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Biology Chapter 1

1. The movement of substances in and out of cells occurs across plasma membrane.
2. The Plasma Membrane: is a semi-permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells that controls water and
certain substances in and out of the cell.
3. Function of the Plasma Membrane:
a. _______________________
b. _______________________
c. _______________________
4. Necessities for the Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane:
a. _______________________
b. _______________________
c. _______________________
d. _______________________
protein molecules carbohydrate molecule

outside of cell
glycoprotein
( )

phospholipid
bilayer

inside of cell
(cytoplasm) protein molecules
Diagram: The fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane

5. The plasma membrane consists mainly of phospholipids and proteins.


6. Each phospholipid molecules consist of 2 parts:
-a polar hydrophilic head (hydro=water, philic=love)
-a non-polar hyrophobic tail (hydro=water, phobic=hate)
Phospholipid molecule
Phosphate
glycerol
group

two fatty acid molecules


Arrangement of phospholipid molecules in the cell membrane:
outside of cell

The _____________ heads


face the aqueous
environment inside and
outside of cell.

inside of cell
The ___________
tails point inwards.

6. The plasma membrane display the fluid mosaic model (FMM).


7. FMM:
a. - phospholipids, proteins and other components of membrane are not rigid or static.
- the protein molecules float freely in phospholipid bilayer.
b. -the proteins and phospholipids can move side-by-side within membrane. It shows fluid
characteristic.
8. Contains cholesterol stabilize and strengthen plasma membrane
9. Pore/channel protein forms channel/pore
10. Carrier protein acts as carrier
11. Glycoprotein protein with carbohydrate attached Act as cell-cell recognition
12. Glycolipid lipid with carbohydrate attached

Movement of substances across membranes


Diffusion
Particles of liquids and gases can move about freely. They tend to distribute evenly. Diffusion is the
net movement of particles down a ____________ _____________, i.e. from a region of _____________
(higher / lower) concentration to a region of _____________ (higher / lower) concentration, until the
particles become evenly distributed.

When the particles are evenly distributed, there is no _____________ movement of particles between the
two regions but the particles are still moving _____________ in all directions.

Diffusion is a _____________ process and does not require _____________.

concentration gradient exists particles are evenly distributed

higher lower particles move randomly in all directions


concentration concentration
net movement of particles

Diffusion
Factors affecting the rate of diffusion:
Factor Effect on the rate of diffusion

Concentration gradient
The steeper the concentration gradient is, the (8) _____________ the
rate of diffusion.

Temperature At higher temperatures, particles have (9)_____________ kinetic


energy and collide (10)_____________ frequently, resulting in a
(11)_____________ rate of diffusion.

Size of particles Small particles diffuse (12) _____________ than large particles.

Distance
The (13) _____________ the distance is between two regions of
different concentrations, the higher the rate of diffusion.

Surface area
For the diffusion through a membrane, the (14) _____________ the
surface area of the membrane is, the higher the rate of diffusion.

Diffusion is important for:

_____________ of materials between the cell and the environment, e.g. obtaining
_____________ and nutrients, and removing (17) _____________ like carbon dioxide
allowing substances in cells to be (18) _____________ throughout the cytoplasm.

Osmosis
Osmosis is the net movement of _____________ molecules through a _____________
_____________ membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution. It is a (21)
_____________ process and does not require _____________. _____________ _____________ describes
the tendency of water molecules to move from one place to another.

Pure water has the _____________ (highest / lowest) water potential which is defined as _____________.
The presence of solute particles _____________ (raises / lowers) the water potential of a solution. All
solutions have a water potential lower than that of pure water, i.e. a _____________ value.

Osmosis can be redefined as the net movement of water molecules from a region of _____________ (higher
/ lower) water potential to a region of _____________ (higher / lower) water potential.
differentially permeable membrane

water molecule

sucrose molecule

higher water potential lower water potential


(dilute sucrose solution) (concentrated sucrose
solution)

net movement of water molecules


Osmosis
The Movements of Substances Across The Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life
1. What is Hypotonic Solution?
Hypotonic solution is the solution with a lower solute concentration. (Hypo=less).

2. Water Concentration and Solute Concentration of a Cell in a Hypotonic Solution:


Water concentration: Water concentration inside the cell is lower than outside the cell.
Solute Concentration: Solute concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell.

3. What is Isotonic Solution?


In isotonic solutions, both solutions have equal concentration of solutes. (iso=same).

4. Water Concentration and Solute Concentration of a Cell in a Isotonic Solution


Water concentration and solute concentration are equal in both solutions.

5. What is Hypertonic Solution?


Hypotonic solution is the solution with a higher solute concentration. (Hyper=more).

6. Water Concentration and Solute Concentration of a Cell in a Hypertonic Solution


Water concentration: Water concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell.
Solute Concentration: Solute concentration inside the cell is lower than outside the cell.

7. The movement of water across plasma membrane is determine by the concentration of the
substances in the interstitial fluid which bathes (membasahi) cells.
8. Since living cells need to be in the stable internal environment, the interstitial fluid of animal
cells is usually isotonic to the cytoplasmic fluid within the cells.
WHY MUST BE ISOTONIC?
To ensure the shape of the cell remains same and prevent the cells
from shrinking or swelling.

Animal & plant cells in


Isotonic solutions
9. If an animal cell such as red blood cell (RBC) is placed into an isotonic solution, amount of water
molecules is transported into the red blood cells by osmosis is equal to the amount of water
molecules transported out from the cell (as shown in the diagram beside).
10. Therefore the amount of water in the cell remain unchanged (no net movement of water across
plasma membrane).
11. The red blood cells maintain their shape.
12. When a plant cell is placed in an isotonic solution, solute concentration in the external solution is
equal to the solute concentration in the cell sap.
13. Therefore the rate of diffusion of water into the cell is equal to the rate of diffusion of water out
from the cell.
14. As a result, the shape of the cell remains unchanged.
Animal & plant cells in
Hypotonic solutions
15. If an animal cell such as red blood cell is placed into a hypotonic solution, water molecules is
transported into the red blood cells by osmosis.
16. The red blood cells will inflate and finally burst because the thin membrane cannot withstand
the high pressure inside the cell.
17. The red blood cells are said to undergo haemolysis.
18.When a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water molecules is transported into the cell by
osmosis.
19. The water is then stored in vacuole causing it to expand and exerts pressure on the cell wall. This
pressure is called turgor pressure.
20. The turgor pressure caused the plant cell to become firm or turgid.
21. The rigid cell wall prevents cell from bursting.
22. Turgidity of a plant cells is also responsible for causing the GUARD CELLS in leaves to swell so that
stomata can remain open for photosynthesis.

Animal & plant cells in Hypertonic solutions


23. If an animal cell such as red blood cell is placed into a hypertonic solution, water molecules is
transported out from the red blood cells by osmosis .
24. The red blood cells will shrink or crenate because of the lost of water from the cell and probably
die.
25. The red blood cells are said to undergo crenation.
26. When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water molecules is transported out from the
cell by osmosis.
27. The vacuole and cytoplasm are then shrink due to lost of water.
28. The plasma membrane is pulled away from the cell wall.
29. The cell wall maintain its shape.
30. The process is called plasmolysed.
31. If a plasmolysed plant cell is immersed back (direndam semula) in a hypotonic solution, the cell
become turgid again. This condition is called deplasmolysed.