POWER ELECTRONICS
EE 362L
INDEX
10 
Cornerstones 
2 
decibel 
3 
KVL 
2 
root mean square 
19 

1phase bipolar inverter 3phase inverter 3phase power and commutation 3phase PWM inverter 
11 
deltawye transformer 
8 
L inductance 
3 
rpm induction motor 

14 
dependent variable 
20 
L’Hôpitol’s rule LC tank circuit linear range 
20 
16 

derivatives 
19 
3 
s 
slip 
16 

7 
diode current 
8 
12 
S.S. capacitor principle 
2 

14 
distortion 
2 
linearizing an equation m _{a} amplitude modulation 
20 
S.S. inductor principle series 
2 

3phase rectifier 
7 
duty cycle 
9 
20 

3phase Thèvenin equivalent 
E 
electric 
field 
20 
ratio magnetic path length magnitude Maxwell's equations m _{f} frequency modulation ratio minimum inductance model 
12 
singlephase bridge rectifier 6 

8 
efficiency of induction motor 
3 
slip slip frequency slip speed spacetime sphere square wave Fourier series square wave inverter starting torque stepdown converter 
16 

with a 3phase voltage and commutation air gap flux amp Ampere's law 
8 
17 
18 
16 

electric motors 
15 
20 
16 

7, 
8 
Euler's equation 
19 
18 

16 
even function 
4 
12 
20 

3 
farad 
3 
9 

20 
Faraday's law 
20 
5 

amplitude modulation ratio12 area 
Fourier series 
2, 4, 5 
induction 
motor 
15 
11 

square wave 
5 
motor 
15 

sphere 
20 
frequency 
domain 
20 
induction 
motor 
16 
10 

average 
2 
frequency modulation ratio12 
N number of turns 
3 
stepup converter synchronous pulse width modulation synchronous speed tank circuit temperature tesla THD Thèvenin equivalent 
10 

average value 
19 
f _{s}_{l} slip frequency full bridge converter Gauss' law general math generalized harmonics 
16 
newton n _{s} synchronous speed odd function 
3 

B 
magnetic flux 
20 
11 
16 
12 

binomial expansion 
20 
20 
4 
16 

binomial 
theorem 
20 
18 
overmodulation parallel resistance permeability PF power factor 3phase rectifier phase 
12 
3 

bipolar inverter 
12 
3 
3 

bridge rectifier 
6 
1phase 
13 
3 
3 

buck converter 
10 
3phase 
14 
3 
2 

buckboost converter 
10, 11 
graph paper 
21 
9 
7 

C 
capacitance 
3 
graphing terminology 
20 
18 
3phase 
8 

calculus capacitance capacitor CF crest factor commutation 3phase power 3phase voltage power voltage 
19 
H 
magnetic field 
20 
phase current 
8 
with a 
8 

3 
halfwave rectifier 
5 
phasor notation 
18 
threephase rectifier 
7 

2 
harmonics 
plotting I _{1} plotting i _{A} 
8 
time domain 
20 

2 
generalized, 1phase 
13 
8 
timeaverage 
18 

generalized, 3phase 
14 
plotting paper 
21 
timeaveraged power 
18 

7 
henry 
3 
plotting V _{1} 
8 
timeharmonic 
20 

7, 
8 
Hoft 
2 
plotting V _{d}_{c} 
8 
torque 
15 

6 
horsepower 
3 
power 
2 
constant 
17 

6 
hyperbolic functions 
20 
electric 
motor 
15 
starting 
15 

commutation interval 
6 
I _{1} i _{A} rectifier current independent variable inductance 
8 
power and commutation 
6 
trigonometric identities 
19 

complex complex numbers conjugate 
18 18 
8 20 
factor power 3phase rectifier pull out pulse width modulation 
3 9 
commutation interval unibipolar inverter units V _{1} u 
6 12 

conjugate 
3 
15 
3 

complex 
18 
induction 
motor 
16 
8 

constant torque 
17 
induction motor model 
15 
synchronous pulse width modulation in inverters PWM pulse width modulation PWM inverter 
12 
V _{d}_{c} 
8 

constant volts/Hz 
17 
inductor LC tank circuit integration inverter 
2, 
3 
vi 
relationship 
2 

converter 
3 
12 
volt voltage and commutation volts/Hz ratio volume sphere watt weber wyedelta transformer f _{a}_{g} air gap flux h efficiency of induction motor 
3 

buck 
10 
19 
6 

buckboost 
10, 11 
11, 14 
12 
17 

Cúk 
11 
3phase 
14 

dcdc 
9, 
10, 11 
bipolar 
11 
3phase 
14 
20 

stepdown 
10 
harmonic voltage 
13 
rectifier 
3 

stepup 
10 
pulse width modulation 12 
threephase 
7 
3 

coulomb 
3 
J 
current density 
20 
rectifiers 
5 
8 

crest factor 
2 
joule 
3 
resistance 
16 

Cúk converter 
11 
KCL 
2 
in parallel 
3 

D 
electric flux dens 
20 
kelvin 
3 
resistor 
2 
17 

dB decibels 
3 
Kimbark's equations 
7 
rms square wave 
2, 
19 
r _{n} volume charge w _{s}_{l} slip speed 
20 

dc 
2, 19 
with a 
7 
19 
16 

dcac inverters 
11, 14 
Kirchoff’s current law 
2 

dcdc converters 
9, 
10, 11 
Kirchoff’s voltage 
law 
2 
rms harmonic voltage in inverters 
13 

Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com 
www.teicontrols.com/notes 
PowerElectronics.pdf 
8/18/2003 Page 1 of 21 
10 CORNERSTONES OF POWER ELECTRONICS  Hoft
1. KVL
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law. The sum of the changes in voltage around a circuit loop is equal to zero. This is true in both the instantaneous and average (integrate over one cycle) sense.
2. KCL
Kirchoff’s Current Law. The current entering a node is equal to the current leaving the node. This is also true in both the instantaneous and average (integrate over one cycle) sense.
3. vi RESISTOR
The voltage to current relationship in a resistor.
4. vi CAPACITOR
The voltage to current relationship in a capacitor.
5. vi INDUCTOR
The voltage to current relationship in a inductor.
6. AVERAGE (DC) AND RMS
Average and dc will be synonymous in this class, but are not the same as rms.
v rms
=
7. POWER
We are concerned with both instantaneous and average power. As with rms values, power is related to heating.
p(t) = v(t) i(t)
p(t) = instantaneous power [W]
8. S.S. INDUCTOR PRINCIPLE
Under steady state conditions, the average voltage across an inductor is zero.
9. S.S. CAPACITOR PRINCIPLE
Under steady state conditions, the average current through a capacitor is zero.
10. FOURIER SERIES
In the 1820s, Fourier came out with a 1page paper on his Fourier series. A periodic function may be described as an infinite sum of sines and cosines.
See p4.
DISTORTION
[%]
Distortion is the degree to which a signal differs from its fundamental frequency.
THD =
RMS value of harmonics for
k >
1
RMS value of fundamental frequency
k =
1
%THD
= 100
= 100
V rms1
Use the polar form of the Fourier Series, see p4.
V _{d}_{i}_{s} = rms voltage distortion [V] V _{r}_{m}_{s}_{1} = fundamental frequency rms voltage [V] V _{r}_{m}_{s} = rms voltage [V] THD = Total Harmonic Distortion [V]
CREST FACTOR
[no units]
The crest factor quantifies the smoothness of the waveform and is related to the weight of its impact on components. For DC and a square wave the crest factor is 1, for a sine wave, it is 1.414. A large crest factor means the wave is not as efficient at delivering energy.
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 2 of 21
PF
POWER FACTOR
[no units]
The power factor is the ratio of true power (the power consumed, ignoring the reactive factor) to apparent power (the total power consumed). Also, the power factor is the cosine of the angle by which the current lags the voltage (assuming an inductive load).
PF
= cos(
q
v
q
i
)
DECIBELS
[dB]
A log based unit of energy that makes it easier to describe exponential losses, etc. The decibel means 10 bels, a unit named after Bell Laboratories.
L 
= voltage or current ^{2}^{0} ^{l}^{o}^{g} reference voltage or current 

L 
= power ^{1}^{0} ^{l}^{o}^{g} reference power 

H
(inductance in henrys) = ^{V}^{·}^{s}
(note that
H·F = s
2 )
C 
CAPACITANCE 
[F] 

i 
( t ) 
= I f + 
( 
I 
o 
 
I 
f ) e 
 
t 
/ 
t 
+ 
C


 
t 
/ 
t 
v 
R 

v t ( ) 
= V f + 
( V o 
 
V f ) 
e 
 

where _{t} _{=} _{R}_{C} 

i 
c ( t 
) = C dv dt 
V 
c ( t ) = 
1 
t 
d t 

C Ú 0 i 
+ 
V o 

L 
INDUCTANCE 
[H] 

i 
( t ) 
= I f + 
( 
I 
o 
 
I 
f ) e 
 
t 
/ 
t 
+ 
L


 
t 
/ 
t 
v 
R 

v t ( ) 
= V f + 
( V o 
 
V f ) 
e 
 

where t = L / R 

di 
1 
t 

v L ( ) = t L 
dt 
I L ( t ) = 
L 
Ú 0 v 
d 
t 
+ 
I 
o 

of an inductor: 
L = 
2 .4 pm N A 
e 

I e 
¥ 10 

L = inductance [H] m = permeability [H/cm] N = number of turns A _{e} = core cross section [cm ^{2} ] 

I _{e} = core magnetic path length [cm] 
C
LC
TANK CIRCUIT
Resonant frequency:
L
f
=
1
PARALLEL RESISTANCE
I never can remember the
formula for two resistances in parallel. I just do it the hard
way.
R R
R
1
+ R
2
R
1

R
2
= 1
2
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 3 of 21
FOURIER SERIES
The Fourier Series is a method of describing a complex periodic function in terms of the frequencies and amplitudes of its fundamental and harmonic frequencies.
Let _{f} _{(}_{t}_{)} _{=} _{f} _{(}_{t} _{+} _{T} _{)} _{=} any periodic signal
w _{0} = the fundamental frequency (k=1) in radians/sec.
kw _{0} = the harmonic frequencies (k=2,3,4…) in radians/sec.
k = denotes the fundamental (k=1) or harmonic frequencies (k=2,3,4…), not the wave number or propagation constant
F _{a}_{v}_{g} = the average value of f(t), or the DC offset
a
b
F avg
=
1
T
t 0
Ú t
0
+ T
f
(
t
)
dt
_{k} = twice the average value of f(t)cos(kw _{0} t)
_{k} = twice the average value of f(t)sin(kw _{0} t)
t
0
_{=} an arbitrary time
a
k
=
2
T
Ú
t
t 0
0
+ T
f
( t
)
cos
k
w
t dt
b
k
=
2
T
Ú
t
t 0
0
+ T
f
( t
)
sin
k
w
t dt
FOURIER SERIES and Symmetry 

When the function f(t) is symmetric, certain shortcuts can be taken. 

When f(t) is an even function, i.e. f(t)=f(t), b _{k} is zero. The Fourier series becomes: 


• 

f ( 
t 
) = 
F avg 
+ 
Â 
È Î 
a k cos 
( 
k 
w 
0 t 
) 
˘ ˚ 

k = 1 

If there is also halfwave symmetry, then: 

a k 
= 4 T 
Ú T 0 
/ 2 
f 
( 
t 
) 
cos n 
w 
t dt 

When f(t) is an odd function, i.e. f(t)=f(t), a _{k} is zero. The Fourier series becomes: 


f ( 
) = 
• 
( 
) 

t 
F avg 
+ 
Â 
Î È 
b k sin 
k w 
0 t 
˚ ˘ 

k = 1 

If there is also halfwave symmetry, then: 

b k 
= 4 T 
Ú 
T 0 / 2 
f 
( t 
) 
sin n w 
t dt 

When f(t) has halfwave symmetry, i.e. f(t)=f(t±T/2), there are only odd harmonics. k=1, 3, 5, … 
T
2 

a k 
= 4 T 
Ú 
t t 0 0 
+ 
T / 2 f 
( 
t 
) cos 
n 
w 
t dt 

b k 
= 4 T 
Ú 
t t 0 
0 
+ 
T / 2 
f 
( 
t 
) 
sin 
n 
w 
t dt 
FOURIER SERIES, Polar Form
2
T
2
T
( 
• 
( 
) 

f 
t 
) = F 
avg + Â 
Î È 
F k 
sin 
k 
w 
0 t 
+ d 
k 
˚ ˘ 

k 
= 1 

 
1 
 
b 

, 
d 
k 
= tan 
k 

a k 

Ú t 
0 
+ T 
f 
( 
t 
) 
cos n 
w 
t dt 

t 0 

Ú t 0 
+ T 
f 
( 
t 
) 
sin n w 
t dt 

t 0 
where
a
k
=
b
k
=
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 4 of 21
FOURIER SERIES OF A SQUARE WAVE
A 50% duty cycle square wave can be represented as an infinite sum of a fundamental sine wave and smaller odd harmonics.
4 
A È 
sin 
( 
w 
t 
) 
+ 111 sin 3 w 0 t ( ) + sin 5 w 0 t ( ) + 357 
( sin 7 
w 
t 
) 
+ L 
˘ 

p 
Í Î 
0 
0 
˙ ˚ 
4A /p
A
0
SINGLEPHASE RECTIFIERS
HALFWAVE RECTIFIER
As the supply voltage begins it's positive sinusoidal excursion, the diode conducts and current begins to flow in the inductor. When the voltage crosses zero, the current continues to flow through the inductor for a short period due to its stored energy and the diode conducts until the inductor current flow has halted. This point is called extinction and occurs at the angle b, where p < b < 2p. At this time v _{d} , which has followed the supply voltage into the negative region, becomes zero (discontinuous). v _{d} and the inductor current remain at zero until the next cycle.
i (t)
_{L}
+ 
+ 
v L 
 

V sin m 
w t 
~

v d 

 
R
L
While current is flowing through the diode, there is zero voltage across the diode. When current flow stops at angle b, the voltage across the diode becomes negative (discontinuous). Since the average (dc) voltage at the source is zero and the average voltage across an inductor is zero, the average voltage across R _{L} is the negative of the average voltage across the diode.
1
2 p
V diode 
= 
p ^{Ú} 
V 
sin 
q 
d 
q= 
V 

2 
b m 
R 
avg
The average voltage across R _{L} can also be expressed as the product of the average (short circuit) current and R _{L} . Under short circuit conditions, the average voltage can be found by integrating of a halfperiod.
V R avg
= I
sc
R
L
1
T / 2
Now there is enough information here to find b iteratively.
V R
avg
=
T
Ú
V
0 m
sin
w
t dt
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 5 of 21
BRIDGE RECTIFIER, CONSTANT LOAD VOLTAGE
The current i _{d} begins to flow when the magnitude of the supply voltage exceeds V _{d} . The current peaks when the supply voltage magnitude returns to the level of V _{d} . As the supply voltage magnitude continues to fall, i _{d} rapidly returns to zero.
V m sin
w t
i d
V _{d} = the voltage at the output [V] V _{m} = the peak input voltage [V] q _{b} = the angle at which an increasing supply voltage waveform reaches V _{d} and current begins to flow in the inductor. [radians] q _{p} = the angle at which i _{d} peaks [radians] q _{p} = pq _{b} q _{f} = the angle at which the current i _{d} returns to zero. [radians]
u COMMUTATION INTERVAL
Commutation is the transfer of the electrical source from one path to another. For bridge rectifiers, it refers to the period of time when diodes from two sources are on simultaneously, i.e. the delay interval associated with a reversebiased diode turning off. The commutation interval is usually expressed as an angle u. The commutation interval is associated with rectifier circuits having a constant current load (inductance
dominates load) and a finite inductance L _{s} in the
supply. The interval begins when the source voltage
crosses zero going positive or when the thyristor gate
is triggered.
No trigger:
2 w L I
V
m
With trigger:
cos
(
a +
u )
=
cos
a

2 w L I
s
d
V
m
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L _{s} = the supply inductance [H]
I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A] V _{m} = the peak input voltage [V]
cos
u =
1

s
d
POWER AND COMMUTATION
In order to have power, the commutation interval must not be zero.
P 
V m 2 
( 
1 
2 
) 

= 
 

d 
2 w 
L 
s 
p 
cos 
u 
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L _{s} = the supply inductance [H] I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A] V _{m} = the peak input voltage [V]
VOLTAGE AND COMMUTATION
The average voltage output of a full wave bridge rectifier is
V
d
=
p
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L _{s} = the supply inductance [H]
I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A] V _{m} = the peak input voltage [V]
V
m
(cos
u +
1)
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 6 of 21
THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT
The Thèvenin equivalent for a singlephase full wave bridge rectifier.
2 V
p
2 w L
p
^{V} TH
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.]
L _{s} = the supply inductance [H]
I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A]
V _{m} = the peak input voltage [V]
V _{d} = the average output voltage [V]
V TH
^{=}
m
R TH
^{=}
s
THREEPHASE RECTIFIERS
THREEPHASE RECTIFIER
This circuit is known as 3phase, 6pulse line commutated converter. When the load is dominated by inductance, it is modeled as a current source (constant current) as shown below. If the load is capacitive, it is modeled as a voltage source.



TRANSFORMER 
D1 

D3 

D5 


Aø 
L 
a 


Bø 
+ 
L 
b 
 

~ 

L
c





Cø 
+ 

+ 
 




D4 

D6 

D2 




^{I} dc
KIMBARK'S EQUATIONS
Kimbark's equations give the average current, voltage, and power of a 3phase rectifier as a function of the commutation interval u.
V LLp
2
3
w L
V
^{n}^{d} : 2 V = 
LLp 
( 
1 
+ 
cos u 
) 

dc 
2 p 

3 
V 
2 
( 

^{r}^{d} : 3 P dc = 
LLp 
1 
 
cos 
2 
u 

4 pw L 
)
V _{L}_{L}_{p} = peak linetoline voltage [V]
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L = the load inductance [H]
u = the commutation interval [degrees]
^{s}^{t} :
1 I
dc =
(
1

cos
u
)
KIMBARK'S EQUATIONS (with a)
When the trigger angle a is included, Kimbark's equations become:
V LLp
DC 2
w L
3 V
2 
^{n}^{d} : 
V dc = LLp 2 p 
È Î cos a + 
cos 
( 
a + u 
) 
˚ ˘ 

3 
^{r}^{d} : 
P 3 V = LLp 2 
È Î cos 
2 
a 
2 
( 
a + 
) 
˘ 

 
cos 
u 
˚ 

dc 
4 pw L
V _{L}_{L}_{p} = peak linetoline voltage [V]
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees] L = the per phase inductance [H]
u = the commutation interval [degrees]
1
^{s}^{t} :
I
=
È Î
cos
a

cos(
a +
u
) ˚ ˘
3PHASE POWER AND COMMUTATION
In order to have power, the commutation interval must not be zero. In commercial systems, the commutation interval is typically 4 to 5 degrees but may be as high
as 20° in special highpower converters. The theoretical maximum is u = 60°.
3PHASE VOLTAGE AND COMMUTATION
The average voltage output of a threephase rectifier
can be found by integrating over the first 60°. In the formula below, the limits of integration have been
60
d
q
˘
˙
˚
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 7 of 21
PLOTTING V _{d}_{c} (constant current) WITH a V _{d}_{c} is periodic at 60° intervals. During the commutation interval (from a to a+u), V _{d}_{c} follows the – 3/2 V _{b}_{n} curve. This curve is centered between the V _{c}_{b} and V _{a}_{b} curves. For the remainder of its period, V _{d}_{c} follows the V _{a}_{b} curve. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.
V _{L}_{L}_{p} = peak linetoline voltage [V] a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees]
PLOTTING V _{1} (constant current) V _{1} is the voltage across diode D1. V _{1} is more complicated and is periodic at 360° intervals. Refer to the circuit entitled ThreePhase Rectifier on page 7. Plot V _{d}_{c} first. While D1 is on, V _{1} is zero. When D1 goes off, V _{1} briefly follows V _{a}_{b} then V _{d}_{c} . After that, it tracks V _{a}_{c} and then repeats the cycle. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.
a to 120° + a + u 
V _{1} is zero 

120° + a + u 
to 180° + a 
V _{1} tracks V _{a}_{b} 
180° + a to 300° + a + u 
V _{1} is V _{d}_{c} 

300° + a + u 
to a 
V _{1} tracks V _{a}_{c} 
The 0° reference is 30° before V _{a}_{b} peak voltage.
PLOTTING I _{1} (constant current) I _{1} is the current through diode D1 of a 3phase rectifier. I _{1} is periodic at 360° intervals. A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.
a to a + u
I _{1} rises from 0 to I _{1} _{m}_{a}_{x}
a + u 
to 120° + a 
I _{1} is constant 
120° + a to 120° + a + u 
I _{1} falls to zero 
The 0° reference angle is 30° before V _{a}_{b} peak voltage.
The curvature of the rising and falling diode current plots is related to the trigger angle a.
a < 90
a = 90
a > 90
PLOTTING i _{A} (constant current) i _{A} is the current through the Aphase supply of a 3 phase rectifier. i _{A} is periodic at 360° intervals. The plot of i _{A} consists of the plot of I _{1} and the inverse plot of I _{4} . A graph sheet is provided on page 21 for practice.
3PHASE THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT
The Thèvenin equivalent for a 3phase full wave bridge rectifier.
V TH
^{=}
3V
LLp
p
3 w L
p
^{V} TH
V _{L}_{L}_{p} = peak linetoline voltage [V]
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.] L _{s} = the supply inductance [H] I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A] V _{d} = the average output voltage [V]
R TH
^{=}
s
3PHASE THÈVENIN EQUIVALENT (with a)
The Thèvenin equivalent for a 3phase full wave bridge rectifier.
3 V
p
3 w L
p
^{V} TH
V _{L}_{L}_{p} = peak linetoline voltage [V]
w = the supply frequency [rad./sec.]
a = the angle wt at which the thyristor is triggered [degrees]
L _{s} = the supply inductance [H]
I _{d} = the (constant) load current [A] V _{d} = the average output voltage [V]
V
TH
=
LLp
cos
a
R TH
^{=}
s
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 8 of 21
DCDC CONVERTERS
D DUTY CYCLE
The duty cycle is the fractional portion of the period T in which the inductor is charging. Practical values for D range from about 0.2 to 0.8. The plot below shows discontinuous operation; i.e. there is a period of time when the inductor is neither charging nor discharging.
I
discontinuous operation
It is preferable that the converter operate in continuous mode in order to reduce ripple.
L MINIMUM INDUCTANCE REQUIREMENT
For continuous operation, the inductor should be sized
so that under minimum current conditions it does not
continuous operation
In the plot above, the inductor discharges fully just as the period ends. In this case, 2I _{a}_{v}_{g} is the peak current. So the peak current is both the product of the charging slope and the charging interval as well as of the discharging slope (absolute) and discharging interval.
di
dt
di
dt
The values for di/dt are found by using Kirchoff’s Voltage Law for both the “on” and “off” states.
chg.
DT
=
dischg.
(
1

D
)
T
=
2
I
avg
Tom Penick
tom@tomzap.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
PowerElectronics.pdf
8/18/2003
Page 9 of 21
STEPDOWN CONVERTER
The stepdown converter or buck converter can produce an output voltage as much as ~80% below the input voltage.
L i L
i o


 


+ 

+ 
+ 
v L 

V 
d 
^{V} oi 

C 

 
 



Duty Cycle:
R
L
Minimum inductance: In choosing L, We want to avoid discontinuous operation. Select L _{m}_{i}_{n} using the minimum expected current I _{L} .
L min
=
V 
o 
2 I
L
(
1 
D
)
T
D
I
=
V
d

V
o
L L
DT
Ripple voltage: When choosing C, we want RC ? T . Another consideration is the ripple voltage. For continuous operation this is
D
V
o
8 LC
Minimum Capacitance: The expressions for finding the value of the filter capacitor are derived from the relation DV = DQ/C, where Q is current × time.
D = duty cycle [no units]
V _{o} = output voltage (average) [V]
DV _{o} = output ripple voltage (peak to peak) [V] V _{d} = input voltage [V]
T = period 1/f [s]
L _{m}_{i}_{n} = minimum inductance for continuous operation [H]
DI _{L} = the difference between the maximum and minimum current in the inductor. For continuous operation, this is t
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