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POWER ELECTRONICS

EE 362L

INDEX

10

Cornerstones

 

2

decibel

 

3

KVL

2

root mean square

19

1-phase bipolar inverter 3-phase inverter 3-phase power and commutation 3-phase PWM inverter

11

delta-wye transformer

 

8

L

inductance

3

rpm induction motor

14

dependent variable

 

20

L’Hôpitol’s rule LC tank circuit linear range

 

20

16

derivatives

 

19

3

s

slip

16

 

7

diode current

 

8

12

S.S. capacitor principle

2

14

distortion

 

2

linearizing an equation m a amplitude modulation

20

S.S. inductor principle series

2

3-phase

rectifier

 

7

duty cycle

9

20

3-phase Thèvenin equivalent

E

electric

field

20

ratio magnetic path length magnitude Maxwell's equations m f frequency modulation ratio minimum inductance model

12

single-phase bridge rectifier 6

 

8

efficiency of induction motor

3

slip slip frequency slip speed space-time sphere square wave Fourier series square wave inverter starting torque step-down converter

16

with a 3-phase voltage and commutation air gap flux amp Ampere's law

 

8

17

18

16

 

electric motors

 

15

20

16

 

7,

8

Euler's equation

19

18

16

even function

 

4

12

20

 

3

farad

 

3

9

 

20

Faraday's law

 

20

5

amplitude modulation ratio12 area

Fourier series

2,

4, 5

induction

motor

15

11

 

square wave

 

5

motor

15

 

sphere

20

frequency

domain

20

induction

motor

16

10

average

 

2

frequency modulation ratio12

N

number of turns

 

3

step-up converter synchronous pulse width modulation synchronous speed tank circuit temperature tesla THD Thèvenin equivalent

10

average

value

 

19

f sl slip frequency full bridge converter Gauss' law general math generalized harmonics

16

newton n s synchronous speed odd function

3

B

magnetic flux

20

11

16

12

binomial expansion

20

20

4

16

binomial

theorem

20

18

overmodulation parallel resistance permeability PF power factor 3-phase rectifier phase

 

12

3

bipolar inverter

 

12

3

3

bridge rectifier

 

6

1-phase

13

3

3

buck converter

 

10

 

3-phase

14

3

2

buck-boost converter

10,

11

graph paper

 

21

9

7

C

capacitance

 

3

graphing terminology

20

18

3-phase

8

calculus capacitance capacitor CF crest factor commutation 3-phase power 3-phase voltage power voltage

 

19

H

magnetic field

 

20

phase

current

8

with a

8

 

3

half-wave rectifier

 

5

phasor notation

 

18

three-phase rectifier

7

2

harmonics

 

plotting I 1 plotting i A

 

8

time domain

20

2

generalized,

1-phase

13

8

time-average

18

 

generalized,

3-phase

14

plotting

paper

21

time-averaged power

18

 

7

henry

 

3

plotting

V 1

8

time-harmonic

20

 

7,

8

Hoft

2

plotting

V dc

8

torque

15

 

6

horsepower

3

power

2

constant

17

6

hyperbolic functions

20

electric

motor

15

starting

15

commutation interval

 

6

I 1 i A rectifier current independent variable inductance

 

8

power and commutation

6

trigonometric identities

19

complex

complex numbers

conjugate

 

18

18

8

20

factor

power 3-phase rectifier pull out pulse width modulation

3

9

commutation interval unibipolar inverter units V 1

u

6

12

conjugate

   

3

15

3

 

complex

 

18

induction

motor

16

8

constant torque

17

induction motor model

15

synchronous pulse width modulation in inverters PWM pulse width modulation PWM inverter

12

V dc

8

constant volts/Hz

17

inductor LC tank circuit integration inverter

 

2,

3

vi

relationship

2

converter

   

3

12

volt voltage and commutation volts/Hz ratio volume sphere watt weber wye-delta transformer f ag air gap flux h efficiency of induction motor

3

 

buck

10

 

19

6

buck-boost

 

10,

11

11,

14

12

17

Cúk

11

 

3-phase

14

dc-dc

9,

10, 11

bipolar

11

3-phase

14

20

step-down

10

harmonic voltage

13

rectifier

3

step-up

10

pulse width modulation 12

three-phase

 

7

3

coulomb

 

3

J

current density

 

20

rectifiers

5

8

crest factor

 

2

joule

 

3

resistance

16

Cúk converter

 

11

KCL

2

in parallel

3

D

electric flux dens

20

kelvin

3

resistor

2

17

dB decibels

 

3

Kimbark's equations

 

7

rms square wave

2,

19

r n volume charge w sl slip speed

20

dc

2,

19

 

with a

7

19

16

dc-ac inverters

 

11,

14

Kirchoff’s current law

 

2

 

dc-dc converters

9,

10, 11

Kirchoff’s voltage

law

2

rms harmonic voltage in inverters

13

 

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 1 of 21

10 CORNERSTONES OF POWER ELECTRONICS - Hoft

1. KVL

Kirchoff’s Voltage Law. The sum of the changes in voltage around a circuit loop is equal to zero. This is true in both the instantaneous and average (integrate over one cycle) sense.

2. KCL

Kirchoff’s Current Law. The current entering a node is equal to the current leaving the node. This is also true in both the instantaneous and average (integrate over one cycle) sense.

3. vi RESISTOR

The voltage to current relationship in a resistor.

v = ir
v = ir

4. vi CAPACITOR

The voltage to current relationship in a capacitor.

dv i = C dt
dv
i
=
C
dt

5. vi INDUCTOR

The voltage to current relationship in a inductor.

di v = L dt
di
v =
L dt

6. AVERAGE (DC) AND RMS

Average and dc will be synonymous in this class, but are not the same as rms.

1 + T t 0 = Ú v ( t ) dt v avg T
1
+ T
t 0
=
Ú
v
(
t
)
dt
v avg
T
t
0

v rms

=

1 t + T 0 2 Ú v ( t ) dt T t 0
1
t
+
T
0
2
Ú
v
(
t
)
dt
T
t
0

7. POWER

We are concerned with both instantaneous and average power. As with rms values, power is related to heating.

1 + T t 0 = Ú p ( t ) dt P avg T
1
+ T
t 0
=
Ú
p
(
t
)
dt
P avg
T
t 0

p(t) = v(t) i(t)

p(t) = instantaneous power [W]

8. S.S. INDUCTOR PRINCIPLE

Under steady state conditions, the average voltage across an inductor is zero.

9. S.S. CAPACITOR PRINCIPLE

Under steady state conditions, the average current through a capacitor is zero.

10. FOURIER SERIES

In the 1820s, Fourier came out with a 1-page paper on his Fourier series. A periodic function may be described as an infinite sum of sines and cosines.

• v ( t ) = V + Â a cos ( k w t
v
(
t
)
=
V
+
Â
a
cos
(
k
w
t
)
+
b
sin
(
k
w
t
)
˘
avg
Î È
k
0
k
0
˚
k
= 1

See p4.

DISTORTION

[%]

Distortion is the degree to which a signal differs from its fundamental frequency.

THD =

RMS value of harmonics for

k >

1

RMS value of fundamental frequency

k =

1

%THD

= 100

= 100

V dis V rms1 2 2 V - V rms rms1
V dis
V rms1
2
2
V
- V
rms
rms1

V rms1

Use the polar form of the Fourier Series, see p4.

V dis = rms voltage distortion [V] V rms1 = fundamental frequency rms voltage [V] V rms = rms voltage [V] THD = Total Harmonic Distortion [V]

CREST FACTOR

[no units]

The crest factor quantifies the smoothness of the waveform and is related to the weight of its impact on components. For DC and a square wave the crest factor is 1, for a sine wave, it is 1.414. A large crest factor means the wave is not as efficient at delivering energy.

V peak CF = V rms
V peak
CF =
V rms

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 2 of 21

PF

POWER FACTOR

[no units]

The power factor is the ratio of true power (the power consumed, ignoring the reactive factor) to apparent power (the total power consumed). Also, the power factor is the cosine of the angle by which the current lags the voltage (assuming an inductive load).

PF

= cos(

q

v

-q

i

)

DECIBELS

[dB]

A log based unit of energy that makes it easier to describe exponential losses, etc. The decibel means 10 bels, a unit named after Bell Laboratories.

L

=

voltage or current

20 log reference voltage or current

L

=

power

10 log reference power

 
UNITS, electrical q W J N m · V C · I (current in amps)
UNITS, electrical
q
W
J
N m
·
V C
·
I
(current in amps) =
=
=
=
=
s
V
V s
·
V s
·
s
J
N m
·
W s
·
q
(charge in coulombs) =
I s
·
=
V C
·
=
=
=
V
V
V
2
2
q
q
J
I s
·
C
(capacitance in farads) =
q =
=
=
=
V J
N m
·
V
2 V
I
2
q
J
(energy in joules) =
2
N · m
=
V · q
=
W · s
=== ·
I · V · s
C V
C
J
q·V
W·s
kg·m
N
(force in newtons) =
=
=
=
2
m
m
m
s
Wb
V·s
H·I
T
(magnetic flux density in teslas) =
=
=
2
2
2
m
m
m
V
(electric potential in volts) =
W J
J
W s
·
N m
·
q
=
=
=
=
=
I I s
q
·
q
q
C
W
(power in watts) =
2
J
N m
·
q V
·
C V
·
1
=
=
=
V I
·
=
=
HP
s
s
s
s
746
J
Wb (magnetic flux in webers) =
H I
·
=
V s
·
=
I
Temperature: [°C or K] 0°C = 273.15K
where s is seconds

H

(inductance in henrys) = V·s

(note that

H·F = s

2 )

 

C

 

CAPACITANCE

[F]

 

i

(

t

)

=

I

f

+

(

I

o

-

I

f

)

e

-

t

/

t

+

C
C
 

-

t

/

t

v

R

v

t

( )

=

V

f

+

(

V

o

 

-

V

f

)

e

-

where t = RC

 

i

c

(

t

) =

C

dv

dt

 

V

c

(

t

) =

 

1

t

d

t

 

C

Ú

0

i

+

V

o

 
 

L

 

INDUCTANCE

 

[H]

i

(

t

)

=

I

f

+

(

I

o

-

I

f

)

e

-

t

/

t

+

L
L
 
 

-

t

/

t

v

R

v

t

( )

=

V

f

+

(

V

o

 

-

V

f

)

e

-

where t = L / R

 
 

di

 

1

t

v

L

( ) =

t

L

dt

 

I

L

(

t

) =

L

Ú

0

v

d

t

+

I

o

of an inductor:

L =

2

.4 pm N A

e

 

I

e

¥ 10

L = inductance [H] m = permeability [H/cm] N = number of turns A e = core cross section [cm 2 ]

 

I e = core magnetic path length [cm]

 

CLC TANK CIRCUIT Resonant frequency: L f = 1 2 p LC

LC

TANK CIRCUIT

Resonant frequency:

L

f

=

1

2 p LC
2 p
LC

PARALLEL RESISTANCE

I never can remember the

formula for two resistances in parallel. I just do it the hard

way.

R R

R

1

+ R

2

R

1

||

R

2

= 1

2

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 3 of 21

FOURIER SERIES

The Fourier Series is a method of describing a complex periodic function in terms of the frequencies and amplitudes of its fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

Let f (t) = f (t + T ) = any periodic signal

2 p where T = = the period. w f (t) t 0 1T 2T
2 p
where
T =
=
the period.
w
f (t)
t
0 1T
2T
Then
f
(
t
)
=
F
+
 Î
È
a
cos
(
k
w
t
)
+
b
sin
(
k
w
t
)
˘
avg
k
0
k
0
˚
k = 1

w 0 = the fundamental frequency (k=1) in radians/sec.

kw 0 = the harmonic frequencies (k=2,3,4…) in radians/sec.

k = denotes the fundamental (k=1) or harmonic frequencies (k=2,3,4…), not the wave number or propagation constant

F avg = the average value of f(t), or the DC offset

a

b

F avg

=

1

T

t 0

Ú t

0

+ T

f

(

t

)

dt

k = twice the average value of f(t)cos(kw 0 t)

k = twice the average value of f(t)sin(kw 0 t)

t

0

= an arbitrary time

a

k

=

2

T

Ú

t

t 0

0

+ T

f

( t

)

cos

k

w

t dt

b

k

=

2

T

Ú

t

t 0

0

+ T

f

( t

)

sin

k

w

t dt

 

FOURIER SERIES and Symmetry

When the function f(t) is symmetric, certain shortcuts can be taken.

When f(t) is an even function, i.e. f(t)=f(-t), b k is zero. The Fourier series becomes:

When f ( t ) is an even function , i.e. f ( t )= f
 

f

(

t

)

=

F

avg

 

+

Â

È

Î

a

k

cos

(

k

w

0

t

)

˘

˚

 

k

= 1

 

If there is also half-wave symmetry, then:

 

a

k

=

4

T

Ú

T

0

/ 2

f

(

t

)

cos

n

w

t dt

 

When f(t) is an odd function, i.e. f(t)=-f(-t), a k is zero. The Fourier series becomes:

When f ( t ) is an odd function , i.e. f ( t )=- f

f

(

 

)

=

 

(

 

)

 

t

F

avg

 

+

Â

Î È

b

k

sin

k

w

 

0

t

˚ ˘

 

k

= 1

 

If there is also half-wave symmetry, then:

 

b

k

=

4

T

Ú

T

0

/ 2

f

(

t

)

sin

n

w

t dt

 

When f(t) has half-wave symmetry, i.e. f(t)=-f(t±T/2), there are only odd harmonics. k=1, 3, 5,

T
T

2

a

k

=

4

T

Ú

t

t

0

0

+

T / 2

f

(

t

)

cos

n

w

t dt

 

b

k

=

4

T

Ú

t

t

0

0

+

T / 2

f

(

t

)

sin

n

w

t dt

 

FOURIER SERIES, Polar Form

2

T

2

T

 

(

 

(

 

)

 

f

t

)

=

F

avg

+

Â

 

Î È

F

k

sin

k

w

0

t

+ d

k

˚ ˘

 

k

= 1

 
 

-

1

-

b

 

,

d

k

= tan

 

k

 

a

k

 

Ú

t

0

+

T

f

(

t

)

cos

n

w

t dt

 

t

0

 

Ú

t

0

+

T

f

(

t

)

sin

n

w

t dt

 

t

0

 

where

2 2 F = a +b k k k
2
2
F
=
a
+b
k
k
k

a

k

=

b

k

=

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 4 of 21

FOURIER SERIES OF A SQUARE WAVE

A 50% duty cycle square wave can be represented as an infinite sum of a fundamental sine wave and smaller odd harmonics.

4

A È

sin

(

w

t

)

+

111

sin

3

w

0

t

(

)

+

sin

5

w

0

t

(

)

+

357

(

sin 7

w

t

)

+ L

˘

p

Í Î

 

0

 

0

˙ ˚

4A /p

A

0

) + 357 ( sin 7 w t ) + L ˘ p Í Î  

SINGLE-PHASE RECTIFIERS

HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER

As the supply voltage begins it's positive sinusoidal excursion, the diode conducts and current begins to flow in the inductor. When the voltage crosses zero, the current continues to flow through the inductor for a short period due to its stored energy and the diode conducts until the inductor current flow has halted. This point is called extinction and occurs at the angle b, where p < b < 2p. At this time v d , which has followed the supply voltage into the negative region, becomes zero (discontinuous). v d and the inductor current remain at zero until the next cycle.

i (t)

current remain at zero until the next cycle. i ( t ) L     +

L

   

+

+

v L

-

 

V sin

m

w t

~
~

v d

   

-

di = v L L dt
di
=
v L
L dt

R

L

While current is flowing through the diode, there is zero voltage across the diode. When current flow stops at angle b, the voltage across the diode becomes negative (discontinuous). Since the average (dc) voltage at the source is zero and the average voltage across an inductor is zero, the average voltage across R L is the negative of the average voltage across the diode.

1

2 p

V diode

=

p Ú

V

sin

q

d

q=-

V

 

2

b m

R

avg

The average voltage across R L can also be expressed as the product of the average (short circuit) current and R L . Under short circuit conditions, the average voltage can be found by integrating of a half-period.

V R avg

= I

sc

R

L

1

T / 2

Now there is enough information here to find b iteratively.

V R

avg

=

T

Ú

V

0 m

sin

w

t dt

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 5 of 21

BRIDGE RECTIFIER, CONSTANT LOAD VOLTAGE

The current i d begins to flow when the magnitude of the supply voltage exceeds V d . The current peaks when the supply voltage magnitude returns to the level of V d . As the supply voltage magnitude continues to fall, i d rapidly returns to zero.

V m sin

w t

i d

L + - + v L ~ V d -
L
+
- +
v
L
~
V d
-
V =V sin q d m b di v = L d = V sin
V
=V
sin
q
d
m
b
di
v
=
L
d =
V
sin
(
w
t
)
-
V
Lmd
dt
q
f
0
=
Ú
sin( w
t
) -
V
˘ d
(
w t
)
È Î V
m
d
˚
q
b
Equal
in area
v
s
V d
i d
I d
q
q
w t
b q
p
f

V d = the voltage at the output [V] V m = the peak input voltage [V] q b = the angle at which an increasing supply voltage waveform reaches V d and current begins to flow in the inductor. [radians] q p = the angle at which i d peaks [radians] q p = p-q b q f = the angle at which the current i d returns to zero. [radians]

SINGLE-PHASE BRIDGE RECTIFIER i i L d L + - v L V m sin
SINGLE-PHASE BRIDGE RECTIFIER
i
i L
d
L
+
-
v L
V m sin
w t
~
C
R
L

u COMMUTATION INTERVAL

Commutation is the transfer of the electrical source from one path to another. For bridge rectifiers, it refers to the period of time when diodes from two sources are on simultaneously, i.e. the delay interval associated with a reverse-biased diode turning off. The commutation interval is usually expressed as an angle u. The commutation interval is associated with rectifier circuits having a constant current load (inductance

dominates load) and a finite inductance L s in the

supply. The interval begins when the source voltage

crosses zero going positive or when the thyristor gate

is triggered.

No trigger:

2 w L I

V

m

With trigger:

cos

(

a +

u )

=

cos

a

-

2 w L I

s

d

V

m

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L s = the supply inductance [H]

I d = the (constant) load current [A] V m = the peak input voltage [V]

cos

u =

1

-

s

d

POWER AND COMMUTATION

In order to have power, the commutation interval must not be zero.

P

 

V

m

2

 

(

1

 

2

)

=

-

d

2 w

L

s

p

 

cos

u

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L s = the supply inductance [H] I d = the (constant) load current [A] V m = the peak input voltage [V]

VOLTAGE AND COMMUTATION

The average voltage output of a full wave bridge rectifier is

V

d

=

p

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L s = the supply inductance [H]

I d = the (constant) load current [A] V m = the peak input voltage [V]

V

m

(cos

u +

1)

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 6 of 21

THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT

The Thèvenin equivalent for a single-phase full wave bridge rectifier.

2 V

p

2 w L

p

V TH

I R TH d + + V d -
I
R TH
d
+
+
V d
-

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.]

L s = the supply inductance [H]

I d = the (constant) load current [A]

V m = the peak input voltage [V]

V d = the average output voltage [V]

V TH

=

m

R TH

=

s

THREE-PHASE RECTIFIERS

THREE-PHASE RECTIFIER

This circuit is known as 3-phase, 6-pulse line commutated converter. When the load is dominated by inductance, it is modeled as a current source (constant current) as shown below. If the load is capacitive, it is modeled as a voltage source.

       
         
         
 

TRANSFORMER

 

D1

TRANSFORMER   D1 D3 D5

D3

TRANSFORMER   D1 D3 D5

D5

TRANSFORMER   D1 D3 D5

Aø
   

L

a

Aø     L a  
 

+

L

b

-

 

~

 
- L c
-
L
c
~   - L c  
 
~   - L c  
~   - L c  

+

   

+

-

+ -
+ -
+ -
 

D4

  D4 D6 D2

D6

  D4 D6 D2

D2

  D4 D6 D2
   
   
   

I dc

KIMBARK'S EQUATIONS

Kimbark's equations give the average current, voltage, and power of a 3-phase rectifier as a function of the commutation interval u.

V LLp

2

3

w L

V

nd :

2 V

=

LLp

(

1

+

cos

u

)

dc

2 p

 
 

3

V

2

(

 

rd :

3 P

dc

=

LLp

1

-

cos

2

u

4 pw L

   

)

V LLp = peak line-to-line voltage [V]

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L = the load inductance [H]

u = the commutation interval [degrees]

st :

1 I

dc =

(

1

-

cos

u

)

KIMBARK'S EQUATIONS (with a)

When the trigger angle a is included, Kimbark's equations become:

V LLp

DC 2

w L

3 V

2

nd :

V

dc

=

LLp

2 p

È Î

cos

a +

cos

(

a + u

)

˚ ˘

3

rd :

P

3 V

= LLp

2

È Î cos

2

a

 

2

(

a +

 

)

˘

-

cos

u

˚

 

dc

4 pw L

V LLp = peak line-to-line voltage [V]

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees] L = the per phase inductance [H]

u = the commutation interval [degrees]

1

st :

I

=

È Î

cos

a

-

cos(

a +

u

) ˚ ˘

3-PHASE POWER AND COMMUTATION

In order to have power, the commutation interval must not be zero. In commercial systems, the commutation interval is typically 4 to 5 degrees but may be as high

as 20° in special high-power converters. The theoretical maximum is u = 60°.

3-PHASE VOLTAGE AND COMMUTATION

The average voltage output of a three-phase rectifier

can be found by integrating over the first 60°. In the formula below, the limits of integration have been

shifted to make the function fit the cosine function. V V V V V V
shifted to make the function fit the cosine function.
V
V
V
V
V
V ab
ac
bc
ba
ca
cb
V
LLp
3
V
2
LLp
0
p
wt
3
u
p
1
È
V
=
6
V
cos
q
dc
p
LLp
{ p /3 Î Í
u -
6

60

d

q

˘

˙

˚

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 7 of 21

PLOTTING V dc (constant current) WITH a V dc is periodic at 60° intervals. During the commutation interval (from a to a+u), V dc follows the – 3/2 V bn curve. This curve is centered between the V cb and V ab curves. For the remainder of its period, V dc follows the V ab curve. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.

60° V ab V LLp 3 2 V LLp 3 2 V bn a u
60°
V ab
V LLp
3
2
V LLp
3
2
V bn
a
u

V LLp = peak line-to-line voltage [V] a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees]

PLOTTING V 1 (constant current) V 1 is the voltage across diode D1. V 1 is more complicated and is periodic at 360° intervals. Refer to the circuit entitled Three-Phase Rectifier on page 7. Plot V dc first. While D1 is on, V 1 is zero. When D1 goes off, V 1 briefly follows V ab then -V dc . After that, it tracks V ac and then repeats the cycle. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.

a

to 120° + a + u

V 1 is zero

120° + a + u

to 180° + a

V 1 tracks V ab

180° + a to 300° + a + u

V 1 is -V dc

300° + a + u

to a

V 1 tracks V ac

The 0° reference is 30° before V ab peak voltage.

PLOTTING I 1 (constant current) I 1 is the current through diode D1 of a 3-phase rectifier. I 1 is periodic at 360° intervals. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.

a to a + u

I 1 rises from 0 to I 1 max

a + u

to 120° + a

I 1 is constant

120° + a to 120° + a + u

I 1 falls to zero

The 0° reference angle is 30° before V ab peak voltage.

The curvature of the rising and falling diode current plots is related to the trigger angle a.

a < 90

a = 90

a > 90

0 a t
0
a
t
current plots is related to the trigger angle a . a < 90 a = 90
current plots is related to the trigger angle a . a < 90 a = 90
current plots is related to the trigger angle a . a < 90 a = 90
current plots is related to the trigger angle a . a < 90 a = 90
current plots is related to the trigger angle a . a < 90 a = 90
0 a t 0 a t u u 120° + u
0
a
t
0
a
t
u
u
120° + u

PLOTTING i A (constant current) i A is the current through the A-phase supply of a 3- phase rectifier. i A is periodic at 360° intervals. The plot of i A consists of the plot of I 1 and the inverse plot of I 4 . A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.

0 a 180° t + a
0
a
180°
t
+ a
INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMER TYPE ON i A WAVEFORM i A is the current through the
INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMER TYPE
ON i A WAVEFORM
i A is the current through the A-phase supply of a 3-
phase rectifier.
DELTA-WYE OR WYE-DELTA
TRANSFORMER
DELTA-DELTA OR WYE-WYE
TRANSFORMER
t
t

3-PHASE THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT

The Thèvenin equivalent for a 3-phase full wave bridge rectifier.

V TH

=

3V

LLp

p

3 w L

p

V TH

I R TH d + + V d -
I
R TH
d
+
+
V d
-

V LLp = peak line-to-line voltage [V]

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L s = the supply inductance [H] I d = the (constant) load current [A] V d = the average output voltage [V]

R TH

=

s

3-PHASE THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT (with a)

The Thèvenin equivalent for a 3-phase full wave bridge rectifier.

3 V

p

3 w L

p

V TH

I R TH d + + V d -
I
R TH
d
+
+
V d
-

V LLp = peak line-to-line voltage [V]

w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.]

a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees]

L s = the supply inductance [H]

I d = the (constant) load current [A] V d = the average output voltage [V]

V

TH

=

LLp

cos

a

R TH

=

s

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 8 of 21

PF POWER FACTOR IN A 3-PHASE RECTIFIER in all 3 phases } P avg PF
PF
POWER FACTOR IN A 3-PHASE
RECTIFIER
in all 3
phases
}
P avg
PF =
3 V
I
LN
rms
L
rms
{
current in
each line
The term 3/p below is the reduction in power factor
due to the current I d not being a sine wave.
3 I
d
PF
=
cos
a +
cos
(
a + u
)
˘
Î È
˚
p 2 I
L rms
3 È cos
a +
cos
(
a + u
)
˘
=
Í
˙
p Î
2 ˚

DC-DC CONVERTERS

D DUTY CYCLE

The duty cycle is the fractional portion of the period T in which the inductor is charging. Practical values for D range from about 0.2 to 0.8. The plot below shows discontinuous operation; i.e. there is a period of time when the inductor is neither charging nor discharging.

I

i L DT t T
i
L
DT
t
T

discontinuous operation

It is preferable that the converter operate in continuous mode in order to reduce ripple.

L MINIMUM INDUCTANCE REQUIREMENT

For continuous operation, the inductor should be sized

so that under minimum current conditions it does not

fully discharge before reaching the end of the period T. di I discharging di di
fully discharge before reaching the end of the period
T.
di
I
discharging
di
di
charging
di
I avg
t
DT
T

continuous operation

In the plot above, the inductor discharges fully just as the period ends. In this case, 2I avg is the peak current. So the peak current is both the product of the charging slope and the charging interval as well as of the discharging slope (absolute) and discharging interval.

di

dt

di

dt

The values for di/dt are found by using Kirchoff’s Voltage Law for both the “on” and “off” states.

chg.

DT

=

dischg.

(

1

-

D

)

T

=

2

I

avg

Tom Penick

tom@tomzap.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

PowerElectronics.pdf

8/18/2003

Page 9 of 21

STEP-DOWN CONVERTER

The step-down converter or buck converter can produce an output voltage as much as ~80% below the input voltage.

L i L

i o

  -
 
  -
-

-

  -
 

+

   

+

+

v L

V

d

V oi

V d V oi C

C

-

-

   
 
 
 

Duty Cycle:

V o D = V d
V
o
D =
V
d
+ V o -
+
V
o
-

R

L

Minimum inductance: In choosing L, We want to avoid discontinuous operation. Select L min using the minimum expected current I L .

L min

=

V

o

2 I

L

(

1 -

D

)

T

D

I

=

V

d

-

V

o

L L

DT

Ripple voltage: When choosing C, we want RC ? T . Another consideration is the ripple voltage. For continuous operation this is

D

V

o

8 LC

Minimum Capacitance: The expressions for finding the value of the filter capacitor are derived from the relation DV = DQ/C, where Q is current × time.

D I T L C = 8 D V o
D I T
L
C =
8 D V
o

D = duty cycle [no units]

V o = output voltage (average) [V]

DV o = output ripple voltage (peak to peak) [V] V d = input voltage [V]

T = period 1/f [s]

L min = minimum inductance for continuous operation [H]

DI L = the difference between the maximum and minimum current in the inductor. For continuous operation, this is t