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Coimbatore-641048

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

REGULATION: 2013

Prepared by Reviewed by

Approved by

HoD/ECE Principal

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

SYLLABUS

EC 6405 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

AIM:

To familiarize the students with concepts related to the operation analysis and stabilization of control

systems.

OBJECTIVES:

To introduce the elements of control system and their modeling using various Techniques.

To introduce methods for analyzing the time response, the frequency response and the

stability of systems

To introduce the state variable analysis method

Basic Elements of Control System Open loop and Closed loop systems Differential equation -

Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational mechanical systems - Block

diagram reduction Techniques - Signal flow graph

Time response analysis - First Order Systems - Impulse and Step Response analysis of second order

systems - Steady state errors P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using MATLAB

Frequency Response - Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot - Frequency Domain specifications from the

plots - Constant M and N Circles - Nichols Chart - Use of Nichols Chart in Control System Analysis.

Series, Parallel, series-parallel Compensators - Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag Compensators, Analysis using

MATLAB.

Stability, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus, Stability,

Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram - Nyquist Stability Criterion - Relative Stability,

Analysis using MATLAB

State space representation of Continuous Time systems State equations Transfer function from State

Variable Representation Solutions of the state equations - Concepts of Controllability and Observability

State space representation for Discrete time systems. Sampled Data control systems Sampling

Theorem Sample & Hold Open loop & Closed loop sampled data systems.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Perform time domain and frequency domain analysis of control systems required for stability

analysis.

Design the compensation technique that can be used to stabilize control systems.

TEXTBOOK:

1. J.Nagrath and M.Gopal, Control System Engineering, New Age International Publishers, 5th Edition,

2007.

REFERENCES:

2. M.Gopal, Control System Principles and Design, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, 2002.

3. Schaums Outline Series, Feed back and Control Systems Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 2007.

4. John J.DAzzo & Constantine H.Houpis, Linear Control System Analysis and Design, Tata Mc

Graw-Hill, Inc., 1995.

5. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Addison Wesley, 1999.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

1. What is control system?

A system consists of a number of elements or components connected in a sequence to

perform a specific function. In a system when the output quantity is controlled by varying the

input quantity, then the system is called control system. The output quantity is called controlled

variable or response and input quantity is called command signal or excitation.

The transfer function of a system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of

output to Laplace transform of input with zero initial conditions. It is also defined as the Laplace

transform of the impulse response of system with zero initial conditions.

A system is said to be linear if it obeys principle of superposition and homogeneity. A

system is said to be time invariant if its input -output characteristics do not change with time. A

linear time invariant system can be represented by constant coefficient differential equations.

The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity is

called open loop control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for

correction.The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to

maintain the desired output values are called closed loop control system.

5. Give the comparison between open loop & closed loop system

6. Draw the canonical form of closed loop control system & write its transfer function

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

7. What are the components of feedback control system? AU NOV/DEC 2009 & AU

NOV/DEC 2011

The components of feedback control system are i) Reference input ii) Error detector iii) feedback

elements iv) Control Elements v) Plant

8. What are the energy storage elements in mechanical and electrical systems?

The energy storage elements in mechanical systems are Dash pot & spring. The energy

storage elements in electrical systems are Inductor & Capacitor

Mathematical model of a control system constitutes a set of differential equations. The

response or output of the system can be studied by solving differential equations for various

input conditions.

10. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational system?

The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained using three basic elements

Mass of the body M, spring with elasticity of the body K and dashpot with friction of the body B.

11. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational systems?

The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained using three basic elements

mass with Moment of inertia J, dashpot with rotational frictional coefficient B and torsional

spring with stiffness coefficient K

12. What is the electrical analogue of force and damper in force voltage analogy?

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Damper - Resistor

13. Write the analogous electrical elements in force current analogy for the elements of

mechanical translational system.

Dashpot (B) -Resistor

Mass (M) -Capacitor

Spring (k)-Inductors

The two major types of control system are open loop control system and closed loop

control system.

The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any

disturbance signals. It also has low sensitivity to parameter variations. Hence negative feedback

is preferred in closed loop systems.

A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by

each component of the system and shows the flow of signals. The basic elements of block

diagram are block, branch point and summing point.

1. It is easy to form the overall block diagram of the entire system by merely connecting the

blocks of the components according to the signal flow.

2. It is possible to evaluate the overall performance of the system.

19. What is the basis for framing the rules of block diagram reduction technique?

The rules for block diagram reduction technique are framed such that any modification

made on the diagram does not alter the input output relation.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

A signal flow graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous linear algebraic

equations .By taking Laplace transform the time domain differential equations governing a

control system can be transferred to a set of algebraic equations in S-domain. The signal flow

graph of the system can be constructed using these equations.

The transmittance is the gain acquired by the signal when it travels from one node to

another node in signal flow graph.

Source is the input node in the signal flow graph and it has only outgoing branches. Sink

is an output node in the signal flow graph and it has only incoming branches.

The loops are said to be non- touching if they do not have common nodes.

1. The algebraic properties which are used to construct signal flow graph must be in the

form of cause and effect relationship.

2. Signal flow graph is applicable to linear system only.

The positive feedback increases the error signal and drives the output to instability. But

sometimes the positive feedback is used in minor loops in control systems to amplify certain

internal signals or parameters.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

A system is said to be time invariant if its input output characteristic do not change with

time. It can be represented by constant coefficient differential equations.

A system is said to be linear, if it obeys the principle of superposition and homogeneity,

which states that the response of a system to a weighted sum of signal is equal to the

corresponding weighted sum of the responses of the system to each of the individual input

signals.

The feedback is a control action in which the output is sampled and a proportional signal

is given to input for automatic correction of nay changes in desired output. Negative feedback is

employed in control system.

The characteristics of negative feedback are as follows:

1. Accuracy in tracking steady state values.

2. Rejection of disturbance signals

3. Low sensitivity to parameter variations.

4. Reduction in gain at the expense of better stability.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

UNIT II: TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

1. What is time response?

The time response is the output of the closed loop system as a function of time. It is

denoted by c (t).It is given by inverse Laplace transform of the product of input and transfer

function of the system.

Response in time domain, c (t) =-1{C(S)}

The transient response is the response of the system when the input changes from one

state to another. The steady state response is the response of the system when t approaches

infinity.

The test signals can be easily generated in test laboratories and the characteristics of test

signals resembles the characteristic of actual input signals. The test signals are used to

predetermine the performance of the system. If the response of a system is satisfactory for a test

signal, then the system will be suitable for practical applications.

4. Name the test signals used in time response analysis. AU MAY/JUNE2007, 2014 AU

APR/MAY 2005, 2011

1. Impulse

2. Step &Unit step

3. Ramp & Unit Ramp

4. Parabolic and Unit Parabolic

5. Sinusoidal

In a under damped system the response is damped oscillatory. The frequency of damped

oscillation is given by d = n (1-2)

The time domain specifications are

I.Delay time

ii.Rise time

iii.Peak time

iv.Peak overshoot

Rise time: The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is

rise time. For under damped it is 0% to 100%, for over damped it is 10% to 90% and for

critically damped it is 5% to 95%.

Peak time: The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is

peak time. (Or) It is the time taken for the response to reach peak overshoot, Mp.

Peak overshoot is defined as the ratio of maximum peak value to final value where

Maximum peak value is measured from the final value.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Mp = c(tp)-c()

c()

Settling time is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within the

specified error and the error is usually specified as % of final value.The usual tolerable error is

2% or 5% of the final value.

Positional error constant (KP)

Velocity error constant (KV)

Acceleration error constant (Ka)

Damping ratio () is defined as the ratio of actual damping to critical damping.

An order of a system is given by the order of the differential equation governing the

systems.

It is also given by the number of poles of the system.

The steady state error is defined as the value of error as time tends to infinity. It is a

measure of system accuracy. These errors arise from the nature of inputs, type of system and

from non-linearity of system components.

The main drawback of static coefficient is that it does not show the variation of error with

time and input should be standard input.

i) Steady state is function of time.

ii) Steady state can be determined from any type of input

The controller is provided to modify the error signal for better control action.

Proportional controller

PI controller

PD controller

PID controller

It is device that produces a control signal which is proportional to the input error signal.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

It is device that produces a control signal consisting of two terms one is proportional to

error signal and the other proportional to the integral of error signal.

PD controller is a proportional plus derivative controller which produces an output signal

consisting of two times -one proportional to error signal and other proportional to the derivative

of the signal.

21. What is the significance of integral controller and derivative controller in a PID

controller?

The proportional controller stabilizes the gain but produces a steady state error. The

integral control reduces or eliminates the steady state error.

22. Why derivative controller is not used in control systems? AU APR/MAY 2011

The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change of error

signal and it does not produce corrective measures for any constant error.

It can be easily generated in test laboratories and the characteristics of it resemble the

characteristics of actual input signals.

It is a signal whose value changes from 0 to A and remains constant at A for t> 0

R(t) = A , t> 0

=0,t<0

25. Define ramp signal.

It is a signal whose value increases linearly with time from an initial value of 0 at t=0

R(t) = At , t> 0

=0,t<0

26. Define parabolic signal.

I t is a signal in which the instantaneous value varies as square of the time from an initial

value of 0 at t=0

R(t) = At2 , t> 0

2

=0,t<0

27. What is weighing function?

The impulse response of system is called weighing function. It is given by inverse

Laplace transform of system transfer function.

A signal which is available for very short duration. Ideal impulse signal is a unit impulse

signal which is defined as a signal having zero values at all time expect at t = 0.

The pole of a function F(s) is the value at which the function F(s) becomes infinite where

F(s) is a function of complex variable s.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

The zero of a function F(s) is the value at which the function F(s) becomes zero where

F(s) is a function of complex variable s.

31. How do you find the type of the system? AU APR/MAY 2015

32. Find the unit impulse response of system H(s)=5s/(s+2) with Zero Initial Conditions.

AU APR/MAY 2015

The unit impulse response of the given system at zero initial conditions in time domain is

given as, H(t) = 5 e^-2t

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

UNIT III: FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS

1. What is frequency response?

A frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the

system is a sinusoidal signal.

The frequency domain specifications are i) Resonant peak. ii) Resonant frequency iii)

bandwidth iv) cut-off rate v) Gain margin vi) Phase margin

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called resonant

peak.

The frequency at which resonant peak occurs is called resonant frequency.

5. What is bandwidth?

The bandwidth is the range of frequencies for which the system gain Is more than 3 dB.

The bandwidth is a measure of the ability of a feedback system to reproduce the input signal,

noise rejection characteristics and rise time.

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut-off is called cut-off rate. The cut-off

rate indicates the ability to distinguish the signal from noise.

The gain margin, kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of the open loop transfer

function at phase cross over frequency.

Gain margin kg = 1 / G (jwpc)

The frequency at which, the phase of open loop transfer functions is called phase cross

over frequency wpc.

The phase margin is the amount of phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required

to bring system to the verge of instability.

11. Define Gain cross over frequency? AU NOV/DEC 2007 APR/MAY 2011

The gain cross over frequency Wgc is the frequency at which the magnitude of the open

loop transfer function is unity.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

The Bode plot is the frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A Bode

plot consists of two graphs. One is the plot of magnitude of sinusoidal transfer function versus

log w.The other is a plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal function versus log w.

The main advantages are:

i) Multiplication of magnitude can be in to addition.

ii) A simple method for sketching an approximate log curve is available.

iii) It is based on asymptotic approximation. Such approximation is sufficient if rough

information on the frequency response characteristic is needed.

iv) The phase angle curves can be easily drawn if a template for the phase angle curve of

(1+ jw) is available.

The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called corner

frequency.

A negative phase angle is called phase lag.

A positive phase angle is called phase lead.

The magnitude of closed loop transfer function with unit feedback can be shown to be in

the for every value if M. These circles are called M circles.

The chart consists of M & N contours in the log magnitude versus phase diagram is

called Nichols chart.

Nichols chart of M and N contours, superimposed on ordinary graph.The M contours are

the magnitude of closed loop system in decibels and the N contours are the phase angle locus of

closed loop system.

19. How is the Resonant Peak (Mr), resonant frequency (Wr), and bandwidth determined

from Nichols chart?

i) The resonant peak is given by the value of .contour which is tangent to G (jw) locus.

ii) The resonant frequency is given by the frequency of G (jw) at the tangency point.

iii) The bandwidth is given by frequency corresponding to the intersection point of

G(jw) and 3dB M-contour.

The advantages are:

i) It is used to find the closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency

response.

ii) Frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.

iii) The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

A device inserted into the system for the purpose of satisfying the specifications is called

as a compensator.

22. What are the three types of compensators? AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007

i. Lag compensator

ii. Lead compensator

iii. Lag-Lead compensator

i) Speeds up the transient response

ii) Increases the margin of stability of a system

iii) Increases the system error constant to a limited extent.

To improve the steady state behavior of a system, while nearly preserving its transient

response.

The lag lead compensator is required when both the transient and steady state response of

a system has to be improved.

i. Cascade or series compensation

ii. Feedback compensation or parallel compensation

i. An finite line segment C1 along the imaginary axis.

ii. An arc C2 of infinite radius.

1. The design and parameter adjustment can be carried more easily.

2. The corrective measure for noise disturbance and parameter variation can be easily

carried.

3. It can be extended to certain non linear systems.

4. The transfer function of complicated functions can be determined experimentally by

frequency response tests.

In approximate Bode plot,the magnitude plot of first and second order factors are

approximated by two straight lines,which are asymptotes to exact plot.One straight line is at 0db

for frequency range 0 to wc and the other straight line is drawn with a slope of + 20n db/dec for

frequency range wc to infinity.

30. What is the value of error in the approximate magnitude plot of a first order factor at

the corner frequency?

The error in the approximate magnitude plot of a first order factor at the corner frequency

is + 3m db where m is multiplicity factor.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Compensators can be designed using Nichols plot. Nichols plot technique is however also

used in designing of dc motor. This is used in signal processing and control design. Nyquist plot

in complex plane shows how phase of transfer function and frequency variation of magnitude are

related.

32. What are the characteristics of Phase lead network? AU APR/MAY 2015

Increases system bandwidth which usually correlates to reduced rise and settling times

and a susceptibility to high frequency noise.

Increases the phase of the forward-path transfer function in the vicinity of the zero-gain

crossover frequency. This increases the phase margin of the closed-loop system and hence the

relative stability.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

UNIT IV: STABILITY ANALYSIS

1. Define BIBO stability.

A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBIO stability if every bounded input results in a

bounded output.

The necessary condition for stability is that all the coefficients of the characteristic

polynomial be positive.

The necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in the first

column of the routh array should be positive.

Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system,it an indication of strength or

degree of stability.

For a bounded input signal if the output has constant amplitude oscilllations Then the

system may be stable or unstable under some limited constraints such a system is called limitedly

stable system.

Adding a zero to a system results in pronounced early peak to system response thereby

the peak overshoot increases appreciably.

7. State-Magnitude criterion.

The magnitude criterion states that s=sa will be a point on root locus if for that value of s,

| D(s) | = |G(s)H(s) | =1

The Angle criterion states that s=sa will be a point on root locus for that value of s, D(s) =

_G(s) H(s) =odd multiple of 180.

The dominant pole is a pair of complex conjugate pair which decides the transient

response of the system.

The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain is

varied from 0 to infinity are called root loci.

i. The main root locus technique is used for stability analysis.

ii. Using root locus technique the range of values of K, for as table system can be

determined

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Asymptotes are straight lines which are parallel to root locus going to infinity and meet

the root locus at infinity.

The denominator polynomial of C(s)/R(s) is the characteristic equation of a system.

The meeting point of two asymptotes with real axis is called centroid.

Centroid = (sum of poles- sum of zeros)/ (n-m)

15. State the rule for finding out the rootloci on the real axis.

To find the root locus on real axis choose a test point on real axis.if the total no.of poles

and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the teat point lies on

the root locus. If it is even then test point does not lie on the root locus.

The contour that encloses entire right half of S plane is called Nyquist contour.

If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the Nyquist

control in the S-plane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the counter clockwise direction as

many times as the number of right half S-plane poles of G(s), the closed loop system is stable.

The impulse response of a system is the response of a system for impulse input and is

given by inverse Laplace transform of the system transfer function.

The requirement for BIBO stability is that, m (t)dt< Where m(t) is impulse response of

the system.

20. How the roots of characteristics equation are related to stability? AU NOV/DEC 2012

If the roots of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of

the system is not bounded(the impulse response wil be infinite as t-> ).Hence the system will be

unstable .If the roots have negative real part then the impulse response is bounded (the impulse

response becomes 0 as t-> .

21. What is the relation between stability and coefficient of characteristic polynomial?

If the coefficients of characteristics polynomial are negative to zero, then some of roots

lie on right half of s-plane. Hence the system is unstable. If the coefficients of characteristic

polynomial are positive and if no coefficient is zero then there is a possibility of the system to be

stable provided all the roots are lying on left half of s-plane.

22. What will be the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic equation

are lying on imaginary axis?

If the roots of characteristic equation lie on imaginary axis the nature of impulse response

is oscillatory.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

23. What will be the nature of impulse response if the roots of characteristic equation are

lying on right half of s-plane?

When the roots are lying on the real axis on the right half of s-plane, then the response is

exponentially increasing. When the roots are complex conjugate and lying on the right half of s-

plane, then the response is oscillatory with exponentially increasing amplitude.

The principle of argument states that let F(s) be analytic function and if arbitrary closed

contour in the clockwise direction is chosen in the s-plane so that F(s) is analytic at every point of

the contour. Then the corresponding F(s)-plane contour mapped in the F(s)-plane will encircle the

origin,N times in the anticlockwise direction, where N is the difference between number of

poles,P and zeros Z of F(s) that are enclosed by the chosen closed contour in the s-plane.

Routh criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of

the elements in the first column of the routh array be positive. If this condition is not met, the

system is unstable and the number of sign changes in the elements of the first column of routh

array corresponds to the number of roots of characteristics equation in the right half of s-plane.

If the construction of routh array of a row of all zero indicates the existence of an even

polynomial as a factor of the given characteristic equation. In an even polynomial the exponents

of s are even integers of zero only. This even polynomial factor is called auxiliary polynomial.

The symmetry of roots with respect to both real and imaginary roots is called quadrant

symmetry.

28. In routh array what conclusion you can make when there is a row of all zeros?

All zero rows in routh array indicate the existence of an even polynomial as a factor of

the given characteristic equation. The even polynomial may have roots on imaginary axis.

29. How will you find the gain K at a point on root locus? AU APR/MAY2015

The gain K at appoints s=sa on root locus is given by,

K= Product of length of vector from open loop poles to the point sa

Product of length of vector from open loop zeros to the point sa

30. How will you find root locus on real axis?

To find root locus on real axis, choose a test point on real axis. If the total number

of poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this point is odd number, then the test point lies

on the root locus. If it is even then the test point does not lie on the root locus.

31. What are breakaway and breaking points? AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007

At breakaway point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex

plane. At breaking point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane.

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

1. What are the advantages of state space analysis?

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

The state table analysis is applicable to any type of systems. They can be used for

modeling and analysis of linear & non-linear systems, Time invariant & time variant

systems and multiple input and multiple output systems.

The State space analysis can be performed with intial conditions.

The variables used to represent the system can be any variables in the system.

Using this analysis the internal states at any time instant can be predicted.

Transfer function is defined under zero initial conditions.

Transfer function is applicable to linear time invariant systems.

Transfer function analysis is restricted to single input and output systems.

Does not provide information regarding the internal state of the system.

The state is the condition of a system at any time instant. A set of variable which

describes the state of the system at any time instant are called state variable.

The pictorial representation of the state model of the system is called state diagram. The

state diagram of the system can be either in block diagram or in signal flow graph form.

The phase variables are defined as those particular state variables which are obtained

from one of the system variable and its derivatives. Usually the variable used is the system

output and the remaining state variables are then derivatives of the output.

In bush form or companion form of a state model, the system matrix, A has all 1s in the

upper off-diagonal and its last row is comprised of the negative of the coefficients of the

original differential equation and all other elements are zero.

In canonical form of state model, the state matrix, a will be a diagonal matrix.

The state model of a system consists of state equation and output equation. The state

model of a nth order system with m inputs and p outputs are

X(t) = AX(t) + BU(t) state equation

Y(t)= CX(t) + DU(t) .. Output equation

Where X(t) = state vector of order (n x 1)

A= system matrix of order (n x n)

B= input matrix of order (n x m)

C = output matrix of order (p x n)

D= transmission matrix of order (p x m)

U(t)= input vector of order (m x 1)

Y(t)= output vector of order (p x 1)

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

10. What are the advantages of state space modeling using physical variable? AU MAY /

JUNE 2006, 2007

The advantages of choosing the physical variable are

1. The state variable can be utilized for the purpose of feedback

2. The implementation of design with state variables feedback becomes straight

forward

3. The solution of state equation gives time variation of variables which have direct

relevance to the physical system

11. What are the advantages of state space modeling using phase variable?

1. Using phase variables the system state model can be written directly by inspection

from the differential equation governing the system

2. The phase variables provides a link between the transfer function design

approach and time domain design approach

12. What are the disadvantages of state space modeling using phase variable?

The disadvantages in choosing phase variables is that the phase variables are not

physical variables of the system and therefore are not available for measurement and

control purpose

13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of state space modeling using canonical

variable?

The advantage of canonical form is that the state equations are independent of each other.

The disadvantage is that the canonical variables are not physical variables and so they are not

available for measurement and control

The matrix exponential eAt is called the state transition matrix in the expanded form

the state transition matrix is used to find the state of the system at any time instant t

from the knowledge of the state at time t0.

The following are the properties of state transition matrix

1. (0) = eAx0 = 1(unit matrix)

2. (t) = eAt = {e At}-1 = {(-t)}-1

3. (t1 + t2) = eA(t1 + t2) = eAt1 eAt2 = (t1) (t2)

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

The solution of homogenous state equation is X(t) = eAtX0

Where X(t) = state vector at time t

eAt = state transition matrix

X0 = initial condition vector at t=0

The solution of homogenous state equation is X(t) = eA(t-t0)X(t0) + eA(t-t0)BU()dt

Where X(t) = state vector at time t

X(t0)=initial condition vector at t=t0

B(t) =input matrix

U(t) =input vector

18. Write the state model of nth order discrete time system

The state model of a system consist of state equation and output equation. The state

model of a nth order system with m inputs and p outputs are

X(k+1) = AX(k) + BU(k) state equation

Y(k)= CX(k) + DU(k) .. output equation

Where X(k) = state vector of order (n x 1)

A= system matrix of order(n x n)

B= input matrix of order (n x m)

C = output matrix of order (p x n)

D= transmission matrix of order (p x m)

U(k)= input vector of order (m x 1)

Y(k)= output vector of order (p x 1)

A system is said to be completely state controllable if it is possible to transfer the system

state from any initial state X(t0) to any other desired state X(t),in specified finite time by a

control vector U(t).

The controllability test is necessary to find the usefulness of a state variable. If the state

variables are controllable then by controlling the state variables the desired outputs of the system

are achieved.

23. State the advantage and disadvantage in kalmans test for controllability?

The advantage in kalmans test is that the calculations are simpler. But the disadvantage

in kalmans test is that, we cant find the state variable which is controllable. But in Gilberts

method we can find the uncontrollable state variables which is the state variable corresponding to

the row of B~ which has all zeros

The observability test is necessary to find whether the state variables are measurable or

not. If the state variables are measurable then the state of the system can be determined by

practical measurements of the state variables.

25. State the advantage and disadvantage in kalmans test for observability?

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

The advantage in kalmans test is that the calculations are simpler. But the disadvantage

in kalmans test is that the non observable state variables cannot be determined.

The state vector is a (n x 1) column matrix whose elements are state variables of the

system.It is denoted by X(t).

The set of all possible values which the state vector X(t) can have at time t forms the state

space of the system.

28. What is input and output space?

The set of all possible values which the input vector U(t) can have at time t forms the

input space of the system. The set of all possible values which the output vector Y(t) can have at

time t forms the output space of the system.

29. What is sampled data control system?

When the signal or information at any or some points in a system is in the form of

discrete pulses, then the system is called discrete data system or sampled data system.

30. Write the advantages of sampled data control systems.

Systems are highly accurate, fast and flexible.

Use of time sharing concept of digital computer results in economical cost and space.

Digital transducers used in the system have better resolution.

The digital components are less affected by noise, non-linearities and transmission

errors of noisy channel.

A bandlimited signal can be reconstructed exactly if it is sampled at a rate atleast twice

the maximum frequency component in it.

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