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# 2

(Ore)

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WHAT CONSTITUTES MINERAL BENEFICIATION?

## The mineral beneficiation involves separation of gangue minerals from ore.

It has three steps
Liberation ,
Separation,
Concentration.

## 1) Liberation of valuable mineral by size reduction.

2) Separation of coarse and fine particles.
3) Concentration to separate the gangue minerals to increase the metal grade.

If the first step is not done correctly, the second step will be incomplete.

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LIBERATION BY SIZE REDUCTION.

## Consider a cube ( 10 cm dia )of the ore having

MINERAL and GANGUE.

## Suppose it has cubic grains of 10 mm. Locked

Assumptions grains
1. crushing is conducted to yield grains of same size.
2. crystals in the ore are intimately joined with each
other.
Till the ore lump is crushed to 10 mm dia, all grains are
locked.
If the ore lump is crushed to particles of 5 mm dia,
some grains are FREE and some are LOCKED. =10 x10 mm
It cannot be assumed that all particles are free since
they are of 5 mm dia ( smaller than 10 mm dia).

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MINERALS OF EQUAL ABUNDANCE.
The cube is sectioned along a vertical plane.
Visualise that lattices with parameters 10mm and 5
mm are superimposed with their axes parallel.

## It appears that , in the plane of section, alternate

rows A and C only have free looking particles.
Other alternate rows B and D do not have them.

## The free particles are 1,3,5,13,15,17.

( They may be locked in other planes ).
Free particles of mineral and gangue 6 out of 48
(1/8) ( and not 6 out of 24).
Degree of liberation of each constituent- 3 out of 24
(1/8).

## Even with heavy overgrinding, particles cannot be liberated completely.

The crushed particles are obtained in the form of LOCKED MIDDLINGS.

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MINERALS OF UNEQUAL ABUNDANCE.

## 1. The less abundant mineral is not free at all unless the

particles are finer than the grain size.
2. To free the less abundant mineral, the particles must be
made much finer than the grain size.
3. The more abundant mineral is always freer than the less
abundant mineral.

bauxite
LIBERATION BY DETACHMENT.

If the ore lump is made of mineral grains bonded loosely, fracturing to the grain size
results in complete liberation.
Eg: Pebble phosphate rock
MOSTLY LIBERATION NEEDS SIZE REDUCTION.

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A SIMPLIFIED FLOW CHART FOR ORE DRESSING

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Comminution
When raw materials are processed in solid state, particle size reduction is
essential. The ROM ore may be as big as 3 m in size.
Minerals should be liberated before concentration. This liberation
accomplished by comminution.
Communiation is one of the primary operations in mineral dressing ;takes
place in a sequence of crushing and grinding processes.

COMMINUTION - The whole operation of reducing the raw ore to the size
required for mechanical separation or metallurgical processing. It is used to
- create particles in a certain size and shape,
- increase the surface area available for next process
- liberate valuable minerals held within particles.

Comminution

Crushing Grinding
OBJECTIVES OF COMMINUTION.

## Preparation of feed material for different ore processing techniques

( Eg:- granular material for gravity separation, fine particles for froth flotation etc.) .

## Difference between crushing and grinding-

Crushing ( dry) - Size reduction occurs preferentially on large fragments.
Grinding (wet) - Size reduction is less selective- all pieces get ground to fine
particles.

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STEPS IN COMMINUTION
S. No Process Size reduction

## 4. Coarse grinding 10 mm- 1 mm

5. Fine grinding 1 mm- 100 microns
5. Very fine grinding 100 microns 10 microns

## Size reduction/Comminution Process :

extremely energy-intensive .
5 % of all electricity generated is used in size reduction .
Efficiency of size reduction : 1 %.
Blasting can be described as the first stage of comminution carried out in the mine site in
order to remove ores from their natural beds. 12
ENERGY IN COMMINUTION
Energy utilisation in comminution =

## (Energy theoretically needed for a particular degree of size reduction )

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
( Energy actually consumed )
Actual energy consumed
= power input to the mill
= energy needed to move the working parts with suitable load+
energy needed to overcome friction+
energy needed to grind away the metal from the working face+
energy needed for size reduction.

## A major part of the energy is lost as HEAT.

If the particles of the ore has SINGLE MINERAL only FREE PARTICLES.
If they have two or more minerals- LOCKED PARTICLES.
Normally the ore consists of at least two minerals which are intimately interlocked.
DEGREE OF LIBERATION of a certain mineral is the percentage of that mineral occurring
as FREE PARTICLES w.r.t the total of the mineral occurring in the FREE and LOCKED forms.
DEGREE OF LOCKING - of a mineral is the percentage occurring in LOCKED PARTICLES
w.r.t the total occurring in the FREE and LOCKED forms.

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ENERGY IN COMMINUTION

## Very inefficient at creating new surface area (~1-2%)

Surface area is equivalent to surface energy
Comminution energy is 60-85 % of all energy used
A number of energy "laws" have been developed
Assumption - energy is a power function of D
dE
K D n
dD
dE= differential energy required,
dD= change in a particle dimension,
D = magnitude of a length dimension,
K = energy use/weight of material, and
n = exponent

Rittingers, Kicks and Bonds theories are used to evaluate any crushing process.
Rittingers law deals with measurements of surface areas
Kicks law deals with volumes of products particles
Bonds theory deals with lengths of cracks formed.
Kick applies to coarse sizes (> 10 mm), Bond applies down to 100 m,
Rittinger applies to sizes < 100 m . 14
It is impossible to estimate accurately the amount of energy required to effect a size
reduction of a given material.
A number of empirical laws have been proposed.
The two earliest laws are due to KICK and VON RITTINGER, and a third law due to
BOND has also been proposed.

## Von Rittingers Law (1867) :-

It states that the energy consumed in the size reduction is proportional to the area of
new surface produced.

1 1
E - the energy input, E K r f(c )
D1- the initial particle size, D p Df
D2- the final particle size,
K - a constant. Kr = Rittinger's Constant and fc = crushing strength of the material,
f- feed, p-product.

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Kicks law (1885)

States that the work required is proportional to the reduction in volume of the
particles concerned.

Energy required for producing a specified reduction is proportional to the log of the
reduction ratio.
Df
E K k f c loge
D p
Kk = Kick's Constant and fc = crushing strength of the material

## It is based on the assumption that geometrically similar

particles would always break in geometrically similar
manner, irrespective of the size.

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Bonds law (1952)
Energy required is based on geometry of a crack expansion as it opens up.

## Bond has developed an equation which is based on the theory that

the work input is proportional to the new crack tip length produced in
particle breakage, and
equals the work represented by the product minus that represented by the
feed.
The total work input (represented by a given weight of crushed or ground
product ) is inversely proportional to the square root of the diameter of the
product particles.
1 1
E K b f(c ) Kb = Bond's Constant and fc = crushing strength of the material

Dp Df
Fracture of the ore lump occurs by the extension of existing cracks.
Such cracks lower the activation energy of fracture.

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LIMITATIONS OF COMMINUTION LAWS.
The size and shape which can be determined by these methods is not very perfect.
It is determined on the average method .
The methods discussed above cant measure the accurate area of the
particles.
So results may not be accurate.

It is very difficult to determine accurate area of the finer particles by these methods.
There is no suitable method available for the determining the area of
the fine particles.

Even if the above conditions are determined, the surface areas of cracks present in
big particles would remain unaccounted.
If all the above conditions are considered then the area of the cracks which
are present in the particles cant be calculated.
It is the major drawbacks of the calculating the area of the particle
surface.

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OPERATING VARIABLES
Comminution of the ROM ore is affected by 5 variables.
1. Moisture content of solids.
Moisture < 3-4 % by wt. no difficulties.
Moisture content > 4wt%- Ores become sticky, clog the machines.
Excess moisture ( > 50 wt%) Easy to feed and remove the product from the
size reduction area. Size reduced minerals are easily transported as slurry.
Grinding is normally done in wet condition ( Crushing is a dry process).

2. Reduction ratio ( RR ).
Average diameter of the feed / average diameter of the product.
In primary crushers , RR = Gape / Set.
Gape- Size of the receiving opening ( max size acceptable in the machine).
Set - Size of discharging opening ( max. size passing through the discharge end).
Normal RR - 3-7 ( for coarse crushing ),
- as high as 100 ( for fine grinding).
Energy requirement increases with RR.

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3. Free crushing.
Individual particles are crushed freely.
The crushed product is removed from the crushing zone quickly.
It avoids formation of excessive amounts of fines ( the number of contacts
are less, hence less crushing).

4. Choke feeding.
It is the reverse of Free crushing.
The feed hopper of the crusher is always full ( choked) .
It prevents complete discharge of the crushed products.
It increases the amount of fines.
Preferred when process becomes more economical ( one or more
intermediate crushing stages can be dispensed with).

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5.Closed / open circuit operation.
Oversized material is returned to the size reduction unit for further reduction after
sizing- closed circuit- more economical, more uniform product.
If no material is returned- open circuit.

Crusher

Closed circuit
Open circuit

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Crushing

## Primary Crushing Secondary Crushing

Jaw crushers & Gyratory crushers Cone crusher & Roll crusher

## The feed size varies The feed size varies

from 3 to 30 from 1.5 to 6
CRUSHING THEORIES

## Crystal structure is bound together by its inter-atomic forces of attraction .

Disruption of these bonds needs stress = theoretical strength of the crystal.
Theoretical strength of a crystal = 7 X 104 Kg/cm2.

When the applied tensile load exceeds the elastic limit, a flaw ( defect ) is produced in the
crystal.
The stress which the crystal can withstand depends on the length of the crack
( ( length of crack ) GRIFFITHS LAW )

i.e., the product of the square root of the flaw length (a) and the stress at fracture
(f) was nearly constant, which is expressed by the equation:

i.e, fracture occurs at a much lower stress loading in the presence of a crack.

Once sufficient energy is given, the crack propagates very fast ( 5000 m/sec).

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Most ROM (run of mines) ores have such fine cracks.
So crack propagation becomes very easy at lower crushing loads.
There is a critical value for the crack length at any particular level of stress .
Now, the increased stress level at the crack tip is sufficient to break the atomic bond
at that point.
Such rupture of the bond will increase the crack length.
It increases the stress concentration and causes a rapid propagation of the crack
through the matrix.
When fracture occurs, some of the stored energy is transformed into free surface
energy ( the potential energy of atoms at the newly produced surfaces ).

## REDUCTION RATIO IN CRUSHING - for comparing the performance of various crushing

machine- Max. size of the particles in the Feed / max. size of particles in the product.

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Crushing occurs due to one or a mixture of the disruptive forces

Compression

Tension

Shear

Torsion

Impact

Shatter

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MECHANISM OF CRUSHING.

COMPRESSION /SHEAR.
Crushing results from stresses that are applied to
the particles to be crushed.

## Crushing is done by a moving part, working against

a stationary / another moving part.

## When the strain exceeds elastic limit, the lump

fractures along principle shear stresses into large
and fine particles.

## If the crushing force is not sufficient, no crushing

occurs.The material may deform.

## THAT IS THE REASON TO USE RUGGED, MASSIVE

CRUSHERS IN MINERAL DRESSING.

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The best method to cause rapture in solid materials is the application of shearing loads.

The orientation of crystals in ores is generally irregular. So, compressive force is sufficient.
The SIZE REDUCERS AS CRUSHERS USE COMPRESSION, SHEAR OR BOTH AS FRACTURING
FORCES.

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Primary crushers

## Jaw crushers Gyratory crusher

PRIMARY CRUSHING -

## The objects of crushing are

1) size reduction
2) production of a minimum amount of fines.

Primary crushing is done on dry material. The basic equipments for primary crushing-
1) Jaw crushers.
2) Gyratory crushers.
3) Roll crushers.
JAW CRUSHER-

## It has two crushing faces - JAWS.

The jaws are made of cast steel.
They are fitted with replaceable liners made of
manganese steel or Ni-hard (a Ni-Cr alloyed cast iron).
They are mounted on a rigid frame.
One jaw is stationary , the other is movable.
It moves towards and away from the stationary jaw
by a small throw.
The feed ore is squeezed till it breaks.
The fragments move down to a narrow part of the wedge.
They get squeezed repeatedly.
The final products escape through the narrow gap at the bottom.

## Jaw crushers are classified based on

1) the point of minimum amplitude of motion on the moving face,
2) the way of transmitting the movement to the immovable face.

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Jaw crushers:
1. BLAKE JAW CRUSHER ( 1858 )- Very large in size.
The movable jaw is hinged at the top- the greatest amplitude
of motion is at the bottom of the crushing face.

## The parts are

1. Cast steel frame,
2. Cast steel jaws with replaceable Hadfield steel ( 13wt% Mn) linings,
3. The movable jaw is pivoted at the top and operated by the eccentric, Pitman and
toggles.
4. Angle between jaws- 20o. 34
The pit man is nearly vertical and the toggles nearly horizontal.
One of the toggles is mounted in steel bearings at one end of the
frame, the other end on the pitman.
One end of the other toggle is set in steel bearings on the back of
the movable jaw and the other end on the pitman.
The rotation of the drive shaft causes an up-and down
translation of the pitman .
This results in an increase and decrease of the distance between
the back of the movable jaw and the frame.
The movable jaw is pressed against the toggles by tension rods
and Springs.
Pit man

## CRUSHING IS EFFECTED ONLY WHEN THE MOVABLE JAW MOVES

TOWARD THE FIXED JAW .
ON ITS BACKWARD MOVEMENT, THE CRUSHED PRODUCT GETS
DISCHARGED.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OPERATION OF A BLAKE JAW CRUSHER.

## 1. The reduction ratio ( Gape / Set)

2. Speed and amplitude of strokes and movable jaw.
3. Size distribution of feed.
4. Crushing properties of ore.

## CAPACITY OF A JAW CRUSHER

T ( Tones/ hr) = 3.75 LS.
L- Length of feed opening ( cm).
S- Length of set opening ( cm) .
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF A JAW CRUSHER.
Depend on
Size of the feed,
Size of the product,
Capacity of the crusher,
Characteristics of the ore,
Percentage idling time.

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A DOUBLE TOGGLE JAW CRUSHER
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2. TELSMITH JAW CRUSHER .

## It is similar to the Blake Jaw Crusher w.r.t the

motion of the movable jaw.

## It differs from the Blake Jaw crusher in the way the

motion is transmitted.

## The motion is transmitted to the movable jaw directly

from an eccentric on the main shaft.

## The machine is very large in size.

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3. DODGE JAW CRUSHER .

Here the Jaw action is reverse to that of the Blake Jaw crusher.
Maximum crushing is given to the largest piece and minimum to the
smallest.
The fulcrum is at the lower end of the movable jaw.
Only a small variation of SET occurs on the advancing and receding
actions of the movable jaw.
The jaw is operated through an eccentric ( Crusher has fewer parts)
Advantage- constant discharge opening. More uniform product size.
Used mainly for laboratory applications.

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4. GYRATORY CRUSHER .

## The inner shell ( the crushing element ) is made to gyrate - It alternately

recedes from and approach all the points on the periphery of the outer
shell.

## Tangential forces and squeezing forces crush the material.

The particles rub against each other- fines too are produced.

## There are three types of Gyratory crushers-

a. Suspended spindle type
b. Supported ( fixed ) spindle type ( It is obsolete ) and
c. Parallel pinch crushers.

## They are the HIGHEST CAPACITY MACHINES.

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Gyratory crushers
SUSPENDED SPINDLE GYRATORY CRUSHER .

It has

## 1) An outer frame. The crusher has two vertical,

truncated conical shells.
2) The frame has a wearing surface ( concave ).
3) The inner crushing head is
4) mounted on a spindle.
5) The spindle gyrates from a fixed fulcrum at the
point of suspension.
6) This movement is effected by an eccentric sleeve.
7) The sleeve is attached to a gear and is rotated by
a horizontal shaft .

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SUSPENDED SPINDLE GYRATORY CRUSHER

the concave.

## Now rotation stops. Gyration is the ONLY motion that causes

the head to approach to and recede from the concave
surface.

## The differential dilation in the cross section of the machine

Does not allow CHOKING .

## The crusher gives good FREE CRUSHING.

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SUSPENDED SPINDLE GYRATORY CRUSHER.
They work smoothly and continuously.
Larger pieces ( ~ 2 m) can be crushed to finer sizes ( ~ 30 cm ) .
Capacity ~ 5000 T / hr. 47
4b.PARALLEL PINCH CRUSHER.

## It is different from the suspended spindle gyratory Crusher.

It does not make an acute cone with the apex during the gyratory motion of the

## It makes a cylindrical motion.

The extent of the force exerted on the feed material is same at all points along the

## Gyratory crushers are available for the coarsest crushing.

Capacity is much higher
It crushes continuously.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF JAW AND GYRATORY CRUSHERS.

## S.No CHARACTERISTIC JAW CRUSHER. GYRATORY CRUSHER.

1. Working principle. Intermittent. Continuous.
Breaks material with its whole Breaks the material all the
surface only half the time. time.
Half of the revolution is heavily Uniform transmission of
stressed- the other half is relaxed energy.
( needs very sturdy construction) .
Heavy fly wheels and high speeds of
rotation are favourable for efficient
operation.
2. Taper ( decrease of width between Less taper.
the movable and fixed crushing
surfaces /meter ( or cm ) of depth- More taper.
should be enough to hold the ROM ( 35-40 cm/m).
ore properly .
3. Capacity. Lesser.
4. Reduction ratio ( 4:1- 7:1). Same.
5. Type of material crushed. Soft, clayey. Greater.
6. Type of feed. Free feed. Same.
7. Gape length. 84-120 in. Hard and brittle.
8. Product size. Normally coarse. Choke feed.
72 in.
A range . 49
Which of the two following crushers we
should choose for small capacity? & why?

Jaw crusher
or
Gyratory crusher
Jaw crusher is the better choice because of:
1-Jaw crusher can take larger size than gyratory
& is better adopted to handle clayey & spongy
rocks.
2-Gyartory crusher consume more power for
the same feed as produces more new surfaces
than jaw crusher.
3-Installation and housing costs will be more
compared to jaw crushers.
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Secondary crushers

## Cone crusher Roll crusher

SECONDARY CRUSHING is done to reduce the ore size suitable for ( wet ) grinding.
The feed size will be less than 150 mm avg. dia & product size 12 mm av.dia.

The crushing machine does not have wider GAPE and very sturdy construction.
Secondary crushers are arranged in series with the primary crushers.
Equipments-
CONE CRUSHER,
ROLL CRUSHER,
GRAVITY STAMPS etc.
Secondary crushers are arranged in series with the primary crushers.

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Cone crushers
1-Cone crusher is secondary crusher.

## 4-Product is more uniform in size .

Cone crushers
Merits of cone crusher over gyratory

## 1-Cone crusher moves faster than gyratory.

2-Rapid discharge of crushed material due to
increase space from top to bottom.
3-Higher capacity and reduction ratio than
gyratory crushers.
4-Work in closed circuit.
SYMON CONE CRUSHER ( 1920 ).
Similar in operation to a gyratory crusher-
Parts SPINDLE, INNER CONE ( CRUSHING HEAD),
INVERTED, TRUNCATED CONE (HOPPER- BOWL).

## Breaks rock by squeezing the rock between an eccentrically

gyrating spindle and the hopper.

## The spindle is covered by a wear resistant mantle. It is supported in

a universal bearing below the crushing head ( and not suspended).

liner.

## Rock enters the top of the cone crusher.

It becomes wedged and squeezed between the crushing head and the hopper.
Large pieces of ore are broken once.
They fall to a lower position (because they are now smaller) where they are broken again.
This process continues until the pieces are small enough to fall through the narrow opening at the bottom
of the crusher.

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Sl. Gyratory crusher Cone crusher
No.
1. Crushing results from interaction Same.
and bowl.

## 2. The outer stationary crushing Flares inward.

surface flares outward- increased
area of discharge.

## 3. The outer stationary crushing Not available.

surface is held in position with a
nest of heavy springs. When an
uncrushable material enters , the
outer crushing plate gets lifted
from the lower surface and
prevents fracture of the plate /
damage to the machine.

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A cone crusher is suitable for crushing a variety of mid-hard and above mid-hard ores and
rocks.

It has the advantage of reliable construction, high productivity, easy adjustment and lower
operational costs.

Operated in OPEN CIRCUIT- Can be fitted with fine, medium, coarse or extra coarse crushing
cavities.

## Speedier crushing ( 450-700 rpm ) .

Reduction ratio 3:1- 7:1.

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Roll crusher
Roll crusher
1-Used for crushing relatively soft materials like coal &
salt.
2-Capacity is high and reduction ratio is large.
3-Can not produce fine product owing to the spacing
. Angle of nip
N

E C,D Rolls
a a N angle of nip
C D E sphere of rocks
ROLL CRUSHERS ( 1806 ) .

## It has two heavy cylinders.

They are mounted horizontally.
They revolve in opposite directions.
The rolls are driven independently.
The feed is NIPPED and PULLED through the rolls by
FRICTION.
Steel liners are provided on the rolls to avoid their damage
wear.

Reduction ratio is small 3:1 4:1 ( since very large dia rolls

## Only small proportions of fines are produced.

Better size uniformity is achieved.

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ROLL CRUSHER.

## SET-distance between rolls 65

The rolls draw the ore lumps into the gap and crush between the roller faces by
NIPPING ( snatching up hastily ).

For a given dia. of the rolls and SET ( distance between rolls), there is a maximum
size of ore lump that can be drawn in.

In selecting the rolls, the sizes of the feed and product should be known.

This can be computed based on the friction between the material crushed and the
rolls.

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ROLL CRUSHERS- ANGLE OF NIP
A spherical particle of dia d is positioned for crushing between two rolls of dia D.
Gravity is not considered.
Forces acting on the particle at the point of contact with rolls 1) normal force Fn,
2) tangential force Ft - Resultant of the two - Fr
If Fr is negative w.r.t the horizontal ( directed downward)- particle is nipped & crushed.
Ft
Fr d
D Fn a/2

angle a

If Fr is positive, particle will ride in the trough formed by the rolls & will not be crushed.
a Angle of Nip. Above this the particle is seized. Above this the particle skids.
S- set distance apart of the roll faces at the point of their nearest approach..

## Coefficient of friction Ft/Fn.

Vertical component of Ft Ft cos (a/2).
Vertical component of Fn- Fn sin ( a/2). 67
Under limiting conditions,

## Fn sin ( a/2) = Ft cos (a/2). i.e., tan a /2 = Ft/Fn. a= angle of nip.

Ft
Fr d
D Fn a/2

angle a

S
Ft/Fn- Coe. of friction .
CONDITION TO ENSURE NIP tan (a/2 )</= .
Cos a/2 = [( D/2) + ( S/2)] / [ ( D/2) + ( d/2)] = ( D+S ) / ( D+d ).

Max size of ore lump in relation to roll dia.( Coe of friction assumed- 0.3)
Roll dia 22.5 30 60 90 120 180 cm

Max size
of ore gripped 0.9 1.2 2.4 3.0 4.8 7.2cm 68
ROLL CRUSHERS- METHOD OF FEEDING.

## The feed should be spread evenly.

Rolls can be fed Free or Choked.
Choke feeding is more efficient higher crushing capacity.
reduced wear of rolls ( ore -on-ore grinding occurs).

## CAPACITY OF ROLL CRUSHER.

C ( tonnes / hr ) = 60 V L S
V = Peripheral speed ( m/mt).
L = Width of the rolls ( m).
S = Distance between rolls ( m ).
= Sp.Gravity of ore.

C ~ 10-35%.

Theoretically when S=0, C=0. Actually, C will be larger as choked feeding occurs and
roll faces are held apart.

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Another secondary crusher is toothed roll crusher.
Other crushing machines are
Impact crusher.
Gyra-disc crusher.
Hammer mill.
Gravity stamps.
Squirrel cage disintegrator
Disk crusher.

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Comparison between roll & cone crushers:

## 1-Roll crusher production smaller of fines than cone

crushers and smaller reduction ratio.
2-Rolls,because of their inability to yield high
reduction ratio, have not been installed in recent
years.
3-Reduction ratio for rolls should not exceed similar to
cone crushers.
4-Rolls remain to be the best device for intermediate
crushing.
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GRINDING.

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FACTORS GOVERNING THE REQUIRED ENERGY.

Most of the input energy is lost as noise, heat and deformation of the ore lumps. Only a small quantity is useful in creating new surfaces
i.e, grinding occurs.

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GRINDING:-
Breaking down of relatively COARSE CRUSHED ore to ULTIMATE FINENESS.

The fineness of the ground product depends on the subsequent mineral beneficiation
operations .

Theoretically, PARTICLES SHOULD BE BROKEN DOWN TILL EVERY PARTICLE IS FULLY MINERAL
( VALUABLE ) OR GANGUE.

For this, fracture should be along boundaries ( detachment ) between valuables and gangue.
It is not possible in practice.

## individual particles are rich ,

the size obtained responds to subsequent concentration process.

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OBJECTIVES.

Grinding
1) produces new surfaces 2) provides specified sizes.

## 1. For gravity/magnetic/electrostatic concentration the feed should be coarse,

overgrinding and slime should be avoided.

1. For froth flotation- upper limit of particles 200-300 s, lower limit 5-10 s .

## 1. For chemical treatment- ( leaching ) over grinding improves the recovery

( constituent to be dissolved should be exposed to the surface of the particles) ,
cost will be high.

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OLDER TYPE GRINDING MILLS

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TYPES OF GRINDING.

## Depends upon the

ore.
quantity of ore to be ground.
use of the ground product.

Methods
Batch or continuous grinding.
Differential grinding.
Dry and wet grinding.
Open circuit or closed circuit grinding.
Primary and secondary grinding ( stage grinding ).

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BATCH GRINDING.
A definite quantity of the feed is ground for a pre-determined time.
The ground material is removed from the mill.
The grinding media will remain in the mill.
Second batch is loaded for grinding and the operation continues.
Tumbling mills are used.
Any shape of particle ( cylindrical, cylindroconical, oval, polygonal, cubic etc ) can be
used in the feed.
Inefficient, more product is over ground.
Used mainly for laboratory testing of ores, making paint mixtures, medicines etc.

CONTINUOUS GRINDING.
Ore is fed into the mill continuously at a fixed rate.
Product is discharged after a suitable dwelling time.
Meanwhile new feed is charged.
Continuous grinding is preferred in Mineral Dressing operations.

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DIFFERENTIAL GRINDING.

## Ores and minerals vary in their relative grindabilities.

Softer material may be ground finer and harder material coarser, if they co exist.
This differential action is increased in closed circuit grinding.

## Material is ground either in totally dry or wet ( slurry ) condition.

Grinding in moist / sticky state consumes lot of energy grinding should not be done
in this state.
Dry grinding when subsequent concentration process is dry ( concentrating ores of
Cr, Au, Pb, Mn, Mo, coal..).
Wet Grinding Normally used in mineral dressing ( subsequent concentration
processes - flotation, leaching etc are wet processes ).

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DRY GRINDING.
1. Feed material should have low ( < 1 % ) moisture content.
2. The feed should be in less contact with air ( it may absorb moisture during
grinding ).
3. The grinding media and the liner inside the mill should not wear off.
4. Costly filtering equipments are not needed.
5. Dust control during grinding is needed.

WET GRINDING.
1. Needs less power.
2. Needs less space.
3. Minimum dust control only needed.
4. Needs large quantities of water and good , continuous pumping system.
5. Generally cheaper than a dry grinding installation.

## PRIMARY AND SECONDARY GRINDING.

Grinding can be done in stages primary and secondary.

## Primary mills work faster and shatter the feed.

Secondary mills work gently and uniformly finer products are formed.
82
OPEN CIRCUIT GRINDING.

The mill grinds the feed to desired size in one pass and removes the
product to receive the next feed.
It needs more power. Needs skilled operator.
Used normally - FEED
for coarse grinding, BALL / TUBE MILL

## when closed circuit grinding becomes very costly.

PRODUCT
FOR
CLOSED CIRCUIT GRINDING Mostly used in Mineral CONCENTRATION

Dressing.
The mill discharge is sized.
Oversize particles are reground.
This cycle repeats till all particles are of same size.
During regrinding of oversize, new material is also fed to the grinder.
FEED
Need of less skilled operators - reduced cost. BALL / TUBE MILL

OVERSIZE
CLASSIFIER

PRODUCT
FOR CONCENTRATION
83
84
TUMBLING MILLS.
The mill with a liner is half filled with the crushing bodies.
Ore is fed at one end of the mill along with required
quantity of water. Now the mill contains the
feed +water + grinding media
( Crop feed / mill charge ).
The ground product is discharged at the other end.
The water flushes the feed through the mill.
When the mill is rotated, the feed, water and the grinding media is
CHURNED with FLYING ( TUMBLE ).
Grinding of the feed occurs
The Kinetic Energy of the tumbling load is dissipated as grinding of
feed, wearing the mill lining and the media, heat and noise.

## The KE is usefully used for

1. Collision between particles,
2. Impact of falling grinding media,
media or between the grinding media and the mill liner ,
4. Shock waves transmitted when the media tumble.
85
86
TUMBLING MILL LINERS.

## Lined with replaceable liners made of alloy

steel, rubber or ceramic materials.
steel liner
They may be smooth, ship-slap , wave or
wedge bar type.

## Liners help in lifting the load as the mill

revolves , to minimise the slip between
layers of the grinding media and to minimise Ceramic liner
wear of the mill shell.

## Shiplap Wave Wedge bar 87

TUMBLING MILL CAPACITY.

Factors influencing
specifications of the pulp ( slurry size of solid particles ),
size of the ground particles.

## To obtain maximum mill capacity several variables in groups are considered.

1. Group I - Mill length / mill diameter, % mill volume having the CROP LOAD
( CHARGE-ore + water + grinding media ), Number of stages These variables
will change wear of liners and grinding media.
2. Group II - Grinding media size ratio, size of new feed, solid to liquid ratio in
the mill They can be maintained constant during the grinding operation.
3. Group III - Circulating load, dwelling time of the material in the mill, feed
rate they affect capacity.

88
TUMBLING MILL - GRINDING MEDIA

## They are made of Hadfield ( Mn ) steel, Cr steels, Cr-Mo steels.

WC ( Tungsten Carbide ) / ceramic balls are also used Costly but long life.

## Large pieces of ore are used as grinding medium in Autogenous grinding.

Tumbling mills
Ball mill, Pebble mill,
Rod mill, Autogenous / Semi autogenous mills.
Tube mill.

89
90
A BALL MILL 91
BALLS INSIDE A BALL MILL

## Larger balls help in coarse grinding .

92
BALL MILLS ( 1876) .
They are rotating cylinders with liner and grinding balls
inside.
Grinding medium - steel / iron / WC balls.
They are continuous machines ( 4-20 rpm) .
Crushed ore is fed in one end through a feeder.
The balls fall back onto the feed during rotation of the
shell.
Ground ore is discharged at the other end or through
the periphery .
They are used in closed system for maximum efficiency.
Classified according to
1.shape (cylindrical, cylindroconical ),
2.method of discharging ground material
(overflow discharge, grate / diaphragm
discharge) or
3.method of grinding ( wet or dry).
The mills have a shell and lining inside. They are fitted
to a frame at the ends using trunnions.

93
THEORY OF BALL MILLING ( ZONES IN A BALL MILL )-
The path of the balls circular section ( when balls are
lifted ) + parabolic / near parabolic section ( when the
balls are dropped ).

## Consider a ball at a distance r from the center of the

mill revolving at n rpm .

## The ball leaves the circular path for a parabolic path

when the centripetal component of gravity exceeds the Path of a typical ball
centrifugal component of angular acceleration.

## i.e, when mv2 = mgcos --------- 1

----
r
Forces acting on the ball
at a distance r from
m - mass of the ball, v its linear velocity, the center of the mill.
r radius of the mill , g acceleration due to gravity.

94
THEORY OF BALL MILLING-

But, v = 2 r n.
Cos = mv2 = 42n2r
------ -------- -------2 Path of a typical ball
r mg g
The locus of the points E represents the beginning of
the PARABOLIC PATH for different positions of the balls
from the center to the periphery ( OBA ) .

## = 3 . Forces acting on the ball

at a distance r from
the center of the mill.
From this, the locus of the points F representing the
end of the parabolic path is DCO.

## CO and BO correspond to unstable equilibrium.

So, zone BMC is a dead zone no effective
motion occurs here.
Zones in a ball mill.
95
Zones in a ball mill.
There are 4 zones inside a ball mill.
1. an empty zone ,
3. a zone of circular path and
4. a zone of parabolic path.

It is NOT TRUE.

## 1.Crushing ALSO occurs when the balls roll on

each other by slippage between ball layers.

## 2.Crushing ALSO occurs by attrition between the balls.

A photograph taken.
96
MOVEMENT INSIDE A BALL MILL

Catarating intermediate
speed- grinding occurs.

Centrifuging- at high
speed.

97
CRUSHING ACTION IN A BALL MILL

98
The SPEED OF ROTATION (rpm) of the loaded ball mill is critical to success: too slow- the
milling takes too long ; too fast - the contents (balls, ore and water) slam against the wall,
inhibiting milling.
Critical speed defines the velocity at which steel balls will centrifuge in the mill rather than

Nc =42.3(D-0.5)
Centrifuging grinding
where

## Nc = critical speed (revolutions per minute) D Nc

D = mill effective inside diameter (m) 2 30
3 24
4 21
8 15
12 12

## A mill is designed to achieve 75-80% of critical speed.

99
FACTORS AFFECTING SIZE OF PRODUCT FROM BALL MILL-

It is important to fix the point where the charge, as it is carried upward, breaks away
from the periphery of the Mill.

## There are four factors affecting the angle of break:

1. Speed of Mill
2. Amount of grinding media
3. Amount of material
4. Consistency or viscosity (for wet grinding)

100
CYLINDRICAL MILL:-

## The length of the cylinder = diameter of the mill.

Feed end Discharge end
Trunnion
Three types depending on the discharge of the Lining
ground material. Feed Inside the mill Ground slurry

Trunnion
1. Peripheral discharge ( central or peripheral ) mill - cylindrical protrusion used as a mounting
and/or pivoting point.
Discharge through screens in the cylindrical shell .
Eg: Krupp mill. The screen wear is high and hence expensive.

## 2. Free Over flow mill- Simplest design. The ground

material is discharged as overflow from the exit end of
the mill, through Trunnion. Operates wet.
3.Grate ( diaphragm ) mill The discharge end has
grates.

101
CYLINDRICAL MILL

Overflow type ball mill also has a spiral inside the discharging end.

The direction of the spiral is opposite to the running direction of cylinder body,
which can prevent steel balls and ores from being discharged out of ball mill.

102
OVERFLOW TYPE BALL MILLS

103
Grate or diaphragm discharge
It is a low level forced discharge type grinding
equipment.

## The discharge end of this mill has a slotted full

diameter ( or partial diameter ) grate with discharge
lifter assembly .

opening.

## A gradient created between the feed opening and

the discharge slots eases the flow of material.

## So, more grinding area.

Productivity of this mill is 10-15% more than that of an overflow type mill of same
104
specifications.
BALL MILL WITH GRATE-DISCHARGE

105
BALL MILL WITH GRATE OR DIAPHRAGM DISCHARGE

106
CYLINDROCONICAL MILL
A cylindrical section connects an obtuse cone with a
steep acute cone ( discharge end ) .
Both ends have hollow trunnions.
Feed is given through a feeder located before the
trunnion at the charge end.
A continuous stream of ground pulp pours out from the
discharge lip ( located axially after the discharge end
trunnion).
Interior lining- cast iron or cast steel.
The conical section at the charge end forces coarse
particles and large dia. balls to the cylindrical portion.
Maximum centrifugal effect is at the central cylindrical
portion.
Fine particles get ground in the conical sections
by smaller dia. balls.
This causes PREFERENTIAL GRINDING( larger particles
by larger balls and smaller particles by smaller balls-
result almost equal size particles).

107
CYLINDROCONICAL MILL

## Dry Hardinge mills are used

in conjunction with
pneumatic
classifiers. 108
CYLINDROCONICAL MILL

HARDINGE MILL

The peripheral speed of the cylindrical section and the conical sections are different causes
impact grinding in cylindrical section and abrasive grinding at conical section.

109
MULTIPLE COMPARTMENT CYLINDRICAL MILL:-

## High reduction ratios are obtained.

110
SERIES OF BALL MILLS MUFULIRA MINE GRINDING AISLE ZAMBIA
1969

111
112
ROD MILL

between rods.

## The mill is longer than its diameter avoids jamming of

the rods.

113
Rod mills produce minimum fines ( Ball mills produce more fines).

The ground product is concentrated by gravity or magnetic methods ( Finer ball bill
products are concentrated by flotation method ) .

## Discharge can be-

overflow discharge,
end peripheral discharge or
center peripheral discharge.

## The rods used wear fast and need replacement often.

114
115
116
117
PEBBLE MILLS
Cylindrical mills with porcelain / rubber linings.

## There are two types

1. Tube mill and

118
AUTOGENOUS GRINDING MILL SAG .

## A rotating drum throws larger rocks of ore in a cascading

motion .
It causes impact breakage of larger rocks and compressive
grinding of finer particles. Eg HADSEL MILL

## SEMI AUTOGENOUS GRINDING MILL - SAG

SAG mills utilize grinding balls to aid in grinding like in a ball mill.
It is generally used as a primary or first stage grinding solution.
SAG mills use a ball charge of 8 to 21%.
Attrition between grinding balls and ore particles causes grinding of finer particles.
SAG mills are characterized by their large diameter and short length as compared to ball mills.
The inside of the mill is lined with lifting plates to lift the material inside the mill, where it
then falls off the plates onto the rest of the ore charge.
SAG mills are primarily used at gold, copper and platinum mines with applications also in the
lead, zinc, silver, alumina and nickel industries.
The largest SAG mill is 42' in diameter, powered by a 28 MW (38,000 HP) motor

119
TUBE MILL ( Ball mill with different compartments)-

## They are long ( 5 dia, 22 long) ball mills.

Made narrow- to prevent breakage of the pebbles.
Made longer- to compensate for the narrowness- to
complete the grinding work over the length.
Used in gold ore grinding.

## Have larger dia. Dia/Length > 3.

The lumps fall through a large distance. Feed+ air
The feed and discharge are through trunnions. to cyclone
The mill rotates fast.
High reduction ratio.
Used for iron and gold ores.
Drive

120
AEROFALL MILL-

121
122
FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION OF A GRINDING MILL-

## Affects grinding efficiency and capacity. Nc =42.3(D-0.5)

If the peripheral speed of the mill is very high i.e., > critical
speed, it begins to act like a centrifuge and the balls do not
fall back, but stay on the perimeter of the mill.
b) Intermediate speed- grinding- cataracting action
NO WORK IS DONE BY THE MILL. c) Centrifuging high speed.

If speed is very low- the grinding media will roll and slide over one
another in a mass near the bottom of the mill- Cascading action.

## At intermediate speeds, grinding media is carried up to a certain

extent. They fall on the material and grinding action takes place-
Cataracting action.

## Ball mills operate at 55-85 % of critical speed.

123
2. LOAD OF GRINDING MEDIA AND MATERIAL.

## Ball mills should be slightly more than half full.

The volume contributed by water and material is less compared to that contributed by the
balls.

3. PULP LEVEL.

## Higher pulp level in a mill needs more power.

Lower pulp level gives more degree of freedom of movement of the grinding media - more
effective grinding.

In an overflow discharge mill, the grinding media looses their kinetic energy when they fall
back into the material to be ground.

## Grinding is less effective.

124
4. SIZE DESTRIBUTION OF GRINDING MEDIA.

## Should be near to close packing.

The ratio between the balls of various sizes used should be proportional to the feed and
discharge products.

## 1. By determining the wear rate of the grinding media and

2. By sizing analysis.

## The grinding media size is proportional to the feed size.

If the size is small, they may get abraded and no grinding occurs.

125
5. SOLID LIQUID RATIO.

## 20-40% moisture- the material moves very efficiently.

40% moisture pulp becomes watery and starts coating the grinding medium.

126
SOLID LIQUID RATIO.
For efficient use of energy in grinding

1.ore particles should form a coating on the liners and the grinding media.

2.the pulp should be fluid enough for steady flow through the mill.

Thin pulp - Solids settle, centrifuging occurs, coating on the grinding media
is not possible- improper grinding .

## Thick pulp - Charge becomes pasty. KE is wasted to overcome the viscosity-

ores particles get sandwiched between two grinding bodies
no proper grinding results.

Optimum solid- liquid ratio:- Depends on coarseness of the ground ore, density of the ore.
Helps to hold the crop load by friction, give desired lift during
rotation of the mill and proper coating on the grinding media.

## For good , efficient , high capacity grinding:

Even distribution of the pulp,
Clinging layer of particles on ALL METAL SURFACES within the mill.

127
CHARGE VOLUME OF A GRINDING MILL-

## It is calculated when the mill is at rest.

H
Average volume is calculated. Weight of the charge is
calculated with its bulk density.

## Ball Mills are normally run with charge volume < 45 %.

Charge liner mill shell Mill dia D
This saves power consumption. Side view of mill at rest

128
MOTOR SIZE- ( for a particular grinding operation or a particular plant ).

The power needed to grind a given FEED SIZE to a given PRODUCT SIZE-

## W = 10 * Wi * [ ( 1/P ) ( 1/ F ) ] power calculated to drive the mill to grind the feed

from one size distribution to a finer size distribution.

W = Power consumption- KWH / metric tonne for wet grinding, closed circuit , P > 70 .

## P = screen opening size in microns, through which 80% product passes.

F = size of the screen opening ( microns ) through which 80% of the feed passes.

Wi = The Bond Ball Mill Work index ( 1952 )- is a measure of the resistance of the material to
crushing and grinding . A Bond Ball Mill Work Index test may be required for the design of a
new mineral processing plant . It is determined by Bond Ball Mill Grindability test in a lab using
a Bond Mill.

Grindability is the number of net grams of ( screen ) undersized product per revolution of the mill .

## Corrections are done if P is less than 80% passing 70 size particles.

129
CALCULATION OF MILL SIZE MATCHING TO REQUIRED POWER.

## Power input to maintain the condition in the figure is N rpm

KW = [ M * C * Sine ( 2 N ) ] / 12.400

## M - wt of charge ( metric tonne ),

C - distance of center of gravity of charge from
center of mill ( meters ),
- dynamic angle of repose,
N - mill speed ( r.p.m ).

Consider a mass m resting on an inclined
plane.
If the angle of inclination is slowly
increased, a stage will come when the block
of mass m will tend to slide down.
This angle of the plane with horizontal
plane is known as
angle of repose

130
OPTIMUM SIZE OF GRINDING MEDIA.

## Major opposing factors-

1. As the size of the grinding media increases, lesser surface area, the pressure between the
surfaces decreases causes breaking of larger particles.
2. As the size of the grinding media decreases, more surface area , the pressure between
the surfaces increases- causes grinding of smaller particles .

Other factors
1. Harder ore lumps - larger grinding media
2. Larger dia mill - needs smaller grinding media to break particles of a given size.
3. Faster mill speeds - needs smaller grinding media to break particles of a given size.

For most efficient grinding the initial charge of the grinding media should have the
size distribution in a complete range from maximum to minimum size.

131
CONSUMPTION OF GRINDING MEDIA.

Due to
1. abrasion of the media surface by contact with the material ,
2. corrosion of the freshly exposed media surface.

## Mill Dry Wet

Rod mill 0.15 0.45
Primary ball mill 0.15 0.45
Secondary ball mill 0.07 0.40

132
RECENT TRENDS IN CRUSHING AND GRINDING

## To improve the art of crushing and grinding for

1. better grain liberation,
2. minimum overgrinding,
3. reducing power consumption,
4. reducing capital and operation costs.

Improvements-

Development of
1. Autogenous and semiautogenous grinding machines,
2. Reduced cone oscillations in cone crusher Rapid rotation of
unbalanced load ( and not the motion given by the eccentric) gives
improved efficiency.
3. Centrifugal crusher ( very fine size possible)
4. High pressure grinding rolls.

133
RECENT TRENDS IN CRUSHING AND GRINDING.

## Utilizes compression breakage of a particle bed.

Energy efficient inter-particle breakage occurs .

Reduction ratio obtained in a single pass is higher than that obtained in conventional
rolls crusher.

Reduces grinding strength ,
Improves leachability due to micro-cracking ,
Reduces energy requirements ( 20-50% more efficient than conventional mills).

## APPLICATIONS:-Tertiary or quaternary crushing stages, Pebble crushing, Open or

closed circuit operations.

134
HIGH PRESSURE GRINDING ROLLS (HPGR)
The feed material is
exposed to very high pressure for a
short time.

## 1.forms micro-cracks in the

feed particles ,
2.generates a substantial amount of
fine material,
3.promotes micro fracturing of
particles in product ( better leaching )

HPGR has two counter-rotating rolls one fixed and one floating .
The feed is introduced to the crushing zone.
Hydraulic cylinders apply very high pressure to the system in a controlled way.
It causes inter-particle comminution as the feed travels between the two rolls.
The basic operating principle behind HPGRs makes them very energy efficient:

135
Two variable speed drives

Feed Chute

Studded Roll

Studded Roll

## HIGH PRESSURE GRINDING ROLLS (HPGR) 136

ROTOR CENTRIFUGAL CRUSHER

## Every single particle of the input material undergoes

extreme acceleration in the twin-chamber rotor .

impact wall .

shelf.

## The large size of the rotor and housing eliminates the

risk of clogging.

## The crushing is influenced and optimized by rotation

speed.

137
ROTOR CENTRIFUGAL CRUSHER

138
ATTRIBUTES OF COMMINUTION.

## 1. Shape of the comminuted particles,

2. Effect of cleavage ,
3. Sizes present in the comminuted product,
4. Relative abundance of particles of different sizes.

## Energy is spend - as Kinetic energy.

Energy recovered as - Potential energy ( surface energy ) + heat + sound.

## ratio of the surface energy produced to the kinetic energy expended.

139
140
SIZING.

The screen is a surface with many apertures or holes, usually with uniform
dimensions.

## Particles of different sizes are presented to that surface .

The undersize material will pass through and oversize materials will be retained.

Thus the incoming material is sorted out according to aperture size of the screen.

## Further processing depends on the size of ore.

141
WHAT IS THE NEED FOR SCREENING?

## (a) SIZING OR CLASSIFYING - to separate particles by size, usually to provide a downstream

unit process with the particle size range suited to that unit operation;

(b) SCALPING - to remove the coarsest size fractions in the feed material, usually so that they
can be crushed or removed from the process;

(c) GRADING - to prepare a number of products within specified size ranges. This is important
in quarrying and iron ore, where the final product size is an important part of the specification;

(d) MEDIA RECOVERY - for washing magnetic media from ore in dense medium circuits;

## (e) DEWATERING - to drain free moisture from a wet sand slurry;

(f) DE-SLIMING OR DE-DUSTING - to remove fine material, generally below 0.5 mm from a wet
or dry feed; and

(g) TRASH REMOVAL - usually to remove wood fibres from a fine slurry stream.
142
SIZING.

## Separation of particles according to their size.

Methods Screening ( Sieving ) , Classification ( Elutriation - process for separating
lighter particles from heavier ones using a vertically directed stream of gas / liquid )
and microscopic methods.
Screening The crushed ore is spread on a mesh of particular aperture size
and shape.
The material gets separated into oversize and undersize.
A size distribution is obtained with different meshes with
decreasing aperture sizes.

143
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SCREENING EFFICIENCY.
SCREENING EFFICIENCY- Weight of grains of given size in the screened product /
their weight in the supplied feed.

1. PARTICLE SHAPE.

## They are assumed to be spherical / cubic.

Consider -
1. A square meshed sieve.

## 2.It has a linear distance A between successive parallel wires. A

3. Surface S in the square = K / ( A. ) K= constant 60 for cubic, 50 for oblong, 240 for
laminar etc. = Specific gravity of the mineral.

144
PARTICLE SHAPES

145
1. PARTICLE SHAPE.

spherical.

orientation.

## Irregular-shaped near-mesh particles must orient themselves

in a direction that permits them to pass.

## Elongated and slab like particles will present a small cross-

section for passage in some orientations and a large cross-
section in others.

## The extreme particle shapes therefore have a low screening

efficiency.

146
2. SIZE OF SCREEN OPENING.

## The chance of a particle passing through the aperture is proportional to the

percentage of open area in the screen material ( i.e., the ratio of the net area
of the
apertures to the whole area of the screening surface ).

## Open area decreases with the fineness of the screen aperture.

Use of very thin and fragile wires for deck construction increases the open area
of a
fine screen.
Near mesh size particles tend to peg or plug the apertures
and reduces the screen efficiency.

147
3. RELATIVE SIZES OF PARTICLE AND OPENING.
It controls the passage / non passage of the particles.
A small particle can fall easily through the sieve opening.
As its size approaches that of the opening, it becomes increasingly difficult to fall
through the opening.

## Passage of particles through a wire screen- normal incidence-

Case1. Wires have small cross section compared to the openings.

## a screen aperture, d particle diameter.

If the particle strikes the screen NORMALLY, it
will not go undeflected through the opening.

## To go undeflected, the particle should be at

the center of the opening.

## For wires of small cross section, probability of

passage p = [ ( a-d ) / a ]2.

148
RELATIVE SIZES OF PARTICLE AND OPENING.

## Passage of particles through a wire screen- normal incidence-

Case2. Wires have larger cross section .

## For wires of large cross section, probability of

passage p = [ ( a-d ) / ( a+b ) ]2.

149
4. ANGLE OF INCIDENCE OF PARTICLES ON SCREENS.

It is an important parameter.

The particle should fall with its minimum cross section , normal to the
aperture .

## The fall should be slow.

As the deviation from normal increases, the chance of passage of the particle
decreases.

## In practice, particles fall in all angles at very high speed.

The screen angle also affects the

## speed at which particles are conveyed along the screen,

dwell time on the screen and
number of opportunities particles have to pass through the screen.

150
5. PERCENTAGE OF SCREEN AREA OPENING.
More the area of opening, faster will be the rate of screening

## 6. FRICTION OF THE SIEVE.

Friction of the screen makes bunches of fine, dried particles.
It is due to static electricity.
Several undersized particles make a bunch and find difficult to pass
through the screen.
They may be wrongly reported as oversize particles.
Bunching increases with temperature- screening is to be done in
cool rooms.
7. MOISTURE CONTENT.
Very dry particles / wet pulp can be easily screened.
Difficult to screen dry particles with small amount of water .
Dampness causes particles sticking together or clinging to screen surface.

151
8. SOLUBLE SALTS.
Soluble salts adhering to particles increase effective cross section
of the particles- wrong report of sieve analysis.

## 9. SPREADING OF FEED OVER SCREEN AREA.

If the feed is spread wider on the screen, it is easier for the
particles to pass through the openings.

## 10.CORROSION OF SCREEN MATERIAL.

This produces roughness on the sieve and changes the opening
size.
Stainless steel sieves may be used.

152
153
WHEN AND WHERE?

Material for size analysis is collected from the crushing section, the grinding section
or closed circuit return / discharge .

Material from the crushing section - to assess the work done by the crusher and the
work to be done by the subsequent grinder.

Material from the mill discharge of grinding section to assess the size distribution
of discharged particles.

Material from closed circuit return- to asses sizes of materials returned for further
grinding.

Material from closed circuit discharge- to assess whether the valuables are properly
liberated for further concentration.

154
NEED.
Lab sizing tests are done to check
1. Progress of the material at various stages of treatment,
2. The efficiency of power and
3. The effect of grinding on the recovery of values from the
ore.

## Lab. screening is normally done upto 40 microns ( making

sieves with accuracy below this is difficult).

## The apertures ( meshes ) of sieve- they are reference points

telling whether particles will pass through them or not. This
depends on the cross sectional area of the particles.

## A screen- an assembly of various apertures to test many

particles at the same time.

155
THE SCREEN.
Screens are circular shells of brass 8 dia and 2 ht.
Screen cloth is at the bottom of the shell.
Screens nest in each other in order of decreasing size.
A complete set has a cover and bottom pan.

156
THE TECHNIQUES.
Dry or wet screening is done in a laboratory.

## Wet screening is done to

remove the unwanted particles,
remove the undersized particles,
dissolve the dried-on salts and

Wet screening- Dry the sample and weigh it. Disperse it in water having sodium
silicate ( water glass Na2SiO3 binds colloidal material).

## The oversize is dried and screened using desired set of sieves.

157
1. HAND SCREENING.

Three screens are assembled ( NEST of SIEVES )- the coarsest at the top and the
finest at the bottom.

The sieves should not have any defect and they are brushed to clear the apertures
before assembly.

The final undersize product is collected in a pan, tightly fitting the third screen.

The sieves should closely fit to prevent loss of fines during sieving.

## For good screening ideal load is one particle deep.

normally upto four particles deep are loaded with good
accuracy.

158
The assembly is held in the right hand and struck against the palm of the left hand.

The sieve assembly is rotated by 60O and the direction of shaking is changed every
30 seconds.

## ( Eg:-friable materials should not be screened with shock for

longer period- they disintegrate).

## The undersize is removed and sieve analysis is carried out.

159
2. AUTOMATIC SCREENING.

## Normally used for lab. work.

Upto 6 standard screens ( sometimes 12 ) with the bottom pan are assembled on a
framework of a mechanical shaker.
Normal operating time 5-20 minutes.
In the Tyler machine, the material on the screen is given a continuous circular
motion.
A blow is given to the nest of sieves once for each revolution.

## MOST SATISFACTORY SCREENING RESULT EACH SCREEN SHOULD CONTAIN

MATERIAL REDUIRED TO FORM ONE LAYER OF ONE PARTICLE DEEP.

Limitation- Fine particles may adhere to coarse particles or to each other through
electrostatic action.
It can be prevented by wet-cum-dry screening.

160
161
TYPES OF SCREENS.
1)sheet metal with round or square holes. The apertures will be
flaring out and down ward for easy fall of particles.

## 2)woven or welded rods/wires ( coarse sieve- steel wire. Fine

sieve- brass (95% Cu, 5% Zn ) / bronze (88% Cu,12%Sn ) wire.

The mesh defined as the number of apertures ( holes ) per unit length
( inch or cm).
Different countries use wires of different thicknesses to make the sieve.
This causes difference in the aperture size of the screens used in different
countries.
So standards are employed.

U.S.A - TYLOR,
American Standard Testing of Materials (ASTM E 11-70).
UK - British standard ( B.S 410-62, 410-69),
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy (IMM- London).
FRANCE - AFNOR X 11-501 (Association Franaise de Normalisation).
GERMANY- DIN 4188-1957 (Deutsches Institut fr Normung - The German
Institute for Standardization) .
INDIA - IS 460-1962 .

162
LOGOS OF VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS.

163
TYPES OF SIEVES
Typical openings in laboratory sieve series
Sieve size (mm) BSS [6] Tyler (approx) US (approx)
4.75 - 4 4
The aperture of a 3.35 5 6 6
2.81 6 7 7
standard mesh varies 2.38 7 8 8
from one another by 2.00 8 9 10
1.68 10 10 12
1.414 [ i.e (2)1/2 ]. 1.40 12 12 14
1.20 14 14 16
1.00 16 16 18
Eg :- in Tyler series- Mesh 0.853 18 20 20
no 200 aperture width 0.710 22 24 25
74 microns 0.599 25 28 30
0.500 30 32 35
0.422 36 35 40
150- 74 * 1.414 = 104 s. 0.354 44 42 45
0.297 52 48 50
( next larger size) 0.251 60 60 60
0.211 72 65 70
0.178 85 80 80
250- 74 / 1.414 = 53 s. 0.152 100 100 100
0.125 120 115 120
0.104 150 150 140
0.089 170 170 170
0.075 200 200 200
0.066 240 250 230
0.053 300 270 270
0.044 350 325 325
0.037 440 400 400

164
SIEVE ANALYSIS

165
TYPES OF SCREENS.

## IMM- - wire dia = width of aperture-

gives 25% screening area.
ASTM - wires are thinner
gives 30% screening area.
BS - still thinner wires-
gives 40% screening area.

## GREATER THE SCREENING AREA HIGHER THE

SCREEING RATE ( screens will be of less
strength).

## Number of apertures in a screen is INVERSELY

PROPORTIONAL to ( Aperture ) 2.

166
PRESENTATION OF SEIVE ANALYSIS.

## Size m mm Actual % Cummulative * %

+13.33 0.74 0.74
-13.33 + 9.423 2.60 3.34
-9.423 + 6.680 11.41 14.75
-6.680 + 4.699 32.12 46.87
-4.699 + 3.327 18.34 65.21
-3.327 + 2.362 11.05 76.26
-2.362 + 1.651 7.13 83.39
-1.651 + 1.168 4.83 88.22
-1.168 + 0.833 3.33 91.55
-0.833 + 0.589 2.30 93.85
-0.589 + 0.417 1.71 95.96
-0.417 + 0.295 1.33 96.89
-0.295 + 0.208 0.94 97.83
-0.208 + 0.147 0.70 98.53
-0.147 + 0.104 0.52 99.05
-0.104 + 0.074 0.33 99.38
-0.074 0.62 100.0
100.00

*increasing by

167
PRESENTATION OF SEIVE ANALYSIS.

% retained

Size, mm

% retained
By

## Direct charting ( weight frequency plot).

168
Size, mm
SUB SIEVE SIZING.

## Normally sieving is done in labs upto 70 microns size.

There may be a lot of material unsized.
Sub sieving is done to size particles less than 70 microns in size.

## Methods used are

SEDIMENTATION,
ELUTRIATION,
INFRA SIZING,
PERMEABILITY METHOD AND
MICROSCOPIC MEHTODS.

169
SUB SIEVE SIZING.
1. SEDIMENTATION.
It is based on the FALLING RATE of SMALL PARTCLES through STATIC LIQUIDS.

## The settling action is stopped by withdrawing

( siphoning out )
the fluid medium after the fixed time.

## Sedimentation method is used to size down to 5 -2 microns.

170
SUB SIEVE SIZING.

2. ELUTRIATION.
The fall of a particle due to its mass is retarded by the friction
between the particles and the rising column of fluid.

## When a large number of spheres having the same specific

gravity move in a rising column of water
the smaller ones rise,
the medium ones dance in a diluted layer,
the larger ones fall through the water.

## This behaviour of the spheres depends on the chances of

collision and Kinetic energy gained during rising or falling.

## This principle is used to separate out particles.

171
IN THE PROCESS OF ELUTRIATION-
Particles falling in a rising fluid can be classified into two sizes.
HOW? The fluid is rising with a certain velocity.
The particles having terminal velocities > this velocity will settle at the bottom of
the sorting column.
The particles having terminal velocities < this velocity will be lifted to the top of
the sorting column.
This will be carried away to the next tube containing sorting liquid.
The process repeats.
Terminal velocity of a fluid is calculated from Stokes law.

## Re = ( 2 r Vm ) /, = Reynolds number - a dimensionless number that gives a measure

of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous force

Vm= ( 2/9 ) * [( - ) r2 g ] / .
STOKES LAW
= Sp gr of particle,
Theforce that retards a sphere moving through a viscous fluid
= Sp gr of fluid medium, is directly proportional to
r = radius of the particle, the velocity of the sphere, the radius of the sphere
= viscosity of the medium, and the viscosity of the fluid.
Vm = terminal velocity of the particle.
g = gravitational acceleration
172
Keep the volumetric flow rate of the rising fluid constant.

Now the velocity of the rising fluid in the columns depends on the column diameters.

Narrow dia column gives high velocity - This allows coarser particles to settle.

Larger dia columns gives lower velocity - This allows finer particles to settle.

## They separate particles of different sizes.

173
ELUTRIATION.
The laboratory BLITHE ELUTRIATOR consists of

## i) Water supply at constant head,

ii) Flow rate controller for the water rising
through the elutriator,
iii) A sorting tube with smooth and parallel sides
and
iv) Separate vessels ( receptacles ) to catch the
overflowing and under flowing particles.

174
3. INFRASIZING .
This can size materials that are finer than those handled by sedimentation or
elutriation.

The process-
A current of air is sent with miniumum turbulence through a series of tubes.

## Electrostatic effects on the particles is reduced / removed by using conducting

rubber in the flexible connections.

175
4. MICROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS.

## A metallurgical microscope is used for this purpose.

The microscope has calibrated stage.
The ore particles are sprinkled or dispersed on the stage.
Linear measurement of each particle is done separately.
Average size of particle is calibrated in the lot of material
sprinkled.

## Can make actual measurements upto 0.5 micron level.

Even finer particles can be measured with microscopes having
better resolution.

## This method is unsuitable if sizes of particles differ very much

since -
1. larger particles may cover finer particles and may
not be visible
2. all particles may not be in focus,
3. fine particles may stick to larger particles.

176
MICROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS.
Place an engraved linear scale ( Ocular - glass ) in the
eyepiece.Keep a micrometer on the stage.
Both the scales are correlated for a particular magnification.
Remove the stage micrometer.
Keep the specimen to be measured.
Measure with the ocular.

177
.

178
COMMINUTION OF ORES
INDUSTRIAL SCREENING.
INTRODUCTION.
Two methods- Screening and Classification.

## Screening - used to screen particles of several inches in size to particles as fine

as 0.1 mm.
Normally used to size coarser than 20 mesh screens.

## Classification - used to classify particles of 2-3 mm sizes to 0.02-0.03 mm.

Normally used to size finer than 35 mesh screens.
SCREENING:-
Done to
1. prevent oversized particles from entering a machine, not suitable for
them.
2. to separate undersized particles from the feed to a crushing machine
which is meant to crush larger pieces,
3. to separate minerals/ ores into specified sizes and
4. to prepare a correctly sized feed for a given, subsequent concentration
process. 179
SCREENING.

## Screening surfaces are of three types-

1.Parallel rods-
Made of steel bars, rails, cast iron or
wood. They have tapered section.

2.Punched plates-
like holes are punched. PICS
Square apertures give more screening area.
Circular holes are better for coarse particles.

## 3.Woven wire screening surface-

Carefully gauged wires ( Steel, copper,
bronze ) are woven or placed in two perpendicular
directions equally and welded.
180
TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL SCREENS
INDUSTRIAL SCREENS
WET & DRY.
FIXED SCREENS MOVING SCREENS

GRIZZLIES

## ROLL SCREENS SHAKING CONVEYING

SCREENS SCREENS
FLAT SCREENS REVOLVING
SCREENS
PUNCHED SCREENS VIBRATING SCREENS TROMMELS ( REELS )

MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL

181
SCREENING - FIXED SCREENS.

1.GRIZZLY.

## It is used to protect primary crushers against overload.

They are made of steel or wooden bars having a rectangular cross
section.
The bars have taper from feed end to discharge end.
The bars are held together by cross rods or by bolts.
The stationary grizzly is set at a slope of 25-50o helps in the free
slide of the ore.

VARIANTS-

## 1. Moving bar Grizzly- Alternate bars rise and subside .

Helps in the forward movement of the material with TURNING OVER.
2. Roll grizzly- A series of grooved rollers are driven in the same
direction. The rollers remove oversized lumps.
3. Grizzlies can be vibrated mechanically or electrically or by impact
of falling ore lumps.

182
VIBRATING GRIZZLY

183
2. ROLL SCREENS.
A bank of rolls are arranged in the form of a cascade.
They provide square apertures between adjacent rolls.
Used to screen finer sizes ( 10-100 mm) of HARDER ORES.
Costly, Less efficient.

3. FLAT SCREENS.
They are inclined- helps in the flow of material.
They are given periodic motion helps in rolling /bouncing of PICS
the ore lumps .
Lumps / particles screened depend upon
1. length of the screen ( increased length, better performance ),
2. slope of the screen ( increased slope, lesser particles are
screened ),
3. amplitude of vibration ( should be just sufficient to clear the screen ),
4. frequency of vibration ,
5. depth of particle bed on the deck ( 5-6 particles deep for optimum
screening efficiency).

184
SCREENING MOVING SCREENS.
1.TROMMELS ( REVOLVING SCREENS-REELS ) .
They are rotating cylindrical shells of screen material
( punched sheet ).
They are 3-4 ft in dia and 5-10 ft long.
The material to be screened flows into the shell.
The shell rotates.
The shell is kept in an inclined position.
The particles move towards the discharge ( lower ) end.
The undersize particles are collected at the bottom.

## Two types of operation.

1. Cylinders are in one line-finest screen first, coarsest last.
The first cylinder is fed with the crushed ore.
Very fine particles are separated.
The coarse oversize is fed to the next screen and the process continues.
2. Compound ( concentric ) trommel.
Screens are made to rotate on a single shaft.
The coarsest screen is the innermost and the finest screen is the
outermost. Shells shaft

185
TROMMELS STATIONARY AND MOVING
COMPOUND TROMMEL TROMMEL IN SERIES

187
2. FLAT SCREENS.
Most used screens in mineral dressing can screen medium coarse
and fine particles ( 250 mm and 0.2 mm).
They have one or more decks.
They work at low slopes.
The screens are given reciprocating motion straight line,
perpendicular, circular or oblique movements.
Rapid , low amplitude vibrations give higher capacity and
efficiency.

## 1.Production of suitable reciprocating motion,

2.Even transmission of this motion to the whole screen,
3.Nontransmission of this motion to screen supporting structure,
4.Dust proofing vital parts,
5.Ease of replacement of worn screens.

188
FLAT SCREEN

VIBRATION ISOLATORS
189
3. VIBRATING SCREENS
Have one or more decks working at low slopes.
Used for medium coarse and fine screening ( 250 mm and 0.2 mm)
Screens are given a vibratory motion.
Rapid low amplitude vibration higher capacity and efficiency.

## a) ELECTRICALLY VIBRATED SCREENS.

They use electromagnetic devices.

## Amplitude is controlled by regulating the voltage given to

the magnetic coils.

## Eg:- Hum-mer screen.

Jeffry-Traylor screen.

190
SCREENING - VIBRATING SCREENS.

spinning.

## PLAT O SCREEN- unbalanced flywheel induces

mechanical vibration.

## TYLER-NIAGARA SCREEN The mechanical

vibrations are provided by eccentric motion.

## SYMONS SCREEN- It provides a gyratory motion

generated by an unbalanced weight.

## The screen is operated in horizontal position.

191
SCREENING - SHAKING SCREENS.

## They have plane surface.

They are used to sort dry and soft materials normally for coal preparation.

## Shaking is done sidewise or endwise.

The material gets lifted and thrown forward when the screen moves to the front.

## When it moves back, the material is tossed in air.

This causes largest particles on top and allows smaller ones to pass through the
mesh.

192
BLINDING of SCREENS by

## Cleaning at regular intervals is recommended.

193
OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SCREENS
SCREENING CAPACITY ( tonnes / sq meter/ mm screen aperture / day)

Depends on
1)area of the screening surface,
2)size of the opening,
3)specific gravity, moisture content, temperature, proportion of fines etc of the ore.
4)type of screening mechanism used.

## Type of screen capacity range (ore)

(tonnes/sq m/mm aperture/day)
Grizzlies 10-50
Trommels 3-20 .
Shaking screens 20-80
Vibrating screens 50-200

## Capacity decreases with increasing oversize fraction.

Capacity is more for oblong apertures than square apertures.

194
SCREENING EFFICIENCY.
Is a measure of the effectiveness of the actual screening operation, as compared to the
perfect screening operation.

## Efficiency E = % recovery of the true undersize material in actual undersize product

= ( 10,000) U / uF.
U= tonnage passing through the screen for each F tonnes of feed.
u= % undersize in the feed ( from Lab screen result ).

## Limitations of the formula- It does not take into account-

1.particles that are JUST FINER than a GIVEN SCREEN OPENING are difficult to screen out.

2.particles much finer than the screen opening are easily screened out.

## So, same screen, on different feeds may show different efficiencies.

Screening efficiency is related to dwelling time of the passing material and the opening
available during its passage.

195
Increased by

## 1. Increased % of the screen openings to passage of the undersized particles,

2. Smoothness of screen wires,
3. Suitability of aperture shape to the average particle shape and
4. Increased transit time.

## 1. Increased rate of feed,

2. Increased % of near mesh grains,
3. Increased thickness of bed,
4. Increased moisture content and
5. Lack of response of screening surface to vibratory motion provided.

196
OPERATING COST.

## No operating cost for stationary screens,

Power cost for moving screens,
Low labour charges,
Cost of replacing screens.

## 1. There should be good tension on the screen in the frame,

2. The combined effect of vibration, speed and amplitude must be optimised,
3. There should be low moisture content in the feed,
4. The vibrating strokes should be equally distributed in all parts of the screen,
5. Feed should be spread entire width of the screen.

197
198