
with plates welded
across flange tips
for edge beam
connections)
RHS Slimflor
edge beam
with 15 mm thick
flange plate
Internal
ASB
beam

Extended
end plate

Figure 2.11 External RHS column connection to a RHS Slimflor edge beam.

Flowdrill or Flowdrill or
15 mm Hollo-bolts Hollo-bolts
end plate
A

Flange
cut away A

200 RHS 200 RHS


column column

a) Side view of ASB beam b) Cross-section A - A

Figure 2.12 End plate connections to RHS columns.

Columns
Universal Column (UC) sections are
2 x 12.5 mm plasterboard
recommended for internal columns
because of their ease of connection.
Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
columns can be used for fire
resistance or for architectural Non-loadbearing
Vertical channel light steel stud
reasons. For example, RHS columns (to attach wall ties)
RHS column
can be contained in the separating
or faade walls, as illustrated in
50mm cavity
Figure 2.13.
Resilient mineral wool
separating RHS and
light steel section

Insulation board

Figure 2.13 RHS column incorporated in faade wall (plan section).

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 9


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Discontinuous columns Slimdek in an unbraced structure The moment capacity of typical


Columns can also be designed as Vertical bracing can be eliminated in extended end plate connections is
storey-high elements and attached a structure with Slimdek floors by
summarised in Table 2.6 (moment
to the flanges of the ASB, as designing the connections between capacities for specific ASB weights
illustrated in Figure 2.14. This the ASBs and the columns as may be obtained from the Slimdek
unusual configuration is possible in moment-resisting. Where UC Manual). These moment capacities
medium-rise buildings because the columns are used, these are relatively insensitive to the ASB
modest compression forces can be connections should be made to the section size, as bending of the end
transferred through the thick web of column flanges. Extended end plate controls their design.
the ASB to the concrete plates increase the effective depth
encasement. In these cases, of the connection and increase its The design of wind-moment
moment continuity can be moment capacity. A typical frames is a special case where the
developed in the ASB to optimise extended end plate connection is connections are treated as pinned
its performance. For more heavily shown in Figure 2.15. For detailing under vertical load and moment-
loaded columns, vertical stiffeners purposes, dimension A should be resisting under wind loading. As a
would be required in the web of the taken as 44mm for ASB280 and simple rule, the maximum number of
ASB. When adopting this approach, 62mm for ASB300. storeys permitted in a wind-
particular care and attention must moment frame should not exceed
be paid to the design and detailing, RHS columns may be used, but the the number of columns in the
especially to ensure frame stability moment capacity of beam end direction in which the wind forces
and resistance to progressive connections are generally less act (up to a maximum of six
collapse (through horizontal and effective than for UC sections, storeys). Therefore, for wind acting
vertical tying, or by key element except for the thicker wall sections. on the front face of a building with
design). four columns across the width, the
maximum height is four storeys.
200
150 SHS
column 120
RHS tie A For a rectangular plan building with
50 wind acting on the short length,
tf 40 there are potentially more columns
to resist the wind loads along the
A
building, and the maximum height
75
recommended is increased to six
d
A
storeys, provided that the columns
ASB 15 mm 75
end plate 150 SHS are orientated so that their stiffer
column 50
direction is along the building
10 length. In this second orientation,
a) Side view of ASB beam tf
300 vertical bracing can be eliminated in
the faades, leading to large
Figure 2.15 Extended end plate connection
150 SHS fenestrations and freedom of space
column to an ASB beam.
RHS tie planning.

Table 2.6 Moment capacities (kNm) of extended end plate connections

ASB
Column size ASB280 ASB300
203 UC x 46 kg/m 81 85
150 SHS x 52 kg/m 86 90
column
x 60 kg/m 91 95
b) Cross-section A - A x 71 kg/m 92 97
254 UC x 73 kg/m 92 97
Figure 2.14 ASB beams continuous over x 89 kg/m 92 97
storey-high RHS columns in medium-rise
buildings. Data: 15 mm end plate in S355 steel and M20 bolts

10 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Fire resistance Acoustic insulation Masonry or double-leaf light steel


The fire resistance of the ASBs is Separating floors in Slimdek are separating walls can be used in
achieved by partial encasement in easily capable of providing the conjunction with the Slimdek floor.
the composite slab. Generally, acoustic insulation (both airborne Doubleleaf walls are generally
60 minutes fire resistance can be and impact) required to meet the recommended because of the ease
achieved by ASB sections, new Part E (2003) Building and speed of construction and the
increasing up to 120 minutes if Regulations. When combined with elimination of wet trades on site.
board materials, a suspended the prescribed floor and ceiling Typically, this type of wall comprises
ceiling or intumescent coatings, treatments the floor has been able two leafs of studs (each 50 to 70mm
protect them. to achieve Robust Detail (RD) status deep) separated by a layer of
(E-FS-1). RD status means that mineral wool. The outer faces of the
The fire resistance of the deep post-completion testing of the floor studs are fixed to double layers of
composite slab is achieved by bar is not required. A typical cross plasterboard, to give an overall
reinforcement of the minimum sizes section through a beam and slab thickness of around 250mm. Care
shown in Table 2.7. The axis showing the various layers is shown should be taken to ensure an
distance defines the distance from in Figure 2.16. Table 2.8 illustrates adequate cavity width, and
the centre-line of the reinforcing bar the excellent performance in robust adequate densities for the materials
to the soffit of the decking (see detail in-situ tests compared to the used. Specialist manufacturers have
Figure 2.3). Mesh reinforcement is requirements given in Part E of the produced a number of proprietary
placed in the topping at a minimum Building Regulations. wall and detail solutions.
top cover of 15mm. The
reinforcement detailing requirements 18mm thick tongued and grooved Proprietary batten
chipboard walking surface (or similar) with integral foam strip
are illustrated in Figure 2.3.

Concrete floor slab with 280 ASB 100 Single skin 12.5mm thick Proprietary
SD225 deep decking plasterboard suspended ceiling resilient bars

Figure 2.16 Cross-section through ASB beam showing acoustic insulating layers.

Table 2.7 Detailing requirements for deep composite slabs.

Parameter Fire resistance (mins)


60 or less 90 120
Min. slab depth 295mm 305mm 320mm

Min. bar diameter 16mm 20mm 25mm

Axis distance to bar 70mm 90mm 120mm

Min mesh size in topping A142 A193 A252

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 11


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Details of the attachment of a Table 2.8 Acoustic performance of Slimdek.

separating wall to an ASB beam


Acoustic Test Data (dB)
are illustrated in Figure 2.18. Airborne sound reduction Impact sound
,
A deflection head allows for DnT,w + Ctr L nT,w
relative movement between the ASB Part E 45 62
and the separating wall. Note that Robust Detail 47 57
board present at the top of the wall
is needed for fire as well as acoustic Slimdek Performance (E-FS-1) (Range) 50-64 24-46
purposes. (Mean) 56 38

One of the most crucial features


with this type of wall is the interface
between the wall head and the soffit
Proprietary
of the slab, particularly when the Platform floor Separating strip Separating strip battened
Acoustic sealant raft floor
deck ribs do not run parallel to the Acoustic sealant
wall. The attachment of a light steel
separating wall to the soffit of a
composite slab with SD225 decking
is illustrated in Figure 2.19. Profiled Deep composite
mineral wool inserts are required to steel decking

prevent both sound and fire passing


through the voids in the deck. Board 12.5 mm Resilient bars
plasterboard or timber battens
beneath these inserts also serves 1 layer of 15 mm plasterboard
or other fire-stopping Acoustic sealant
both fire and acoustic purposes. material laid flat between ASB Light steel frame
and light steel channel separating wall
When this detail is properly
12.5 mm plasterboard
Deflection
achieved the wall can be expected ceiling on proprietary
head
metal frame ceiling
to pass Part E requirement.
Figure 2.18 Acoustic detail of ASB beam and light steel separating wall.
More information on expected
acoustic performance and typical
construction details can be found in
Platform floor Separating strip Separating strip Proprietary
the accompanying SCI Publication battened
Acoustic sealant raft floor
P336 Acoustic Detailing for Acoustic sealant
Multi-Storey Residential Buildings.

Pack with
Deep composite mineral wool
steel decking
2 layers of 19 mm
12.5 mm plasterboard
gypsum board
on proprietry metal frame

Acoustic
Additional mineral wool in sealant
ceiling void around junction Light steel frame
separating wall

Figure 2.19 Acoustic detail of separating wall transverse to composite slab.

12 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Attachment of cladding to edge edge of the slab (see Figure 2.6).


beams More detail on cladding systems
Cladding attachments depend on and their attachments is given in
the type of cladding used and the Figures 2.20 to 2.23. For details on
type of edge beam. For encased cladding attachments to RHS edge
ASB beams, the centre-line of the beams, see Figure 2.8.
ASB is detailed at 200mm from the

Rigid insulation Light steel stud wall with Breather


in external 2 layers of gypsum board paper
cavity Sheating board
Separating strip

Acoustic sealant
Cavity Cladding rail
Proprietary battened on angle
raft floor brackets Proprietary battened
Halfen or raft floor
similar stainless
steel brickwork
support

Cladding
Cavity barrier sheet
to floor/wall
junction

Resilient bars, Deflection Deep composite


Optional Deep composite head Resilient bars,
metal deck floor timber battens metal deck floor
additional or metal timber battens
insulation frame ceiling 12.5mm plasterboard or metal frame
(to reduce 15 mm min.
plasterboard ceiling
U value) 15 mm min.
resilient strip plasterboard
12.5mm plasterboard resilient strip
External
brickwork Acoustic sealant Acoustic sealant
tied to inner
stud wall Deflection head

Figure 2.20 Detailing of brickwork support by ASB beams. Figure 2.22 Rain-screen cladding attachment in Slimdek.

Rigid insulation
Breather
Rigid insulation Optional additional insulation
paper (with
material
optional Proprietary
sheathing board Separating strip battened
Platform floor Slimdek floor behind) raft floor
Acoustic sealant
Polymer based
render

Clay tile
Fire break cladding
system

15 mm drained
cavity
Deep composite
Light steel frame metal deck floor Resilient bars,
non-loadbearing timber battens
12.5 mm plasterboard
Fixing rail stud wall Drained 15mm or metal frame
on packers Acoustic sealant ceiling
cavity
Sheathing board 15 mm min. plasterboard
Deflection head
Non-loadbearing
light steel frame stud wall

Figure 2.21 Insulated render cladding attachment to ASB beams. Figure 2.23 Brick-tile cladding attachment in Slimdek.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 13


Technical aspects of Slimdek

Service integration Large openings can be formed


Openings in the slab for pipes and between the ribs of the decking and
service risers. through openings in the ASB beams
(subject to effective fire
Openings in the web of the ASB
compartmentation). Electrical trays
for horizontal service distribution
should be positioned to align with
in the floor zone.
the ribs of the decking so that they
Trays embedded in the slab for observe fire resistance and acoustic
horizontal distribution of electrics insulation requirements
or small diameter pipes in the (see Figure 2.24).
surface of the slab.

300 max.
Horizontal
Opening in slab Mesh service tray

T12 bar 150 max. 50 max.

80 min.

60 min.

Opening in ASB 160 max.

320 max.
ASB bottom flange

Figure 2.24 Service openings and electrical trays in Slimdek.

14 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

The application of Slimdek

This section examines a typical mixed-use residential building in steel


using Slimdek construction.

Our example building is a six-storey The building considered has three


structure with a roof-top penthouse, distinct levels:
illustrated in Figure 3.1. The Below-ground car-parking.
building design could be extended Retail or office level at first floor.
to ten-storeys without significant Residential floors above.
modifications to the structure. The
interior of the building may be The structural grid adopted is
configured with apartments on dictated by the car park level, to
Figure 3.2 Flexible space using Slimdek.
either side of a central corridor, avoid the use of an expensive
referred to as the deep plan form, transfer structure. This is based on
or with apartments configured a three-car bay (7.5m wide) along
across the full width of the building the faade, and columns at 4.8m,
around an access core, referred to 6.7m and 5.0m respectively across
as the shallow plan form. See the building (deep plan) or 3.9m,
Figures 3.5 and 3.6. 7.2m and 4.8m (shallow plan) to
allow for sufficient vehicular access.
The building is be adapted for
mixed use, making provision for
retail uses at ground floor (by Penthouse
increasing the floor-to-floor height)
and for car parking at basement
level. The length of the building is Central
Flat Flat
Corridor
not defined, as the plan forms are
repeatable.
Central
Flat Corridor Flat
The flexible use of space provided
by Slimdek is illustrated in
Figure 3.2. Central
Flat Corridor Flat

Central
Flat Corridor Flat

Flat Central Flat


Corridor

Retail

Car Park
Figure 3.1 Deep plan form
cross-section through building.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 15


The application of Slimdek

Building form
The steel-framed apartment building has the following characteristics:

Utility servicing Prefabricated modules


Servicing is rationalised by vertical risers in Bathrooms are assumed to be prefabricated
No limit on building height the core and horizontal routes through the modules set into the slab to avoid mis-
The building is six storeys high (plus floor slab. alignment of the floors.
penthouse and car park levels). The
ground floor can be adapted for retail use.
There is no limit on building height when
using Slimdek, but four to ten storeys is
the sensible range for this type of
residential construction. Penthouse
apartments are located at roof level.

Minimal foundation costs


Foundations are located directly below Acoustic insulation Minimal floor depth
the columns. The lightweight steel Excellent acoustic insulation is achieved by Using Slimdek, the floor depth (including a
construction minimises foundation costs. the Slimdek floor with its resilient layers. suspended ceiling and battened floor) is
typically 400mm.

16 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Structural grids From this it is apparent that, for a


Optimum structural grids mixed-use building, the column
(i.e. column layout) differ greatly grids will not align unless either the
between applications: arrangement of car parking space or
residential accommodation is
Car parks grids are normally modified. Alternatively, a steel or
based on 5m (two-car spaces) or concrete transfer structure may be
A repeatable floor plan area 7.5m (three-car spaces) as in designed to transfer loads from the
A repeatable floor plan area (for either Figure 3.3. super-structure to the columns of
plan form) of approximately 20m x
Residential buildings grids are the car park substructure. In this
16m is accessed from a single braced
core. Spans of 4.8m to 7.5m achieve often based on multiples of case, it is important that the
a sensible layout of apartments and 600mm (4.2m being efficient for superstructure is sufficiently light
rooms, which may be reconfigured
studios). so that the transfer structure is not
independently of the beam lines.
This allows a range of apartments Commercial buildings use grids made deeper increasing
with floor areas from 60m2 to 120m2 based on multiples of 1500mm foundation costs.
to be created.
(6m, 7.5m and 9m being common
column spacings).

7.5m 5.4m 7.5m


Light steel walls
Light steel walls are used for:
external walls to create a
rapid dry envelope;
4.8m
compartment or separating
walls between apartments;
internal walls within apartments.

6.7m

Faade materials and finish


External brickwork cladding with a
light steel stud inner skin is assumed 5.0 m

for the steelwork designs, although a


variety of faade materials may be
used. (Ground supported brickwork is
not practical above four storeys.)

Figure 3.3 Structural grid as dictated by car park level.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 17


The application of Slimdek

Plan form and room layouts Deep plan form Shallow plan form
Two plan forms are considered, The deep plan form has the The shallow plan form has the
which are presented in the following following features: following features:
illustrations:
Columns are located at 7.5m and Columns are located at 7.2m and
1. A deep plan form with apartments 5.4m along the faade. 6.3m along the faade.
on either side of a central corridor. Columns are located at 5.0m, Columns are located at 3.9m,
6.7m and 4.8m across the plan 7.2m and 4.8m across the plan
2. A shallow plan with apartments form of the building. form.
across the full depth of the building. A 2.1m-wide corridor is provided Columns are all located in the
along the building. separating walls between
The building is extendable Columns are generally located in apartments.
horizontally by repeating the shallow the 300mm-wide separating walls Three apartments are accessed
plan form, although with the deep between apartments. directly from each stair/lift area on
plan form it is possible to serve An alternative lift location may be each residential floor.
three units with only two stairs or lift introduced (see Figure 3.10). The ratio of habitable:gross floor
areas (see Figure 3.4). The ratio of habitable:gross floor area is about 85% per residential
area is about 85% per residential floor.
floor. Apartments of approximately 50
Apartments of approximately 50m2 and 75m2 floor area are provided,
and 65m2 floor area are provided, which are suitable for two and
which are each suitable for two four people respectively.
and four people respectively. A total of 13 car parking spaces
A total of 14 car parking spaces is are provided (including two
provided (including two disabled disabled or wide spaces) for the
spaces) for the five residential and five residential and penthouse
penthouse levels. The car parking levels. The car parking projects
lies fully within the building depth. 3.9m to the rear of the building.
The penthouse level is accessed A retail area of 640m2 is provided.
via the stairs and provides two The penthouse level is accessed
68m apartments, each suitable
2 via the stairs and provides two
for four people. 73m2 apartments, each suitable
A retail area of 880m2 is provided. for four people.

Figure 3.4 Repeatable floor plan with three units sharing two lift/stair areas.

18 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.5 Deep plan form Layout of apartments.

1 BED FLAT 1 BED FLAT

Kitchen/ Bedroom Bedroom Kitchen/


dining/living dining/living

Bedroom Bedroom Kitchen/ Kitchen/ Bedroom Bedroom


dining/living dining/living

2 BED FLAT 2 BED FLAT

Figure 3.6 Shallow plan form Layout of apartments.

2 BED FLAT 2 BED FLAT

Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom

Kitchen/ Kitchen/ Bedroom Kitchen/


dining/living dining/living dining/living

1 BED FLAT

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 19


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.7 Deep plan form car parking level.

Figure 3.8 Deep plan form layout of retail level.

Retail Unit Retail Unit

20 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.9 Deep plan form penthouse level.

Bedroom Bedroom Kitchen/ Kitchen/ Bedroom Bedroom


Dining/Living Dining/Living

2 BED FLAT 2 BED FLAT

Figure 3.10 Deep plan form layout of apartments for alternative lift location.

2 BED FLAT 1 BED FLAT

Bedroom Kitchen/ Bedroom Kitchen/


dining/living dining/living

Bedroom Bedroom Kitchen/ Bedroom Kitchen/


dining/living dining/living

2 BED FLAT 1 BED FLAT

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 21


The application of Slimdek

Floor layout Tie members (generally in the form


The structural layout of the floor in of Tees) are provided parallel to the
both plan forms comprises 280 ASB decking, in the absence of the ASB
beams spanning up to 7.5m, and a beams. At the perimeter of the
deep composite slab spanning up to buildings, ASB beams or RHS
7.5m between the beams (spans in sections with a welded plate may be
excess of 6m require temporary used. The centre-line of the ASB
propping in normal-weight beams is offset by 200mm from the
concrete). The slab depth is edge of the slab to allow for access
nominally 300mm. Shallow decking of the edge trim (see Figure 2.6).
may be supported off the bottom The connection is detailed as in
flanges to create a shallow slab in Figure 3.16. Alternative details not
the core area, providing an requiring this eccentricity, but
additional zone for servicing within requiring additional fire protection to
the floor. the exposed ASB, are presented in
Figures 2.7 and 3.17. The equivalent
Structural options detail of an RHS edge beam to a
The various structural layouts of the RHS column is not eccentric, as
building are presented in Figures shown in Figure 3.18. For this
3.11 to 3.15. In a braced frame, reason, RHS edge beams are
longitudinal bracing is provided at preferred.
suitable locations in the faade,
depending on fenestration positions At internal columns using smaller
and sizes. Bracing locations can be RHS sections, the ASB will project
difficult to design in highly glazed outside the column, in which case
faades. bolted connections may be made to
plates welded to the RHS, as shown
The advantage of a wind-moment in Figure 3.19.
frame design is that vertical bracing
can be omitted in the longitudinal The columns are detailed to be
direction of the building, which located within a 300mm separating
allows full-height glazing to be used wall, which consists of two 100mm
throughout. Alternatively, vertical C-sections with a 40mm gap, and
bracing has to be located between two layers of fire-resisting
columns in separating walls, in the plasterboard. The maximum column
faade, or around the core. width is therefore 200mm (i.e. 203
The disadvantage of the wind- UC or 200 x 200 RHS or 300 x 200
moment frame option is that it is not RHS). If the column size is increased
generally appropriate for buildings to 254 UC, an intumescent coating
of more than six storeys, and should be used to provide adequate
columns are often heavier than in a fire resistance. Where columns align
braced-frame design. Moment with partitions, exposed RHS
continuity is achieved by using columns may be used, which are fire
extended end plates welded to the protected by intumescent coating or
ASB or RHS beams. filled with concrete. An example of
the use of RHS columns located in a
light steel separating wall is
illustrated in Figure 3.20.

22 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.11
Structural layout for deep plan building ASB edge beams and UC columns.

7500 7500 5400 7500

20

20
20

3
3

UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

46 5
280 ASB 74

46 5
46 5
280 ASB 100 or 204 UC 52 + plate 280 ASB 100
or 254 UC 89 + plate or 254 UC 89 + plate

254 x 146 UB31

20 355
Stair Lift

S
3

203 UC 46 + plate
UC
@20 kg/m S275

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74 or
S275

46
165 x 152T

4800
280 ASB 74
20

20

20
3

3
152x89 I

3
CF51
UC S35

UC S35

UC S35
86 5

71 5

52 5
280 ASB 100 CF51 254 x 146 UB31 280 ASB 100
S275
Void

20 355
152x89 I

S
3

2200
UC
CF51

with anchored re-bars


or 203 UC 52 + plate
71
@20 kg/m S275

280 ASB 74
165 x 152T

280 ASB 74
300 deep

6700
P P

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74
NWC slab
on SD225
decking
SD225
20

20
20

20
3

3
3

3
UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

UC S35
71 5

52 5
86 5

71 5
280 ASB 100 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 100

203 UC 46 + plate
@20 kg/m S275

@20 kg/m S275

@20 kg/m S275

280 ASB 74 or
165 x 152T

165 x 152T

165 x 152T

5000
20
20

20
20
3
3

3
3
UC S35
UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

280 ASB 74
46 5
46 5

46 5
46 5

280 ASB 100 or 203 UC 60 + plate 280 ASB 100


or 254 UC 89 + plate or 254 UC 89 + plate

P = Decking propped at construction stage

Figure 3.12
Structural layout for deep plan building ASB edge beams and UC columns - propped.

7500 7500 5400 7500


20
20

20
20

3
3

3
3

UC S35
UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

46 5
46 5

280 ASB 74 or
46 5
46 5

280 ASB 74 203 UC 46 + plate 280 ASB 74


with anchored re-bars with anchored re-bars
254 x 146 UB31

or 203 UC 46 + plate Lift


Stair or 203 UC 46 + plate
or 254 UC89 + plate
S275
280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

P P
4800
280 ASB 74
20

20
20

CF51
3
3

CF51
UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

71 5

52 5
86 5

165 x 152 T 254 x 146 UB31 165 x 152 T


@20 kg/m S275 S275 @20 kg/m S275
20 355

Void
152x89 I

3
S

2200
CF51

UC
71

or 254 UC107 + plate

300 deep
NWC slab
280 ASB 100
280 ASB 100

280 ASB 100

on SD225 280 ASB 74


6700

decking P
280 ASB 100

P
SD225
20

20

20
3

3
UC S35

UC S35

UC S35
86 5

71 5

52 5

165 x 152 T 165 x 152 T 165 x 152 T


@20 kg/m S275 @20 kg/m S275 @20 kg/m S275
20 355

or 254 UC89 + plate


3
S

UC
280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74
71

P P
4800
20
20

20
20
3
3

3
3
UC S35
UC S35

UC S35
UC S35
46 5
46 5

46 5
46 5

280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74


with anchored re-bars or 203 UC 46 + plate with anchored re-bars
or 203 UC 46 + plate or 203 UC 46 + plate

P = Decking propped at construction stage

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 23


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.13
Structural layout for deep plan building RHS edge beams and RHS
columns as a wind moment frame option.

25 7500 7500 25 5400 7500 20


0 0 0
x x x
15 15 20
0 0 0
x x x
8. 8. 10
0 0 .0
R R R
S3 HS S3 HS S3 HS
55 55 250 x 150 x 8.0 RHS 55
300 x 200 x 8.0 RHS + plate S355 300 x 200 x 8.0 RHS
+ plate S355 2 + plate S355
254 x 146 UB31 S3 50

250 x 150 x 6.3 RHS


Stair Lift 55 x 1
@20 kg/m S275

50

+plate S355
S275
165 x 152T

20 30 x 20
8.
0
280 ASB 74

0 0 0

4800
x x RH x
20 20 150 x 90 I S 20

280 ASB 74
0 0 0
x x x
CF51

12 10 10
.5 .0 152 x 89 I .0
R
CF51

R R S3 HS
S3 HS S3 HS
55 55 55
280 ASB 100 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 100
3
Void S3 00
150 x 90 I

2200
55 x 2
CF51

250 x 150 x 6.3 RHS


0
x
@20 kg/m S275

10
165 x 152T

+plate S355
.0
RH
280 ASB 74
300 deep S
P P

6700
NWC slab
280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

20 on SD225 30 30 20
0 0 0 0
SD225

x decking x x x
20 20 20 20
0 0 0 0
x x x x
12 10 10 10
.5 .0 .0 .0
R R R R
S3 HS S3 HS S3 HS S3 HS
55 55 5 55
280 ASB 100 280 ASB 74 5 280 ASB 100
250 x 150 x 6.3 RHS
@20 kg/m S275

@20 kg/m S275

@20 kg/m S275

+plate S355
165 x 152T

165 x 152T

165 x 152T

25 25 20
25 0
5000

0 0 0 x
x x x 20
15 15 15
0 0 0
x x 0 x
8. 8. x 10
0 0 8. .0
R R 0 R
S3 HS S3 HS R S3 HS
S3 HS
55 55 5 55
300 x 200 x 8.0 RHS 250 x 150 x 8.0 RHS 5 300 x 200 x 8.0 RHS
+ plate S355 + plate S355 + plate S355

P = Decking propped at construction stage

24 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.14
Structural layout for shallow plan building
2700 2100

15
ASB edge beams and UC columns.

2
UC S35
30 5
254 x 146 UB31
S275 Lift

15 355
Stair

254 x 146 UB31

2
S
254 x 146 UB31

2000
UC
203x133 UB25

30
S275

3900
S275
S275

20
20

20

3
3

1900
3

UC S35
UC S35

UC S35

46 5
86 5

46 5
280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74
with anchored re-bars

1000
with anchored re-bars

20 355
or 203 UC 71 + plate or 203 UC 71 + plate

203x133 UB25

3
S

UC
Riser

46
S275

with anchored re-bars


2300
300 deep

or 254 UC + plate
slab on
280 ASB 136

280 ASB 100

280 ASB 100

280 ASB 100


SD 225
decking

7200
280 ASB 74
P P
20

20

20
20

3
3

UC S35

UC S35

UC S35
UC S35

86 5

86 5

52 5
86 5

165 x 152T 280 ASB 74 165 x 152T


@20 kg/m S275 @20 kg/m S275

254 UC73 + plate


280 ASB 74 or
280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74
P

4800
20
20

20

3
3

3
20

UC S35
UC S35

UC S35
3

46 5
46 5
UC S35

46 5
280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74
46 5

with anchored re-bars with anchored re-bars with anchored re-bars


or 203 UC 52 + plate or 203 UC 52 + plate or 203 UC 52 + plate

1200 4800 1200

6300 7200 6300

P = Decking propped at construction stage

Figure 3.15
15
0

Structural layout for shallow plan building


x
15

2700 2100
0

RHS edge beams and RHS columns acting


x
6.
3 S35

as wind moment frame.


RH 5

254 x 146 UB31


S

15 55

S275 Lift
254 x 146 UB31

S3
0

Stair
254 x 146 UB31

2000
203 x 133 UB25

15
25

20
25

0
0

0
0

x
S275
x

x
S275

6.

3900
x
15

S275

20
15

3
0

0
RH
0
x

x
x
10

10
S
8.

1900
.0 S3

.0 S3
0 S35
RH 55

RH 55
RH 5
S

S
S

250 x 150 x 10.0 RHS 280 ASB 74 250 x 150 x 10.0 RHS
1000

+ plate + plate
203 x 133 UB25

25 55
S3
0
x
15

Riser
S275

300 deep
0

300 x 200 x 12.5 RHS


x

2300

NWC slab
8.
0

on SD255
280 ASB 136

280 ASB 100

280 ASB 100

RH
S

decking
+ plate

7200

280 ASB 74
P P
20

20
30
0

0
0
x

x
x
20

20
20
0

0
0
x

x
x
12

10
12
.5 S3

.0 S3
.5 S3
RH 55

RH 55
RH 55
S

S
S

280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74 280 ASB 74


30 355

300 x 200 x 6.3 RHS


S
0
x
20
0
280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

280 ASB 74

20

+ plate

P
12
25

25

25

4800
.5
0

x
x

RH
x

20
15

15

15

0
S
0

x
x

10
8.

8.

8.

.0 S3
0 S35

0 S3 5

0 S3 5
RH 5

RH 55
RH 5

RH 5
S

S
S

250 x 150 x 10.0 RHS 250 x 150 x 10.0 RHS 250 x 150 x 10.0 RHS
+ plate + plate + plate
1200 4800 1200

6300 7200 6300

P = Decking propped at construction stage

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 25


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.16 ASB connection to edge column (showing eccentric detail).

280 ASB 136


320 x 180
x 12thk plate

203 UC 86
Column
120

80 120
4 No. M 20
bolts

200
300 x 200 x 12 thk
ASB end plate
4 No. M20
g8.8 bolts

80

120

300 x 300
x 15 thk plate

280 ASB 74
edge beam

120

Figure 3.17 ASB connection to edge column (no eccentricity).

280 ASB 136


320 x 200
x 12thk plate

203 UC 86
Column
140

80 120
4 No. M 20
bolts

300 x 200 x 12 thk


ASB end plate
4 No. M20
g8.8 bolts

80

120

280 ASB 74
edge beam

31.5 120

26 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


The application of Slimdek

Figure 3.18 RHS edge beam connection to RHS column.

320 x 200 280 ASB 136


x 12thk plate

250 x 150 x 10 thk


RHS column
120

80 120
4 No. M 20
Hollo-bolts

M20 Hollo-bolts
50 in 33 O
/ holes

40

280 ASB 136


250 x 150 x 6.3 thk
RHS Slimflor beam
and 15 mm thk plate

170 x 430
x 12 thk plate

10 70 100

(min.)

Figure 3.19 ASB bolted connections to RHS column.

200 Facade line Facade line


50 50 50 100

50 80
20 mm
dia. bolt

300 300 Flowdrill


200 150 bolt holes
(20 mm dia.)

360 300
200 200

(a) Column on centre-line of edge beam (c) Column along facade line

Facade line Facade line


ASB ASB
12

Tie beam 12 Tie beam


cut from 50 cut from 50
457 x 191 UB 457 x 191 UB
100 SHS column 100

Seating plate Seating plate


welded between welded between
end plates end plates

(c) Plan on column in (a) (d) Plan on column in (b)

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 27


The application of Slimdek

A typical detail of a light steel


separating wall at a RHS column is Mineral wool insulation

illustrated in Figure 3.20. The wall 12 mm fire


resisting board
thickness is 300mm when using a 19 mm plank
200 x 200 RHS column. The wall
thickness will increase if larger
30 mm thick
columns are used. dense mineral
wool board 100

Material usage 200 x 200


SHS column
The typical steel usage for a six- 38 300

storey building (relative to the gross


floor area) is: 100

Beams 32-38kg/m2
Columns 7-10kg/m2
Bracing, secondary beams Figure 3.20 Detail of separating wall at RHS column.
1-3kg/m2

The precise values for the various


Table 3.1 Summary of steel weights kg/m2 for various structural options.
structural options are presented in
Table 3.1. A steel weight of Building Beams Edge Columns Bracing Structural weights (kg/m2)
Total
40-45kg/m2 may be used for Option Beams Beams Columns Bracing kg/m
2

scheme design using Slimdek,


ASB ASB UC Braced 33 7 1 41
increasing to 50kg/m2 for more Shallow
Plan Wind
complex building shapes. Form ASB RHS RHS moment 35 8 43
frame
Braced -
The structural arrangement can be ASB ASB UC slab span 33 8 1 42
adapted to any sensible plan form. longitudunal
Braced -
Deep ASB ASB UC slab span 39 8 1 48
It is apparent that the weight Plan transverse
increase in the steel structure is Form Wind
ASB ASB UC moment 39 8 - 47
negligible for this six-storey building frame
when designing using the wind Wind
moment principle. However, the ASB RHS RHS moment 38 9 - 47
frame
connections may be more complex.

The self-weight of the 300mm-deep


composite slab is 350kg/m2 in
normal weight concrete, which
requires propping during
construction for spans in excess of
6m. However, the self-weight is
reduced to 280kg/m2 when
lightweight concrete is used, which
does not require propping for spans
of up to 6.3m.

28 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Steel balconies and parapets

Steel balconies and parapets

Balconies and terraces are important additions to modern urban living,


which often require interesting architectural solutions.

In conventional concrete Types of balcony The three generic balcony systems


construction, the slab is continued Modern balconies are usually are detailed below:
outside the building envelope to prefabricated steel units, which are
form a balcony or other projection. attached to the internal structure by 1. Stacked ground-supported
However, this is no longer the brackets or through posts, so that modules, which may be installed as
preferred solution because of the thermal bridging effects can be a group by lifting into place. The
need to prevent cold bridging minimised. columns extend to ground level.
through the slab, to meet the new
Part L Building Regulations. It is 2. Cantilever balconies, achieved by
now necessary to provide a thermal either:
break in the slab, or to insulate it - Moment connections to brackets
externally. attached to torsionally stiff edge
beams.
- Moment connections to wind-
posts connected between
adjacent floors.

3. Tied balconies achieved by either:


- Ties back to wind-posts or to the
floor above.
- Vertical ties to a supporting
structure located at roof level.

In the first case, no vertical load is


transferred to the structure or
faade of the building, but the
modules are attached to the
structure for horizontal restraint. In
the second case, the size of the
balcony is limited in order to reduce
the moments that are transferred to
the internal structure. In the third
case, the ties can be relatively
unobtrusive but vertical ties will
require a projecting structure such
as a roof truss, to carry the loads on
all the balconies.

Figure 4.1 Steel balconies attached to curved edge beam in Slimdek at Harlequin Court,
London (Goddard Manton Architects).

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 29


Steel balconies and parapets

Balcony attachments in Slimdek Details of various forms of The same principles may be
In Slimdek , RHS edge beams are
attachment of balconies to RHS and followed for other types of
torsionally very stiff and are ASB edge beams are illustrated in balconies, such as where RHS posts
recommended for cantilever Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3. They are are introduced to which the
attachments of balconies, where designed to minimise cold balconies are attached. In this
brackets are welded to them. To bridging. case, fins are welded to the post
minimise cold bridging, a single rather than to the beams to
bracket at each side of the balcony The support of a tied steel balcony minimise cold bridging.
should be used. to ASB edge beams is illustrated in A cantilever attachment may be
Figure 4.4. The fin plate welded to made using steel ferrules to the
Wind-posts may be bolted to the the ASB provides a direct sides of RHS edge beams, as in
top and bottom of ASB edge beams attachment both for the balcony and Figure 4.5.
or to fin plates welded to RHS edge for the tie to the balcony below, and
beams. They are designed to resist minimises cold bridging. Torsional
moments developed by the effects are resisted by the continuity
cantilever balcony and can be effect of the slab, when the deck
relatively large. Again, RHS ribs are orientated as in this figure.
sections may be preferred. The When the deck ribs are orientated
attachment of balconies to a curved parallel to the ASB, and it is merely
faade in Slimdek is illustrated in
acting as a cladding support,
Figure 4.1. torsional effects should be taken
into consideration in the design of
the beam.

Facade line Cut in


50 200 edge trim
Slab level

Bolted connection

a) Bracket connection to ASB b) Longitudinal view of bracket

Figure 4.2 Bracket attachment to ASB edge beam.

Facade line Facade line

a) Pre-welded cantilevers b) Bracket or fin attachment

Figure 4.3 Cantilever or fin attachments to RHS edge beams.

30 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Steel balconies and parapets

Figure 4.4 Detail of attachment of tied balcony in Slimdek. Figure 4.5 Cantilever balcony attachment in Slimdek.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 31


Steel balconies and parapets

4.3 Parapets and balustrades Figure 4.6 shows a steel balustrade


Parapets and balustrades often directly connected to a steel
pose particular technical issues channel section, which is attached
because of the need to resist lateral by a welded fin plate to a fin plate
forces and hence torsional effects connected to the ASB. This detail
on the edge beam, and also to avoid ensures continuity of the insulation
cold bridging through the slab. in the warm roof and in the
Two examples are illustrated. cladding. Because of the relatively
weak torsional stiffness of the
channel section, it is recommended
that the fin plates are spaced at not
more than 2m along the beam.

Galvanised
steel balustrade

Single ply membrane


bonded to metal flashing

Walkway tile

Insulation
Screed laid to falls

Aluminium
flashing

Steel channel
section exposed
visually

Steel fin plate welded to beam to provide


support to channel section (max. 2 m centres)

Facing brick/
masonry
external leaf Insulation (passing both sides of fin plate)

2 layers plasterboard on light steel framing

Figure 4.6 Detail of balustrade attachment in Slimdek.

32 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings


Steel balconies and parapets

Figure 4.7 shows a parapet wall


directly connected by a steel angle
or channel to the top flange of the
ASB. Bolts can be pre-attached to
the top flange to receive stub
columns (normally RHS) at, say,
1200mm centres. Light steel infills
may be used between these stub
columns. The external brickwork is
held in place by wall ties, and the
top bricks by an exposed angle.

Colourcoat steel coping

Angle at top of posts

18 mm ply or blu-clad or similar board faced with


vapour permeable membrane

Steel posts @ 1200 centres

Colourcoat cladding to external face of parapet

Insulation

Angle attached to top of beam by pre-fixed bolts

Single ply membrane (or simply


roofing membrane) on insulation
on screed to falls

Figure 4.7 Detail of parapet wall attachment in Slimdek.

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 33


34 Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings
References

References

Sources of information
Building Regulations 2003 Approved Document E: Resistance to the passage of sound.
The Stationery Office, 2003.

Slimdek Manual.
Corus Construction and Industrial. (www.corusconstruction.com)

Steel in multi-storey residential buildings (P332).


The Steel Construction Institute, 2004.

Acoustic Detailing for Multi-Storey Residential Buildings. (P336).


The Steel Construction Institute, 2004

Design of Asymmetric Slimflor Beams using Deep Composite Decking (P175).


The Steel Construction Institute,1997.

Design of RHS Slimflor Edge Beams (P169).


The Steel Construction Institute, 1997.

Case studies on residential buildings using steel (P328).


The Steel Construction Institute, 2003.

List of contributors
Peter Lusby-Taylor - HTA Architects
Prof. Mark Lawson - The Steel Construction Institute
Prof. Ray Ogden - Oxford Brookes University
Dr. Stephen Hicks - The Steel Construction Institute
Dr. Jim Rackham - The Steel Construction Institute

Slimdek in multi-storey residential buildings 35


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