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Dr.N.G.P.

Dr. N.G.P. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Coimbatore-641048

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6405 / CONTROL SYSTEM ENGINEERING

REGULATION: 2013

Prepared by Reviewed by

Approved by

HoD/ECE Principal

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

SYLLABUS
EC 6405 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
AIM:

To familiarize the students with concepts related to the operation analysis and stabilization of control
systems.

OBJECTIVES:

To introduce the elements of control system and their modeling using various Techniques.
To introduce methods for analyzing the time response, the frequency response and the
stability of systems
To introduce the state variable analysis method

UNIT I CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING 9

Basic Elements of Control System Open loop and Closed loop systems Differential equation -
Transfer function, Modeling of Electric systems, Translational and rotational mechanical systems - Block
diagram reduction Techniques - Signal flow graph

UNIT II TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS 9

Time response analysis - First Order Systems - Impulse and Step Response analysis of second order
systems - Steady state errors P, PI, PD and PID Compensation, Analysis using MATLAB

UNIT III FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS 9

Frequency Response - Bode Plot, Polar Plot, Nyquist Plot - Frequency Domain specifications from the
plots - Constant M and N Circles - Nichols Chart - Use of Nichols Chart in Control System Analysis.
Series, Parallel, series-parallel Compensators - Lead, Lag, and Lead Lag Compensators, Analysis using
MATLAB.

UNIT IV STABILITY ANALYSIS 9

Stability, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion, Root Locus Technique, Construction of Root Locus, Stability,
Dominant Poles, Application of Root Locus Diagram - Nyquist Stability Criterion - Relative Stability,
Analysis using MATLAB

UNIT V STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS 9

State space representation of Continuous Time systems State equations Transfer function from State
Variable Representation Solutions of the state equations - Concepts of Controllability and Observability
State space representation for Discrete time systems. Sampled Data control systems Sampling
Theorem Sample & Hold Open loop & Closed loop sampled data systems.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

OUTCOMES: Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:

Perform time domain and frequency domain analysis of control systems required for stability
analysis.
Design the compensation technique that can be used to stabilize control systems.

TEXTBOOK:

1. J.Nagrath and M.Gopal, Control System Engineering, New Age International Publishers, 5th Edition,
2007.

REFERENCES:

1. Benjamin.C.Kuo, Automatic control systems, Prentice Hall of India, 7th Edition,1995.

2. M.Gopal, Control System Principles and Design, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, 2002.
3. Schaums Outline Series, Feed back and Control Systems Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 2007.
4. John J.DAzzo & Constantine H.Houpis, Linear Control System Analysis and Design, Tata Mc
Graw-Hill, Inc., 1995.
5. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, Addison Wesley, 1999.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

UNIT I: CONTROL SYSTEM MODELING

1. What is control system?
A system consists of a number of elements or components connected in a sequence to
perform a specific function. In a system when the output quantity is controlled by varying the
input quantity, then the system is called control system. The output quantity is called controlled
variable or response and input quantity is called command signal or excitation.

2. Define transfer function. AU APR/MAY 2012& NOV/DEC 2009

The transfer function of a system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of
output to Laplace transform of input with zero initial conditions. It is also defined as the Laplace
transform of the impulse response of system with zero initial conditions.

3. What is meant by linear time invariant system?

A system is said to be linear if it obeys principle of superposition and homogeneity. A
system is said to be time invariant if its input -output characteristics do not change with time. A
linear time invariant system can be represented by constant coefficient differential equations.

4. Define open loop and closed loop systems.

The control system in which the output quantity has no effect upon the input quantity is
called open loop control system. This means that the output is not feedback to the input for
correction.The control system in which the output has an effect upon the input quantity so as to
maintain the desired output values are called closed loop control system.

5. Give the comparison between open loop & closed loop system

6. Draw the canonical form of closed loop control system & write its transfer function
Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering
Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Transfer function C/R=G/ (1+GH)

7. What are the components of feedback control system? AU NOV/DEC 2009 & AU
NOV/DEC 2011

The components of feedback control system are i) Reference input ii) Error detector iii) feedback
elements iv) Control Elements v) Plant

8. What are the energy storage elements in mechanical and electrical systems?
The energy storage elements in mechanical systems are Dash pot & spring. The energy
storage elements in electrical systems are Inductor & Capacitor

9. What is a mathematical model of a system?

Mathematical model of a control system constitutes a set of differential equations. The
response or output of the system can be studied by solving differential equations for various
input conditions.

10. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical translational system?
The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained using three basic elements
Mass of the body M, spring with elasticity of the body K and dashpot with friction of the body B.

11. What are the basic elements used for modeling mechanical rotational systems?
The model of mechanical translational system can be obtained using three basic elements
mass with Moment of inertia J, dashpot with rotational frictional coefficient B and torsional
spring with stiffness coefficient K

12. What is the electrical analogue of force and damper in force voltage analogy?
Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering
Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

Force Voltage source

Damper - Resistor

13. Write the analogous electrical elements in force current analogy for the elements of
mechanical translational system.

Force (f) -Current

Dashpot (B) -Resistor
Mass (M) -Capacitor
Spring (k)-Inductors

14. What are the two major types of control system?

The two major types of control system are open loop control system and closed loop
control system.

15. Why is negative feedback invariably preferred in closed loop system?

The negative feedback results in better stability in steady state and rejects any
disturbance signals. It also has low sensitivity to parameter variations. Hence negative feedback
is preferred in closed loop systems.

16. What is block diagram?

A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by
each component of the system and shows the flow of signals. The basic elements of block
diagram are block, branch point and summing point.

17. Write any two advantages of block diagram representation?

1. It is easy to form the overall block diagram of the entire system by merely connecting the
blocks of the components according to the signal flow.
2. It is possible to evaluate the overall performance of the system.

Transfer function C/R=G/1+GH

19. What is the basis for framing the rules of block diagram reduction technique?
The rules for block diagram reduction technique are framed such that any modification
made on the diagram does not alter the input output relation.

20. What is a signal flow graph?

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering
Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
A signal flow graph is a diagram that represents a set of simultaneous linear algebraic
equations .By taking Laplace transform the time domain differential equations governing a
control system can be transferred to a set of algebraic equations in S-domain. The signal flow
graph of the system can be constructed using these equations.

22. What is transmittance?

The transmittance is the gain acquired by the signal when it travels from one node to
another node in signal flow graph.

23. What is sink and source?

Source is the input node in the signal flow graph and it has only outgoing branches. Sink
is an output node in the signal flow graph and it has only incoming branches.

24. Define non-touching loop.

The loops are said to be non- touching if they do not have common nodes.

25. State any two properties of SFG

1. The algebraic properties which are used to construct signal flow graph must be in the
form of cause and effect relationship.
2. Signal flow graph is applicable to linear system only.

26. What is the effect of positive feedback on stability?

The positive feedback increases the error signal and drives the output to instability. But
sometimes the positive feedback is used in minor loops in control systems to amplify certain
internal signals or parameters.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
A system is said to be time invariant if its input output characteristic do not change with
time. It can be represented by constant coefficient differential equations.

28. Define linear systems.

A system is said to be linear, if it obeys the principle of superposition and homogeneity,
which states that the response of a system to a weighted sum of signal is equal to the
corresponding weighted sum of the responses of the system to each of the individual input
signals.

29. What is feedback? What type of feedback is employed in control system?

The feedback is a control action in which the output is sampled and a proportional signal
is given to input for automatic correction of nay changes in desired output. Negative feedback is
employed in control system.

30. What are the characteristics of negative feedback?

The characteristics of negative feedback are as follows:
1. Accuracy in tracking steady state values.
2. Rejection of disturbance signals
3. Low sensitivity to parameter variations.
4. Reduction in gain at the expense of better stability.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
UNIT II: TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS
1. What is time response?
The time response is the output of the closed loop system as a function of time. It is
denoted by c (t).It is given by inverse Laplace transform of the product of input and transfer
function of the system.
Response in time domain, c (t) =-1{C(S)}

2. What is transient response and steady state response?

The transient response is the response of the system when the input changes from one
state to another. The steady state response is the response of the system when t approaches
infinity.

3. What is the importance of test signals?

The test signals can be easily generated in test laboratories and the characteristics of test
signals resembles the characteristic of actual input signals. The test signals are used to
predetermine the performance of the system. If the response of a system is satisfactory for a test
signal, then the system will be suitable for practical applications.

4. Name the test signals used in time response analysis. AU MAY/JUNE2007, 2014 AU
APR/MAY 2005, 2011
1. Impulse
2. Step &Unit step
3. Ramp & Unit Ramp
4. Parabolic and Unit Parabolic
5. Sinusoidal

5. What is damped frequency of oscillation?

In a under damped system the response is damped oscillatory. The frequency of damped
oscillation is given by d = n (1-2)

6. List the time domain specifications. AU NOV/DEC 2009

The time domain specifications are
I.Delay time
ii.Rise time
iii.Peak time
iv.Peak overshoot

7. Define rise time, Peak time.

Rise time: The time taken for response to raise from 0% to 100% for the very first time is
rise time. For under damped it is 0% to 100%, for over damped it is 10% to 90% and for
critically damped it is 5% to 95%.
Peak time: The time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the first time is
peak time. (Or) It is the time taken for the response to reach peak overshoot, Mp.

8. Define peak overshoot. AU MAY/JUNE 2007

Peak overshoot is defined as the ratio of maximum peak value to final value where
Maximum peak value is measured from the final value.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
Mp = c(tp)-c()
c()

9. Define Settling time. AU APR/MAY 2010

Settling time is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within the
specified error and the error is usually specified as % of final value.The usual tolerable error is
2% or 5% of the final value.

10. What are static error constants?

Positional error constant (KP)
Velocity error constant (KV)
Acceleration error constant (Ka)

11. Define damping ratio.

Damping ratio () is defined as the ratio of actual damping to critical damping.

12. What is an order of a system?

An order of a system is given by the order of the differential equation governing the
systems.
It is also given by the number of poles of the system.

13. Define Steady state error. AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007

The steady state error is defined as the value of error as time tends to infinity. It is a
measure of system accuracy. These errors arise from the nature of inputs, type of system and
from non-linearity of system components.

14. What is the drawback of static coefficients?

The main drawback of static coefficient is that it does not show the variation of error with
time and input should be standard input.

15. What are the main advantages of generalized error coefficients?

i) Steady state is function of time.
ii) Steady state can be determined from any type of input

16. What is the need for a controller?

The controller is provided to modify the error signal for better control action.

17. What are the different types of controllers?

Proportional controller
PI controller
PD controller
PID controller

18. What is proportional controller?

It is device that produces a control signal which is proportional to the input error signal.

19. What is PI controller?

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering
Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
It is device that produces a control signal consisting of two terms one is proportional to
error signal and the other proportional to the integral of error signal.

20. What is PD controller?

PD controller is a proportional plus derivative controller which produces an output signal
consisting of two times -one proportional to error signal and other proportional to the derivative
of the signal.

21. What is the significance of integral controller and derivative controller in a PID
controller?
The proportional controller stabilizes the gain but produces a steady state error. The
integral control reduces or eliminates the steady state error.

22. Why derivative controller is not used in control systems? AU APR/MAY 2011
The derivative controller produces a control action based on the rate of change of error
signal and it does not produce corrective measures for any constant error.

23. What is the importance of test signals?

It can be easily generated in test laboratories and the characteristics of it resemble the
characteristics of actual input signals.

24. Define step signal.

It is a signal whose value changes from 0 to A and remains constant at A for t> 0
R(t) = A , t> 0
=0,t<0
25. Define ramp signal.
It is a signal whose value increases linearly with time from an initial value of 0 at t=0
R(t) = At , t> 0
=0,t<0
26. Define parabolic signal.
I t is a signal in which the instantaneous value varies as square of the time from an initial
value of 0 at t=0
R(t) = At2 , t> 0
2
=0,t<0
27. What is weighing function?
The impulse response of system is called weighing function. It is given by inverse
Laplace transform of system transfer function.

28. What is an impulse signal?

A signal which is available for very short duration. Ideal impulse signal is a unit impulse
signal which is defined as a signal having zero values at all time expect at t = 0.

29. Define pole.

The pole of a function F(s) is the value at which the function F(s) becomes infinite where
F(s) is a function of complex variable s.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

30. Define zero.

The zero of a function F(s) is the value at which the function F(s) becomes zero where
F(s) is a function of complex variable s.

31. How do you find the type of the system? AU APR/MAY 2015

32. Find the unit impulse response of system H(s)=5s/(s+2) with Zero Initial Conditions.
AU APR/MAY 2015
The unit impulse response of the given system at zero initial conditions in time domain is
given as, H(t) = 5 e^-2t

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
UNIT III: FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS
1. What is frequency response?
A frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the
system is a sinusoidal signal.

2. List out the different frequency domain specifications?

The frequency domain specifications are i) Resonant peak. ii) Resonant frequency iii)
bandwidth iv) cut-off rate v) Gain margin vi) Phase margin

3. Define resonant Peak (wr)? AU MAY JUNE 2014

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called resonant
peak.

4. Define Resonant frequency (wf)? AU MAY/JUNE 2006

The frequency at which resonant peak occurs is called resonant frequency.

5. What is bandwidth?
The bandwidth is the range of frequencies for which the system gain Is more than 3 dB.
The bandwidth is a measure of the ability of a feedback system to reproduce the input signal,
noise rejection characteristics and rise time.

6. Define Cut-off rate?

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut-off is called cut-off rate. The cut-off
rate indicates the ability to distinguish the signal from noise.

7. Define Gain Margin? AU MAY/JUNE 2013

The gain margin, kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of the open loop transfer
function at phase cross over frequency.
Gain margin kg = 1 / G (jwpc)

8. Define Phase cross over?

The frequency at which, the phase of open loop transfer functions is called phase cross
over frequency wpc.

9. What is phase margin? AU NOV/DEC 2007

The phase margin is the amount of phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required
to bring system to the verge of instability.

11. Define Gain cross over frequency? AU NOV/DEC 2007 APR/MAY 2011
The gain cross over frequency Wgc is the frequency at which the magnitude of the open
loop transfer function is unity.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
The Bode plot is the frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A Bode
plot consists of two graphs. One is the plot of magnitude of sinusoidal transfer function versus
log w.The other is a plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal function versus log w.

13. What are the main advantages of Bode plot?

i) Multiplication of magnitude can be in to addition.
ii) A simple method for sketching an approximate log curve is available.
iii) It is based on asymptotic approximation. Such approximation is sufficient if rough
information on the frequency response characteristic is needed.
iv) The phase angle curves can be easily drawn if a template for the phase angle curve of
(1+ jw) is available.

14. Define Corner frequency? AU NOV/DEC 2012

The frequency at which the two asymptotic meet in a magnitude plot is called corner
frequency.

15. Define Phase lag and phase lead?

A negative phase angle is called phase lag.
A positive phase angle is called phase lead.

16. What are M circles?

The magnitude of closed loop transfer function with unit feedback can be shown to be in
the for every value if M. These circles are called M circles.

17. What is Nichols chart? AU NOV/DEC 2012

The chart consists of M & N contours in the log magnitude versus phase diagram is
called Nichols chart.

18. What are two contours of Nichols chart?

Nichols chart of M and N contours, superimposed on ordinary graph.The M contours are
the magnitude of closed loop system in decibels and the N contours are the phase angle locus of
closed loop system.

19. How is the Resonant Peak (Mr), resonant frequency (Wr), and bandwidth determined
from Nichols chart?
i) The resonant peak is given by the value of .contour which is tangent to G (jw) locus.
ii) The resonant frequency is given by the frequency of G (jw) at the tangency point.
iii) The bandwidth is given by frequency corresponding to the intersection point of
G(jw) and 3dB M-contour.

20. What are the advantages of Nichols chart? AU NOV/DEC 2006

i) It is used to find the closed loop frequency response from open loop frequency
response.
ii) Frequency domain specifications can be determined from Nichols chart.
iii) The gain of the system can be adjusted to satisfy the given specification.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
A device inserted into the system for the purpose of satisfying the specifications is called
as a compensator.

22. What are the three types of compensators? AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007
i. Lag compensator

23. What are the uses of lead compensator?

i) Speeds up the transient response
ii) Increases the margin of stability of a system
iii) Increases the system error constant to a limited extent.

24. What is the use of lag compensator?

To improve the steady state behavior of a system, while nearly preserving its transient
response.

25. When lag lead compensator is required?

The lag lead compensator is required when both the transient and steady state response of
a system has to be improved.

26. What are the two types of compensation?

ii. Feedback compensation or parallel compensation

27. What are the two segments of Nyquist contour?

i. An finite line segment C1 along the imaginary axis.
ii. An arc C2 of infinite radius.

28. What are the advantages of frequency response analysis?

1. The design and parameter adjustment can be carried more easily.
2. The corrective measure for noise disturbance and parameter variation can be easily
carried.
3. It can be extended to certain non linear systems.
4. The transfer function of complicated functions can be determined experimentally by
frequency response tests.

29. What is approximate Bode plot?

In approximate Bode plot,the magnitude plot of first and second order factors are
approximated by two straight lines,which are asymptotes to exact plot.One straight line is at 0db
for frequency range 0 to wc and the other straight line is drawn with a slope of + 20n db/dec for
frequency range wc to infinity.

30. What is the value of error in the approximate magnitude plot of a first order factor at
the corner frequency?
The error in the approximate magnitude plot of a first order factor at the corner frequency
is + 3m db where m is multiplicity factor.

31. What is the use of Nichols Chart? AU APR/MAY 2015

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering
Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
Compensators can be designed using Nichols plot. Nichols plot technique is however also
used in designing of dc motor. This is used in signal processing and control design. Nyquist plot
in complex plane shows how phase of transfer function and frequency variation of magnitude are
related.
32. What are the characteristics of Phase lead network? AU APR/MAY 2015
Increases system bandwidth which usually correlates to reduced rise and settling times
and a susceptibility to high frequency noise.
Increases the phase of the forward-path transfer function in the vicinity of the zero-gain
crossover frequency. This increases the phase margin of the closed-loop system and hence the
relative stability.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
UNIT IV: STABILITY ANALYSIS
1. Define BIBO stability.
A linear relaxed system is said to have BIBIO stability if every bounded input results in a
bounded output.

2. What is the necessary condition for stability? AU NOV/DEC 2012

The necessary condition for stability is that all the coefficients of the characteristic
polynomial be positive.

3. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for stability?

The necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of the elements in the first
column of the routh array should be positive.

4. Define Relative stability AU NOV/DEC 2006

Relative stability is the degree of closeness of the system,it an indication of strength or
degree of stability.

5. What is limitedly stable system?

For a bounded input signal if the output has constant amplitude oscilllations Then the
system may be stable or unstable under some limited constraints such a system is called limitedly
stable system.

6. What are the effects of adding a zero to a system?

Adding a zero to a system results in pronounced early peak to system response thereby
the peak overshoot increases appreciably.

7. State-Magnitude criterion.
The magnitude criterion states that s=sa will be a point on root locus if for that value of s,
| D(s) | = |G(s)H(s) | =1

8. State Angle criterion.

The Angle criterion states that s=sa will be a point on root locus for that value of s, D(s) =
_G(s) H(s) =odd multiple of 180.

9. What is a dominant pole?AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007

The dominant pole is a pair of complex conjugate pair which decides the transient
response of the system.

10. What are root loci?

The path taken by the roots of the open loop transfer function when the loop gain is
varied from 0 to infinity are called root loci.

11. What are the main significances of root locus?

i. The main root locus technique is used for stability analysis.
ii. Using root locus technique the range of values of K, for as table system can be
determined

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
Asymptotes are straight lines which are parallel to root locus going to infinity and meet
the root locus at infinity.

13. What is characteristic equation?

The denominator polynomial of C(s)/R(s) is the characteristic equation of a system.

14. What is centroid?

The meeting point of two asymptotes with real axis is called centroid.
Centroid = (sum of poles- sum of zeros)/ (n-m)

15. State the rule for finding out the rootloci on the real axis.
To find the root locus on real axis choose a test point on real axis.if the total no.of poles
and zeros on the real axis to the right of this test point is odd number then the teat point lies on
the root locus. If it is even then test point does not lie on the root locus.

16. What is Nyquist contour? AU NOV/DEC 2006

The contour that encloses entire right half of S plane is called Nyquist contour.

17. State Nyquist stability criterion.

If the Nyquist plot of the open loop transfer function G(s) corresponding to the Nyquist
control in the S-plane encircles the critical point 1+j0 in the counter clockwise direction as
many times as the number of right half S-plane poles of G(s), the closed loop system is stable.

18. What is impulse response?

The impulse response of a system is the response of a system for impulse input and is
given by inverse Laplace transform of the system transfer function.

19. What is the requirement for BIBO stability?

The requirement for BIBO stability is that, m (t)dt< Where m(t) is impulse response of
the system.

20. How the roots of characteristics equation are related to stability? AU NOV/DEC 2012
If the roots of characteristic equation has positive real part then the impulse response of
the system is not bounded(the impulse response wil be infinite as t-> ).Hence the system will be
unstable .If the roots have negative real part then the impulse response is bounded (the impulse
response becomes 0 as t-> .

21. What is the relation between stability and coefficient of characteristic polynomial?
If the coefficients of characteristics polynomial are negative to zero, then some of roots
lie on right half of s-plane. Hence the system is unstable. If the coefficients of characteristic
polynomial are positive and if no coefficient is zero then there is a possibility of the system to be
stable provided all the roots are lying on left half of s-plane.

22. What will be the nature of impulse response when the roots of characteristic equation
are lying on imaginary axis?
If the roots of characteristic equation lie on imaginary axis the nature of impulse response
is oscillatory.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
23. What will be the nature of impulse response if the roots of characteristic equation are
lying on right half of s-plane?
When the roots are lying on the real axis on the right half of s-plane, then the response is
exponentially increasing. When the roots are complex conjugate and lying on the right half of s-
plane, then the response is oscillatory with exponentially increasing amplitude.

24. What is the principle of argument?

The principle of argument states that let F(s) be analytic function and if arbitrary closed
contour in the clockwise direction is chosen in the s-plane so that F(s) is analytic at every point of
the contour. Then the corresponding F(s)-plane contour mapped in the F(s)-plane will encircle the
origin,N times in the anticlockwise direction, where N is the difference between number of
poles,P and zeros Z of F(s) that are enclosed by the chosen closed contour in the s-plane.

25. What is Routh stability criterion?

Routh criterion states that the necessary and sufficient condition for stability is that all of
the elements in the first column of the routh array be positive. If this condition is not met, the
system is unstable and the number of sign changes in the elements of the first column of routh
array corresponds to the number of roots of characteristics equation in the right half of s-plane.

26. What is auxiliary polynomial?

If the construction of routh array of a row of all zero indicates the existence of an even
polynomial as a factor of the given characteristic equation. In an even polynomial the exponents
of s are even integers of zero only. This even polynomial factor is called auxiliary polynomial.

The symmetry of roots with respect to both real and imaginary roots is called quadrant
symmetry.

28. In routh array what conclusion you can make when there is a row of all zeros?
All zero rows in routh array indicate the existence of an even polynomial as a factor of
the given characteristic equation. The even polynomial may have roots on imaginary axis.

29. How will you find the gain K at a point on root locus? AU APR/MAY2015
The gain K at appoints s=sa on root locus is given by,
K= Product of length of vector from open loop poles to the point sa
Product of length of vector from open loop zeros to the point sa
30. How will you find root locus on real axis?
To find root locus on real axis, choose a test point on real axis. If the total number
of poles and zeros on the real axis to the right of this point is odd number, then the test point lies
on the root locus. If it is even then the test point does not lie on the root locus.

31. What are breakaway and breaking points? AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007
At breakaway point the root locus breaks from the real axis to enter into the complex
plane. At breaking point the root locus enters the real axis from the complex plane.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

UNIT V: STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS & DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

1. What are the advantages of state space analysis?

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
The state table analysis is applicable to any type of systems. They can be used for
modeling and analysis of linear & non-linear systems, Time invariant & time variant
systems and multiple input and multiple output systems.
The State space analysis can be performed with intial conditions.
The variables used to represent the system can be any variables in the system.
Using this analysis the internal states at any time instant can be predicted.

2. What are the drawbacks in transfer function model analysis?

Transfer function is defined under zero initial conditions.
Transfer function is applicable to linear time invariant systems.
Transfer function analysis is restricted to single input and output systems.
Does not provide information regarding the internal state of the system.

3. What is state and state variable?

The state is the condition of a system at any time instant. A set of variable which
describes the state of the system at any time instant are called state variable.

4. What is state diagram? AU NOV/DEC 2006

The pictorial representation of the state model of the system is called state diagram. The
state diagram of the system can be either in block diagram or in signal flow graph form.

5. What are phase variables?

The phase variables are defined as those particular state variables which are obtained
from one of the system variable and its derivatives. Usually the variable used is the system
output and the remaining state variables are then derivatives of the output.

6. What is bush form or companion form of state model?

In bush form or companion form of a state model, the system matrix, A has all 1s in the
upper off-diagonal and its last row is comprised of the negative of the coefficients of the
original differential equation and all other elements are zero.

7. What is canonical form of state model?

In canonical form of state model, the state matrix, a will be a diagonal matrix.

8. Write the state model of nth order system AU NOV/DEC 2006

The state model of a system consists of state equation and output equation. The state
model of a nth order system with m inputs and p outputs are
X(t) = AX(t) + BU(t) state equation
Y(t)= CX(t) + DU(t) .. Output equation
Where X(t) = state vector of order (n x 1)
A= system matrix of order (n x n)
B= input matrix of order (n x m)
C = output matrix of order (p x n)
D= transmission matrix of order (p x m)
U(t)= input vector of order (m x 1)
Y(t)= output vector of order (p x 1)

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering

10. What are the advantages of state space modeling using physical variable? AU MAY /
JUNE 2006, 2007
The advantages of choosing the physical variable are
1. The state variable can be utilized for the purpose of feedback
2. The implementation of design with state variables feedback becomes straight
forward
3. The solution of state equation gives time variation of variables which have direct
relevance to the physical system

11. What are the advantages of state space modeling using phase variable?
1. Using phase variables the system state model can be written directly by inspection
from the differential equation governing the system
2. The phase variables provides a link between the transfer function design
approach and time domain design approach

12. What are the disadvantages of state space modeling using phase variable?
The disadvantages in choosing phase variables is that the phase variables are not
physical variables of the system and therefore are not available for measurement and
control purpose

13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of state space modeling using canonical
variable?
The advantage of canonical form is that the state equations are independent of each other.
The disadvantage is that the canonical variables are not physical variables and so they are not
available for measurement and control

14. What is state transition matrix?

The matrix exponential eAt is called the state transition matrix in the expanded form

eAt = I + At + !A2t2 + 1/3!A3t3 + .. + 1/I!AItI + ..

the state transition matrix is used to find the state of the system at any time instant t
from the knowledge of the state at time t0.

15. Write the properties of state transition matrix

The following are the properties of state transition matrix
1. (0) = eAx0 = 1(unit matrix)
2. (t) = eAt = {e At}-1 = {(-t)}-1
3. (t1 + t2) = eA(t1 + t2) = eAt1 eAt2 = (t1) (t2)

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
The solution of homogenous state equation is X(t) = eAtX0
Where X(t) = state vector at time t
eAt = state transition matrix
X0 = initial condition vector at t=0

17. Write the solution of non-homogeneous state equations

The solution of homogenous state equation is X(t) = eA(t-t0)X(t0) + eA(t-t0)BU()dt
Where X(t) = state vector at time t
X(t0)=initial condition vector at t=t0
B(t) =input matrix
U(t) =input vector

18. Write the state model of nth order discrete time system
The state model of a system consist of state equation and output equation. The state
model of a nth order system with m inputs and p outputs are
X(k+1) = AX(k) + BU(k) state equation
Y(k)= CX(k) + DU(k) .. output equation
Where X(k) = state vector of order (n x 1)
A= system matrix of order(n x n)
B= input matrix of order (n x m)
C = output matrix of order (p x n)
D= transmission matrix of order (p x m)
U(k)= input vector of order (m x 1)
Y(k)= output vector of order (p x 1)

21. Define controllability. AU MAY / JUNE 2006, 2007

A system is said to be completely state controllable if it is possible to transfer the system
state from any initial state X(t0) to any other desired state X(t),in specified finite time by a
control vector U(t).

22. What is the need for controllability?

The controllability test is necessary to find the usefulness of a state variable. If the state
variables are controllable then by controlling the state variables the desired outputs of the system
are achieved.

The advantage in kalmans test is that the calculations are simpler. But the disadvantage
in kalmans test is that, we cant find the state variable which is controllable. But in Gilberts
method we can find the uncontrollable state variables which is the state variable corresponding to
the row of B~ which has all zeros

24. What is the need for observability? AU APR/MAY 2015

The observability test is necessary to find whether the state variables are measurable or
not. If the state variables are measurable then the state of the system can be determined by
practical measurements of the state variables.

Question Bank- Two Marks With Answer EC6405/Control systems engineering

Dr.N.G.P. Institute of Technology /Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering
The advantage in kalmans test is that the calculations are simpler. But the disadvantage
in kalmans test is that the non observable state variables cannot be determined.

26. What is state vector and state space?

The state vector is a (n x 1) column matrix whose elements are state variables of the
system.It is denoted by X(t).
The set of all possible values which the state vector X(t) can have at time t forms the state
space of the system.
28. What is input and output space?
The set of all possible values which the input vector U(t) can have at time t forms the
input space of the system. The set of all possible values which the output vector Y(t) can have at
time t forms the output space of the system.
29. What is sampled data control system?
When the signal or information at any or some points in a system is in the form of
discrete pulses, then the system is called discrete data system or sampled data system.
30. Write the advantages of sampled data control systems.
Systems are highly accurate, fast and flexible.
Use of time sharing concept of digital computer results in economical cost and space.
Digital transducers used in the system have better resolution.
The digital components are less affected by noise, non-linearities and transmission
errors of noisy channel.

31. State Sampling Theorem . AU APR/MAY 2015.

A bandlimited signal can be reconstructed exactly if it is sampled at a rate atleast twice
the maximum frequency component in it.