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Experimental Investigations ofGraphite nanoparticles and cutting

parameters in Turning of AISI 1040 steel with MQL


D.Pavan kumar1, S.Srikiran2 and ch.v.s parameswara Rao 3
1,2,3
Dept of Mechl Engg, PBR VITS,Kavali, SpsrNellore Dist
Abstract:-Turning has been one of the most indispensable methods of metal removal. Much
advancement has been made in the machining aspects with regards to the lubricants used. Nano
crystalline powders used as lubricants in machining has been a subject of research. Turning is
characterized by development of high temperatures at the cutting zone, which impairs the surface
quality of the final product. The present investigation deals with the use of a mixture of nano
crystalline Graphite and SAE40 oil as a lubricant and as an alternative to the cutting fluids to reduce
friction and thereby improve the surface finish of the final product. It deals with the investigation of
the influence of nano crystalline graphite particle size and its weight percentage with respect to
SAE40 oil with regards to the variations in tool temperature, and surface roughnes.
Keywords:- Turning; SAE40, Nano crystalline Graphite, MQL,cutting parameters, Temperature.
I. INTRODUCTION
Turning is one of the basic machining process of metal cutting and is characterised by a lot of
heat generation at the cutting zone due to friction between the tool and work and deformation of
work material . In order to improve the machining performance the cutting zone must be provided
cooling and lubrication by cutting fluid .
Metal working Fluids (MWFs) which acts as coolants as well as lubricants, which are
widely used in machining operations.The use of metal working fluids in machining process has
caused some problems such as high cost, pollution, and hazards to operators health. The handling
and disposal of cutting fluids must obey rigid rules of environmental protection . Now days, there is
a large-scale evaluation of the use of MWFs in machining. Industries are looking for ways to reduce
the amount of lubricants in metal removing operations. The reasons for this is the high percentage of
fluid costs in the overall Manufacturing costs ecological and legal demands and human health
among others . Some alternatives has been sought to minimize or even avoid the use of cutting fluid
in machining operations.
Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) deals with these problems in an efficient manner.
MQL refers to the usage of cutting fluids which is about three to four times less than that of the
amount commonly used in a flood cooling condition. MQL system uses limited amount of coolant
applied either as mist by mixing coolant with pressurized air or in the form of drops. Work has been
done by many researchers on MQL techniques and most of them reported it to be efficient than
conventional flood cooling. Experimental investigations by several researchers revealed the role of
MQL in the use of vegetable oil on parameters like cutting temperature, tool wear, surface roughness
and dimensional deviation during turning operations performed on various metals.
Past few years have seen a radical change in the technology and process of using solid
lubricants in machining. This is due to the advancement in modern tribology which has identified
many solid lubricants that can sustain and provide lubricity over a wide range of temperatures. Most
of these lubricants, which include graphite, molybdenum disulfide, tungsten disulfide and calcium
fluoride, belong to a special class of materials known as lamellar solids. Solid lubricant could control
the machining zone temperature effectively by intensive removal of heat from the machining
zone.Experiments were carried out to study the effect of solid lubricant on surface finish and chip
thickness.The use of solid lubricants was successful in reducing the surface roughness while
machining AISI1040 steel.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

II. LITERATURE SURVEY


R R Srikant et al. [1] experimentally investigated the performance of nanoboric acid
suspensions in SAE-40 and coconut oil during turning of AISI 1040 steel .it is found that the
addition of nanoparticles in cutting fluids enhanced heat transfer rate . It is observed that cutting tool
temperatures are significantly low for fluid with nanoparticles inclusion. From the experimental
results it is evident that the reduction in temperatures with increase of inclusion nanparticle from 0.5
to 6 %, beyond which the temperatures were increased Up to 1 percent, the decrease in temperatures
is more drastic compared to concentrations beyond 1 percent.
Krishna et al. [2], conducted experiments to investigate the performance of nanoboric acid
suspensions in the coconut oil and SAE-40 oil during turning of AISI 1040 steel. The effect of nano
solid suspensions in lubricant is studied in terms of surface finish, tool wear and cutting tool
temperatures at variation of cutting parameters. The low temperatures were observed with coconut
oil than SAE oil under similar conditions. The tool temperatures were most effected by feed rate than
other cutting parameters. surface finish is improved with coconut oil than with SAE oil. They also
concluded that flank wear , surface roughness and tool temperatures were minimum with addition of
nano particle suspensions in cutting oil than with pure coconut and SAE oil.
M M S Prasad and R.R.Srikant [3] were investigated the performance of nanographite
particle inclusions with cutting fluids with MQL in turning of AISI 1040 steel. HSS and cemented
carbide Inserts were used in machining of steels. Nanofluids were prepared with suspending
nanographite powder particles ( 80 nm size ) in various proportions like 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%
by weight and water soluble oil as base fluid are used as coolants in MQL with different flow rates.
The influence of nano fluids on Various process parameters like surface finish, cutting forces, tool
wear and temperatures was studied. The results shows that the increase of nanographite particles
0.0% to 0.5% the magnitude of cutting forces were reduced with cutting fluid flow rate of
15ml/mint. The less cutting forces were observed with cemented carbide inserts than with HSS
tools. The cutting temperatures were low in MQL with 0.3wt % graphite nano fluid under 15ml/min
flow rate when machined with HSS tool and with 0.5wt% graphite nano fluid when machined with
Cemented carbide inserts. The surface roughness is reduced in MQL with 0.3wt % graphite nano
fluid under 15ml/min flow rate in both HSS and cemented carbide. compared to HSS tool, the low
tool wear is observed in Cemented carbide insert in identical cutting conditions.
Amrita et al. [4] investigated the performance of mist application of nanographite-soluble
oil with dry lubrication, flood lubrication and mist application of soluble oil without nanographite in
turning AISI 1040 steel. The Performance is evaluated based on experimental measurement of
average chiptool interface temperature, tool wear and cutting forces.The results shows that mist
application with nanographite-soluble oil provides better cooling than mist application without
nanographite and flood cooling. The chiptool interface temperature for mist application at 10 and
15 ml/min is less compared with that of flood application. The mist application has shown reduced
tool wear compared with dry and flood lubrication. The cutting forces were also found to decrease
with inclusion of nanographite in soluble oil. The percentage decrease in cutting force was found to
be maximum with 0.5wt% nanographite-soluble oil applied at a mist flow of 15 ml/min. Compared
with dry machining and flood machining.
Satheesh Kumar.B et al.[5] conducted experiments and compared the performances of
Vegetable oil based cutting Fluids such as coconut, canola and sesame based cutting fluids each
having 5%, 10% and 15% of Extreme Pressure additives during turning of AISI 1040 steel. The
influence of cutting oil was expressed in terms of cutting forces, cutting tool temperature, tool flank
wear and surface roughness.
R.F.Avila, A.M Abrao [7] investigated the performance of various types cutting fluids in
turning on hardened AISI 4340 steel using mixed alumina inserts. The experiments were conducted
on a CNC lathe. The cutting fluids considered for investigation are emulsion without mineral oil,
synthetic, and emulsion containing mineral oil. The results concluded that the machining done
using emulsion without mineral oil gave better tool life when compared to drycutting.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
Akshaya T Poojary, Rajesh Nayak [6] conducted an experimental study to determine the
machinability on AISI 1040 steel on PSG A141 lathe. The conventional cutting fluids unable to
provide good lubrication and cooling along with the problems of corroding the work piece and
machine tool parts. Turning operation was performed using High Speed Steel cutting tool at different
feed, speed and depth of cut.
Cijo Mathew et al [8] investigated the machining characteristics on EN8 steelusing Al2O3
nanofluids as coolant. The turning operation was performed on CNC machine with HSS tool.
Waterbased Al2O3 nanofluids was used as cutting fluid. the optimum conditionfor surface finish and
MRR was found by using ANOVA.
Li and Chou [9] used the MQL technique to evaluate surface roughness, burr dimensions, and
tool wear of micromilling process. They concluded that the condition of MQL ensures lower surface
roughness, tool wear, and burrless process while compared with dry condition. The workpiece
surface roughness measuredin near dry cutting was close to that obtained from dry cutting and wet
cutting.
Dhar et al. [10] conducted experiments to study The influence of Minimum quantity of
lubrication (MQL) on cutting temperature, chip And dimensional accuracy in turning AISI-1040
steel and concluded that, a mixture of air and soluble oil applied as MQL has been proved to be
better comparing with flooding application of soluble oil as cutting fluid.
Hamed Sohrabpoor et. al[11]. Performed the experimental investigation to study the effect of
various lubrication and machining parameters on tool wear and surface roughness in turning of AISI
4340. Turning operations are performed dry machining , and also with air cool lubrication , pure
liquid lubrication . The results were further compared by conducting experiments as MQL with
mixture of air and liquid. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) has been performed to study the
influence of each factor on surface finsh and tool wear. The generate the relationship between
cutting variables for turning and resulting surface finish and tool wear an adaptive neuro-fuzzy
system (ANFIS) has been Applied . The optimal cutting parameters were determined by conducting
, a Grey relational analysis for achieving high surface finish with low tool wear . the optimum
values are experimentally verified.
III. ABOUT PRESENT WORK
The present work aims to experimentally investigate the effect of nano crystalline graphite
powder used along with SAE40 oil as cutting fluid applied under MQL technique in turning
AISI1040 steel by uncoated carbide tool inserts. The influence of particle size of the nano graphite
crystalline powder , the weight percentage of nano particles to be mixed with SAE40 oil to be
studied at different cutting parameters of machining. The resulting performance was evaluated in
terms of tool tip temperature and Surface finish .
IV. METHODOLOGY
The performance machining operation is affected by the method of application of coolant and
type of lubrication .The experiments are conducted to study the influence of graphite as lubricant by
conducting turning tests. The tests were conducted on AISI 1040 steel using uncoated carbide inserts.
Initially, experiments were conducted to determine the optimal weight percentage of nano-crystalline
graphite powder in SAE 40 oil. The different machining conditions considered are cutting velocity
(78 m/min), depth of cut (1 mm) and feed rate (0.1 mm/rev). The sample weight percentages
considered as 0.25%, 0.5%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in 60 ml of SAE 40 oil. Experiments were
conducted under dry, wet and MQL . Experimental observations revealed that with a 0.5% weight
percentage of nano-crystalline graphitepowder, the cutting forces, tool tip temperature and surface
roughness showed better results than that obtained with increased weight percentages and it could be
concluded that the weight percentage of 0.5% as the optimum.
Experiments were conducted under MQL conditions. The various input parameters selected
for experimentation are presented in Table 1.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

Table 1. Specification of equipments used.


Machine Tool Turn Master -(Kirloskar Make)
Cutting tool Carbide inserts , CNMG 120408(HI3A) HSS,
SANDVIK make
Lathe tool Dynamometer Make PE Systems, India, Strain gauge
0-1000N with 2% accuracy.
Thermo couple K-type
Surface roughness Tester Micro surf
The cutting forces were measured using a calibrated strain gauge dynamometer. The
temperature is sensed by an embedded thermocouple which is placed at the bottom of the tool insert
in the tool holder as shown in fig-1.

Figure-1 tool holder showing the provision for thermocouple

The temperature measured by the thermocouple is only a representative value for the
purpose comparison as this does not measure the cutting zone temperature. A calibrated surface
roughness tester (Microsurf ) is employed to measure the average surface roughness (Ra).
A set of preliminary tests were carried out to determine the best lubricant flow using the
principle of MQL. An equipment was arranged to see that the logic of MQL is achieved by
dispensing at the rate of 10 ml/min onto the targeted area. Emulsifying equipment is developed for
this purpose which is used to maintain the physical condition of the lubricant used in machining. It
consists of a reservoir attached with a stirrer to take care of agglomeration of the lubricant mixture.
Initially, SAE 40 oil and graphite powder is thoroughly mixed in a mixer and poured in the reservoir.
The stirrer is switched on when machining is carried out which takes care of agglomeration of the
mixture (Figure 2). Flow rate of solid lubricant mixed in SAE 40 is kept at 10 ml/min. The L/D ratio
of the workpiece is maintained at 710.

Figure-2 Experimental setup


V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The experimental results with respect to the increase in cutting variables are presented below.
Initial experimentations deal with the finding of optimal amount of graphite powder to be mixed in
the carrying medium. The later part of the experimentation deals with the investigation on the effect
of variation in cutting velocity on the machining parameters, viz. cutting forces, tool temperature and
surface quality of the machined component.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
Initial experimentations were carried out to determine the optimal amount of the solid
lubricant to be mixed in the carrying medium. The machining conditions considered are 78 m/min of
cutting velocity and with a feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev. The depth of cut was kept at 1.0 mm.
First the experiments are conducted in dry machining and machining with pure SAE40 oil
supplied at 50ml/mint and corresponding cutting force , surface roughness and temperature were
recorded. The following table-2 shows the results of dry and machining with pure SAE40 as cutting
fluids.
Table-2 Results of Dry & Wet machining
Cutting parameter Dry Machining SAE40
Temperature (0C) 168 155
cutting Force (N) 128 117N
Surface Finish( ) 2.4 2.1

The experiments were repeated with SAE 40 oil with different weight percentages of various
sizes of graphite nano powder of 0.25%, 0.5%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in 50 ml of SAE 40 oil.

As observed from Figure 3, as the weight percentage of the solid lubricant in the carrying
medium is increased, the cutting forces are increasing. In between 6% and 8% of the solid lubricant
in the carrying medium, the increase in the measured values stabilizes and so there is no increase in
the measured parameters with the increase of the solid lubricant in the carrying medium. Similar
trend can be observed in the temperature and the surface roughness of the workpiece. The values are
the least when 0.5% of nano-particulate graphite powder is used. Hence, all the experimentations are
carried out by adding 0.5% of the solid lubricant powder in the carrying medium.
The figure 7 to figure 10 shows the effect of variation of particle size of the solid lubricant on
the tool temperature with respect to variation of cutting parameters. The tool temperature is
represented in y-axis and the tool feed rate is along x-axis.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

Figure 7 . Variation in tool temperature with respect to feed rate and cutting velocityat constant
depth of 0.25mm
Figure 7 shows the variation of temperature with respect to tool feed rate at constant cutting
speed and constant depth of cut when the cutting fluid is supplied with different nano particle sizes
of 510 nm, 1530 nm, 4060nm and 7090 nm, respectively The fig-7a shows the variation of
temperature with respect to feed rate at constant cutting velocity of 51m/mint and depth of cut of
0.25mm . The fig 7b , 7c and 7d shows plots at constant depth of cut of 0.25mm, and cutting
velocities of 78, 126, and 192.6 m/mint respectively.
From the figure 7 it is observed that the temperature increases with increase of feed rate at
constant depth of cut and cutting velocity. The temperature is also increases with increase of cutting
velocity at constant depth of cut. Similarly it is observed that temperature is also influenced by nano
particle size of cutting fluids. The higher temperature ranges were found with smaller size of
particles in the cutting fluid. The temperature will going to reduce with increase of particle size at
constant depth , feed rate and cutting velocity.

Figure 7 . Variation in tool temperature with respect to feed rate and cutting velocity
at constant depth of 0.25mm

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

Figure 8 . Variation in tool temperature with respect to feed rate and cutting velocity
at constant depth of 0.5mm
Figure 8 shows the variation of temperature with respect to tool feed rate at constant cutting
speed and constant depth of cut when the cutting fluid is supplied with different nano particle sizes
of 510 nm, 1530 nm, 4060nm and 7090 nm, respectively at constant depth of cut of 0.50mm . .

Figure 9 . Variation in tool temperature with respect to feed rate and cutting velocity
at constant depth of 0.75mm

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

Figure 10 . Variation in tool temperature with respect to feed rate and cutting velocity
at constant depth of 1.0 mm
Similarly the Figures 9 and 10 shows the variation of temperature with respect to cutting
parameters and particle size in the cutting fluids at constant depth of cut of 0.75 and 1.0 mm
respectively.
From the figures7 to 10 it is clear that , the tool tip temperature is influenced by all the
cutting parameters such cutting velocity, depth of cut and feed rate of the tool. The tool tip
temperature is increases with increase of depth of cut at constant cutting velocity at various feed
rates . The temperature is also increases with increase of depth of cut at constant cutting velocity
with variation of tool feed rates
The temperature rise is minimised by the addition of nano particles of different sizes. The
smaller the nano particle size , higher the temperature range. Hence betting cooling action can be
provided by using larger nano particles in the cutting fluid at constant flow rate.
The increase in temperature is due to the fact that the graphite nano cutting fluid minimises
the friction and reduces the heat generation at the cutting zone. But the suspended nano particles in
the cutting fluid will deposit at the chiptool interface, hence more amount of heat will be retained
at the chiptool interface instead of carrying the heat along with cutting fluid. thus leading to higher
tool temperature.

Figure 11 . Variation of surface finish with respect to cutting speed

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
The above Figure 11 shows the variation of surface finish with respect to cutting velocity at
constant feed rate and depth of cut. The horizontal axis is represented with cutting velocity and
vertical axis with the average values of surface roughness of the machined surface.
In is concluded from the plots that the good surface quality can be obtained with a cutting
fluid supplied with larger size of nano particles. The larger nanoparticles will flow away from the
cutting zone without depositing on the tool tip.Whereas with the smaller particles will deposit on the
tool tip and causes the rubbing with machined surface and hence the surface of the work piece
deteriorates. The rubbing action further causes more cutting forces this leads to rise in the
temperature and tool wear in terms of its geometry, which in turn leads to tool chatter resulting in
poor surface quality.
IV. CONCLUSSION
The following conclusions are drawn from the present experimental investigation.
The study indicates that the cutting tool Temperature and surface finish are greatly influenced
bysize and weight proportion of the nano-level graphite powder in addition to the cutting
parameters ,
The temperature at the tool tip is increased by increasing anyone or two cutting parameters
such as cutting speed , feed rate and depth of cut with keeping other parameters as constant
The cutting temperature and surface roughness is minimumat 0.5%weight proportionate
graphite crystalline nano particles in various sizes.
The tool tip temperature is increased with the decrease in the particle size of Nano crystalline
graphite powder.
The surface roughness of machined surface is also decreased with increase in size of nano
crystalline graphite powder .
The surface finish is improved by increasing the cutting velocity at constant feed rate and
depth of cut.
VII. FUNDING
This work is funded by University Grants Commission (UGC) New Delhi, Government of
India. Funding details: MRP4559/14(SERO/UGC Dated March 2014)
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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 06, [June 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
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