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Just Listen "n Learn

RUSSI

H,alya Coynash

Series advisers ,",'sner J'enkins Duncan SidweH AI Wolff

Contents

How [0 use this course 4 I Talking about yourself 7

2 Talking about. yourself and others 21

3 Asking for and receiving information 35 4 Ordering drinks and snacks 47

5 Getting what you want in shops (I) 59 6 Getting what you wantin shops (2) 73

7 Understanding and asking about time 85

8 Asking for and understanding directions 97 9 Making travel arrangements 109

10 Ordering a meal 123

11 Expressing likes and dislikes 135

12 Talking about your town and the weather 147 13 Giving more information about yourself 163 14 Stating your intentions 179

15 Discussing what you have done 195 Grammar summary 211

Vocabulary 214

Index 222

HOW TO US,E THIS COURSE

Following this course will help you. to understand, speak and read most of the Russian you are likely to need on vacation or business trips. The course is based on recordings made in Moscow. You will hear ordinary Russians and other Russian-speakers in everyday situations. Step by step you will learn first to understand what they are saying and then to speak in similar situations yourself.

Before producing the Course we talked to many people about why and how they learn languages. We know how important it is for learning to be enjoyable - and for it to be usable from the beginning. There is not a lot of point in knowing all the complexities of Russian grammar .ifyou can't ask for a cup of coffee! There is a grammar section in each unit, but its main. function will be to help you to understand and use the language.

We have introduced the Cyrillic alphabet in the first five units, Do remember that it is difficult to learn an entirely new alphabet, and that it takes time. The exercises in each unit will help you to Learn the letters, as will writing out the new words and phrases you meet.

in the first five units we have transliterated all the words, that is, we have provided the nearest equivalents in Latin script [0 the Russian sounds. You will see that the spelli ng and pronunciation of Russian words do not always correspond! A few guidelines are given on pagesS and 6, but our best advice would be to listen as much as possible to the native speakers on your recording and follow their pronunciation.

General hints to help you use the course

.' Have confidence in us! Real language is complex and you will find certain things in every unit which are not explained in detail. Don't worry about this. We will build up your knowledge slowly, selecting only what is most important to know at each stage.

'. Try to study regularly, but in short periods. 20-30 minutes each day is usually better than 4 hours once a week.

• To help you learn [0 speak, say the words and phrases out. loud whenever possible.

• If you don't understand something, leave it: for a while. Learning a language is a bit like doing a jigsaw or a crossword puzzle; there are, many ways to tackle it. and it falls into place eventually .

• ' Don't be afraid to write in your book and add your own notes.

• Do revise frequently. (There are revision sections after every three units.) It also helps to get somebody to lest you - they don't need to understand Russian. '. If you can possibly learn with somebody else, you will be able to help each other and practice the language together.

• Learning Russian may take more time than you thought. Just be patient and above all don t get angry with yourself.

Suggested study pattern

Each unit of the course consists of approximately thirteen pages in the book and around ten minutes of recordings, The first page of each unit will tell you what you are going to learn and you will also find our Study guide there. The Study guide tells you the best way (we think) 1.0 tackle a unit. As you progress with the course you may find that you evolve a method of study which suits you better. Thai's fine" but we suggest you keep to our pattern at least for the first three units, or you may find you are not taking full advantage of all the possibilities offered by the material.

The book contains step-by-step instructions for work ing through the course: when to use the book on its own, when to use the recording on its own, when to use them both together, and how to' use them in each case, On the recording our presenter Andrei Bell will guide you through the various sections. Here is an outline of the study pattern proposed.

4

Dialogues

Key words and phrases

Practice whatyou have/earned

Grammar

Alphabet and Read and understand

Did you know?

Your turn to speak

Answers

Listen to the dialogues, first without stopping, and get a feel for the task ahead. Then go over each dialogue or suggested group of dialogues in conjunction with the vocabulary and the notes. You should get into the habit of playing the recording repeatedly to give yourself time to think.fisten to sentences a number of times, and repeat them after the speakers. Don't leave a dialogue until you are confident that you have at least understood it.

Study this list of the most important words. and phrases from the dialogues. If possible, try to learn them by heart. They will be practiced in the rest of the unit.

After each group of dialogues there are some listening and speaking exercises. To do them, you will need to work closely with the book. You will,. for instance, often be asked to listen to a piece on the recording and then fill in answers or mark off boxes in the book. Or you will be asked to write an exercise and then check the answers on the recording. Use your PAUSE/STOP and REWIND or REPEAT buttons to give yourself time to think. Normally ill the last exercise you will have an opportunity to practise the most important language in the preceding dialogues,

At this stage in a unit things should begin 10 fall into place and you are ready fOJ the grammar section. If you really don't like grammar you will still learn a lot without studying this part, but most people quite enjoy finding out how the language they are learning actually works and how it is put together; In each unit we have selected just one or two major grammar points.

In these sections you will practise reading and using the Cyrillic alphabet, and, later, understanding signs, menus and so on which you may come across in Russia.

In this section you wiJI be given Some practical background information about Russia.

Finally back to the recording for some more practice. this time using the main words and phrases of the whole unit. The book only gives you an outline of the exercises, so you will be listening 10 the recording and responding. Forlhe first half of the units you will usually be asked 10 take part in a conversation where you hear a question or statement in Russian, followed by a suggestion in English as 1.0 how you might reply. You then give your reply in Russian and listen to see if you were right. You will probably have to go over these spoken exercises a few times .

. In the later units. as you become more confident, we will suggest situations which you might expect to encounter in Russia. Try these first yourself, and then tum on your recording to see how a Russian might talk on the same theme.

The answers to all the exercises (except those given in the recording) can be found on the lasl page of each unit.

At the back of the book

p.211 a grammar summary which covers the main rules of Russian grammar for those who wish to study them in greater detail than the main part of this course provides

p.214 a Russian-English vocabulary list containing all the words in tile course, plus a short index of words and topics

Symbols and abbreviations

For cassettes:

For CD players:

If your cassette recorder has II counter, set iI· to zero at the start of each uni t and then note the number in the headphone symbol at the beginning of each dialogue. This will help you. to find the righ[ place on the [ape quickly when you want [0 wind back.

Your player will locate each unit as a track number. Note the number from your

5

display at the beginning of each dialogue. This will help you find the right place on your disk when you want to repeat play .

., This indicates an important word or phrase in the dialogues.

m. masculine sing. singular

f. feminine pl. plural

n. neuter lit. literally

The Cyrillic alphabet a.nd the trausllteration used in this course

a [a] 6 [b) (v] (g) [d) e rye] e [yo] )K [zh] 3 [z] H Ii] or, sometimes, [eel l1: [y] K [k] 11 [I] M [m] H In] o [0] n [pI All letters given in square brackets reflect pronunciation.

B r II

[r]

[5]

[t]

(1.1]

[fJ [Ich] Its] [eb] Ish] [shch] [e] [yu] [ya] n

[y lor, sometimes, [i]

- not transliterated in the course)

p

c

T

x

II

'I ill

3 10

.~ b

bl (b

As you can see, such a list is only useful for reference, since it can only approximately give the Russian pronunciation. Furthermore there are features of Russian which make our transliteration, based as it is on actual pronunciation, deviate from this norm. Most importantly:

(i) 0 is pronounced [01 when it is the stressed syllable and closer to [a] when not stressed.

A similar change occurs with 51 [ya] which can sound like [i] the further it is from the stressed syllable. It must, in fact, be acknowledged that any vowel sound which is not in stressed position may become blurred and even indistinguishable from other vowel sounds. Since this applies especially to the many different noun endings, such a situation can be very convenient for the learner!

(ii) Certain consonants sound more like others in particular combinations or at the end of a word, For example: B [v] will be closer to If] before C [5] and some other consonants. We wouldstress that this is no! a rule as such; but simply what the vocal chords force us to do (compare the English absorb v absorption).

Stress

From the above examples, you have seen how important stress - where you put the emphasis on a word - is in Russian. The stress can often change in accordance with a word's role ina sentence. Unfortunately there are no simple rules to help the learner. This need not inhibit you in speaking: a word wrongly stressed will probably be understood. However it is crucial! to be aware of these possible changes, since pronunciation is sometimes radically altered. Most of the stresses are marked in this book, so that you can become accustomed to them. Russians do Dot, however, normally mark them ill the written script.

6

You will learn.

• common greetings in' Russian

• to introduce yourself and people you are with

• to ask somebody's name

• to ask and reply to simple questions about nationality, etc

and you will read about the different forms a Rus ian name can take and when each j used

Before you begin

Always listen to the dialogues at least once before following them in your book. Don't worry if you can't make out every word. Try to follow the gist without being distracted by unfamiliar words. The more accustomed you are to the sound of the Russian language, the easier it will be to read the script. So don't hurry, and above all do not despair - all will fit into place!

In Unit I you will hear people greeting each other, introducing themselves and asking about others. We will be introducing the Cyrillic alphabet over the first five lessons with all dialogues in both Cyrillic and Latin scripts. Before turning to the first dialogues in your book, you willfind it useful to read the section on the alphabet on page 15. See how many of the Russian words you can make out.

And now: >KemieM ycnexa' [zhilayim uspyekha] we wish you success!

Study guide

To help you check your progress, mark off the Sllldy guide list as you complete the tasks in each unit.

Dialogues 1. 2: listen without the book

Dialogues 1,2: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 3, 4: listen without the book

Dialogues 3, 4: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues, 5-7: listen without the book

Dialogues 5--7: li len, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key words and phrases

Read and practice writing the Alphabet

Study the Grammar section carefully

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your turn to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT I 7

• J)lpa;IIC""rOYHTC [zdrastvuytye] is the most common way of saying hello in Russian.

Dialogues

n

1 Tanya greets a woman ill/he service bureau

Tanya Woman

3IW3FlCTByHTe. ll66pbltl JleHb.

Zdrastvuyrye, D6bry dyen',

• )lotiPl.lit )J,fHl> [d6bry dyen'] good day

At different times of the day one can also say:

JlOOpOC YTPO [dobruye utra] good morning )lOOPbIH lIe\ICp [d6bry vyecher] good evening

n

2 Katya arrives at Anna Sergeevna's house

Karya Anna Sergeevna

3!.lpal~CTBY~lTe, AHl'I"a Cepreeaua, 3llpaBCTByH. KaT.H.

Zdrastvuytye, Anna Sergeevna. ZdraSIVlIY. Katya.

• 3JlpaSCTBYH I zdrastvuy] is the familiar form of 'hello' used with people you know well or with children.

8 UNIT J

Practice what you have learned

1

The exercise below is 10 help' you become accustomed lO the various forms of greeting. Concentrate on listening and clearly distinguishing each one.

Listen to the recording and see if you can match the voices to the pictures below. (Answers on page 20.)

n

(i) , , " .

(ii) .

(iii) ..

(iv) , ..

UNIT I 9

n

Dialogues

3 Irina lraroduces herself, then asks Anna Ivanovna her name

Irina Anna Ivanovna Irina Anna lvanovna Irina

3npaBc'Byihe. 3npaBCTBylhe.

MeHR 300yT H)JHHa. A KaK sac 300YT? MeHA 30BYT AHHa l1B3HoBHa. OLleHb npl1jfTHo.

Zdrastv uytye, ZdIllstv u yrye.

Minya zavut Irfna, A kak vas zavut? Minya zavut Anna Ivanovna, Ochin' priyatna.

• MeHR 308YT ... [minya zavii t... ] my name is ... (the Rus ian in fact means 'they call me'). This would answer the question K3K sae 30nYT? [kak vas zavut?] 'how do they cal} you?' i.e. what is your name?

You may have noticed that in the word 300$', [zavur] the first vowel is not pronounced as it looks. It's not a mistake! In Russian 0 when not stressed sounds much closer to [a] than to [oj. (It's called 'akanye'!)

The a. which begins Irina's question means 'and' in a contrastive sense, as in 'That's my name. And (but) what's yours?'

n

4 Maria Dmitrievna introduces herself to her new students

Maria Dmitrievna Students Maria Dmitrievna

Olya Maria Dmitrievna Lena Maria Dmitrievna Volodya Maria Dmitrievna Kolya

Maria Dmitrievna

3npaBcTBytlTe, pe6sha! 3.upaBCTByHTe!

MeHA 30BYT MapHH Ll.M:HTPl1eBHa.

A KaK eac 30BYT?

Meaii 30BYT OnH. A Te6ii KaK 30BY,? MeHJl 30BYT JIeHa. A Te6.R?

MeHil30BYT BOIIO.uH. A reM?

MeHR - K6JlH .. H3BI1HI'iTe, a KaK Bac 30By-r?

Mens 30BYT MapH.s1 Ll.MHTPMeBHa.

Zdrastvuytye, ribyatal Zdrastvuytyel

Minya zavut Marla Dmftrievna.

A kak vas zaviit?

Minya zavdt Olya, A libya. kak zavut? Minya zavut Lyena. A tibya?

Minya zavut Vol6dya. A libya?

Minya. - K6lya. Izvinftye, a kak vas zavrit?

Minya zavtit Maria Drnftrievna,

• pe6l'lTa [ribyata] is an informal way of addressing a group of children or teenagers.

• Maria. Dmitrievna has used 3.t1pasCTByH1"e [zdrasrvuytye] because she is addressing a group (while the children use this fonn because she is their teacherl)

• K.aK Te6ii 300YT? [kak tibya zavut?J what is your name? You would use Te6ii ltibya] addressing a child.

• u30Hul'iTe [izvinftyejexcuse me .. More often than not you will hear U3BHHJiTe, nO>K3JIYHCTa [izvinitye, pazhaista] excuse me please.

10 UNIT t

Practice what you have learned

2

A journey by train through the Russian Federation gives ample time to become acquainted! Listen to the snatches of conversation on your recording, then decide which corresponds 10 each of the pictures below.

(Answers on page 20.)

(i) , , .

(ii) .

(iii) , .

(iv) .

UNIT I II

n

Dialogues

5 Misha wants his mother '0 meet a friend

Misha Dima Anna Sergeevna

MaMa, 3TO MOti npyr, 3npasCTByihe, MeHti 30SYT UWMa. O'leHb npHkrHO. AHHa Cepreesna.

Mama, eta moy druk. Zdrastvuytye, rnlnya zavut Dfma. Ochin' priyatna. Anna Sergeevna,

n

n

• lTO ... [eta ... ] this (is) ... Introducing somebody can be very simple in Russian.

You just need ho ... [eta ... ) and then a name or description of the person. To find out who somebody is, you ask KTO 3TO? (kto eta?) who is this?

• MOM ,Ilpyr [moy druk] my friend. If Misha's friend was a woman, he would say 3TO MO;! no.r.pyra [eta maya padniga]. Note that Mon [moy] is used talking about a man and MOll [maya] about a woman.

Remember what was said above about 0 when not stressed. When written down. Moa and Moil are obviously closely related, unlike their transliterated versions!

6

Tamara asks Pavel his last name and where he's from

Tamara Pavel Tamara Pavel

Ilasen, KaI< aanra q,aMHllH5I? Moil q,aMHJUf51 - BeJTH1.£eHKo. Bbl PYCCKMH?

HeT, 51 yxpaaaeu. 3TO yxpaaxcxaa ¢aMHmuJ.

Pavel, kak vasha famfliya? Maya famfliya - Vellchenko. Vi nlssky?

Nyet, ya ukrayinets. Eta ukrayfnskaya famlliya,

• K3KuawacpaMUJIHlI? [kak vasha famfliya?] what is your last name? lDaMlfflHII [farnfliya] may not be a person, but it is a feminine noun (see the grammar section on page 17).

• Dbl PYCCKHl1i? [vi nlssky?] are you Russian?

ner, 1I YKpafuteu (nyet, ya ukrayfnets] no, I'm Ukrainian. If he was Russian, he would answer: n a, II PYCCKHit fda, ya nlssky].

A few more nationalities:

3nrllULJaHHH [anglichanin] Englishman,anrllHII3.HK3 [anglichanka] Englishwoman; tjJpaHIQ'3 [frantsiis] Frenchman, tjJpanuj)KeHKa [frantsiizhinka] Frenchwoman; aMepHJ<auell [amerikanyets] American (male), aMepHK3BK3 [arnerikanka] American (female); HeMell [nyemets] German (male), HeMK3 [nyemka] German (female).

• :ho YKpaHHCKall tjJaMHJlHII [eta ukrayfnskaya famfliya] it's a Ukrainian last name.

7 At the end of an evening

Tamara Pavel

Ilo CBI1.[(aHIUI Flaserr.

Ilo CBHnaHI1.S1. Bcero BaM )lo6poro.

Da svidanya, Pavel.

Da svidanya, Fsivo yam d6brava.

ecero BaM ,1I66poro [fsiv6 yam dobrava] all the best.

• ,110 CBHllBRHlI [da svidanya] goodbye (lit. 'until our next meeting')

12 UNIT 'I

n

n

Practice what you have learned

3

Tanya is in a very cosmopolitan hotel. Can you work out the nationalities of the people she speaks to? (Answers on page 20.)

(i) .

(ii) .

(iii) ..

(iv) .

(b) pycCKHii [nissky J (d) cppanllYJ [frantsus]

(a) 3HI'JIIIQanKa [anglichanka] (c) HTalll>Ji:HKa [ital'yanka]

4

This time listen for the professions of each of the four people. (Answers on page 20.)

(i) Sergei.
(ii) Tanya
(iii) Pavel
(iv) Larisa (a) M3TeMaTHK [matirnatik]

(c) .lKYPH3mfCTK3 [zhurnalfstka] (e) :IKOHOMHCT [ekanarnfst]

(b) CTy,o,eHT [studyent]

(d) CTyltfHTK3 [studyentka]

U JT I 13

Key words and phrases

Here are the words and phrases you have met so far. Do make sure you're confident with them before going further. The best way to learn them, we think, i to say them aloud as often as po sible, The transliterated forms are as close as we could get to the Russian, but you should listen to how they sound on the recording, paying particular attention [0 where the stress falls. This can make an enormous difference to how a word is pronounced and spelled.

3.JlpaBcnyiiTe [zdrastvuytye] 3.JlpaBcTByii [zdrastvuy] .JlOIjPblH neus [d6bry dyen'] ,lJ.oopoe yTpO [d6braye titra] .n66pblii Be'lep (d6bry vyecher] KaK sac 30BYT? [kak vas zavtir"]

K3K TC6h: 308YT? [kak tibya zavut?] MeH~ 30BjiT •.. [minya zavut, .. J

6'1fHI> npHiiTHO [6chin' priyatna] H3BHEuhe (oo)KaJlyiicTa)

[izv i nftye (pazhal ta)]

lTo ... [eta ... )

Moii npyr [moy druk]

MO,. nO.ll.pyra [maya padniga] KaK aama !paM{ulHx?

[kak vasha famfliya?)

Moil!paMHJIHH ... [maya famniya ... ] BbI PYCCKHH? [vi rUssky?J

na, II: PyccKuii [da, ya nissky]

hello

hello (to a friend, or child) good day

good morning

geed evening

what is your name?

what is your name? (ro a child) my name is ....

pleased to meet. you

excuse me (please)

this is ... / it is ...

my friend (male)

my friend (female) what is your last name?

my last name is ... are you Russian? ye ,I am Russian

HeT, 11: YKpaRHeu [nyet, ya ukraylnets] no, I'm Ukrainian

ho YKpaiiHcKali !pa~lltJ)HlI [eta ukrayfnskaya famIliya]

H 6H3HecMeH (ya biznismyen] .lI.O c.BH,lJ.aHI,ul [da svidanya]

it's a Ukrainian name

I am a businessman

geodbye

14 UNIT I

The Russian alphabet

n

The Cyrillic alphabet is named in honour of St. Cyril (in Russian KyrilQ, a 9th.century Macedonian monk, who, with his brother St. Methodius, is credited with creating a writing system for the Slavonic languages. The two monks worked as missionaries, bringing Christianity to Slavs outside the Byzantine empire, and an alphabet was required to translate liturgical books and the Bible into Slavonic. Tho original writing systems are known to have existed and whether in fact Cyril and Methodius' alphabet is the one we now call 'Cyrillic' is a matter of some conjecture among scholars.

The alphabet which developed into present CyrilIic shares many letters with the Greek and Latin scripts. Among its 33 letters there are, however; some which are quite different. You may find it useful to practice writing them out (try your name, and your friends' names I.). Try also to follow as much as possible of the dialogues in. Cyrillic, though there will be a transliterated version for the first five units while the alphabet is being introduced.

Beside each letter you will find the character, or characters, in Latin script which most closely correspond. They will seldom correspond entirely, so listen to Andrei as he pronounces the Rus ian letters.

There are five letters in Russian which need no introduction:

a. [as in car]
K [k]
M [m]
0 (as in wore]
T (t] One letter is almost [he same:

3

(z]

Some letters are deceptively familiar:

e rye as in yet]
B [v]
H [n]
c [5]
p [r]
y [00 as in boom] And then there's .H [ya] - an extremely important letter to remember since it can also mean 'I' or '[ am' in Russian.

Can you recognize these words?

TA.KT MOCKBA TEATP METPO TOCT

KOCMOC HET KOCMOHABT HOMEP ATAKA

TPA,KTOP PECTOPAH BA3A OPKECTP

U IT I .15

n

Now listen to Andrei as he reads the letters aloud. You will notice that some letters, in particular 0, do not always sound as they look. Mostly this is a question of tre s, but we will explain particular discrepancies along the way.

Try writing the words printed at the bottom of page 15. If you feel confident with those, see if you can. fill in. the missing letters in the next exercise.

MeH ..... :100YT B ..... pa

BQT PC ..•.• TOpaH

BOT Ce ..... a

BOT MeT ..... 6

MO ..... M ..... MB pYCCKa.SI

what is your name?

my name is Vera

here is a restaurant

here is Syeva (a man's name)

hereis the metro (subway)

my mother is Russian

And now a little passage to read through. - KaK sac :lOBYT?

- MeHii 30BYT Bepa,

- A K3.K sac :lOOYT?

- MeHii 300YT Ceaa,

Would you be able to write down the reply if the people's names were Anna and Zoya? What about Olya and Vanya? Svyeta and Katya? (You 11 find the names in Cyrillic upside down at the bottom of the page.)

16 UNIT I

Grammar

One can talk about Russian grammar a lot. some people do it endlessly! However you can communicate in Russian without knowing al/lhe 'rules' and we have therefore kept discussion of complexities to a minimum. The notes here and in the following units will give you the basic structure of the language. They will help you to understand and build on what you hear in each lesson.

Please don't worry if something baffles you, or :if you can't remember it: all. You can leave it, and still understand the unit. You'Il probably find later that you can't remember why you were confused!

Grammar should be an aid, a tool in learning Russian. Remember though that very few grammatical mistakes will be serious enough to prevent you from being understood.

Nouns

in Russian nouns have a gender - masculine, feminine or neuter. Sometimes the choice will seem obvious - MaMa [mama] can hardly be anything but feminine! More often. however, there seems to be no reason, good OT Otherwise, for the gender of a particular noun.

Fortunately in Russian the gender is normally clear from the ending of a noun.

• Masculine nouns most. often end in a consonant: ilpyr [druk] a male friend

• Feminine nouns usually end in -a or -s: flo)J.p'Yra [padraga] female friend lPaMH.I1HSI: [famfliya] last name

• Neuter nouns end in -0 or -e:

BUHO [vin6] wine

We will leave neuter nouns for the moment since they don't crop up so often. The reason for mentioning anything about gender is that any word describing a noun has to 'agree' with it.

Moii .!lPYI· [may druk] my (male) friend

MOR lIo11Pyra rmaya padrugal my (female) friend

Any word describing a noun changes, for example:

YKpaHHcKa'H cjJaMHJlHII [ukrayfnskaya familiya] a Ukrainian last name

You could have YKpaiiHcKIIH npyr [ukrayfnsky druk] and YKpa.HHcKaH nonpyra lukrayfnskaya padniga]

If that seems complicated, it may be some consolation that you now know enough to construct full Russian sentences. The verb 'to be' ('I am', 'you are', etc.) is not used in Russian. To say that he is Ukrainian, Pavel simply uses the word for T -11 [ya] (not capitalizedin Russian) and YKp3HHeu [ukrayinets].

And a statement can be made into a question by simply changing one's intonation ('putting a question in the voice'):

::ho yK.paHHcK3H cjJaM(fJlH.SI? [Eta ukrayfnskaya famfliya?J Is it a Ukrainian name?

Ila, iTO YKpaIJHC.Ka~ IPaMHJIIUI. [Da, eta ukrayinskaya famfliya.] Yes, it is a Ukrainian name.

UNIT I 17

Did you know?

The pollte way of addressing somebody older or whom you don't know very well is by name and patronymic. The patronymic is formed from one's father's name with different endings for 8. man or woman. In the dialogues you met Anna Sergeevna, Sergeevna indicates that she is 'the daughter of Sergei'. Her brother Nikolai would be Nikolai Sergeevich,

There are titles like our 'Mr' or 'Mrs' in Russian. However, these have traditionally been used when addressing foreigners .. Other titles, some in common usage before the 1917 revolution, are beginning to reappear, but it is too early to judge whether these will endure.

You will probably have noticed that the patronymic is not always used. It would not be used in addressing a child or young adult, and probably only used on formal occasions about a person in his or her 205 or 30s. Instead the first name only, or, more probably, a shortened form, is used (Katya for example is the short form of Yekaterina),

It all depends very much on the situation and on how well you know a person. This may not be of great comfort to beginners, but in fact you shouldn't have much problem. Listen to how a person introduces him or herself. And if you can't make it: out the first time, you can always ask them again:

IhoHHiITe, 1I10)K8J1YHCTa, KaK aac JI.IBYT'? [izvinftye, pazhalsra, kak vas .zavut?] Sorry, what is your name?

MOCKB3, Taepesas yn., 16/2

229-82-18

VfJH8ZIPa JOpUU 1iwkoltae8u?

3aMeUJlTenio t.naBHoro pe,qaKTopa r,il3eTW ,,,MOCKOBeMMe IIO.OCTII"·

16/2 Tverskaya St., Moscow

tel: 229-82-18

Yurii BANDOURA

Deputy Edlter-i n-Chief "Moscow News" newspaper

18 UNIT I

Women's names

Men's names

Have you ever tried reading a Russian novel and had the strange sensation that characters are multiplying before your eyes? They're not! Since it is not always easy to match up a name with its short form, here are some of the more common Russian names.

Full name Short/arm
Yelena Lyena
Naralya Netasha
61'ga 91ya
lrfna Ira
Anna Anya
Svetlana Svyeta
Sergei Seryozha
Alekse] Alyosha
Aleksandr Sasha
Vladimir Vol6dya
Ivan Vanya This is by no means a definitive list A name may have a number of possible short forms, as well as other forms used for expressing affection, etc. (Lyenachka, Natashenka and many more).

KHCKH

liopHc MHxaHnOIiJH'I

KaHouiJaT rexnuuecxux HayK

MOCKSS, 119034 XKI1KOB nepeynojc, 1/2

reno 233·46·81 203·05·40

Research Complex "Textlle "

BORIS M.. KlSIN Cand.Sc, (Technology)

1/2 HilkovLane, Moscow 1.19034

Tel. 233·46-81 203·05-40

UNIT 1 19

Your turn to speak

5

The last exercise in this unit will give you a chance to practice what you have learned. You will need the following phrases:

MeHli 308YT •.. [minya zavtit ... ]

Dbl JilyCCKHii? [vi rt.1ssky?]

na, }1pyCCKHii [da, ya nissky]

ho MOM JJ.pyr [61a may druk]

JTO Moil MaMa [eta maya mama] .K3K sac 308YT? [kak vas zavut"] 6'1eHb npuliTHo [6ehin' priyatna] Moli cl>aMHJlHg ... [maya famfliya ... ] .II oH3HecMeH [ya biznisrnyen]

Now close your book and listen to Andrei's prompts. Remember you can always go back and listen again if it seems difficult the first time,

20 UNIT I

You will learn

• to talk about members of the family

• to talk about where you live and where you work

• to use numbers up to 20

• one or two crucial phrases for beginners

and you win be given an introduction to Russia and the Russian Federation

Before you begin

As in Unit 1, use the Study guide below to check your progress.

Study guide

Dialogues 1, 2: listen without. the book

Dialogues 1, 2: listen. read and study one by one

Practice what YOIl have learned

Dialogues 3-5: listen without the book

Dialogues 3-5: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 6-8.: listen without [he book

Dialogues 6-8: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key words and phrases

Read and practice writing the Alph.abe1

Study the Grammar section carefully

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your ('urn to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT2 21

n

Ira Anna Ivanovna Ira Anna lvanovna

n

Maria Dmitrievna Olya Maria Dmitrievna O/ya

Dialogues

1 Ira asks Anna lvanovna about herfamily

CKa>K flTe, y sac ecrs ceMbfl? 11,a, jJ 3aMY>KeM.

AneTH Y sac ecrs?

y MeH5I ecrs ;uO'lKa.

Skazhftye, uvas yest' simya? Da, ya zamuzhim,

A dyeti uvas yest'?

Uminya yest' dochka,

• CKa>KHTe (no>K3JtyucTa) [skazhftye (pazhalstaj] tell me (please)

• y sac ecrs ceMbil? [uvas yesr' simya?] do you have a family? There isn't a common verb 'to have' in Russian. Y sac ecrs ... ? [uvas yest' ... ?] literally means 'with you is there ... ?'. The reply will often begin )la, y MeHii ecrr, ... [da, urninya yest' .... ] yes, I have ...

• na, .II 33MY>KeM [da, ya zarnuzhirn] yes, I'm married. This is what a woman would say. A man says a )KeHllT [ya zhimit]. You can say you're not married by putting He [nye] before the appropriate word: .II He33MY>KeM

[ya nyezamuzhim] (unmarried woman); ..II He )KeHaT [ya nye zhinat] (unmarried man). For a man the He [nye] is written separately.

• ,IlhH Y aac ecrs? [dyeti uvas yest'?] do you have children? There are no strict rules regarding word order in Russian.

• Y MeHii ecrs Llo'IKa [urninya yest' d6chka]I have a daughter. A more formal word for 'daughter' is LlO'lb [doch]. And if Anna Ivanovna had a son she would say:

y MeHii eCTb CblH [urninya yest' sin] I have a son

2 Maria Dmitrievna asks whether O/ya has a brother or sister

Ons, y Teoji ecrs opal' I1l111 cecrpa? Y MeH5I ecrs fipar,

A KaK ero 30BYT?

nHMa.

6lya, utibya yest' brat fli sistra? Urninya yest' brat.

A kak yiv6 zavut?

Dima.

HllD [fIi] or

• Y Te6i1 ecrs 6paT HlIn ceerpa? [utibya yest' brat ill sistra"] do you have a brother or sister? Y TOOK ecrs ... ? [utibya yest' ... ?] is used instead of y aac ecrs ... ? [uvas yest' ... ?J when asking a child or somebody you know well

• KaK ero 30BYT? [kak yiv6 zavut?] what is his name? If Olya had a sister, the question would be iKaK ee 30BYT? [kak yiy6 zavut?] what is her name?

22 UNIT2

n

n

Practice what you have learned

Before each exercise, read the instructions and then turn on the recording.

1

On your recording you will hear five snatches of conversation. Listen to them and decide whether the following statements are true or false. (Answers on page 34.)

(i) [van is married

(ii) Tanya is married

(iii) Musya has a daughter

(iv) Boris Alekseevich's daughter is called Natasha

(v) Masha's sister is called Sonya

2

Mila is asking a man, Ivan Antonovich, and a young girl, Tanya about their families. Listen to the dialogues first with your book closed, then again, following the text. Using your pause button, fill in the gaps. The words omitted are listed in the box below but they're not in order. (Answers on page 34.)

HuaH '\"1'OOOBH"', Y sac eCTb ceMbii'!

(i) Ila, Sf .

A ;o:hH en.b'!

(ii) Y MeHB ecri .

A KaK ee [yiy6] 30ufT?

(iii) Ee [yiy6] OJJH [Olya]

She then chats with a young girl, Tanya.

Tana, y l'e6s ecn opal' (urK [ili] cecrpa?

(iv) Y Mell;t opal'.

I (a) eCTb [yest'] (b) .lKeHh [zhinat] (c) 30BYT [zavtit] (d) .!lo ..... [d6ch]

(The unfamiliar letters in these words are in [he Alphabet section on page 29.)

UNIT 2 23

n

Dialogues

Anna Sergeevna

3 Anna Sergeevna asks Sergei Mikhailavich what his profession is

Ilpocrrrre, a KTO Bbl

no cnernaansaocra? 51: ~mJloJIor.

A rzre Bbl paooraere?

B 113)liiTeJIbCTBe Coserces» 3HUHKJIOrre.aufl.

Prastitye, a kto vi

paspitsyal'nasti?

Ya filolag.

A gdye vi rabotaitye? Vizdatil'stvye Savyetskaya

inis ikiaped; ya.

Sergei Mikhailovich Anna Sergeevna Sergei Mikhailovici:

n

n

cpHJIOJIOr [fil61ag] linguist

B HJ.llliTeJIbCTBe COBercKas 3HUIIKJlOHeJJ.HH [vizdatil'stvye Savyetskaya imsiklapediya] for the publishers of Soviet Encyclopedia

I. opocnhe [prastftye] excuse me. This word, like H3BHHIhe [izvinftye], can be used to mean 'sorry' or simply to prepare the way for a question.

• KTO 8blll0 CneUHaJlbBOcTU? [kto vi paspitsyal'nasti"] what is your profession? Or, broken down: KTO 8bl? [kto vi?] who are you? no Cnel\HaJJbHOC1'H [paspitsydl'nasti] by profession.

• rAe 8M paOOT.aeTe? [gdye vi rabOtaitye?] where do you work? Verbs in Russian have different endings depending upon who is doing the action. If Sergei Mikhailovich had answered with a full sentence, .it would have begun:

H P300T310 [ya rab6tayu] I work.

(You will find more about these verbs on page 119.)

4 And what is Tamara's profession?

Lyena Tamara

Cxasorre, KTO Bbl no CneUMlUrbHoCTH? Skazhitye, kto vipaspitsyal'nasti?

.sI no cneuaansnocrn HH)f{eHep, Ya paspitsyal'nasti inzhineer,

pa66TalO aa aasone. rabotayu na zavodye.

UH)KeHep [inzhmeer] engineer (used for both men and women) H333Bo)J.e rna zavodye] in a factory



pa60TaiO [rab6tayuJ I work.X [ya] (I) is often omitted since the ending makes it clear who is doing the action.

5 Tamara asks Lyena what her husband does

Tamara

Cxascrrre, 3 KTO no CneUl1anbHOCTI1

Ball MY)l(?

TIe'uITHHK.

OH pa66TaeT B nmorpa¢ffl.i? !la,

Skazhftye, a kto paspitsyal'nasti

vash mush?

Pichatnik.

On rabotayit ftipagrafiyi? Da.

Lyena Tamara Lyena

neLJaTHHK [pichatnik] printer

8 THnorpa¢lHU [ftipagrafiyi] at a printing press

I. KTO no cnelluanbHocTH Bam MY.)K?' [kto paspitsyal'nasti vash mush?] what is your husband's profession or job? To find out from a man about his wife's profession. you would ask:

KTO no CneIlHa.J1bHOCTH 8am3 )KeHa? [kto paspitsyal'nasti vasha zhina"],

• OH paooTaeT B T,Hnorpa.¢IUH? [on rab6tayit ftipagrafiyi?] does he work at a printing press? If we were talking about a woman, the verb would be the same, but the pronoun would change: oHa paOOTaeT [ana rab6tayit] she works.

24 UNH 2

n

Practice what you have learned

As before read the instructions for each particular exercise before you tum on the recording.

3

Ilya asks Darya Ivanovna what she and members of her family do for a living. Listen to the interview and then try matching up the people and their jobs. (Answers all page 34.)

(i) Darya Ivanovna (a) physicist
(ii) husband (b) journalist,
(iii) daughter (c) linguist
(iv) son Cd) engineer 4

Some people are asked where they work. Listen carefully, then look al the pictures and see if you can name the person in each scene .. Their names are given in the box below. (Answers on page 34.)

(i) KTO? [kto?] .

OJ) Ino?

[klo?] .

(iii) KTO?

[kto?] ==-

(iv) no?

(v) KTo? [kto"] ..

PECTorA."

YHUBEPCHTET

3ABon

KOHCEPBATOPIHI

IIHCTHTYT

(a) Taml (b) BHKTOIl (c) Kon~, (d) AHHa (e) Alina

UNIT 2 25

n

Dialogues

6 Tanya wants to know where Boris Mikhailovich lives

Tanya

Boris Mikhailovich Tanya Boris Mikhailovich

M3BHHI1'1e, Bopac MMXaJiIJOBHLl',

arne Bbl )KFlBeTe?

Ha OCT6)KeH xe,

3TO naJIeKO OT uenrpa? Henanexo.

Izvlnftye, Boris Mikhailovich

a gdye vi zhivyorye?

Na Astozhinkye.

Eta dalik6 ot tsentra? Nidalik6.

ua OCTOJKeHKe [na Ast6zhinkye] on Ostozhinka street

• r!l.e Obi JKHSen? [gdye vi zhi.vy6tye?] where do you live?

II lKH.Sy .. , [ya zhivii ... ] Llive ...

• :iTo ,ll3JTeKO OT IIfUTp3? [eta daliko ot [Sentra?] is that far from the center? In Russian one can often form the opposite by prefixing the word with He-[nye-l, thus Boris Mikhailovich answers aenanexo [nidalik6] not far.

7 Boris Mikhailovicb gives Tanya his work and home phone numbers.

Can you write them in numerals?

Boris Mikhailovich

3am-wlliTe Mofr Tenec!J6H: naa HOJlb rpa, xersrpe 'rpu urecrs ceMb. A ua pa66Te: tpH Il.SlTh Tpa, WiTh 1151Tb, meers B6eeMb.

Zapishftye moy tilifon: dva nol' tri, chityrye tri, shest' syern'. A na rabotye: tri pyat' tri, pyat' pyat', shest' v6sim'.

JaOH.IIUITe MOM TeJleq,o •• [zapishftye moy tilif6n] take down my telephone number

83 pa66Te rna rabotye] at work

• Numbers up to len are:

O,llHH [adin], O,ll,H3 [adna] O,llHO [adn6) ,llBa [dva]

TPH [tri]

qeTblpe [chityrye] DRTh [pyat']

meers [shes!'] ceMb [syem') 80ceMb [vcsim'] ;o,e8.IITb [dyevit'] MCJlTb [dyesit']

You will also hearanns [not'] zero, though this is not included when counting .. O,llBK [adfn] is used if the noun referred to is masculine, O,!J.H3 [adnajif it is feminine and O.llHO ladn6] if neuter.

The numbers from 10 to 19 are easy to learn since you really just add -lIa;o,uaTb [natsat'] to the numbers above:

O;o,UflH3111l3TL [adfnnatsat'] ,llBeHa,llU3Tl> [dvinatsat'] TPHH3.IlU3Th [trinatsat']

.... eTbrpHa.llUaTL [chityrnatsar'] IlIITHa;o,U8U [pitnatsat']

and 20 is: nsanuars [dvatsat']

[UeCTR3A~aTb [sh isnatsat'] ceMFIlIJlU3Tb [simnatsat'] BOCeMR3.1lllaTb r vosimnatsar'l ,lleS1I1r1l3.1lU3Tb [divitnatsat']

n

Now tum on the recording and follow in your book as Andrej reads the numbers aloud.

26 UNIT 2

n

n

n

n

8 Ira is looking for the nearest subway station

Ira

113BHH.HTe, rrO)KarrYMCTa, rue anecs CTaHUIHI Me-rp6?

51 OLJ.eHb QJJOXO roaopro no-pYCCKH. rOBOpJ1Te Me,UJleHHO.

Izvinftye, pazhalsta, gdye zdyes' stantsiya mitre?

Ya ochin' pJ6kha gavaryii panisski.

Gavaritye myedlinna.

Passer-by

3~eCb [zdyes'] here, in the vicinity

CTllltllHJI MeTpo [srantsiya mitr6] subway station

• Sl olleRb nnoxo rOBoplO no.pjcCKrt [ya ochin' plokha gavaryii panisski] I speak Russian very badly

Other languages will be fanned in the same way;

{ no·aHr1ll1IJCKH. [pa-angleeski}I speak English

f.I roaopjo [ya gavaryii] no·q,paHIQr3CKH [pafrantsuski] I speak French

nO-HeMeU:KH [panimyetski] I speak German

You may want to say 'I speak only a little Russiann TOJlbKoneMHoro rOBopw IIO"PyCCKH [ya rol'ka nirnnoga gavaryii panisski]

.. rOBOpHTe Me.llJleJiHO [gavarftye myedlinna] speak slowly

Practice what you have learned

5

Participants in a folk concert in Mo cow are asked where they live. Listen LO theiranswers on your recording, then match the names below with the places. (Answers on page 34.)

(i) TaRSi; (ii) 'Iapac; (iii) M:apHII· (iv) OlJeCb; (v) HHHa

(a) B MHHcKe: (b) B MocKBe; (c) B KheBe; (d) B Bene: (e) B .llouHe

6

Masha finds it easie l to add up aloud. Listen to the recording, then fill in the missing numbers. (Answers all page 34.)

(i) .lUJa [dva] + O.llHH [adln] :: .

(ii) ceMb [syem'] + = .lleBsrTb [dyevit']

(iii) O.llHH [adfn] + TpU lui) + TpH. [tri] :: , .

(iv) + CfMb [syem'] :: .!ICCIITI> [dyesit']

(v) .lleBHTb [dyevu'] + :: O~UHHa.ll~aTb [adfnnatsat']

(vi) BoceMb [v6sim'] + = .lleBJlTb [dyevit']

7

In this exercise. you take the role of a Ukrainian, Oksana. You live in Kiev, and, yes, you do speak Russian, but your English is pretty bad. You will need to use;

SI )t(.n~Y [ya zhivtl]

Si rosapso [ya gavaryu]

UNIT 2 27

Key words and phrases

y M.eHJJ ecn ... [urninya yest' ... ] neTD [d yeti] .

,!I.OqK3 / )J;O'U. [dochka / doch] CLIH (sin]

opaT [brat)

ceerpa [s istra]

UJlO [fli]

33MYiKfM [zarnuzhim] iKfHllT [zhinat]

KaK ero JOBjT? [kak yiv6 zavut?] KaK ee JOeYT? [kak yiy6 zavlit?] KTO 8,hl 1l10Cnel~HaJlLHOcTU?

[kto vi paspitsyal'nasti'Il

11 / OHa HH::>K.eHep [ya / ami inzhineer] I am/she is an engineer

11 /011 c:fJuJloJlQr [ya /onfiI6Iag] I am/he is alinguist

f').le aLi pa66Taf11e? [gdye vi rabdtaitye"] where do you work?

.!I pa.f}oTaKl [ya rabotayu] I work

BLlpaOOTaeTe [v i rabotaitye] you work

OH/OHa pafi6TaeT •.•• [on/ana rabotayit...] he/she works ...

aa 3aoOlle rna zavodye] in a factory

B H3),laTfJlbCTSf [vizdatil'stvye] in a publishing company

r,lle Bioi ;>KJIoeTe? [gdye vi zhivy6tye?] where do you live?

II ;>KilBY [ya zhivtl] I live

Jli3J1eKO Oil' UfllTpa [dalik6 ot tsentra] ear from the centre

rlle snecs ... [gdye zdyes' ... ] where around here is there ...

CT3HUHII MflpO? [stantsiya mitr6?J a subway station?

II 6qeHh uml'xo roaoplb no-pycCKJf .1 speak Russian very badly

[ya ochin' plokha gavaryu panisski]

II TOJ1LKO HfMHoro rooopro ..

[ya tol'ka nimnoga gavaryti ]

Obi rOBopHTf no-prOCK-II?

[vi gavantye panisski'i]

II ,roBopro... [ya gavaryu ... ]

no-aull' JlHHCKH [pa-angleeski] lTo-l'ppaH.UY3cKH [pafrantsusk iJ nO-HfMeuKH [panimyetski]

CKIDK .. Hn [skazhftye]

Y Bac eCTL ? [uvas yest' ... ?]

y Te6ir fen ? [utibya yest' .... ?]

rOOOpifTe Me)J;JlfHIIO [gavarftye rnyedlinna]

tell me

do you have ? (formal or plural)

do you have ? (to a child or

friend)

I have ...

children

a daughter

a son

a brother

a sister

or

married (woman's form) married (man's form) what is his name?

what is her name?

what is your profession?

I only speak a little ...

do you speak Russian?

I speak ...

English French

German speak slowly

You'll find the numbers from I to 20 in the notes to dialogue. 7.

28 UNIT 2

n

The Russian alphabet

In this unit you will practice reading and writing the letters that you already know and you will learn five new ones. The transliteration should help with pronunciation, but let Andrei guide you.

If you can glance over the alphabet even for just a few minutes every day, you'll find that apparently formidable letters soon become familiar.

The new letters are:

)K )J; H q

L

[zh as in vision, pleasure] [d)

[l/ee as in meet] [ch]

['] 'soft sign'

This last letter doesn't have a sound on its own. Instead it makes the consonant before it 'soft'. If this means nothing to you, listen to Andrei and try to follow the way he pronounces the following two words:

r6roJl,!! [Gcgol'] a famous writer

run [gal] a goal in sports

Can you recognize the following cities and countries?

KIIEB MlIHCK ABCTPIUI

MAJlPUJl EPEBAH YKPAlfHA

AMCTEPJlAM JlAMACK lfH.I1JUI

8 Which word is out of place in each horizontal list? (Answers on page 34.)

BOJlKA TEATP TEHHlIe

,IIATA KIIHOTEATP CTAJlllOH

BIIHO JlIICKOTEKA MATq

BUCK" KIIOCK TAKCU

As in Unit 1, try writing out all the words above.

9 A little geography with your Russian! The following lists of cities and countries have been jumbled up. Can you link up each city with its country? Onl.y names with letters you haven't met are transliterated.

(Answers on page 34.)

(i) K{reB (a) "COllHHK [Ispanya]
(ii) MOCKB3 (b) ABCTPHK
(iii) EpeBIlH (c) APMeHHK
(iv) MHHCK (d) YKpaHH3
(v) Ma.r:lpHJl (e) POCCH.II
(vi) Bena (t) f)enapycb [Byelanis'] UNIT2

10 Look at the following pictures and then write out the name of the thing in the space provided. All the words are jumbled in [he box below.

(Answers on page 34.)

(a) .

(b) , .

(d) ..

(e) .

(i) TaKCH (ii) IOtOCK (iii) ;tUICKOTeKa

(v) KUHOTCiiTp (vi) HKoHa

(iv) CTa.IJ.HOH

30 UNIT 2

Grammar

In Unit 1 you saw how words that describe a noun change. Thi is not all! The noun itself has different endings depending on its role in the sentence, or which prepo ition it follows. In this unit you will see different endings after II tv] and H3 rna] meaning 'in', 'at', 'on'.

Before we look at these endings, a word of advice: you hould be aware of these endings, but do not let them inhibit you. A wrong ending will rarely prevent you from being understood. and indeed when you. listen to people speaking, you may not even be able to hear rhe ending.

If you ask where something is rne ... ? [gdye .... ?J, the answer is likely to begin with the preposition B [v] or ua rna). There are rules as to when B is used, and when na, but there are also a. bewildering number of exceptions I Whichever preposition is used, the ending of the noun will change, normally ending in -e.

BOT KueB • .H }l(HBY B KueBe. [Vat Kiev. Ya zhivii fKfevye) Here is Kiev. llive in Kiev.

BOT MOCKB:! .• .H :.lKHBY "MOCKBe. [Vot Maskva, Ya zhivii vMaskvy6] Here is Moscow. llive in Moscow.

As you see, R before some consonants is pronounced [f). Thisis simply because it is impossible to pronounce it as [v]l

11 Here is a list of people along with the cities they live in. Using the first sentence as an example, write down what the other people would say. (Answers on page 34.)

TaRR MocKBa
(i) TOM: MaHlJeCnp
(ii) .SIll Bella
(iii) Map"" Ma.I.lp~
(iv) Biu(Top EpeBaH
(v) AURa MHHCK UNIT 2 31

12 Can you answer the question next to each picture? The words are listed in the box below, but you'll need to change the endings. (Answers on page 34.)

pecropan

oap

YHHOepCHTeT

.J.lHCKOTeKa

32 UNIT 2

(i) Ole C6HR?

OHa 0 ..... _ ........ _ .......

(ii) rne MOaH?

OH.O __ .

(iii) r,ll;e PitTa?

ORa B __ .

(iv) r.ue I1apiica?

OHa B ..

OH Ha ..... .. __ .... ...

Did you know?

Russia

Since the time of Peter the Great, Russian writers and intellectuals have debated Russia's place in the world: is it part of Europe, part of Asia, or does it have a role peculiarly its own?

We will not attempt to find an answer here, butit is easy to understand how the question might arise. The Russian Federation's huge territory spans two continents, extending from the Black Seato the Pacific Ocean, and from Murmansk in the far North to Irkutsk near the Chinese border.

Russia's population in 1989 was 145 million. Some 80 per cent are Russians, These, like their neighbors the Ukrainians and Byelorussians,

are Eastern Slavs .. They trace their common roots to Kievan Rus', which flourished and grew from about AD 900 to AD .1240. Kiev is now the capital of Ukraine, while Russia's capital is Moscow.

There are also a large number of non-Slavic national minorities within the Russian Federation. Some of these have 'autonomous republic' or 'autonomous region' status. During the Soviet period (1917-1991), this autonomy remained largely on paper, With the break-up of the Soviet Union, calls for greater independence have been heard from many ethnic groups.

Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) There bas long been a tendency to treat these two terms as interchangeable .. This is quite misleading. Within the Soviet Union the Russian Federal Republic (RSFSR) was the biggest of fifteen republics: the others were Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova. Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan and Kirgistan. After the failed coup of 1991, the Russian Federal Republic was among the first to declare independence from the Soviet Union and one of the most instrumental in bringing about the latter's demise .. The fairly widespread assumption that the Russian Federation is the 'heir apparent' to the Soviet regime has led to resentment in many of the other republics.

Throughout the Soviet period the Russian language was spoken in all the republics. At one stage this was the language for 'getting ahead', and in many republics it was difficult to find a. school which taught in the native language. While this has now changed, it is probable that Russian will remain a lingua franca in a large number of tbe republics.

In an attempt to create a new 'Soviet man I, the Soviet authorities encouraged people to settle in other republics. Under Stalin vast numbers of people, indeed whole nationalities, were sent into exile or forcibly resettled. As a result, in all the republics of the former USSR there are a considerable number of Russians and other national minorities. While some have integrated fully, others have not and are increasingly expressing dissatisfaction with their status in the newly independent countries.

UNIT2 33

n

n

13

14

Practice what you have learned

Alphabet

Grammar

Your turn to speak

In the first exercise. you wiu be asking Aleksandr Nikolaevich some questions. You will be using:

Y sac eers ... ? [uvas yest' ... ?]

KaK ero 30BYT? [kak yivo zavut'i]

This time you will be playing the role of Anna Sergeevna, a physicist who lives in Moscow and works in an institute. You will need the words:

tPH3HK [ffzikJ

1I pafi6'F31O [ya rabotayu] HHCTUTYT [institiit]

)l ""nBY [ya zhivri]

Answers

Exercise 1 (i) true (ii) false (iii) false (has a son) (iv) true (v) false (Ita)

ExerciseZ (i) b (ii) d (iii) c (iv) a

Exercise 3 (i) b (ii) c (iii) d (iv) a

Exercise .:& (i) c (ii) d (iii) b (iv) a (v) e

Exercise 5 (i) b (ii) c (iii) e (iv) a (v) d

Exercise 6 (i) '!'pH [tri] (ii) nsa [ova] (iii) ceMb [syern'] (iv) rpa [tri] (v) naa [dva] (vi) onilH [adln]

ExerciseS The out of place words are nATA, KI10CK, T AKCH

Exercise 9 (i) d (ii) e (iii) c (iv) f (v) a. (vi) b

Exercise 10 (a) iii (b) i (c) iv (d) vi (e) ii (f) v

Exercise 11 (i) B Man-recrepe (ii) B BeHe (iii) B MaJlpMlle (iv) a Epesaae (v) B MMHCKe

Exercise 12 (i) B pecropaae (ii) B 6<ipe (iii) B 'rearpe (iv) B yansepcserere (v) na IDlcKoTeKe

34 UNIT 2

A hotel lobby

You will learn

• to check in at a hotel

• to ask if there is a room free and how much it will cost

• how to go about changing money

• some useful phrases when seeking information and you will read about travel to Russia

Study guide

Dialogues 1,2: listen without the book

Dialogues 1,2: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogue 3: listen without the book

Dialogue 3: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogue 4: listen without the book

Dialogue 4: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key words and phrases

Read and practice writing the Alphabet

Study the Grammar section carefully

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your turn to speak

Listen 10 all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT 3 35

Tanya Receptionist Tanya Receptionist Tanya Receptionist

Tanya

Dialogues

1 Tanya is checking in at her hotel

3.upaBCTByflTe. 3.upaBcTByHTe.

lin$[ MeHii 3a6poHHpoBaH !:IOMep. Baura cj;>aMHJUBI, nO)Karryi1cTa. Ilerposa .. BOT MOM nacnopr, CnacH60. O,llHY MI1HYTO'lKY ... Barn HOMep Ha .rreCJlTOM srasce. BOT nama BH311THaH xapro-rxa. CnacM60.

Zdrastvuytye. Zdrastvuytye.

Dlya minya zabroniravan nornir, Vasha farnfliya, pazhalsta. Petrova. Vot moy pasport. Spasfba. Adrni mirnitachku .... Vash nomir na disyatam etazhe, Vot vasha vizftnaya kartachka, Spasfba.

OllOY MDaYTOIlKY [admi mimitachku] just. a minute BHJUTH311 Kii.pTollKa [vizftnaya kartachka] guest's card

• ,LIJUI MeH9 Ja6pOliltpOBau HOMep [d1ya minya zabronfravan n6mir] I have a room booked

• BOT [vot] here (is) - the word to use when you're handing something over. t H3,L1eCllTOM :na)l{f rna disyatam etazhe] on the tenth floor. Other useful floors to know:

D3 nepBOM :naxe rna pyervam etazhe] on the first floor U3 BTOp6M 3Ta)l{e rna ftarom etazhe] on the second floor aa TpeTbfM:na)l{e [na tryetyem etazhe] on the third floor

By the way, Russians do not talk about the' ground floor'. The first floor is the floor at ground level.

• cnacH60 lspasfbalthank you

n

Tanya

Receptionist

Tanya Receptionist Tanya

2 Where can she get the key?

Cxasorre, nO)l{3.nyftcTa, rue MO)KHO nony'liiTb KJ1I0<l7 Kn!O"I MO)KHO nOJTY4HTh

Y ne)KyPHoH [10 3Ta)KY,

A rne y aac IHtcj;>T?

BOT ciona, rrO)l(arryHCTa. CnacM60.

Skazhltye, pazhalsta, gdye rnozhna paluchlt' klyuch? Klyuch mozhna paluehit' udizhrimy pa-etazhu,

A gdye uvas leeft?

Vot syuda, pazhalsta, Spasfba,

Y,LIe)l{YPHoii no :JTaJKY [udizluimy pa-etazhu] from the woman on duty on your floor

CIO,LI3 [syuda] here, this way

t rne MO)l{HO nOJlyquTl> XJlIOLJ? [gdye rnozhna paluchft' klyuch?] where can I pick up the key?

It rne Y sac .JIH:cfn? [gdye uvas teeft?] where is the elevator here?

[uvas] is often used in Russian where other languages say 'in your hotel, house, country, etc'. It also sounds less abrupt to ask rne y sac ... ? [gdye uvas ... ?J than simply rne, .. ? [gdye ... ?]

36 UNIT 3

n

n

Practice what you have learned

As before, read the instructions for each exercise before turning on the recording.

1

Three visitors to a hotel write their names on their luggage but forget to write which floor they are on. Listen to the recording and see whether you can fill in the missing numbers. (Answers on page 46.)

2

On your recording you will hear our hotel guests asking where various places are. Write down the correct floor for each. You will find the possible floors listed in the box below. (Answers on page 46.)

Where is you:r restaurant?

(i) D3 [na] ."" .. " ..... " ...

Where is the telephone?

(ii) .oa rna] .

Where is the discotheque?

(iii) tl3 rna] "" ... " ....... ".

aa "epSOM ~T3}Ke [na pyervarn etazhe] tl3 BTOPOM ~T3)Ke [na ftar6m etazhe]

83 TpeTLeM na)Ke rna tryetyem etazhe]

U IT3 37

n

Man

Receptionist Man

Receptionist Man Receptionist

Mall

Receptionist

Dialogues

3 The man next to Tanya doesn't have a reservation

CK<l)I(HTe, no)[(anyikra, y sac ecrs cB066D.Hble HOMepa aa cer6LLHJJ?

BaM HY)I(eH H6Mep Ha o,I:UlOr6? HeT, MHe HY)I(eH H6Mep na D.BOHX.

Skazhltye, pazhalsta, uvas yest' svab6dniye namira na siv6dnya?

Vam mizhin n6mir na aclnav6? Nyet, rnnye rnizhin nornir na

dvayfkh.

Na sk61'ka dnyey? Na tri dnya.

Adml rniruitachku .... Da, unas yest' narnira,

Skazhftye, pazhalsta, sk6l'ka st6it n6mir fstitki?

N6mir st6it sto dvarsat' d6Uaraf.

Ha CK6JlbKO D.Hei1:? Ha TIm n;H~.

O.ll.HY MHHYTOqKy .... Ila, y Hac eers HOMep.i

CK3)[(I1:Te, noxcanyacra, CK6JlbKO crOI1T H6Mep B cyrxa?

H6Mep cT6HT eTO D.BaD.Han nOJlJIapOB,

ITO ~BaJl.llaTb '!{OJll1apOB [SIO dvatsat' dollaraf] l20 dollars

• Y nac ecrs cBol'i6,llHble DOMepa? [uvas yest' svabodniye narniraz] do you have any vacant rooms?

• aa cero,!!;H$! rna siv6dnya] for today. Ha [na] is often used to mean 'for', particularly with reservations, If the man had wanted a room for tomorrow he would have said ua 33BTpa rna zaftra].

• BaM UY)KeH H6Mep ua oJlHor6? [varn rnizhin n6mir na adnav6?] do you need a single room? (lit. a room for one person). The man wants a room aa JlBOHX rna dvayikh] for two. For three would be H3 TP0H:x rna trayfkh],

• ua CKO·J1LKO }lUeH? rna sk61'ka dnyey?J for how many days? In his reply the man says aa TpH JlIICJI rna tri dnya] for three days, using a quite different ending. Numbers make nouns do some very funny things! You say:

aa O,l1;HH ,o;eHb rna adfn dyen'] for one day

na ABa (TpH, "eTl:lpe) JIH.II rna dva (tri, chityrye) dnya] for two (three. four) days na "11Th (meers, ... ) ,o;HeH rna pyat' (shest', ... ) dnyey] for five (six .... ) days If this seems too much to remember. just say Ha rna] with the number, and leave out the noun altogether!

• Y Hac ecru HOMepa lunas yest' namira] we have rooms. Y Hac ecrt, .. , lunas yest' ... ] means 'we have .. .'

• CKOJ1bKO CTOHT HOMep? [sk6l'ka stoit n6mir?] how much does a room cost?

• B CrT"H [fsutld] per day. CY-I'KH [sutki]is Ill. 24-hour period.

A guest's card for the hotel Tourist'

38 UNIT 3

n

n

Practice what you have learned

3

A new reception clerk has completely mixed up some visitors' registration forms. Here they are in translation, After listening to the dialogues on your recording, see if you can spot and correct the mistakes. (Answers on page 46.)

4

R'EGISTRATIO'NI FORM

NAME:

POSLOV

NO. OF GUESTS

3 PEOPLE

'NO. OF 'NIGHTS

2 NIGHTS

REGISTRATION FORM

NAME:

LUZHIN

NO. OF GUESTS

1 PERSON

NO. OF NIGHTS

1 NIGHT

(ii)

REGIS,TRATION iFORM

NAME:

MASLOV

NO. OF GUESTS

3 PEOPLE

I NO. OF NIGHTS

3 NfGHTS

This time you are a tourist seeking a hotel room. Andrei will give you instructions.

(i)

!R~E.GISTRATION FORM

NAME:

DOBRIN

NO. OF GUESTS

2 PEOPLE

NO. OF NIGHTS

7 NIGHTS

(iv)

(iii)

UNIT 3 39

n

Dialogues

4 Tanya has found the foreign currency exchange desk

Tanya Clerk Tanya Clerk Tanya Clerk Tanya Clerk

31Ipa BCTBy-tfTe. 3 .np3 BCTBY HTe.

M6)f{HO 06MemlTb BamOT)'? )la, nO)!(iny.HcTa. A "lTO Y sac? (]>YHTbl.

CK6J1bKO Shl MeHHeTe'? Ilsanuari •.

)laihe, n02Ka.nyHCTa, eaury

).leKJlap3uHIO l-I m'!Hbnf.

BOT, J 1O)IGUryi1cTa.

3ueCb naura rronrracs, noacanyacra, TIO)f{anyHCTa.

Balli" IleHbrH, nO)KaJlyikra. Cnacaco,

)lo CBHIl3mUI. .no CB.I1.uiiHIHI.

Tanya Clerk Tanya Clerk Tanya Clerk Tanya

Zdrastvuytye, Zdrastvuytye.

M6zhna abminyat' valyutu? Da, pazhalsta. A sht6 uvas? Funty.

Sk61'ka vi minyaitye? Dvatsat',

Daitye, pazhalsta, vashu

diklaratsiyu i dyen'gi, Vot, pazhalsta.

Zdyes' vasha p6tpees', pazhalsta, Pazhalsta.

Vashi dyen'gi, pazhalsta. Spasfba.

Da svidanya, Da svidanya .

.ll.eKJ1apallHlI [diklaratsiya] official declaration of how much currency you bring into the country

.ll.eHbfH [dyen'gi] money (a plural noun)

• qTO Y nac? [shto uvas?] what. have you got.? The answer was 4>jltTbl [flinty) pounds. Most words denoting currencies are more obvious: .ll.Onnapbl [d611ary] dollars, MapKu [marki] marks, etc.

CKOJJbKO Bhl MemieTe? [sk61'ka vi minyaityet] how much are you changing? Conveniently, Tanya is changing an amount you know:

.ll.03).1, u an. [dvatsat'] 20. She might have asked for:

TPH,Q113Tb [trftsat'] 30 COPOK [sorak] 40 DlITb).l,ediT [pit'disyat] 50

You wiJl be pleased to hear that you now know aU the numbers to 50, or 59 to be exact. For 21,22, etc. you simply use the number for 20 and add one, two, three etc., i.e.:

.ll.rum1l3Th Oll.HU, .ll.Baall3Tb .ll.oa, ).I,ob u aTl> Tpn [dvatsat' adln, dvarsat' dva, dvatsat' tri]

And 59? No problem - nltTL.II.eCil:T .ll.eBltTb [pit'disyat dyevit']

• ).I,aHTe, nmKanyiicTa, .• , [daitye, pazhalsta, ... J give me please ...

.. 3.11.eCb BaW3 nO.l{llHCb [zdyes' vasha p6tpees'] your signature here

40 UNIT 3

Practice what you have learned

n

5 On your recording you will hear people exchanging currency ar the exchange desk. Can you fill in the spaces on their receipts? (Answers on page 46.)

n

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

CURRENCY EXCHANGE FORM

Currency

Amount

6 You are a touri t with pounds to change. Andrei will tell you what. to ask for at the exchange desk.

JlO

CURRENCY EXCHANGE FORM

Currency

Amount

CURRENCY EXCHANGE FORM

Currency

Amount

UNIT 3 41

Key words and phrases

.!lJUl MeH" 3aopOHupOBaH HOMep [dlya minya zabroniravan n6mir]

I have a room booked

BOT [vot] here (is)

enacaso [spasfba] thank you

H3 nepBOM 3Ta:lK~ rna pyervam etazhe] on the first (ground)tloor

11.3 BTOPOM :na.:lKf [na ftar6m etazhe] on the second floor

H3 TpeTLeM n3)Ke rna tryetyern etazhe] on the third floor 113 )leCiiTOM lT3)Ke [na disyatam etazhel on the tenth floor

r ne y aac (JlII4JT)? [gdye uvas (leeft)?1 where is your (elevator)?

r.ae MO)KIIO ••• [gdye m6zhna ... ] 1I0Jty ... {tTb KJltO'I?

(paJ uchft' k1 yuch 7] oOMeHiiTb 83JlKlTY? [abminyatvalyutu"]

Y aac ecrs CBoo6JlH LIe HOMepa ... [uvas yesr' svab6dniye narnira? .. j aa cero.u,HlI? rna siv6dnya?] na 33BTpa? rna zaftra?]

BaM "YJKeH HOMep H3 oJlHor6? [vam mizhin nomir na adnavoj] ua .IlBOHX? rna dvayOch?]

Ra Tpoiix? rna trayLkh?]

MHe HY)KeH ••• [mnye mlzhin ... )

ua CKOJ1LKO .!lUeK? Ina sk61'ka dnyey?J

CK6JILKO c-ro.HT HOMep B CYTKU?

[sk6l'ka stoit nomir fsutki?]

KaK OK pa66TaeT? [kak on rab6tayit?] 'ITO Y aae? [sht6 uvas?]

C.KOJlLKO Dbl Me"'''eTe?

[sk6l'ka vi rninyaitye"]

JlaHTe, nO)KaJlyikT3, ••• [daitye, pazhalsra, ... J Barny nexnapamuo [vashu diklarritsiyu] )leN .. r" [dyen'gi]

where can one ... get the key?

change foreign currency?

do you have any vacant rooms ...

for today?

for tomorrow?

do you need a single room?

(a room) for two? (a room) for three?

I need ...

for how many days? (see note on page 38)

how much does a room COS! per

day?

how (what hours) does it work? what do you have?

how much are you changing?

please give me ...

your declaration

money

42 UNIT 3

The Russian alphabet

In this unit you will learn five new letters. In total you have now met more than two thirds of the alphabet, Read the letters and the words below, then tum on the recording and listen to how Andrei pronounces them.

The letters are:

6 [b]

J] [11

n [p]

;) I e like the fi rst e in edifice]

it called 'short 1-1'. It sounds and behaves just like the y in boy, way, New York etc. One sees it very often in names:

Toncroe (Tolstoy), ,l1,OCToeSCKH.H (Dostoevsky).

7 Who's who and who's ill the wrong place? (Answers on page 46.)

(i) MAJIEP qAiiKOBCKHfI 6PAMC UApBJilH

(ii) 3JIBHC nPECJIH DOn CAMMOH 6HTJI3606 ;r[lmAH

(iii) DJIATOn MAKlIAB.EJIJIH6AHPOH APlICTOTEJIL

(iv) RHKOJIAH AJIEKCAHilP AJIbREPTBJIA}lHMHP

After you have practiced these letters and the words above, see if you can work out the following crossword puzzle. If you have answered. each question correctly, the beginning letters of each word read vertically will give you the name of a famous Russian ballerina, (Answers on page 46 .. )

8

C II IT I
T .K AI
a K
0 H HI
c 0
H O.
A II E K A:I l nl I Clues

1 You need this when trav~lil1g

2 A place you might try if you have a headache or cold

3 An alcoholic drink and probably your first Russian word

4 Big Ben is in the center of this famous capital

5 A Scandinavian capital

6 The French are famous drinkers of this alcoholic beverage

7 The name of three Russian Tsars

New word anTeKa [aptyeka] chemist

UNIT 3 43

Grammar

The accusative case

Some nouns have different endings in Russian when they become the direct object of a verb. Less abstractly, in the sentence 'Ivan reads a book', Ivan is the subject, he is doing the reading. The book is the direct object, it is being read.

It is important to be aware of these endings even if you don't always remember to use them. In a language without set word order they can provide vital clues to help you understand who is doing what!

In the dialogue, Tanya was asked for her currency declaration: n3ihe, nO}l{IlJlyitcT3, BaUlY .l1eKJl3paUHIO

[Daitye, pazhalsta, vashu diklaratsiyu]

In the dictionary the word for 'declaration' would be written:

.l1eKJl3paUHlI [diklaratsiya]. This is a feminine noun and it changes when it becomes the object of the verb .l1aHTe [daitye] give (me). Similarly, the word for 'foreign currency' is feminine: sanarra [valyuta], but Tanya asked:

MO}l{HO OOMeHlITbB3J1M)TY? [m6zhna abrninyat' valyutu"] May J change some currency?

Fortunately these are the only endings for the moment. Neuter nouns never change in the accusative case, nor do masculine nouns which refer to things. If Tanya had been asked for her passport, you would have heard:

naiin, nO)l(3JIyiicT3, B3U1 nacnnp r [Daitye, pazhalsta, vash pasport]

9 Tanya was in the foreign currency shop of the hotel, and saw the following items which she wanted:

mOKOJl3)l [shakalat] UO)lKa [v6tka]

BHno [vin6]

KOHb:iiK [kanyak] r331h3' [gazyeta] M3TpeUlK3 [matry6shka]

chocolate vodka

wine

cognac newspaper matryoshka doll

She asked for each of the above, beginning each time with JlllHTe, nO}K3J1YHCT3, •.. [daitye, pazhalsta •... 1 give me please .... Can you write in the item with the correct endings? (Answers on page 46.)

.o.aHTe, nO)l(.3J1yHCT3, ••. [daitye, pazhalsta •... J

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

44 UNIT 3

Did you know?

Travel to Russia and the Soviet Union

Up to the late 19805 the majority of foreign visitors came to the USSR on package tours arranged by the State organization Intourist.

There was relatively little choice since a visa was only issued on proof of accommodation and hotel rooms booked by individuals were classified as first class and priced accordingly.

To the foreign traveler, the advantage of package tours was that they largely eliminated the problems with accommodation, transportation and general service which plague Russian travelers. The chief disadvantage was that most tourists, especially if they knew no Russian, saw little of the country. Indeed Intourist hotels were built to provide anything that a tourist (in their opinion!) might wish for: bars, restaurants, saunas, shops, etc.

At the time of writing, much of the above is still applicable; none the less noticeable changes have taken place. It has become relatively easy to visit friends in Russia, Easy, that is, for those invited - there is considerable bureaucratic red tape at the Russian endl Vi itors must live at the address written on their vi a, and need to receive an official stamp in their passport.

lrrtourist is also increasingly losing ils monopoly as more enterprises open. Some ofthese offer package tours, while others offer accommodation in private homes or rented apartments and offices.

HOTEL REGULATIONS

the guest's card Is a r,ass to the hotel: the room key is availab e at the floor desk and is given by the floor maid In exchange lor your :guest's card;

your vlsltors can receive ,8 temporary pass 10 the hotel at the pass bureau on your request made throullt the floor made and can stav in the hotel from 8 a. m. to II p. m.; .

the !loor mald must be informed of Ihe dale 01' your departure two days in advance:

1~Il:distance phone calls must be paid Willi." 24 hours:

when departing, please. aak the floor maid for a pass to your luggage, leave her the room key an d yo u r g uest' s ca rd.

IT IS Si~ICTl y fO RBI DOE N:

- to 1I.s!! electric heating dey ices in you r room;

- to leave guests tnyour room when you are absent and to let anybody use your key and YOIIT guest'scard.

In ease you lose your guest's card the hotel bears 110 responsibility for the salty of your belongings. You are kindly requwsted 10 observe the hotel regulations and fire safely ruies.

A guest's card/rom Hotel 'Moskva', issued in 1990. The rules are 1]0 longer quite so stringent.

UNIT3 45

n

10

Practice whai. you have learned

Alphabet

Grammar

Your turn to speak

You will be playing the role of Misha Ivanov. who is checking in at a hotel, and finding his bearings. As usual, read the following words and phrases and then turn on the recording.

lUllt MeHil3a6poHHpOllllH H6Mep [dlya rninya zabronfravan n6mir] clJacH60 [spasfba]

r.ae y sac ... ? [gdye uvas ... ?]

Answers

Exercise I (i) 2 (ii.) 1 (iii) 10

Exercise 2 (i) ua TpeTbeM 3T!UKe [na tryetyem etazhe] (ii) aa m!pBOM 3T!UKe [na pyervam etazhe] (iii) Ha BTOp6M 3TaJKe (na ftarom etazhe]

Exercise 3 (i) 4 days (ii) for 2 people (iii) 6 days (Lv) 4 days Exercise 5 (i) pounds, 35 (ii) dollars, 40 (iii) Deutschmarks, 50

Exercise 7 (i) llap.BHH (ii) 6~rTJJ3 (iii) EaiipoH (iv) Arrb6epT

Exercise 8 rracnopr, arrrexa, BOUKa. JIOHlloH, 6ClIO, BMH6, Aneacaanp. The ballerina. is naOJlOB3

Exercise 9 (i) moxonan (ii) B61lKY (iii) BMH6 (iv) KOHbilK (v) raaery (vi) MaTpewKY

46 UNIT 3

Sweet wrappers

Y ouwill learn

• to find out what is available for a meal, or part of a meal

• to make your choice

• to ask advice about cates and about recommended dishes

.' to ask for a seat at a table

• to pay for your meal

and you will be introduced to traditional Russian cuisine

KO H Q)'ETbl -MII.CKA·

KoQ-Ha 1i,",1'

~,.. n t. fA~A[:e.

MOCKS.

Study guide

Dialogues 1, 2: listen without the book

Dialogues 1, 2: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 3, 4: listen without the book

Dialogues 3,4: Iisten, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dia.logues 5-7:: listen without the book

Dia.logues 5-7: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study Ihe Key words and phrases

Read and practice writing the AJpbabel:

Study the Grammar section carefully

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your tum to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT 4 47

n

Dialogues

1 Tanya has stayed the night at a/Fiend's

Tanya

Taxeapa, a 'ITO y Hac cerdaaa aa 33.B1paK?

Kama, 6YTep5p6Abi C KOJl6ac6il

M .. TIH C cbipoM.

,Uat:i MHe npocro xJ1e6 C MaCJlOM. nmK:lrryMcTa.

Cnac1160.

Kama [kasha] porridge IlPOCTO [prosta] simply'

Tamara. a shto unas siv6dnya na ziiftrak?

Kasha.buterbrody skalbas6y

iii syram,

Dai mnye prosta khlyep smaslam, Pazhalsta,

Spasfba.

Tamara

Tanya Tamara Tanya

• qTO Y Hac cer6;rJ:HJI H33aBTpLK? [shto un as sivodnya na zaftrak?] what do we have far breakfast today? At appropriate times of the day .H3 3iiBl'paK rna zaftrak] could be substituted by:

H806e.u; rna abyetl for lunch, the middle meal of the day "3 jlKJl.H rna ilzhin] for dinner.

• 6YTepiip6,n.bl [buterbrridy] sandwiches. One sandwich would be 6ynpopo;rJ: [burerbnit]; C KOJl6acoii [skalbasoy] with sausage, salami; C CLIPOM [syram] with cheese.

• )lad MHe IIPOCTO xJleii C M3CJ10M. [dai mnye prosta khlyep srnaslam] give me just bread and butter. Tanya is speaking to a friend, and therefore she says ;o.aii [dai] rather than the formal ,l:Iaihe [daitye],

• 1Io1lle [mnye] means 'to me' and is used after verbs such as ;o.aihe [daitye] i.e, 'give to me'.

2 What about coffee?

Tamara Tanya Tamara Tanya Tamara Tanya

A Koq,e TbI 6yn;elIfb? OH, C y.uOBOJIbCTBHeM.

Te6e l{epHbrH (IJI.M C MOlJOKOM? C M0J10K6M, eCJI}! M6)KHO .. TIO)KMyMCTa.

Cnacaoo,

A k6fye ti biidish? Oi, sudavol'stvyem.

Tibye ch6my f]j smalakom? Smalak6m, yesli mozhna, Pazhalsta.

Spasfba.

OR [oil oh

feJlJl MOlKRO [yesli mozhna] if possible

• K6¢le TLI iij ;rJ:ewb? [k6fye ti budishr] win you have coffee? If you were on more formal terms with someone, you would be asked: Ko¢le B.I.I oy;o.eTe? [k6fye vi bUditye?]. You are also likely to be offered '1.38 [chai] tea, which is always drunk without milk.

• c y.n,o'OOJl.bc .... .DHeM [sudavol'stvyem] with pleasure

• TeO!! [tibye] for you. This is the same kind of ending as MHe [mnye], It is often used when offering or making a choice. Here the choice is:

'dipHblH Ko¢le [ch6rny kofye] black coffee or

Ko¢le C MOJlOKOM (k6fye smalak:6m].coffee with milk.

Again if you use .obi [vi) with a person, the appropriate. farm here would be BaM [yam] instead of .... e6e [tibye],

• C MonoKoM (smalak6m] with mille. If you drink coffee with sugar, you'll want to know:

c di~!lPOM [sakharam] with sugar.

48 UNIT 4

Practice what you have learned

n

1

Ol'ga Ivanovna has a famiJy - Marina, Vasily and their IwO children Natasha and Ira ~ slaying with her. Listen to their orders for breakfast and then decide whether the following starements are true or false. You'll notice that the children use ,o;aHTe [dairye] when they speak to Ol'ga Ivanovna, an adult (Answers on page 58.)

(i) Vasily asks for porridge and black coffee.

(ii) Natasha asks for salami sandwiches.

(iii) Ira wants porridge with sugar.

(iv) Marina wants coffee with milk and salami sandwiches.

Grocery packaging for sugar lumps (betow) and 'Hercules' oatftakes (right)

~

PA<I>HHAA

/6bJCTPOPACTBOPHMblH/

n

2

Later on Natasha asks everyone what they would like to drink but becomes hopelessly confused. Listen to the recording and match the request with the person. (Answers on page 58.)

fEPKYAEC

OBCIIObIE XAOnbQ

(i) Mama (a) tea
(ii) Papa (b) coffee with milk and sugar
(iii) Ira (e) coffee with milk
(iv) Ol'ga lvanovna (d) black coffee n

3

Your name is Nina and you will be finding out from your brother what there is for breakfast. Andrei will prompt you.

UNIT 4 49

n

Dialogues

3 Natasha drops into the company cajeteriafor lunch

Natasha Serving lady Natasha Serving lady

Natasha Serving lady

Natasha Serving lady

n66pblil neBb. 3lJ,paBcTBY iire.

lho Y sac cercnas aa nepaoe? Ecrs cyn ropOXOBbJli C MiicOM M

cyn PbI6Hb[i1f C KapTOWel{KoH. qTO Bbl MHe nopexoveanyere? 51 6hl BaM nopexoseeanoaana cyn pbI6HbIH., M5irKt!l1, He)KBhtH, C6lJ.HblM. cyn,

Xopcuro. Cnacltoo.

ilO:lKarryHcTa.

Dobry dyen'. Zdrastvuytye,

Shto UV3S siv6dnya na pyervaye? Yest' sup gar6khavy srnyasam i

sup ribny skartoshichkay, Shto vi mnye parikamendnitye? Ya hi yam parikamendavala sup ribny, rnyakhki, nyezhny, s6chny sup.

Kharash6. Spasfba, Pazhalsta,

cyn ropoxoB.blU C MkcOM [sup gar6khavy srnyasam] pea soup with meat cyn P'bloHbrH C KapT6UJelJ"OR [sup ribny skartcshichkay] fish soup with potato

• 'ITO Y aac CerO.llHlI Da nepBoe'! [shto uvas siv6dnya na pyervayej] What is there for Ihe first course today? For other dishes, you would ask:

liTO y aac cerOJJ,"BlI: ••• [shto uvas siv6dnya .... ]

H3 BTop6e? [na ftar6ye?] for the second course? H3 TpeTbe? rna tryelye?] for the third course? H3 .tlecepT? rna disyert"] for dessert?

• c KapTo:rnellKIlH [skart6shichkay] with potatoes. The more common word for potatoes is KapT6unta [karteshka] and 'with potatoes' C KapTowKoil [skartoshkay].

'. "UQ BLI MHe ItOpeKOMeHMeTe? [shro vi mnye parikamenddirye'r] what would you recommend?

JI 'Obi 88M DopeKOMeH.l.IOBana ••. [ya hi yam parikarnendavala ... ] I would recommend ... The lady uses a different forrn of the verb. Don't worry about learning this - it's the question you willneed,

• eyn p';II)HLIII - Marlwi, HeJKHbiH, C6tlHblH eyn [sup ribny - rnyakhki, nyezhny, sochny sup] fish soup - delicate, gentle, juicy soup. (These adjectives are not the most common words used to describe a soup!) You will find out more about how to use adjectives in Unit 6.

Lyena Serving lady

Lyena Serving lady

Lyena Serving lady Lyena Serving lady Lyena

4

Lyena is next in lineand asks about the second course

qTO Y nac H3 sropoe? Shto uvas na ftaroye?

Ha BTOp6e? Pb'i6a omapnas, 6eep- Na ftaroye? Riba arvarnaya,

CTporaHOB, MHCO TYLUeHoe, befstr6ganof, myasa tushonaye,

oH¢um'iKc C JI)-KOM, aarrexaaxa bifshteks shikam, zapikanka

TEOpO)f{Ha.ll co CMer3.HOH. tvarozhnaya sa smitanay.

Ll.a.1he MHe, fIO)Kany.i1cTa, oHcjlwTeKC. Daitye mnye, pazhalsta. bifshteks.

IiM¢WTeKc C JlYKOM. A KaKoti Bifshteks sll1kam. A kak6y garneer

rapnsp »cenaere? zhilayitye?

KapT6¢eJIbHOe mope. Kartofil'naye pyure,

nmK8.rryJircTa. Pazhalsta. .

BOJlbLIJ6e cnacaoo, Bal'shoye spasfba.

TI05IGmyl1:cT8. ITpHHTHoro armerara! Pazhalsta. Priyamava appitfta'

CllacHOo. Spasfba.

pb .... ia. OTBapHlBS! [rfba atvarnaya] poached fish oecjl-cTporanoB [befstr6ganof] beef Stroganoff MHCO Tyweuoe [myasa tush6naye] Slewed meat

50 UNIT4

6H(jfIlUTeKc C JJYKOM [bifshteks shikam] beefsteak with onion

JaneK3HK.a TBOpO;iKH.311 co CMeT3HOH [zapikanka tvarczhnaya sa smitanay] baked cottage cheese dish with. sour cream

KapT6¢1eJ1bHOe mO,pe [kartofil'naye pyure] mashed potatoes

• KaKOU rapHUp >!<emkre? [kak6y gameer zhihiyilye?] what would you like with it?

:.KeJI3Tb [zhiliH']can mean 'to desire' and is not the most common verb in this context. You will more often hear K3KOH rapoHp Dbl xonhe? [kak6y gameer vi khatitye?], 10 which you could reply '.11 xO'ly •• : [ya khachu ... J I want ...

• 6oJThw6e coacltt"io [bal'sh6ye spaslba] thank you very much (or, literally, a big thank you)

• npuHTHol'O' annerjrra] [priyatnava appitital] bon appetitl It is quite normal for Russians to say this whenever they see somebody eating,

Practice what you have learned

4 Oleg and Larisa find the following menu in a local cafeteria. See how much you can make out before looking at the transliterated version below.

JIEP.BOE rop6xoBLIH: eyn , pb'16Hb!H qll

I OojllJ.l,

M"EmO BTOp6E 6e¢l·c'Fp6r,aOoB 6H¢lwTeKc l"'yJllIW

rAPHHP KapT6¢leJibROe ",ope 'CaJl3JT

BRllerpeT

,PYERVAYE gar6kllavy sup rfbny sup borshch

MINy(J FfAROYE befstroganof bifshteks gulyash

GARNEER kart6fil'naye pyure salat

vinigryer

Listen to the recording and mark the correct box, (Answers on page 58,) (i) The mall serving recommends:

(a) pblfi.llblH cyn [ribny sup] §

(b) ropoxoBblH cyn [gar6khavy sup]

(c) 6oilU~ [borshch ]

(ii) For her main course Larisa asks for:

(a) rydm [gulyashJ §

(b) 6HtbW1'€KC [bifshteks] .

(c) oecjl·cTporaHoB lbefstrogancf

(iii) What does she want with her meal?

(a) camlT [salat] 0

(b) BHHerpeT [vinlgryet] 0

(c) KapT6cpellLHoe mope [kart6fiI'naye pyure] D

.5

Still using the same menu, this time it's your tum to order. Follow Andrei's instructions.

UNIT 4 51

n

n

Dialogues

5 Lyena is now at the cashier's desk

Lyena Cashier Lyena

CK6JlbKO C Meidl? A qTO Y sac?

Y MeHJ1 oR<ilUlTeKC C KaPT6cpeJlbHblM

mope.

TpHnuaTb B6ceMb xorreex. BOT, llO}KanyHCTa. Cnacnfio.

I1md.rryil:cn.

Cashier Lyena Cashier Lyena

Sk61'ka sminya? A sht6 uvas?

Uminya bifshteks skartofil'nym

pyure,

Tritsat' vosim' kapyeek. Vot, pazhalsta.

Spasiba.

Pazhalsta,

• CKOJn.KO C MeuJi? [sk6l'ka sminyat] how much do lowe you? (lit. 'how much from me?'!)

'. Y Bac [uvas], Y Me.HiJ [uminya]: It is difficult for a learner to know when to use Y Mewl ecrs .. , [urninya yest' ... ) and when Y Metdi: [uminya] by itself is enough. EcTb [yesr'l is u ed when out of the blue you inform somebody that you have something, It is omitted if you are simply describing what you have. If this sounds confusing, simply listen to whether it is used or not. and follow suit!

• TpK)lQan. BOceMb KoneeK [trftsat' vosim' kapyeek] 38 kopecks

A word of warning - from the beginning of 1992 the cost of Jiving in Russia increased dramatically. making the prices quoted here and elsewhere quite outdated.

6 Lyena has taken her tray and is looking for a seat

Lyena

113sHHJiiTe, llo)ldnyi:fcTa, anecs CSoOO,llHo?

Ila, camrrecs, 1l0}Kanyi1cTa. Cnacatio.

Other customer Lyena

Izvinitye, pazhalsta, zdyes' svab6dna?

Da, sadftyes', pazhalsta, Spasfba.

• C3.o.HTeCb [sadftyes'] take a seat

• ]~eCb CBOOO~HO? [zdyes' svab6dna?) is this place free? If it were not.the reply would probably have been HeT, :u;eCb 3iiHIITO [nyet, zdyes' zanyata] no. it's taken.

52 UNIT 4

n

Passerby

Ira Passerby

7 Ira doesn't have much luck finding a place to eat

Ira

113B.MHfiTe, nO>KWIYHcTa" rne 311,eCb MO:lKHO 6bJCcrpO noooen3Tb?

3)Ie.cb IJOOfien:3Th? 311,eCb noo5e.nan, 04e!ib TPYD,HO. M6>KHO ronsso B.blltHTb 4arnKY K6q,e B KatjJe BOT pSi:)lOM.

CnacH60 OOJlbllloe. IJO)K3J1yi1cu.

TOJl.I>KO [tol'ka] only

lzvinltye, pazhalsta, gdye zdyes' rnezhna bfstra paabyedat'?

Zdyes' paabyedat'? Zdyes' paabyedat' 6chin' tnidna, M6zhna t61'k:a vypit' chashku k6fye fkafe vot ryadarn,

Spasfba bsl'shoye. Pazhalsta,

• n~e J).IeCb MO:lKHO' O&II!TPO I'lOooe).l3Tb? [gdye zdyes' m6zhna bfstra paabyed.at'?J where around here can one gel a quick meal? The verb 'to have lunch' is formed from the noun for lunch - o(jt~Jl. [abyet].:lf you wanted to find out where you could get breakfast>- and .001. necessarily quickly! - you would leave out OblCTPO [bfstra] (quickly) and ask:

rue 3)1.ecb MOlKHO UOJ3tBTpaK.3.u? [gdye zdyes' mozhna pazaftrakat'J] and dinner:

r)l.e 3)1.eCL MOw.: .. HO noyw.:HH3,n.? [gdye zdyes' mozhna patizhinat'"].

• 3.1'1eCI) nOOOOJl.3TL O'leHL TPY.I'IIIO [zdyes' paabyedat' ochin' tnidna] it is very difficult. to get lunch around here

• BblDilTb '13l1IKY K6$e [vypit' chashku k6fye] to have (lit. to drink) a cup of coffee. If Ira had wanted a coffee, she would have asked I',lle 3.lleCL M.6.JKHO Ohman. l\laIJJKY Ko$e? [gdye zdyes' m6zhna vyPit' cbashku k6fye?1

BOT PBlIOM [vot ryadam] just here, next door

n~pot lorKp~TlblA e nOBMAJlOIiII MYKI - 546, c-8l1:ap - 38, liIapnllpJtH -t. .... O .. iI;HtlH -:-::- 27, iiitUI ,Upl1iII recra ~ zt. R . fi

CDAb - 5. ApolltGi'llUIi - ,16, EI!Q,U - 230. nOBH..a,:JIO _ 333. :RAila AJUI CM1JJKIf nape- ectpe 0" a"

1"'1 - 27. ,IIIUtp AMI CW,JilCli ,}lKC:T,1 - 3.3 open jam tart

BblXOA- ~ er.

,a:IXHtc*e.l!loe '!"ecTO, "pMrOTDBJleHItDe Tn: :.Me, K8K D,.I1i!1 riYJlOi;iI(!t II,QpoJilUlDit p3:('K3tafl!' R nJl[tCT T(l.jtW~~ftJR I eM', IIDJIOMHTb 110 C!ll:aJaJ~Hbnl Jl(M:POIiII J1HC'I' M' H~~ pO.UJIIl'It "OUPXNOCTb. C~epx)' lola TeeTO riOJlOHUfTb nOn.orpeTOe AO 3O·C J10lMJI,,lJO. Kpn TfCn 3arMyn HI! I,S--==-2 eN. a C8e:pZ;Y HH ti08"'.ilJlO IlOJlDWOMfb, yJK.:.!.1!!: nOJ1Q(:KH t«TI l'lll-IfJle peWeT.KH K OMI31!1Tbo 11 t"I.I.IIJM. OnUHT1o napor .II- leMO)! aecre AIlIiI PIJCC'1'ORKIt 20-30 MHR " UhlilC",liIrb "PH T!!MnepI!lTYpr: 200 ~C.

NO'w turn the page for the exercises based on these dialogues,

UN1T4 53

n

n

n

Practice what you have learned

6

The price list below is in a sorry state. Listen to the recording and match each dish with its price. (Answers on page 58.)

(i) cyn rop6"oBblH C MirCOM [sup gar6khavy smy~srun]

39 KuneeK

(a)

(ii) rYJlirm [gulyash]

(b)

2S KOnefK

(iii) 6CIP"cTporaHoB [ befstroganof]

(c)

37 KoneeK

(iv) 6Hc;pmTexc c JJ)rKOM [bifshteks shlk:am]

Cd)

4S KOUeeK

(v) 60pm [borshch]

(e)

45 KoneeK

7

OJ'ga Ivanovna's guests ask passers-by for advice about where they can 'fortify themselves' during a long day's excursion. Listen to their conversation and fill in the missing words in Vasily's diary. You will find the answers OUI of order beneath the diary. (Answers on page 58.,)

(i) :1l1BTP8K [zaftrak J

(ii) o6e.ll [abyet]

(iii) YlKHH [iizhin]

(iv) KOlPe [kofye]

(a) B pecropane 1(8 Ocn);.KfHKf [vrestoranye na Astozhinkye] (b) B Kac;pe pfl.llOM [fkafe ryadam]

(e) B KalPe HS Ap6ihe [fkafe na Arbatye]

(d) B peCTopaHt 'flpHii'rHoro, annfnha' 1 vrestoranye 'Priyatnava appitfta']

NB Russians will of course write rather than print, but then they already know (he printed alphabet very well! For now, use the printed form when writing.

8

It's time to pay for the meal you ordered in the previous exercises. Don't worry if you've forgotten what you had - Andrei will guide you.

54 UNlT4

Key words and phrases

'ITO Y Hac cerO.lUIJI Hili l30TpaK? [shto un as sivodnya na zaftrak?] ua 06e.n? rna abyet?]

aa 1)1(HH? rna uzhin?]

'ITO Y nae HII DepOOe?

[Shl0 uvas na pyervaye?] RaBTOpoe? rna ftar6ye?] U3. TpeTbe: rna tryetye?] H3 . necepr? rna disyert?]

J\aD Mue ••• [dai mnye .•. J JlaiiTe MHe ••. [daitye mnye ... J

XJleO C M3CJlOM [khlyep srnaslarn] 6YTepOp0,ll,bl C Kon63cou [buterbr6dy skalbasdy J 6YTepOpO'.Ilbi C CLlpOM [buterbrody syram]

qepu.I..lii KoetJe [chomy k6fye]

Kolj:le C MonoKoM [k6fye smalakom]

C Y,II,OOOJlbCTOHeM [sudavol' rvyern] liTO Db! 1l0peKOMeH.IlyeTe?

[shto vi parikamendiiitye"] CKOJ1LKO C MeufI? [skol'ka sminya"] anecs c:s06oJlHo? [zdyes' svabodna"]

rne l,lleCL MO}l(HO (OLICTpO) •••

[gdye zdyes' m6zhna (bfstra) ... ] n033DTp3K3T.b? [pazaftrakat'Z] (lo06eJlan'l [paabyedat'?J DOY)I(HHaTL? [pll,uzhinat'?J BblOHTb t,llhUKY KoetJe?

[vypit' chashku k6fye?]

npas-raor-o anneraral [priyatnava appirftal]

To understand

KoetJe Tbl OYJlemb? [kofye ti Mdish?]

KoetJe Bbi 6f )'.len? [k6fye vi bt1ditye?] K,aKOH rapHHp )l(emleTe? I xOTilTe? [kak6y garneer zhilayitye? I khatitye?] SI xOllY... [ya khachu ... J

anecs uo06e.na b 611eo]' TPYJlHO [zdyes' paabyedar' ochin' tnidna]

what do we have for breakfast today?

for lunch? for dinner?

what do you have for the first

course?

second course? third course? dessert?

give me (asking a friend or child)

give me (formal)

bread and butter sandwiches with salami

sandwiches with cheese

black coffee coffee with milk

with pleasure

what would you recommend?

how much do r owe you? is this place free?

where can one (quickly) ...

have breakfast? have lunch? have dinner?

have a cup of coffee?

bon appetit!

will you have coffee? (to a friend or child)

will you have coffee? (more formal) what would you like with it?

I would like ...

it's very difficult to get lunch here

UNIT4 55

n

n

The Russian. alphabet

The five letters we will look at in this unit are:

W [sh]

e [yo]. This vowel is always in stressed position

cp. [t]

1>1 [y in bury - but this is approximate so listen to the recording]

r [g in good]

.9

Can you match the following capital cities with their country? (Answers on page 58.)

(i) COdlHH (ii) J10HIlOH (iii) llYDJ1nH (iv) KABYJ1 (v) MAHRJlA (vi) ocno (vii) PBrA

(a) H'OPDEI'MH

(b) AdlrAHMCTAH (c) JI.A.TB.UH

Cd) J)OJIrAPMH (e) AHrmt.H

(0 IIPJ1AHllHSI (g) dlHJ1HnnHHLI

10

(a) Which of the following would you be unlikely to eat? (Answers on page 58.)

(i) PblBHhIH CYll (ii) mAmJ1bIK

(iii) BHdlUITEKC (iv) BAJUOTA

(b) And who might feel a little out of place?

(i) mOCTAKOnnq (11) HAIIOnEDH

(iii) illY6EPT (iv) IIPOKD0LEH

11 Here are some signs you might want to look out for: (i) BYdlE~r

(ii)KAdlE

(iii) PECTOpAH (Iv) I'PHJ1b.BA.P

(v) CT0J10DAH (cafeteria, canteen)

(a) for which place might you need to make a reservation? , .

(b) Where could you go for a snack? "" ' " .

(c) Where would you probably find grilled chicken? .""., .. " ...... "" ........ (Answers 011 page 58.)

A word of warning: r [gJ is sometimes pronounced quite differently - as [v]. This happens for example in the wordeerdnas [sivodnya] today. As 3. rule it happens with the combinations -01:·0 [-ovo] ar -ero [.yevo], but since there are exceptions even to this, be patient with such eccentricity and just try to remember the words in question.

56 UNIT 4

Grammar

'With'

K6~e l.IepHblH UJIU C MonOKOM? [k6fye ch6rny fli smalak6m?J Coffee black or with milk?

C (s) is used before a noun to mean 'with' (in grammatical terms it is a preposition). In addition, however, the ending of the noun changes.

Masculine and neuter nouns normally end in -OM: ([am] but pronounced [am] ifnot stressed). Hence oYTeplip6~"1 [buterbrody] with ChiP [syr] becomes oYTepopo)J;bl C CLIPOM: [buterbr6dy syrarn] 'sandwiches with cheese'. And KO(j)e [k6fye] with MOJlOI(O [malak6] becomes Ko~e C M:0J10KOM [k6fye smalak6m] 'coffee with milk'.

Feminine nouns normally end in -OH ([oy] but pronounced ray) if not stressed). So oyTepop6~h1 [buterbr6dy] witMKoJloaca [kalbasa] becomes 6YTepop6JlbJ C KOJIOac6it: [buterbr6dy skalbasoy] 'salami sandwiches'.

The c [sl is normally pronounced as part of the next word.

12 Four friends are perusing the menu in a cafeteria. Katya is ravenous, Kolya just a little hungry, Tanya is a vegetarian and Ira only wants something to drink. What might each order?

BYTEPIJP611hl

I [buterbr6dy] (sandwiches)

IJH4ImTEKC

[bifshteks] (beefsteak)

IJE4I·CTP6r AHOB [befstr6ganof] (beef Stroganoff)

3AUEKA.HKA TBOp6)KHAH [zapikanka tvar6zhnaya]

(baked cottage cheese dish)

K04lE [k6fye] (coffee) IfEPHbni K641E

[chorny k6fye] (black coffee)

"lAM [chai] (tea)

MEHIO

CMETA.HA [smitana] (sour cream)

KOrrlJACA [kalbasa] (salami)

JIYK

[Iuk] (onion)

PHC

frees] (rice)

MorrOK6 [malako] (milk) CAXAP

[sakhar] (sugar)

JJHM6H {limon] (lemon)

Katya

Kolya

Tanya

Ira

UNIT4 57

n

13

Did you know?

Traditional Russian cuisine is very rich. Much ofit is fried and may then be served with dollops of sour cream. For breakfast your hotel. or some of the cooperative cafes are likely to offer Gm!Hbl [bliny] pancakes or CblPHHKH [syrniki] cottage cheese parties, possibly co CMCT3UOH [so smiranay] with sour cream. If ycu prefer a lighter breakfast, there will probably be csrp [syr) cheese, KOJ1ljaca [kalbasa] sausage, ~Hu.a [yailsa] eggs, KlilUa [kasha] porridge and XJ1eo [khlyep] bread.qepHblH x.ncG [ch6my khlyepJ black bread is particularly tasty!

One should not, however, assume that this is how Russians normally eat.

The above dishes are lime-consuming to make, and more often than not some of the ingredients will be .IletJlHu.IiTHblC [difitsfmiye], i.e. unobtainable.

Russians normally eat a large breakfast. What it consists of is to a large extent dependent on the time of the year, and what is available in the shops, Buckwheat, cats and semolina (all called K3.11IJ3 [kashaj) are common, though quite often breakfast is fried potato or vermicelli, with sausage or whatever meat is around.

Breakfast is normally eaten at home. The number of cafe even in the larger cities is still not high, and not everyone can afford to wait in the long lines which form even around street vendors selling DHpOJKKH [pirashkf] filled yeast buns, ice cream and other snacks.

Your turn to speak

You will be ordering breakfast in the hotel restaurant. Read (he following phrases, then tum on your recording and let Andrei guide you.

30Uecb CBoOOoUUO? [zdyes' svab6dna.?)

'ITO y sac CerO.llHIl H8 3aBTpaK? (shto uvas siv6dnya na zMtrak?] .!la.he,. nOJK8J1YUCTa, .•. [daitye, pazhalsta, .... )

C Y.!lOB01lbcTBneM! [ udav6l'stvyem!]

Kocpe C M0J10KOM [k6fye smalak6mJ

Ans,wers

Practise what you have learned

Alphabet

Exerci e 1 (i) false (coffee with milk) (ii) false (with cheese)

(ill) false (salami sandwiches) (iv) true

Exercise 2 0) c (ii) a (iii) b (iv) d

Exercise 4 (i) b (ii) a (iii) b

Exercise 6 (i) e (ii) c (iii) d (iv) a (v) b Exercise 7 (i) b (ii) a (iii) d (iv) c

Exercise 9 (I) d (ii) e (iii) f (iv) b (v) g (vi) a (vii) c Exercise 10 (a) iv (b) i.i

Exercise n (a) iii (h) i, ii, v (c) iv

S8 UNIT4

Dmll_::I ~

Y 00 will learn

• to ask for stamps, postcard and newspapers

• to inquire how much things cost

• to buy tickets for the opera

• to shop for groceries

• to ask for something cheaper. or in another language, and you will find out about shopping in Russia

Label from a pre-packed cake box. Derails include weight. price. how long it will keep, and date of baking - which hasn't been marked!

Toln "PACCBET"

. MaCc,ll 1,0 Itr.

. OC'F lS-102-72

nUI~ _

. UeJia 2. ,,),(1. 80 xen, CPOK x~elfHJl 3fi9aC; • :qae Har<:rtoBlleHllt

--.----

Study guide

Dialogues 1, 2: listen without the book

Dialogues I, 2: listen. read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 3, 4: listen without the book

Dialogues 3, 4: listen, read and study one by nne

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 5-8: listen without the book

Dialogues S-S: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key word and phrases

Read and practice writing the Alpbabet

Study the Grammar section carefully

Read Did you know?

Do the exercise in Your turn to speak

Listen ro all the dialogues once again straight through

UNITS 59

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n

Dialogues

1 Lyena asks how much a stamp for a feller to England costs

Lyena

Skazhltye, skol'ka stoit pachtovaya rnarka dlya aviakanvyerta vAngliyu?

Pit'disyat kapyeek. Daitye, pazhalsta, trio Rubl' pit'disyat svas. Spasfba.

Pazbalsta

Assistant Lyena.

Assistant Lyena Assistant

CKIDKlilTe, CK6JlbKO CTDHT n04ToBaJ[ l\fapKa L1JUI aSl1a:KOHBepTIl B AHr.l1RlO?

Ilsrsnecsr xoneex. lli:'iflTe, nO)KilUIyilcTa, TpH. Py6JJb IUITbllecSiT C sac. Cnacl16o.

TIo)Kany WCTa.



CK6JJbKO crOJIT OO'ITOOlUl MapKa ,lJ,J111 asaaxouaep'ra B AHrJlHJO? [sk61'ka st6it pacht6vaya marka d1ya aviakanvyerta vA.ngliyu?) how much does an airmail stamp to England cost?

CKOJIbKO CTOHT ••• ? [sk61'ka st6it...?] how much does ... cost? can be used whenever you want to know a. price. And if you don't know the word, you can always point and ask CKOJILKO 3TO CTOHT? [sk61'ka eta st6it?] how much does that cost? Incidentally the word OO'lTOOall [pachtovaya] postage can be left: out. What other kind of stamps would you be buying in a post office?

B AHrJlHIO lvAngliyuj to England. For other countries you would say:

B J'ep.M3Huw [vGennaniyu) to Gennany B AMepHKY [vAmerikuJ to America

BO IbpaHllHIO [va Frantsiyu] to France

B K33axcr3H [fKazakhstan] to Kazakhstan

You can find out why these endings are used on page 105,

py6J1L OIlTb,lJ,ecllT [rubl' pit'disyat] one ruble fifty

C sac ... [svas ... ] that will be ... (lit. 'from you .. .'). This could be the answer to the question CKOJlbKO C MeHil? [skol'ka srninya"] how much will that be?



• •

2 Lyena also needs some postcards

Lyena Cx8)t{tlTe, y eac ecrs OTKPhlTlU1 Skazhitye, uvas yest' atkritki

C SHIlaMH MOCKBhl? svldarni Maskvy?

Assistant Ila, nO)f{anyiicTa. Bbl6lfpliftTe, BOT Da, pazhal tao Vybiraitye, vot

HeCKOJIbKO sHnos. nyeskal'ka vfdaf,

Lyena llIDhe, nQ)KliJlyiircTa, SOT :hy c Daitye, pazhalsta, vot etu svidam

BHnOM KpeMJIJi. Krimlya.

Assistant 3TO Cnacckas 6iiulH~ KpeMJIsi. Eta Spasskaya bashnya Krimlya,

Illecrs xorree« c sac. Shes!' kapyeek svas.

Lyena IIo)Kanylkl'iiI.. Pazhalsra.

Bbl6Hp3HTe [vybiraitye] choose

Cm)ccKall Da.IDRJI KpeMml [Spasskaya bashnya Krimlya] Savior tower in the Kremlin

• OTKPblTKH [atkritki] postcards, A single postcard would be OTKPLITK3 [ atkrftka].

• C BitJl3MH MocKB';1 [svfdami Maskvy] with views of Moscow. This ending -3MB [ami] is used for most nouns in the plural after c meaning 'with'.

60 UNIT 5

n

n

• BOT HikKOJJhKO B~OB [VOl nyeskal'ka vfdaf] here are several views

• 3TY c BH~OM KpeMJJ.Q [etu vfdam Krimlya] this one with the view of the Kremlin. Even in such telegraphic speech, the word for 'this' 3TY [etu] still has to be feminine like the noun it refers to. If Lyena wanted an envelope - KOH&epT [kanvyert], a masculine noun - she would ask: ~a.iiTe BOT 3TOT [dai~ye vot etat],

Practice what you have learned

1

Listen to the recording and then see if you can work out how much each customer pend in the post office. A little arithmetic is required! (Answers on page 72.)

(i) first customer (stamps to Kiev)

(ii) second customer (postcards)

(iii) third customer (postcard and stamps)

(iv) fourth customer (stamps to Germany)

2

On the postcards below, two vital details are missing: the name of the city from which they have been written and the name of the country to which they are being sent. Listen to the transactions in the post office and then fill in the gaps. (Answers on page 72.)

(i)

Thie; Ie; the To:

Pecherakaya moneetery

From:

(ii)

This If; the To:

'Bronze

Hore;eman'

From:

(iii)

Thle;;e; the To:

monument to

Put3hkin

From;

UNIT 5

n

DIalogues

3 Tanya has dropped into the hotel kiosk/or a paper

Tanya Assistant

Tanya Assistant Tanya

Assistant Tanya

Y sac eCT.1> MOCKOBCKHe H6BOCTH? Y Hac ecrs MOCK6BCKHe HOBOCTH

H3. 8HrJI.rrlHCKOM Jl3h1Ke.

A Ha PYCCKOM? Ha PYCCKOM HeT.

By ror-na !lathe H.3 aHrnHHCKoM,

nO)l(arryHCm.

IIo)l(any.HCTa .. BOT raaera. Cnacli60.

TOr,ll.3 [tagda) then, in that case

Uvas yest' Mask6fskiye novosti'! Un as yes!' Mask6fskiye novosti

na angleeskam yizikye, Ana nisskam?

Na nisskam nyet,

Nu tagda daitye na angleeskam,

pazh8.!sta.

Pazhalsta. Vot gazyeta. Spasfba,

rasera [gazyeta] newspaper

• MOCKOBCKHf ROBOCTH [Mask6fskiye n6vosti] Moscow News is a high-quality weekly newspaper published in severallanguages. AI the time of recording, it was often more difficult to obtain a copy in Russian than in English, French or Greek!'

• Ha aHl'm,iiCKOM Jl3bIXf rna. angleeskam yizikye] in the English language. Tanya wants it in Russian, so asks aa PyCCKOM ReT?' [na nisskam nyet?] you don't have it in Russian? (The word for 'language' is understood.) You could also ask. for Moscow News in the following languages:

H3. c:ppaH~y3cKIlM I13.bIKe [na frantsnskam yizikye] in French aa HcmlHcKIlM Jl3LIKe rna ispanskam yizikye] in Spanish

n.a apaJkKoM lJ3blKe [na arapskam yizikye] in Arable

Or if you want any newspaper, in German for example:

Y BQ.C eers ra3en.1 H8 HeMeu;KoM R3b1Ke? [UV::ls yest' gazyety na nimyetskam yizikye?] do you have any papers in German? (More about plurals on pa.ge 70.)

n

Tan.ya Assistant Tanya Assistant Tanya Assistant Tanya Assistant

Tanya Assistant Tanya Assistant

Tanya Assistant

Tanya Assistant

4

Still in the hotel, Tanya wants to buy tickets to the Bolshoi Theater

3 npaBcTByiire. Zdrastvu ytye ..

3 ilipaBCTByH,Te. Zdrasrvu ytye.

Y aac ecn, 6ID1crbI B BOJIbm6i1 rearp? Uvas yest' bilyety vBal'sh6y teatr?

A "frO BaC mrrepecyer? A shto vas iruerisuyit?

TIo)K3.nyii, 6nepa. pazhaluy., opera

Onepa ... Korrra? Opera ... Kagda?

E~Jm MO)l{HO, aa 3aBTp8. Y6sli mozhna.na zaftra.

3aBTpa aner onepa PIiMcKoro- Zaftra idy6t 6pera Rfmskava-

Kopcasona CnerjpO'lKa. Korsakava Snigurachka.

6'leHb xopomo, Ochin' kbarash6 ..

A CKOJlbKO BaM 6HJIlhoB? A sk6I'ka varn bilyetaf?

!lBa. Dva,

CeH'lac. ECTb J].Ba oflJIeTa. Q)lHH Sichas, Yest' dva bilyeta, Adfn

OPlneT crowr llBRnuaTb TpM bUyet st6it dvarsat' tri d6lIara.

nonnapa,

nO)l{arryHCTa ... Ilna,

CJ].a'Ul, nOJK.anyi1:cra, qeThlpe nonnapa,

Cnacaoo,

nO)l{<illyi1cT8.

Pazhalsta ... Dva.

Sdachi, pazhalsta, chityrye dollara.

Spasfba, Pazhalsta.

'ITO aac H.HTepecYeT? [shto vas interisuyitr] what would you. be interested in? lIolK6JiYHi,ollepa [pazhaluy, opera] perhaps opera

OqeHb xopow6 [6dlin' khatash6] very good

62 UNITS

• t'illJllhbl II 6oJ1bwOH naTp [bilyety vBal'sMy tearr] tickets to the Bolshoi Theater.

To ask about tickets for the movies, you would also use B [v]: 6HJ1I!TLI B !CHilO [bilyetyfkino]

but if you are talking about the performance itself, use 113 [na]: 6Hm~~Tbl ua onepy [bilyety na 6peru] tickets for the opera IinmiTLI aa IiUeT [bilyety na balyet] tickets for the ballet.

• Kor)ta? [kagda.?] when? Tanya wants tickets fer tomorrow aa aasrpa rna zaftra). Fer today would be Ha cero,QHH rna slvodnya],

• H,lleT ouepa PHMcKoro.KopcaKooa. CHerjpOQK3 {idy6t opera Rfrnskava-Korsakava Snjgurachka] Rirnsky-Korsakov's opera The Snow Maiden is on.

To find out what is on you would ask 'lTD H.lI.e-r ••• ? [ShIO idy6t. .. ?j.

• CKOJlbKO BaM 6IUeTOS? [sk61'ka vam bilyetafl] how many tickets would you like? The answer is ,Q1I3. OHlItTa [dva bilyeta] two tickets. There is an explanation of numbers and their quirks en page 93.

• C,Q:l'lK qeTblpe ,IIoJ1Jlapa [sdachi chityrye dollara] four dollars change. At the lime of recording, tickets to the Bolshoi Theater were virtually impossible to obtain fer rubles.

n

Practice what you have learned

3

On your recording you will hear some hotel guests asking for newspapers and books in various languages. Listen, then decide whether the following statements are true or false. (Answers on page 72.)

(i) Moscow News is available in Russian and Prench (ii) You can buy Anna Karenina in English and Russian

(iii) Chekhov's works are only available in German and French (iv) Pushkin's works are available in German

n

4

The lady selling theatre tickets has developed an efficient system for recording tickets. Listen to your recording and fill In the number of tickets under the right day .. (Answers on page 72.)

(a) CerO.ll.HB.

(i) 6aJlf-r )l(u3fJlJ,

(.ii) onepaBep.llH

(iii) onepa PHMcKoro-K6pcaKDBa (iv) 6aJlCT POMEO H ,!J,JKYJ1bfn:a

n

5

You want to buy two tickets to the Bolshoi, preferably to the opera, Read the program below, then let Andrei guide you.

cer6~HjJ CHerjpO'lo PUMCKoro·K6pcaKODa (onepe)

POMeo.H llJKYJ1J>cT1'8 UPOKO¢II,eJla (6aJleT)

38Bl·pa &piic rO,lzyHOB MycoprcKoro (6nepa)

UNIT 5 63

n

Dialogues

5 Olya is buying some groceries

Ofya Assistant Olya Assistant Olya Assistant Olya Assistant

MOJIOKO ecrs ?

Y-rpOM OblJIO, Y)Ke HeT. A MaCJlO?

MacJlo ecrs.

A cxorrsxc C-rOHT M,1clI0? TpH rrarsnecrrr KHJlOrpllMM. Ilaecru rpaMM, nO>Klirryi1cTa. Ilnarrrre B KaCCy ceMb.neCjjT

xoneex.

Cnacaoo, [lO)K3.nyHCTa.

Malak6 yest'?

Utram byla, uzbe nyet. A rnasla?

Masla yes!' .

A skol'ka st6it masla?

Tri pit'disyat kilagramm, Dvyesti grarnm, pazhalsta. Platftye fkassu syem'disyat

kapyeek.

Spasfba, Pazhalsta.

Olya Assistant

YTPOM [utrarn] in the morning Ma.CJJO [rnasla] butter

• MOl;U)KO ecn? [mala.k6 yest'?] is there any milk? A telegraphic version of y Bae eCTL MOJlOKO? [uvas yest' malak6?] do you have milk?

• YTPOM 6';1)]0, Y>Ke HeT [titram bY-la, uzhe nyet] there was this morning. it's already gone

• TpH IUlTL.!lecitT KHJlOrpaMM [tri pit'disyat kilagramm] three rubles fifty a kilogram. The words for rubles and kopecks are often left out, especially in shops.

• .ll.BecTH rpaMM [dvyesti grarnrn] 200 grams. One often asks also for haIfa kilogram - IIOJIKHJlO [palkilo],

• nnartrre B KaCCY [platftye fkassul pay at the cash desk. You will find an explanation of the procedure in Did you know?

• CeMb.lleCJlT KoneeK [syem'disyat kapyeek] 70 copecks. The numbers 60, 70 and 80 follow the same pattern as DJlU.!leCRT [pit'disyfitj (50). Thus: meersnecer [shist'disyat] 60

ceMb.lleCJlT [syem'disyat] 70

BOCeMb)leCJlT [v6sim'di yat] 80.

90 and 100 break this pattern:

,lleSJI.HoCTo [clivyan6sta] 90

ITO [SlO] 100

6 Olya goes to the cashier

Otya Cashier Olya Cashier Olya

CeMbIleC}fT souees, I10:lKa.ffY HCT'a. K3K6i1. OTneJJ?

M0J16ljHbl~1.

TIO)!(iirlyHCTa.

CilacH60.

Syern'disyat kapyeek, pazhalsta, Kak6y atdyel?

Mal6chny.

Pazhalsta.

Spasiba.

• KaKOU OUe}l? [kak6y atdyel"] which section? Olya replies MOJlO'lHbIH [mal6chny] milk Or dairy products section. However, always look for a number - more often than not, you'll be able to say nepoblH [pyervy] first, BTOpoii [ftar6y] second, TpeTHii [tryetyi] third, etc.

64 UNIT 5

n

n

7 And then back to the counter for her purchase

Olya Asststani O/ya Assistant

Pazhalsta, chek. Pazhalsta, rnasla, Spasfba. Pazhalsta,

ITO)!(3.JlY i1:CTa, 'teK. ITo)!(arrywcra, MaCIIO. ClIacH60. DO>KlirryHcn.

lIeK [chek] the receipt you hand over at the counter in order to receive your purchase

You will have noticed how few words were used in the above dialogues. This is quite nonual, and very convenient 'for learners!

8 Tamara is at the market and wants some tomatoes

Tamara

CKa;>K(lTe, nO)Kartyi1cTa CK6JIbKO

CT6HT nOMII.ll.6pbl?

TpM py6.rrR.

CKIUKi!.Te, a nOLIemeBJTe ReT? Eers no LIBa.

Xopomc, llaHTe MHe, nO)l(aJIYHCTa, KliTIorpaMM n6 LIsa py6JI>1. •

Ilaa py6Ml.

Skazhitye, pazhalsta, skol'ka

stoyat pamid6ry?

TTi rublya,

Skazhitye, a padishevlye nyet? Yest' pa dva.

Khara h6. Daitye rnnye, pazhalsta, kilagramm p6 dva rublya,

Ova rublya.

Trader Tamara Trader Tamara

Trader

lIOMH.uOPbl [pam idory] tomatoes. A single tomato is 1l0MHllOp [pamid6rJ

• CKOJlbKO CTOll; nOMH:.n,oPLI? [skol'ka st6ya:t pamid6ry?J how much do the tomatoes cost? The ending of the verb CTO.KT [stoyat] has changed because it refers to a noun in the plural. It's not a major point since you can scarcely hear the difference.

• TpHpyOJ1B [tri rublya] 3 rubles. Numbers make any noun change. As well as TpH PYOJlB [tri rublya], you have seen TpH ,IlHlI [tri dnya] three days and TpH ,IloJlJ1apa [tri d6llara]. You will find more details on page 93.

• nonemenne lIeT? [padishev lye nyet?] are there none a little cheaper?

Other useful comparative forms:

n066m.me [pab6I'she] a bit bigger or a bit more nOMeHbme [pamyen'she] a bit smaller ora bit less. But when you are buying fruit, vegetables etc., use: noxpynnee [pakrupnyeye] 11 bit bigger

nOMelfbQe [pamyel'che] a bit smaller.

• uo nsa Cpa dva or p6 dva] for two (rubles)

Now fum over for the exercises based on these dialogues.

UNIT 5 65

n

n

Practice what you have learned

6

In the pictures below the names of the item have been omitted. If you listen to your recording, you will discover what they are. (Answers on page 72.)

(a)

20 Koneex xr.

(c)

.3 py6m'i 70 KoneeK Kr.

(b)

3 py6JIX xr,

(d)

2 py6nir.70 KoneeK Kr •

7 The man selling tomatoes in the market was having quite a morning. One after another his customers made extra requests, until he was forced to make a list, But has he taken down all the requests correctly? Listen to your recording and pick out his mistakes. (Answers on page 72.)

(i) lst man

(ii) Ist woman (iii) 2nd man (iv) 2nd woman

2 kilograms, smaller size tomatoes 1 kilogram, cheaper (2.50)

3 kilograms, larger size

2 kilograms at 2 rubles

8

You are buying some vegetables for dinner. And money is an. object! Andrei will guide you.

66 UNITS

Key words and phrases

To use

CK6J1LKO eTOHT ••• [sk6l'ka st6it...] MliPK3 llJIJI aBU8KOHBCJ)T8 [rnarka dlya aviakanvyerta] B AUrIlHIO? [vA.ngJiyu?] MaClIO? [rnasla'']

MOllo1{6? (malak6?]

CKOJlbKO CT6n ... [skol'ka st6yat...] IIOMHll6phl? [pamid6ry?] OTKPLITKH C BU.IlaMH MOCKObl? [atkrftki svfdami Maskvy"]

llMlTC OOT 3TY e BHllOM KpCMJlJl. [dairye vot eLU svfdam Krimlya] :)1"OT [etat]

H3 PYCCKOM S1]1.IKC [na nisskarn yizikye] H8 3E1['nuucKoM S13blKe

rna angleeskam yizikye]

OHJleThlB I)ollbw6ii TC:iTp

[bilyety vBal'sh6y teatr]

o KHHO [fkin6]

na oncpy rna operu] OHJ1eT1>1 H8 cen"i.llHI1 [bilyety na sivodnyal

aa aaarpa rna zaftra]

nonemeane HeT? [padishevlye nye!.?] nofi6m.nr.e [pabdl'she]

nOKpynHce [pakrupnyeye] nOMeuLwe [pamyen'she]

nOMeJlbQe [parnyel'che]

KHJlOrpaMM no )loa py6J1i1 [kilagnimm pa dva rublya]

To understand

C aac ... [svas ]

H)leT 6nepa [idy6t. opera ... ]

CKOJlbKO BaM 6.Hmhos?

[sk61'ka vam bilyetaf?] onUH py6J1L [adfn rub]'] 2,3,4 py6JJir [2, 3, 4 rublya] 5,6 ... py6neii [5,6 ... rublyey] o.r.UtO n6J1J1ap [adfn d6llar]

2, 3, 411oJl.JTapa [2, 3,4 dollara] 5, 6 ... n6J1JlapOB [5, 6 ... d6llaraf) nJlanlTe B dcey [platitye fkassu] KaKOH OT.IleJl? [kak6yatdytl?]

how much is ...

a stamp for an airmail. envelope

10 England? butler?

milk?

how much are ... the tomatoes?

postcards with views of Moscow?

give me this one with the view of the Kremlin

this one (referring to a masculine noun)

in the Russian language in the English language

tickets to the Bolshoi theater

to the movies to the opera tickets for today

for tomorrow

you don't have any cheaper? a bit bigger, a bit more

a bit bigger (fruit, etc.)

a bit smaller, a bit less

a bit smaller (fruit, etc.)

a kilogram at 2 rubles

that will be ... the opera ... is on

how many tickets do you need?

one ruble

2, 3, 4 rubles 5,6 ... rubles one dollar

2, 3, 4 dollars 5,6 ... dollars

pay at the cash desk which section?

UNIT 5 67

The Russian alphabet

Congratulations! When you have studied the five letters below, you will have completed your introduction to the Russian alphabet. Do not worry if you still find it djfficult - and slow! - to read in Russian. Remember how hard it was atthe beginning - you have come a long way since then!

So the last five letters are:

10 II. OJ, X 1>

[J1l] [ts] [shch]

[kh this is pronounced ch as in Scottish loch]

'hard sign'. This letter has almost disappeared in modem Russian. Once you have made sure that il is a hard sign (i.e .. thai it has a little squiggle at the topl) we recommend that you ignore it - the effect it has on how a word sounds is very slight.

A few small but crucial words:

BXOlI (entrance) BbIXO.ll (exit) UEHTP MEHIO

The following people played a role in Russian history:

XPYDlEB TP6u,KHH I1APL HHKOJIAH 11 Emwm

And a role in Russian literature:

ABHA AXMATOBA MAPHHA IlOETAERA

MHXAfmEY nr AKOB

68 UNITS

Here are some of the posters. you might see around theaters and cinemas in Russia. Do you know the works advertised?

Tearp Ha Taranxe ceronua aner:

EOPHC rOJ1YHOB

MycoprcKMi1

(anepa)

3aJBTpa

POMEO H Jl..>K YJIbETT A

npaKo41beB

(6aJun)

DOJlblllOH TeaTP CerO.!lH5I fineT:

CHErYPOQKA

PHMCKHH-KapC3KOB

(orrepa)

saarpa:

EBrEHHH OHErHH

Y;a~KoBcKHjij

(onepa)

AI;llI,peJ1 TapKOBC.KI~H

KHHOTeaTp 'POCCH51' ~I1J[bM CerO.l1.H5I:

AH)JPEff PYEJIEB

Penepllilp "'-1. UJ!T.Rdl:'i:! 'W!O r. '""1..0 rW,pp;oI'

_ ~lil!lr.!~

...!... ~~ 1Hi.ptt.'/f-m 11011!1i ~ 1iIo •

...!... ~roif;r,d ~_~11Ij>","",".1

-f'WI~.,.., .. "", 14""",11'01"" iWJll~1- .,..:..... Ql"r'Il'~"".j

..'!. &~ r<J::r~.'l

..J.. ~E!m~.

_!__ JIptIrjlP "'~~.

_~IQ\IOMI:,,~'" _ (I:U"".I""II-

..!.. .... b"'.I,r,'.~'

~I:I~ ~--L~

UNIT:') 69

Grammar

Plural of nouns

Mas! of the nouns you have mel so far in the plural have the ending -LI (sometimes spelled -H). This applies to both masculine and feminine nouns. Thus:

IIOMJI.QOp [pamid6r] tomato raaera [gazyeta] newspaper

nOMU.Q0Phl [pamid6ry] tomatoes ra3.hI!! [gazyety I newspapers

Neuter nouns, those nouns which end in -0 or-e in the singular, normally end in -3 or -g in the plural, For example:

nucLMo [pis'm6] letter D:HeLM;! [pfs'ma] letters

nmlne [platye] dress "miTL!! [platya] dresses

There are of course exceptions to the above, but any irregularities will be noted in a dictionary. We wi.ll point out important ones along the way.

9 Complete the sentences below putting the noun in round brackets into the plural. (Answers on page 72.)

(i) Y sacec'rs ,cKoJdiac6i1? (o)'Tep6p6n)

(ii) CKOJlbKO eroar )lIlB aBH3JlOCLMa B AH:rmuo? (wipKa)

Milkafld tea packaging

(iii) qTO Y BaC? Y Menil .

(iv) Y aac ecrs ,8 EoJ1hWOH' TeaTp?

(v) Y aae eCT.b H3.HCMeUKOM H3L1Ke?'

(vi) CKOJl.bIW CTORT ?

(vii) CKOJlbKO cToaT ,1

(nnarse)

70 UNITS

-

Did you know?

The majority of visitors to the Russian Federation shop exclusively in 'Beryozka' shops, and at kiosks in their hotels. These shops accept only foreign currency, travelers' checks and credit cards. As you might expect, they stock the souvenirs traditionally popular among tourists: dolls, varnished boxes, vodka, caviare and, inevitably, fur hats. They also,

however, have other items - foodstuffs, cosmetics, technical equipment etc. - which are not available for rubles. This strange situation has led, amongst other things, to a flourishing - and nasty - black market in foreign currency.

Such shops are convenient but since you are learning Russian, it seems safe to assume that you would like to see something of the life led by ordinary people in the Russian Federation, and, of course, practice your Russian!

In this unit we have talked only about government-owned shops, leaving markets and the new cooperatives to Unit 6. As you saw when Olya was buying groceries, there are at least two, sometimes three steps to making a purchase in a Russian shop. First you have what you want weighed and priced, then you pay the cashier, then finally you return to the counter with your receipt and take your purchase. Experienced shoppers, if they are sure that the product is available and that it won't have run out before they reach the front of the line, will generally dispense with the first step.

This rather cumbersome system has not created the chronic problems of shortages and lines, but it certainly increases the already considerable amount of time people spend each day doing shopping.

UNIT 5 71

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10

Practice what you have learned

Grammar

Your turn to speak

In the final exercise on your recording. you will be playing the role of a tourist in Moscow. You will need to use the following words and phrases:

CKOJ1bKO CTOHT ••• ? [sk6l'ka st6it .. ,?]

,n3ilTe, nO)K:lJ1yHCTa, ... [daitye, pazhalsta, ... J U3 3UrJlltH.CKOM H3b1Ke rna angleeskam yizikye] O,nHH ;KHJ10rp:lMM [adln kilagrarnm]

HeT neneurenne? [nyet padishevlye"]

nepcHKH [pyersiki] peaches

MaH)l.apHHbl [rnandarfny] mandarins

nOMH)l.OpbI (pamid6ry] tomatoes

Answers

Exercise 1 (i) 30 xorr. (ii) 15 xon, (iii) 110 (= Ip. 10 xon.) (iv) 35 xorr.

Exercise 2 (i) England; Kiev (ii) France; St Petersburg (iii) New York; Moscow

Exercise 3 (i) false (only French) (ii) true (iii) false (English also) (iv) false (only Russian)

Exercise 4 (i) a, 3 (ii) b, I (iii) a, 2 (iv) b, 3

Exercise 6 (a) xneri (b) cMeTaHa (c) MaCJJO (d) csrp

Exercise 7 (i) bigger (ii) 2 kg (iii) I kg (iv) I. kg

Exercise 9 (i) 6yrep6p6.uhl (ii) MapKH (iii) CPYHTbJ (iv) 6HJJerhi (v) raaersr (vi) MaHllapHHhl (vii) nnarsx

72 UNITS

... II1II

II1II -

You will learn

. -

• more about making purchases

• how to select what you want

.' to ask for medicine in a pharmacy

• a few useful. phrases to use in line and more about shops and markets in Russia

Before you begin

From now on the dialogues and notes will be only ill the Cyrillic script. You will probably need to go more slowly at first, and do read over the first five units if some of the letters seem unfamiliar. It is well worth the time!

Remember that Russian spelling does not always reflect pronunciation, This won't be iii problem if you listen carefully to the dialogues and particularly to Andrei's advice.

Dialogues I, 2: listen without the book

D.ial'ogues 1, 2: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have!earned

Dialo.gues 3-5: listen without the book

Dialogues3-S: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what YOll have learned

Di.alogues ,6" 7:. listen without the book

Dialogues ,6. 7: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the K'ey words and phrases

Study the Grammar section carefully

Do the exercises in Read and understand

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your turn to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT 6 73

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n

1 Tamara wants to buy a 'matryoshka'doll, but the price deters her

Tamara Assistant Tamara Assistant Tamara Assistant

CKa.iK.l1Te, nO}Ka.nyHcTa, Y aac ecrs MaTjJemKI1? Y Hac ecrs, HO OHB OqeHb )lOpOIMe,

A CK.OJIhKO CTOHT MarpemKa?

CTO nsamrars py6neil.,

OH, :ho O'l.eHb ,!loporo. A Y sac eers 'lTO-.HJ16Yllb noneuresne? Eers. Y Hac ecrt, IlJlaTKM.

ORU they

• MaTpelllKH (singular: Mal'pewKa) traditional wooden dolIs which open up to reveal another don, and then another ...

• 011": o'leJU.· ,ll,oporlie they're very expensive. You will find an explanation of adjectives 8:JiId their endings in the grammar section.

• ero .IlHaAI~aTb 120. Three-digit numbers are also formed by simply adding the di fferent parts.

• 3TO OqeOb ,ll,oporo that is very expensive, If you want to say that it's not very expensive. just use He:

ho He (O'leHb) ;o.oporo

i' Y Hac ecTLqTO-H.H.fiyn& nO,l:lerneHlle? do you have anything cheaper? ·'·ITo.HHOY)J.h means 'anything'. If you wanted something smaller, you would ask for I[TO-ElH6Y,ll,b nOMfHLlue, and something larger, '1TO-HHOYAh uo60llhrne.

• nll3.TKH scarves (singular: ull3roK). Here are a few other items of clothing you might be interested in:

lilly JK3 blouse ffil'iKB: ski rt ull.an.e dress

rancryx tie OPWKH trousers (pants)p,y6amK3 shirt

2 So can she see the scarves?

Tamara Assistant Tamara Assistant Tamara Assistant Tamara Assistant Tamara

lliraTKM? A nOKaJKl1Te, nO:lK<irlyHCTa. A BaM xaxor-o usera HY:>KHO? nOKIDKBTe, Ka:KMe y sac eCT.b.

Y Hac ecn, diHMe FI .p030Bble.

Xoponro. CKOITbKO CTOHT P030BblM: [IJlaToK? P630BblH croar nsa ceMbI(ecm-.

,UBa ceMbnecHT. Xopomc, $I xynmo p030BblH nJl1nOK. Torzta npOH)Il1Te B KaCCY Ii aannarare,

Xopomo, cnacaco,

xoporn6 good, an fight

Tor,na upoun{ue D KaCCY U 330ll3THTe then go to the cashier and pay



nOK3.}Klhe, nO'lKiiJrYHCT3 show (me) please. This request is especially useful since in most shops in Russia goods are behind the counter.

BaM Kax6ro lI,SeT3 flY}KSo.? what color would you like? (lit. do you needr), Here are the colors mentioned in the dialogueand a few others:

POlOBlolH pink tiellhl" white

diHltH dark blue 'Iep.HblH black

KpacHb1iil red 3ellfln.lii green

74 UN.IT6

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n

Another question you will often be asked is BaM K3Koro pa'lMCpa HYlKHO? what size do you need? If you're not sure of the precise size. you can approximate with one of the following:

6oJlbwoil big CpC)J,HHH average M3J1eHbKRH small

• llOK3)KtlTe, K3Koe Y BaC eCTL show (me) the ones you've got, Without the first word this could have been a question:

K3KHe Y Hac eCYb? what ones do you have?

• II KynJlro... I will buy ...

Practice what you have learned

1

Read the foUowing statements about some shoppers' purchases. then listen to your recording and find the one incorrect detail in each. (Answers on page 84.)

(i) Nina doesn't want to pay 35 rubles for a blouse so she decides to buy a scarf for 7 rubles.

(ii) Victor thinks that 6.70 is a reasonable price for a tie and asks to see t.he blue Ones.

(iii) Yura thinks that he can afford 125 rubles for a pair of trousers and asks the shop assistant to show him some black ones.

2

You are in Moscow buying a present for a woman. friend. Good friend though she is, you can't afford to spend 100 much. Listen to Andrei's prompts.

A well-known music shop in Moscow

UNIT 6 75

n

Anna Sergeevna Woman

An.na Sergeevna Woman Anna Sergeevna Woman Anna Sergeevna Woman Anna Sergeevna Woman Anna Sergeevna Womall

n

Masha Person in line Masha

Dialogues

3 Anna Sergeevna sees a woman selling flowers outside the subway

CKVKlhe, nO'leM useru?

Ilsa CeMh.Il.eCHT fiYKeT. 11:3 ceMf! aero .... ex p03. P03h1 CBe)IOle, xpacaeue, nYWJ1CTble.

CBe)K.He?

ilYLUH.cTble, cse)Kne.

IJO>Kirryi1.CTa, MHe onilH. HeT, HeT, npyr6iL. BOT 3TOT, BOT 3TOT. IJO)Ka.n:yHCTa. IJO)K3JTyHCTa.

Iloxcanyacra.

Tax, rrpoury sac.

3-rn neHbrH aanra.

ilo>KanyikTa.

Cnacafio.

nO)KanyftcTa. C"IaCTJIl1BO!

03 ceMiI BfTOlJeK PO] with seven roses

TaK npoUly sae something like 'if you please' C'I3CT.JTH.BO! a friendly way of saying 'goodbye'

• nOlJeM 1~lIeTbl? how much are your flowers? l1olJeM ••• ? is a colloquial equivalent of CKOJJbKO CTOUT ... ? Its uses are more limited.

• nsa ceMbp;eCR:T 6yxeT 2.70 a bouquet. Very often flowers and other products are sold by the piece wTYKa. A single rose for two rubles seventy would be naa ceMb~ecJlT WTYK3.

• PO]b) cllelKHe, KpacHD.ble, .aywHcTLle fresh, beautiful, fragrant roses - she does want to sell them after all! All the words after PO]bl are adjectives in the plural (see the grammar section).

• nOJK3J1yHCT.a, Mite Ol~RH one please .. The word for a. rose - posa - is feminine. Therefore if Anna Sergeevna had wanted one rose, she would have said Mue O~HY.

• .llpyroii, BOT :hOT ... the other one, yes that one ... This combination of pointing and giving directions is probably as efficient a way as any of indicating what you want! Anna Sergeevna uses )lpyroH 'the other' and :hOT 'that one' because she is referring to a masculine noun. If it were one rose or any other feminine noun, she would say: ~pyrylO, BOT 3Ty.

• 3TH .lleHbrK D8m1f this is your money. The word for 'money' - ~eH J.rH - is plural in Russian.

4 Masha is looking for the end oj a long line

Tlpocrare, KTO nOCnenHI1H? Haeepnoe, JI.

Cnaclifio, Sf aa B3MH.

aaaepaoe probably, I suppose

• KTO nOCJle;Il,D1tH? who's last? You always use this masculine form even if there are only women in the tine!

• R: 33 BaMH I'm behind you

76 UNIT6

Masho Person in line Masha

n

n

5

Masha doesn't want to lase her place

51 OTOHllY H3 MHHYTKY. Bu CKIDKeTe, lJTO H aa BaMH 3aHHMana? nO)l(anyi:fcT8.

Cnacnoo.

• •

SI OTOHJlY na MOHYTKY I'm going away for a momenl

8M CK<llK.eTe, 1)1'0 II sa BaMH 3a1lHM3Jla? Will you say that I'm behind you? There is a whole culture about standing in line. People establish their position, and go off for a. while-often to join another line!

Practice what you have learned

3

Volodya is looking for flowers lO take to a. friend. Prices are high so he has 1,0 shop around. How much do each vendor's flowers cost?

(Answers on page 84.)

(i) I'Ben:.

(ii) P0301 .

(iii) IlBeThli .

4

Walking down the Arbat, Volodya and Tanya pass a number of people loudly advertising their wares. Which adjectives refer (according to their sellersl) to each thing? (Answers on page 84.)

(i) MaTpemKH

(a) .llYIJIHCTble (c) PyccKlle (e) CBeiKHe

(b) CHHue

(ii)p03bl

(d) Tpa.llHu,HoHIILle I (f) HeJlOpOrHe

(iii) liJlaTKH

UNIT 6 77

n

Misha Salesperson Misha Salesperson Misha Salesperson

Dialogues

6 Misha is looking for something to drink

CKruKl1Te, y aac ecrs MMHepaIlb.liaJl BOlla? MJ1HepanbHOH BO,JJ;bJ HeT.

A 4TO ecrs?

BCTb COK.

A H)', 6y ill> 're JIIOOe3HbT, Tor nA coxa, nO)l(anyilcTa, B KaCCY ruecn.necar IDITb xoneex.

COK fruit juice HY well

6Y,[J.bTC JII06e3HbI please, be so kind Tor)).a then

• MHACP311LH811 80.1.13 mineral water, Misha is told that there isn't any: MIiiACpaJlb.Hoii 80.l.lbl HCT. ReT means 'there isn't/aren't', and the endings of the words have changed .. This always happens after 8eT. The case is called the genitive. If there were no fruit juice (OK (a masculine noun) Or milk M0J10XO (neuter noun), Misha would be told: cOKa HCT, M01l0K3 H.eT. Don't worry at this stage if you can't remember the endings, Do, however, notice those end.ings you see here, and be prepared for a word sounding rather different from the form you would find in your dictionary.

" cOKa. some juice. Misha has changed the ending here (also genitive) to indicate 'some juice'. He could also have said COK.

t B K3ccy mCCTL.I.IecilT KOHl!C.K 65 kopecks to the cashier (nJl3THTe is understood)

n

Vladimir Pharmacist Vladimir Pharmacist Vladimir Pharmacist Vladimir Pharmacist Vladimir Pharmacist

7 In the pharmacy

Y sac ecrs 4T6-H11'6Yilh OT mlcMopKa? MemOJlOBOe MaCJTO, 'leTbTpe KOneaKI'I. Or rOJIOBH6H 66mt?

T6JThKO aCTIl1pHH urecrs soneex, AE-IaJIhrHHa HeT?

AHaJlbrJ.1Ha noxa HeT.

CK6JJbKO :ho CT6HT BCe?

}leC.flTb xonee«, B K3CCY, lIo)K.anyilTcTa, B KaCey. CnacH60.

Iloxcarry H.cn.

MeHTonOBoe MaCJJO menthol oil nOKa HeT not at the moment

acnnpRH aspirin

I' Y sac eC'l'.b 'ITo.Hn6YJJ:b OT 83cMopKa? do you have anything for a cold? You may also want to know how to ask for the following:

QTO-HHOY.lIL OT rOJlooH61i 001lH for a headache QT6-8H6Y.llL OT K,aUIJ1)l for a cough

• qeTbrpe KOlltlUKH meers xoneex

Like all nouns kOlTeUKa and :P'YOJlL, have different endings depending on the number, Use the following table as reference.

(no CTOUT) O~HY KoneHKY O,lJ,HH PYOJ1L

2-4 KoneitrUt 2-4 py6JIH

5, 6 ... KoneeK 5, 6 ... PYOJfe"

• 8J13Jlbr.HHa RCT? is there no analgin (a popular painkiller)? The noun is aHam,rHH when it is nor followed by 8eT.

78 UNIT6

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A chemist on Arbat. In this street, popular with tourists, street traders often display their goods on the outside of shop windows.

Practice what you have learned

5

On your recording you will accompany AHa on a shopping expedition. II is not especially uccessful- very few of the items on her list are available. Can you find the ones which are? (Answers on page 84.)

(i) I>13.CJIO

(ji) K0J16aca

(iii) CMP

(iv) I>1H.lepaJlbHa~ 80ml

(v) CO""

(vi)llOJle6

6

Below are pictures of three people all feeling ill, but in different ways. Listen to the recording and see what the pharmacist is able to offer each of them. (Answers on page 84.)

You will need ro know "he word MHKcTypa 'cough mixture'.

(i) .

(ii) .

(iii) .

UNIT6 79

Key words and phrases

To use

ho OqeHb .lI,OpOrO

Y aac ecrs 'ITo-na6y ilL ••. noneurenne?

OT HaCMOpKa?

OT rOJlOBHOU GOJlH? 01' KauIJI lI?

KyrutTb

II KYIlJJKl pOJOBhlU nJlaTOK P030BbIH, -aa, -oe CHHM", -lUI, -ee

K paCH bIH,·a.B. -oe GenblH, -aa, -oe qepHMH, -aB, -oe 3eJleHhlli, -as, -oe 60JlbJ[JOH. -as, -oe Cpe.ll,HHH, -aa, -ee M311eRbKHii, -all, -oe

nOKa)J{HTe, KaKKe Y sac ecrs KElKOii,-all, -ee

lloporoii, -3I1,-6e

coe}KHIi, -as.vee

KpaCHBbJH, -3B, -oe

.llpyroH. -all. -oe

KTO 1I0CJJeJUlHii.?

a sa 8aM,O

(.ullin) MHe O,ll.HH

(.u.:iHTC) MHe O.l\HY

To understand

B3M KaKoro UBeTa Uy:lKHO? BaM KaKoro pa3Mepa HY)I{HO?

that's very expensive do you have anything ... cheaper?

for a head cold? for a headache? for a cough?

to buy

I will buy a pink scarf pink

dark blue red

while black green

big

average, medium small

show (me) [he ones that you've got which

expensive

fresh

beautiful

(the) other

who's last?

I'm behind you

give me one (masculine noun) give me one (feminine noun)

what color would you like? what size would you like?

so UNIT 6

Grammar

An adjective describes a person or a thing. In Unitl we mentioned that any word describing a noun has to 'agree' with it, rhar is, have the same number and gender. In the dictionary you will find an adjective written thus:

pO'JOBLlii. -aa, -oe pink

This tells you the endings for masculine, feminine and neuter nouns in [he singular. So:

PO'JOBblii UJl8TOK a pink scarf pOJOB3R ro6K3 a pink skirt pOJOBOe nmiTbe a pink dre s

There wilJ ometirnes be differences in spelling or pronunciation, bur the entry win show you that, for example:

CHHM", -Jll1, -ee dark blue

If the noun is in the plural, there is another ending [0 leam, but at least only one! Whatever the gender the adjective will end in -ste (sometimes spelled - He):

pClJOBLIe nnaTKu pink scarves

,ll;oporac MlnpemKH expensive matryoshka dolls cHHHe nmiTMI dark blue dresses

You may have guessed that if a noun has different endings depending on its function in a sentence, so 100 will adjectives describing it.

You will have most lise for the accusative case (the object of a verb). And best ofall, normally only the feminine ending change] In the second dialogue you heard Tamara say that she would buy the pink scarf:

Sf KynJlropo30BblH nJl8TOK

Similarly, nothing would have changed if she had wanted a pink dress: a K.ynmo p030Boe· DJJ3The

But for the feminine noun:

Sf KyDJIIO pOJOB!_!Q roOKY

Before you try the next exercise, we would repeat once again that endings are something you may aim to master in the long term but if you don't remember them at. present. it won't matter!

7 In the following shop dialogues, the endings of the adjectives have been left out. Can you fill them in? (Answers on page 84.)

(i) - Y aac ecn.p630B_ flJlaTK."?

- HeT, HO yuae eeTb lIePH_ ,KpacH_ It 3eJleU_ UJ13TKH.

- Xopomo, II KynJlro 3eJleu._11J18TOK.

(ii) - A Y aac ecrs lIepH_ W6KH?

- HeT, HO Y uac ecrs .KopulIues_ ,KpacH_ It pOJOB_ roOKH.

- ,Uai'ue, no~anyiicTH, KpikH_ rofiKY •.

(iii) - Y B8C ecru KpacH_ BHHO?

- HeT, HO y HaC ecrs 6eJI_ BItHO.

- XOPOIl.lO, II KynJIro 6eJl_ BHHO.

U IT6 81

Read and understand

8 A group of tourists dropped into I.he 'Beryozka' shopin their hotel. Beside their names you will find written down what they were looking for. Read the advertisement below and then write down which of the tourists were completely satisfied, and which only partially. (Answers on page 84.)

Tom Louis Lesya Roy Ann Hails

looking for an English tie, can't spend a lot wants an expensive French wine

wants a pretty scarf, Ukrainian or Byelorussian looking for a typically Russian toy for his child wants a black skirt, preferably of Italian make

wants a bottle of Russian vodka, doesn't want to pay a fortune

Y Hac ecrs

(i) Tom (ii) Louis (iii) Lesya (iv) Roy (v) Ann (vi) Hans

!! 6EPE3KA !!

asnoror A.sI PYCCKA5I BOllKA KPACJ1BbfE YKPAH.HCKl1E rm:ATKJ1: 11TAJlb5!HCKl1E I06K.l1- P030BbIE, CHHliJE PYCCKHE MATPEllKI1 HEllOPOrOE¢lPAHUY3CKOE BJ1HO HEllOPOrHE HEMEUKIiJE rArrCTYKI1

9 On the left-hand side you win see signs from various shops in Moscow. On your right is a box with items Tamara intends to buy. It would of course be much more efficient to have the items next to the name of the shop ... (Answers on page 84.)

(i) AITTEKA I (a) nmlTMI (b) MapKH (c) MaCJlO
(ii) rACTPOHOM (d) MeHTOJlOuoe MaCJIO (e) MOJ10KO
(f) OTKPhlTKU (g) aHam.I'HH
(iii). YHl1BEPMAr ' (h) nJlaTKJ'i (i) Ma·rpeUlKH
(iv) nosrx I (i) anresa (pharmacy)

(ii) 1'3CTpOJIIJM (grocery store) (iii) YUHuepMar (department store) (iv) HOCIT8 (post office)

82 UNIT6

Did you know?

One way of avoiding the time-consuming system described in the previous unit is to shop at the market. If, that is, you can afford it. Perhaps the reason you seldom stand in line at a market is that the prices are very high, Markets bave always been expensive, People from collective farms, allowed to grow produce on a small piece of land, would bring it to the city to sell. They brought small amounts and so charged a lot.

At the time of writing, government stores were empty enough to drive many to shop at the market, and prices had reached record levels.

None the less, even if you don't buy anything, markets are a colorful and interesting sight. The availablity of fruit and vegetables depends to a large degree on the time of the year, though many come from Georgia and Azerbaijan, where the climate is milder. Meat is generally also on sale, and sometimes even handmade items of clothing,

As in markets the world over, you don't need to accept the first price Quoted - you know enough Russian to haggle! You can also normally try the fruit, salted cucumbers etc. before buying them (indeed some try th:is instead of buying!).

As well as market traders, you also find people selling produce - at the same kind of prices - outside subway stations.

Toward the end of 'the 1980s there was a noticeableeasing in the restrictions on private trading. As a result, many new kiosks have opened, selling handmade items. Western goods and anything which the average person can't find in the shops. Prices, however, are often exorbitant and frequently provoke resentment.

UNIT 6 83

10

Practice what you have learned

In these exercises you will be inquiring about and purchasing things in a pharmacy; You'll need to use the following phrases:

y B3.C eers 'IT6.HHOY.Ilb OT H3CMOPK3 I OT ,rOJIOBHOii ocum? y aae HeT3HaJlbrHHa?

:II KynJlJO •••

Answers

Exercise 1 (i) scarf costs 5 rubles (ii) asks to see all that they have (iii) trousers cost 50 rubles

Exercise 3 (i) 3.50 6YKI!T (ii) 2 pyomi LUTYKa (iii) 2.70 6YKeT

Exercise" (i) c, d (ii) a, e (iii) b, f

Exercise S (i), (vi)

Exercise ,6 (i) cough mixture (ii) menthol oil (iii) aspirin

Grammar Exercise 7 (i) pososue: 'lepHble, Kp;ic:Hble, 3clleHble; 3eJreHblH

(ii) LJepHble; KOpWLJl:leBble, KpaCHbl!::, poaoaste: KpaCHYIO (iii) xpacaoe; 6elloe; oolloe

Exercise 9 (i) d, g (ii) c, e (iii) a, h, i (iv) b, f

Read and understand Exercise ,8 (i) inexpensive, but German ties (ii) French wine, but

inexpensive (iii) pretty Ukrainian scarves (iv) Russian matryoshka dolls (v) Italian skirts, but pink or blue

(vi) inexpensive Russian vodka .

84 UNIT 6

An jnformarior2 bureau I

You will learn

• to ask what the lime is

'.' to understand the answer!

• to ask when: shops, etc, open and dose

• to talk about what you do on days of the week and at different. times of the year

and a little about what Russians do on their days off

S,tudy guide

Dialogues 1-4:, listen withoutthe book

Dialogues 1-4: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogu.es 5,6: listen without I:he book

Dia'iogues 5, 6: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 7, 8,: listen without the book

Dialogues 7, 8: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key words and phrases

Study the Gramm~r section carefully

Do the exercises in Read and understand

Read D.id you know?

Do the exercises in ¥our turn to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT 7 85

n

n

Tanya Boris Mikhailovich Tanya Boris Mikhailovich.

Tanya

n

n

Tamara Misha

Tanya Tamara Tanya

.Dialogues

1 What is the time?

KOTOPb!H xac? BoeeMb 4aeoB.

.. KOTOPblH '1.3C? what is the time?

.. noceMb qaC'OB eight o'clockHacea is used with numbers from five onwards. From two to four the ending is different: nsa, TpH, qeTLlpe '1aca, while one o'clock is simply 'lac.

2 Tanya is asking the lime

Bs: He aaaere, KOTOPblM <fae? B ea JlBaJluaTH lleB~Tb. Ilpocrsre?

B6ceMb e6pOK.

CnacM60.

..

Bbl He ::m3eTe, .... you don't happen to know ... ? Just about any question in Russian is felt to be more polite when made negative.

!fyou actually don't know, you will answer: II He 3HI"0.

Ge3 ,aBa.lluan'i ).J.eBJlTb twenty to nine. Literally this is 'without twenty, nine' (more details in the grammar section).

npocTitTe? orry? Tanya hasn't understood either! Instead of npOCTIiTe? she could also ask noarepsrre, nmK3J1yiicTa please repeat that.

BoceMb COPOK eight forty. In this simpler 'digital' form of the time, the words for hours and minutes are often omitted. In railway stations, airports etc. '24-hour digital' time is commonly used. You may hear people using '12-hour digital' time. However, in their day-to-day life, Russians still tend to use the firs! type of answer,



..

3 Now Tamara wants to know the time

CK6JTbKO CeM'IaC BpeMeHH? Ilars MHH)lT xereeproro.



CKOJILKO ceiiQ3C opcMeHH? what is the time? Tills is another common way of asking the same question.

nJlT.L MHHYT .. eT.llepTOI!'O five minutes of the fourth ('hour' understood), i.e. five past three. You will find a list of these ordinal numbers on page 93.



4 Tanya and Tamara have finished breakfast

A Tbl He 3Haeillb, CK6IIbKO CeH'IaC BpeMeHH? nOlIOBflHa JleB.IlTOro.

Oa, .lJ Y}Ke onaansrsaio,

OM here an expression of consternation YJKe already

86 UN[T 7

n

• 'I'M He 'lHaeHu ... .'! the same question as in the first dialogue, bur Tanya is talking here to a close friend.

• IIO]lOO"H3 )leOHTOrO half-past eight

• R YlKe Oml3)lblo31O I'm already laIc

Practice what you have learned

1

Before you begin these exercises. read the grammar section on page 93. On your recording you will hear people asking (he lime. Listen very carefully then see if you can put the following times in their correct order. (Answers on page 96.)

(i) 9;45

(ii) 4: 15

(iii) 2:00

(iv) 4:45

(v) 6:00

(vi) 1:30

2 Your tum to ask the time. Andrei will guide you.

KA E

PABDTAET

c 10 aD 18lfac. CY6fjOTA

A caN', o()ening hours

UNIT 7 87

n

Misha Salesperson Misha Salesperson Misha

Tanya Clerk

Dialogues

5 Misha asks about the shop's hours

CK3:>KHTe, llO)KaJlYHcTa, KO.r.ua OTKpblBaeTCJI saur Mara3f'tH? Ham Ma.ra3HH OTKpbfB8.eTC.II B BoceMb '{aCDB yrpa,

Cnacaoo. A KOrJI8 y sac llepephlB?

Ilepepsm C 'lacy rto ilByX.

Crracnfio.

Mara'1H.H shop, store Ham (fern. llama) our

• KOr.ll.:! 'OTKPI.IBaeTClI Bam Mara3KH? when does your shop open? If you wanted to find out when the shop shuts, you would ask:

Korna J3KpLJDaerCSloaw Man3HH?

'. 0 BoceML >,Iacos YTpa at eight o'clock in the morning. When saying 'ara particular lime, B is used before the number (this is often scarcely audible). 'At eight o'clock in the evening' would be B ooceMJ. .. aeon oeqepa. And 'at three o'clock in the afternoon' - II TpH 'Iaca .IlH)1.

• KOO],a Y Bac nepepLIR? when is your break (for lunch)?'

• nepepLIB c 'lacy no ,l:Ioyx break is from one to two, Numbers often have different endings after prepositions such as c 'from' and JJ;O 'to'. 'From 2 to 3' is C .!lBY" ,110 TpeX, 'from 4 to 5' c 'Ien.lpex JJ;O hllTHi, 'from 6 to 7' e mecTH .0;0 ceMIi. From then to 12 the numbers end in - ...

Again you may not need to use these numbers, but you win want to recognize them. Listen carefully as Andrei reads them, since they can sound quite different from the numbers you are used to,

6 Tanya wants to know why her train hasn't arrived

nOl.leMY ReT noesna H3 5I.POCJli:lBJfJl? Y;>Ke TpH Q8c3.

H6e31l, HaBepHO, omi3nblsaeT 11 H)')KHO CJfymaTh 06MlllneHH5f J:rHKTOp.a.

noeJ,l:I train

H30epHo probably

oOii3.r1bIS3TL 1:0 be running late

i. nOqeMY HeT lIoe3.lla OJ BpOCJI3B'UI? why isn't the train from Yaroslavl' here? The word for 'train' is n6e3.11. (it has become neesna because it is used I after Ue'I').

.. nOqCMY ••• '! why ... 'l A reason as such is not given in this case - Tanya knows that the train is late! However, the response to TlOqeMY? will often be nOTOM)! 'ITO ... because ...

• YJKe TPfl 'Iaca it is already three o'clock

.. Uy:!KHO cJ1yman. OO'LBBJleBHIl .QHKTopa. you need to listen to the announcements

88 UNIT?

n

n

Practice what you have learned

3

The signs below have fallen off their appropriate shops. Read the opening hours below then listen to your recording. and put the signs back in place. (Answers on page 96.)

(i) (Ii) (iii)
II rrOl[TA II II YHHBEPMAr II' II MArA3.HH II'
(a) 9-18 (b) 11-20 (c) 8-19
nepepsis 2-3, nepephlll 1-2 nepepLI.B 1-2 4

The customers in the following dialogues all express indignation over s.hop timekeeping - unfairly, as it turns out. By listening to the recording. you should be able to ay how long each customer will have to wait. (Answers on page 96,)

(i) Istman

(i.i) woman

(iii) 2nd man

fiUftOQUOU

This baker is dosed/or repairs and Rh'es derails of the nearest bakeries

UNIT 7 89

n

Dialogues

7 Misha describes a week during the semester

Misha

B nOHe)ll\]lbHHK Sf Xox<y B I1HCTtlT)rT. Bo BTOPHI1K y MeHH cBo6onHbiM neHb, H ~ !-IHOnia XOX<Y B OH6JJHOTeKY, a HHorna HH4ero He neJralO. B cpeny, B seraepr a B IlHTHWUY.Sf OURTb x.Q)KY B I1HCTHTYT. B cy656TY .II 3amlMalOc.b cnOJITOM. A B eocxpecease ,SI BC"Cpe'laIOC.b C JlPY3.bJJMH.

RFlOf' ~a sometimes 'OnOJlHo'CeK3 library OUH:Tb again

J3H,HMilTLCII cn6pToM to take part in sport BCTpe'llhf>CH C ,o:PYJLHMH to meet with friends

• B nOHe,o:em.IIHK, 80 DTOPHHK, B cpeJJ:Y, B '1eTOepf'., B nRTIIHI.Y, B cy60oTY, B BOCKpeCfHbe on Monday, Tuesday, ...

• ,R xox.;;y B HHCTHTYT I go to the institute. The verb XO)J;HTL (Sf X(lJKY, Bbl X6.n;HTe ... ) is used when you say that you go somewhere frequently. It is normally followed by B or aa and a. noun in the accusative case.

Thus Misha says" Xo)KY !l, HIICTHTYT but II XOlKY !!!! (iH6J1:HoTe.KY.

• CBOOO.nHLI" .neHL a free day. Misha means II day 'free' from lectures. A nonworking day (for both people and stores, ete.) is 8LIXO.n110" JleHh.

• )'I. HH'IerO He .1lCJl31O I don't do .anything.HH'Iero means 'nothing'. If it is used with a verb, you need H'e before the laner, Other such phrases:

S HH'I.erD, He 3H3Hl I don't know anything II HH;'1enJ' He )(O'llY I don't want anything

1I "H .. ero lie DOHHM{1I0 I don't understand anything

8, What about vacation?

Misha

3:HMHHe KaHMKYJJbl Ha'uIHalOlfClI B lIHBape" JIeTHMe KaHt1KYJlbl .Ha4HHaIOTC5I B H.Kme Ii KOH'Ia:IOTCJ;I B aBrYCT'e. JJeToM 51 Jl106mo XOJlHTh B rrOXOJlbl,a 31!lM6i1 H J1.106mo Ka1'an,cJl H8 nbl)K8X.

8 HHB3pe in January (see full list of months on page 92)

D DlOlle in July

B 3Bf'YCTe ill August

XOJlHTb B noxo,[ll>l to go hiking K;lTliTbCli sa. JJ.b11K3X to ski

• JHMHHe KaHHKYJlbl winter vacation lIeUIHe, K3;HlHKYllhl summer vacation

The word K.auuKYJu.1 (vacation) usually refers to school and university vacations. Leave for working people is 6TII:YCK.

• 3HMHHC K3HKKYllLI 'HQ'IHHihoTCII B HHBape winter vacation begins in January

• KOHqaThCJI: to end. The verb endings f1'aqHHftIOTCJI and KOHlU1IOTCII are the third person plural, used because the noun k3ROK;YIILI is always plural.

• J1eTOM in summer 3HM:OH, in winter

'The two remaining seasons:

DecRo" in spring

oceHLKl in autumn (the fall)

• R J1106mo ..• I like ... When you are sayi.ng 'to like to do something', this verb is followed by lin Infinitive verb.

90 UNIT 7

n

n

Practice what you have learned

5

Vera Stepanovna's family always has enonnous problems arranging a vacation together. If you listen to the snatches of conversation on your recording and then fill in the missing details below, you will know why. (Answers on page 96.)

(i) Bepa CTenalloBH3': oTnycK begins " .. '" ends ".

(ii) MaKCKM [leTP08Hlf: oTnycK begins , ends " .

(iii) Jlapnca:

OTOYCK begins " .. , ends .

6

In this exercise, you are a student talking about a normal week during the semester.

A newspaper cartoon.

The banner says "1 don 't understand anything "1

UNIT 7 91

Key words and phrases

KOTOPblH 'lac? / CKOJlbKO ceiiqac BpeMeHH?

(see Grammar for all the times)

Bbl ae anaere, .,,? .lI (He) 3HllIO IlpOCTHTe?

1I0BTopHTe, liO'1K3J1y.ifcTa Kor~3 ...

OTKPbIB3eTC)1 Mara3HU? :laKphlOaeTCSI KHOcK?

Y aac nepepsra?

B JlOCeMb qaCOB yrpa B ,1UI3 'Iaca Jl,HlI

B meers 'IaCaB Be'lepa C 'lacy ,IJ,O ,IJ,ByX

C .IlByX no TpeX

C 'IeTblpeX no n1lTH DOqeMY···?

nOToMy 'ITO ...

11 on3.3)lbIBalO uoeJ)l Ona3)lLIB.aeT

B uoue,o;eJIbUHK BO BTOPHUK

B cpeny

B qeTsepr B nBTHHI.IY B Cy660TY

B BocKpeceHbe

lJ X01KY .B HHCTHTYT

B 6.HOJIHOTeKY CBo66.nULlii ;u.eOb bblXO~H6ii )leH!>

B .IIHBape

B ~BpaJle B M3pTe

B anpene BMae B.H.WHe

B IUOJle

B 3BrYCTe B CfHT.lJ6pe B OKTlJ6pe B BO.&6pe 8)leKa6pe

3HMOii BecHon J1eTOM OceHhlO

what is the time?

you don't happen to know ... ? I (don't) know

I beg your pardon? please repeat that when ...

doe the shop open? does the kiosk close? is your lunchbreak?

al8 a.m. at2 p.m. al6 p.m. from I to 2 from 2 to 3 from 4 [0 5 why ... ? because ...

I'm running late the train is late

on Monday on Tuesday

on Wednesday on Thursday on Friday

on Saturday on Sunday

I go to the institute to the library a free day

a day off; day when shop etc. is closed

in January in February in March

in April

in May

in June

in July

in August

i.n September in October

in November in December

in winter in spring in summer in the fall

92 UNIT 7

On. the hour

One to thirty minutes past the hour

After the halfway point

Grammar

KOTOpb.IH 'lac? I CKOJlbKocejj:qac BpeMeHH? What is the time?

qac

)lOB qaca TpU .. aca qeTblpe'lBCa Ill:JTI> 'JaCOB, lIIet:Tb qat:oe

one o'clock two o'clock three o'clock four o'clock five o'clock six o'clock

seven o'clock eight o'clock nine o'clock ten o'clock eleven o'clock twelve o'clock

,eeMI>'1ac6o

eOceMb qa€6B ,IJ:€OllTI> 'JaCOB JJ;eClITI> IJ8COU O)lHHHa·.lluaTL qaCOB )J,BeHaJUI;3TI>,'1.ac6B

Kor,lfa ••• ? when .. , . ..?

To say 'at' a particular time, you simply put 0 in from of the number, e.g.: a .!lBa 'laCa at two o'clock

NB Here too endings change after numbers. After two, three and four, the ending is -3 (genitive singular). From five onwards the ending becomes -DB (genitive plural), One o'clock is simply the word for 'hour' - 'lac, and it doesn't need an ending. Other masculine nouns have the same endings, take OHm\'( ticket and lluJlnap dollar, for example:

OAHU OHJlth, OllllH ,l.I6J1J1BP

nsa (TPH. <lcTLlpe) onneTs, .ll6JlJIapa nll:TI', (IIJ6C'I'I>, " •• ) OHJlthoB, .IlOJlJJapOB

For the first thirty minutes of any hOUT, Russians talk about so many minutes of the next hour. Here are some examples:

UlITI> MonyT nepnore

,a:fClITb MHHyT BTOpO:rO lI'liTHli)Jil~aT.b MIIUYT Tpel'beFO )J,03.1l11aTb MHl:lyT QCTDepl'oro )J,03.1l11a.Tb lIil1Tb MMflYT njlToro nOJlOSIIH3 rnecToro

five past 12 ten past I

a. quarter past 2 twenty past. 3 twenty-five past 4 half past 5

The ordinal numbers used in this way are:

Dt!PB1>IU .first ,c~)Ji"M6ii

:oropoi second .oocI>M6:ii

TpeTHH] third ,IJ:eOHTblU

qeTBepTblu fourth .nediTblH

nitTLIH fifth OJJ;HKH3,llllaTbIH

wecToi sixth ,DOfHa)lUaTLIP

seventh, eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth

The most important thing to remember is that Russian always looksforward to the next hour. Arriving exactly one hour late could be very inconvenient'

After the half-way point one says that it is so many hours minus the number of minutes, i.e.:

6e3 )J,oa,nLlaTH DlITII 'lac Gel. )J,Ba)J,QaTlt .Il.OB

fiel Illl:TU:l,ll,llBTH 'CpH fiel .ll6ClITH '1eT:b'lpe

Del D1ITH niiTL

twenty-five to I twenty to 2

a quarter to 3 ten to 4

five to 5

The number after tieJ 'without' has a new ending - H. It is wise to be aware of this since the number call sound quite different,

lfthis all seems daunting, remember that you won't. necessarily ever need to use these times, just to understand them if you hear them.

UNIT7 93

Read and understand

7 Appointment books can bring order to one's lite, but they can also wreak bavoc ... Read tile following notices then explain why Volodya seems to have' got everything wrong .. (Answers on page 96.)

Ka¢e

pa06TaeT clIna22 BbIXOll.RQ,H: LleHb - BTOPIiMK

My3ew TIymKHHa

BT., cp. orxpur c 10 ,[(0 18 'IT., ITT. orxperr c 10 110 17 eG .• Be. OTKPblT C 14 ao 18

BblXOIlHOft aeHb - nOHeaeJlbHHK

raCTpoHOM pa6oT3cr

C 8 110 21

nepepsra C 'lacy ,[(0 IlByX BbIXOtJ.H6i1: lleHb - socxpeceirse

KHAorea:rp 'Poccas'

IIH. 'M8JteHbKa~ Bepa', Half. B 20.00 BT., cp, Tloxassuee'

rrr., c6. H. BC. 'EaJIII~):\a 0 connate' Ha'l .. B 19.30

(i) 0 nOHe~eJlbHH"K

(ii) 80 BTOPHH.K (iii) 8 cpe,!Q'

(iv) .B 'Ie'l'Bepr

(v) n nRTIIH~Y

(vi) n CY066TY

(vii) B BockpeceEIbe

11 qacoo - MY3CH nY"lDKHfla 12 ''IaCOB - OUell B ,Ka¢e

20.00 - KHHo:'MaJIeHbK3X Bepa'

1.30 - KYUH'I'b npO.IlYKTbl B racTpoHoMe 9 qacon - My:Jen ITYtJIKH.Ha

8 qac6n seqepa - RUllO: ',I)UJla.Il3 0 COJ1naTe' C 7 llO ] 1 qaCOB se:qepa - Y~HH B Ka¢e

8 The following snatches of conversation have all become jumbled up and make no sense. Using the pictures to guide you, put them in the correct order. (Answers on page 96.)

(i) qTO Obi JlI'ODuTe ,lI;eJlaTL ::IuMoii?

(ii) Mara:JlIH OTKp.blBaeTcH U B6eeMb qaeOB

(iii) CK·OJlLKO ceiiqQc opeMelIH?

(iv) jJ IID'Ier6 He JlCJ1aw

(v) II Jlw6J110 K3TDTbCR DB JlLDK3X

(vi) nOqeMY BeT noeJ.n.a'! Y)KC )leCHTb q3COU (vii) naTb MUHYT ohoro

(viii) Kor.n.a oTKpMBaerc}J8am MaraJHH? (ix) 'liTO Bhl ,IJ,e.l1aeTe B cy66oTY?

(x) IT6e3!l on:I3,1J1b1BaeT

94 UNIT 7

Did you know?

Bblxo,aHhle ,aHH (days off)

Stores are open on Saturdays. but for the majority of Russian people the working week ends on Friday. Parents who scarcely see their child or children during the week will spend a lot of time with them on Saturday and Sunday. Despite the fact that both parents normally work. in a two-parent family the father will typically play with the children while the mother cooks. cleans and searches the shops for necessary items.

Since the latel980s, there has been greater freedom of worship, and a marked religious revival, and many will take time to worship in churches, synagogues or mosques. Even in the big cities, people do not very often go to the theater, movies or concerts. There are obviously exceptions, but for most people it is difficult to obtain tickets (the very verb used, )lOCT;lTh, means 'to obtain with difficulty'). Few would eat out in restaurants or cafes except on special occasion, chiefly because such places are scarce. Of late, more have opened, but these are often prohibitively expensive, or require payment in foreign currency. The lack of activities and places for young people to go is particularly sharply felt.

The large cities may often seem transformed on weekends. If at all possible, urban dwellers try to escape the city. Excursions into the forest to pick mushrooms or vitamin-rich berries are favorite occupations .. Anyone who can, rents (or buys) a ~a.ra, a small vacation house out of the city. For the average person, this will be no more [han a hut, with few conveniencies, and it may take a long time to gel to it by public transportation. Nevertheless, these dachas are much sought after.

We have talked exclusively about city dwellers. In numerical terms the number of visitors from the countryside and smaller cities more than compensates for those leaving the city on weekends. Although these visitors do sightsee, in general they come to the big cities in order to buy food, clothes, and other items not available at home.

A dacha

UNIT 7 95

n

Practice what you have learned

Read and understand

Your turn to speak

9

You will be a student finding his way around Moscow in the first part of this exercise, then you will have a chance to talk a little more about yourself. The following expressions will come in handy:

KOr,ll30TKpbJBaeTCJI .... ? KO[')l3 ysac nepepsra?

.KaHHKynbl Ua'lllH3IOTCB /.KOI:I'l31OTCH ... B JlIo6J1w ...

XO;UMTb B nOl(o)1.1>1

Answers

Exercise 1 (iv), (iii), (ii), (vi), (i), (v)
Exercise 3 (a) ii (b) i (e) iiI
Exercise 4 (i) 1 hour (ii) 1/2 hour (lli) 1 hour
Exercise 5 (i) January, February (ii) April, May (iii) August,
September

Exercise 7 (i) Mondays closed (ii) Tuesdays cafe is closed
(iii) film only on Monday (iv) lunchbreak 1-2
(v) opens at 10 (vi) begins at 19:30 (vii) closes at 22 hours
ExerciseS i, v, viii, ii, iii, vii, ix, iv, vi, x
96 UNIT 7 y 00 will. learn

• to ask where places are

• and how to get to them

• 10 understand directions

and there wiU be some, information and advice about public transportation

Before you begin

A ward of advice: when a person gives you. directions, it is unlikely that you you will understand every word .. But remember, you don't need to! You want the gist, the crucial words which will tell you where to go,

Study guide

Dialogues 1,2: listen without the book

.Dial.ogoes 1, .2: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Dialogues 3, 4: listen without the book

Dialogues 3, 4: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have Iearned

Dia.logues 5-7: listen without the book

D.ial.ogues. 5-7: listen, read and study one by one

Practice what you have learned

Study the Key words and phrases

Study the GrammaJ" section carefully

0.0 the exercises in Read and understand

Read Did you know?

Do the exercises in Your turn to speak

Listen to all the dialogues once again straight through

UNIT 8 97

n

Lyena Passerby Lyena Passerby

Dialogues

1 Lyena is looking for a post office

Bbl He cK:bK.eTe, rae anecs rro-rra? OOqTa l.Jepe3 nopory.

Crracaeo.

OO)Kanylkra.

3)lfCL here, in the vicinity

.uO'1T3 post office

• Rbi' He CK3}1{·eTe ... ? you couldn't tell me .... could you? Like 8M :He 3H3.e-re ... ?, this is a way of mellowing a request for information.

• lIepeJ ;!!.opory across the road. Some other common answers to listen for are (the embarrassing) IIIO'lT3 pll;!!.OM 'the post office is next door' and nOIlTa 33 yr J10M 'the post office is around the comer'.

n

Ira Young woman ira Young woman Ira Young woman Ira Young woman

2 Irawants to get to the Arbat

llesywKJ.!, M3BMHll're, nO)ldinyikra, Bbl He nO,!J;CKIDKeTe, KaK npOnTiI H3 ApGaT? ITpkMo H 'lepe3 nepexon,

A :ho uonro?

BeT, r).J,e-TO 11'.11 MI1HYTbl.

TpH MI1HYTbI. A BW He CKfi)l{eTe, TaM aaxcmsrca JlOM-MY3eli ITYWKlnIa? Ila, :ho KBapTl1pa mIT .... )lOM H6Mep n.!lTb)lec.slT 1pU.

lliTbllec.slT TpM, na? Cnacli50 601lblll6e, H3BHHlhe.

He aa liTO.

Ap6aT a famous street in Moscow nepexoJl: passageway

TaM there: the opposite of 3)J;eCL ,Il0M.MY3eu nYWKHH8 house-museum in

which the poet Pushkin lived for a while

'KoapTHpD apartment

He 38 IITo1I don't mention it

• .l!.eBy.tUKH girls. The age at which this word ceases to be appropriate would be difficult to fix.

H311HHihf, nO}lUIJ1YHCT8 excuse me please, and a smile work. just as well and will never offend!

• ObI He nO)J;cKa;.KeTe ... ? There's little difference between this question and Bbl He c.Ka)l{ofTe ... ?

• KaK npoiiT.H UD Ap6~h? How do I gel to Arhat? You can. use Kax. npoHTa ... ? in asking how to get anywhere on fOOL

Everybody knows what AplillT is, bUI usually the place you are looking for will be called YJ1H:Q8 street, npocnea'r avenue or nJIO.llJ,a.l!.b square. You might, for example, ask:

K3K 0pOHTU... How do I get ...

Haymmy )loCToeBcKoro'? to Dostoevsky street?

ua IlpocneKT Mapa? to 'Peace' avenue?

ua [lIJlOW,3L1L DYIUKllua? to Pushkin square?

(See also thegramma:r section on page 105.)

• npHMo II Qfpe3 nepexon straight ahead and through the passageway. Other words you should listen out for are Haup300 to the right and HaJ1enO to the left. A series of instructions may be connected by 1I0TO.M next.

• ~TO .1IoJ1ro? will it take long? A rough translation since Ira's question is telegraphic, omitting all bur the key word. The woman replies in similar fashion:

rne-ro T)l1I MRHYrLl around three minutes.

• T3.M H3.XO.1lUTCR .!IOM·Mpeu nYWKII:H.a? is the Pushkin house-museum there? If the place you are looking for is a fair distance away, you can ask r.o;eHaxO,IUfTCIf ... ? where is .... located?

• KlIapTHpa apartment. The woman begins to say apartment No .... then corrects herself. It is in fact .!10M rufTb)leC{fT TpH house No. 53.

98 UNIT 8

Practice what you have learned

Nina is still finding her way around in a new area. From her house she has been given directions to various places, On your recording you will hear these directions. but not the places! Follow the instructions each time, then see if you can complete the questions she asked. (Answers on page 108.)

n

1

(i) BLllJeCK:l;«,eTe, rae J,!I,e.cl!o "" " " 1

(,ii) Dhl He cK3.;«eTe, rae 3,!1,CCb "" ?

(iii) BLI He cK:i;«cn, [',!I.e 3,!1,eCh "." ..... " ...... "" .. " ....... 1

(iv) Obi He cK~i;«eTe, rae J,!I,CCL " 1

rl10f]f] flOOD

n

2

A tourist i given some directions and writes them down in translation. Unfortunately there is one mistake in each set of instructions. Listen to your recording, then correct his notes. (Answers on page J 08.)

(i) post office - straight ahead, tben to the right; across the street from the Bolshoi Theater

(ii) department store - straight ahead and through the passageway; opposite the subway station

(iii) cafe - through the passageway is the Pushkin museum; the cafe is across the street

UNITS 99

n

Tanya Tamara

n

Masha

Passerby Masha Passerby Masha Passerby

Dialogues

3 Which trolleybuses go to the Push kin Museum?

Tauapa, Tbl He 3Haeillb. K3KOA: rpoJlJleH6yc aner no My3e~ TIYIllKHHa? no Mpe51 TIYWKI1Ha HlleT TpoJlJlei:l:6yc BTOpM!', TpH)lU3Tb nepBblHI1 BoceMHanuaTbu'I.11 euie HneT aBT06Yc BOCbMOA 11 nsrsnecsr nrnlH.



K3KOH TpoJlJleH6yc H;o,eT ,11,0 M:Y3eg IIYuIKH.Ha?' which trolleybus goes to the Pushkin museum? You can find out about buses or trams by substituting for TP011J1elioyc the words 3BT66y'c bus or TpaMoail tram.

If you wanted to know about trolleybuses to Red Square or Dostoevsky street, you would ask:

KaKou. TpoJlJleiloyc H,II,eT ;0,0 KpaCHoii nJ101Il.3,11,H? / ,11,0 ymlQbl Ilocroeacxoro? (More about these endings in the grammar section on page 105.)

Tanya can't remember this deluge of numbers either! You met the ordinal numbers up to 12th in the last unit. Up to 20th they are also regular and easy to learn: TpHI:I3)1.uaTb becomes TpHHa)l.U3Tblii, '1eTblpHa,ll,U3Tb'1eTblpHa)l.U3TLlii·, etc. From 21st, it is only the last number which changes according to the noun, i.e.:

,lIBart;uaTb nepObl" TpOJJJ1euoyc

Don't forget that you probably won't need to lise these numbers, just to understand them



4 Masha wants 10 get to Pushkin Square

CK4UKH:Te, n02Karryi1cTa, a KIiK MHe OTCJOJla npoexars na llYWKHHCKYIO I1JTOUlallb?

BaM ayJKH.o exan, Ha MeT)JO JlO CTaaUI1Ji 'JTYlUKHHCKaJl'. A 3TO .u6nro?

HeT, scero qerblpe OCT3HOSKH. Cnacritio.

TIo2Kany i1cTa.

OTCID,!Ia from here

IIYlLlKJrHcKaII nJT611.~b / HJlOma,ll,h DywKHu3 Pushkin square





KaK MHe orcrona npoexam, aa llYUlKHHCKYIQ unowanh? how do I get to Pushkin Square from here? Since she knows that it is a long way. Masha has used the verb npoex3Tb to get somewhere by vehicle.

KaK MHe npoHTu ... ? / K3K Ml:le npnexam, ... ? are set questions when asking for directions. The pronoun Mue is often omitted.

BaM HYX<HO ,han Ma, MeTpo you need to, go by subway

ExaTb is the most common verb for 'to go by vehicle'. 'I go by subway' is II. e,ll,y aa MeTpo. You may also be told:

BaM UyX<HO exaTb H3 3BT6oyce You need to go by bus

BaM H.YX<I:IO exaTb Ha Tponneif6yce You need to go by trolleybus

BaM KyX<HO exaTb ira Tp3MBac You need to go by tram

BaM UYX<HO exaTb ua n6e3,lJ,C You need to go by train

.0,0 CTaH","H 'UYWKHUCKall' to 'Pushkinskaya' station

scero qeThrpe OCT3HOBKJI only four stops

• •

100 UNIT 8