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We had demonstrated the Bernoullis Theorem and from the result we

had calculated that when the diameter of the cross section smaller, there were increasing in
velocities along the distribution tube. The smallest cross section (which is cross section C) gave huge
pressure difference and had the highest velocities. The results had shown that larger pressure
difference gave out the most speed of fluid flow. Furthermore through the experiment, we had
observed as fluid flow through the venturi meter, the head is higher at the narrower tube and vice
versa. The narrower tube leads to high velocities and low pressure. The volumetric flow rates are
calculated for each trial. The speed of water was controlled by using valve and times taken are
recorded as the volumetric tank reached 3L. Every trial had different volumetric flow rate as to
manipulate the result of the velocities and the calculated volumetric flow rates were substituted into
the continuity equation to determine the velocities. From the calculation, the highest volumetric
flow rates gave the highest velocities. In order to determine the velocities of each cross section, two
different equation were

used; by using Bernoullis Equation (V


) and by using continuity equation (V


). From the calculations we observed that all of calculated V


had highest value compared to V


. The continuity equation is the conservation of mass on a steady flow process through a control
volume. With uniform density of water, the velocity is equal to volumetric flow rate over area. V


took area of cross section into consideration, which when area increase velocity decrease. V


is directly proportional to area.

Whereas the Bernoullis equation is when an increment in the speed of the fluid

simultaneously with a drop in pressure and the pressure increases when the pipe opens out and the
fluid stagnate. Thus, pressure would decreases when the velocity increases. This equation took
pressure difference into consideration. As we discussed about both equations, both equations were
suitable to be used to calculate the velocities. However, there some parameters needed to be
considered like pressure difference and area. We also had calculated the difference between V

and V






), to show that the value of V


are greater than V


. As we calculated, there was one negative value which was should not happen. This may be because
of parallax error during taking the reading and air bubble trapped inside the tube.


As Bernoulli state high velocity of fluid flow result in low pressure and based on continuity equation,
smaller area result in high velocity. Thus, the result proved both equation could be used to
determine the velocity of fluid flow in manometer. Even the value is not exactly the same, but the
pattern of increasing and decreasing at the converging and diverging portion is same. So that, as the
velocity increases, the total head pressure also increases for both convergent and divergent flow.


In order to obtain accurate results, there are a few recommendations and precautions that should
be taken during undergo the experiment. Firstly, the equipment must be drained before starting
and after the experiment, to prevent the equipment damaged. Next, make sure there is no air
bubbles trapped before and during running the experiment. The air bubbles will affect the result of
the experiment. Other than that, the experiment should be run after we have fully understands the
unit and the procedures to avoid some simple mistakes. In addition, to get the accurate results, the
eye level must be perpendicular to the reading when recording the data to avoid parallax error, by
the reading at the right meniscus. Besides that, the control valve should be maintained at a constant
flow so that each at every readings of each manometer has the same value of pressure.
Furthermore, when taking the time taken using the stopwatch, the suction pipe has to be started
simultaneously to get the accurate volumetric flow rate. Next, the experiment should be repeated
for a few times so that an average value could be obtained. Lastly, the leakage of water in the
instrument must be avoided to reduce the error during conducting the experiment.


1.Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, Sixth Edition, J.M. Coulson, J.F.
Richardson, J.R. Backhurst, J.H Harker, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann (1954)

2.Bernoullis Principle from's_principle. Retrieved on 13th

Oct 2014

3. Elementary Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition, Robert L. Street, Gary Z. Watters, John K. Vennard, John
Wiley & Sons Inc.

4. Bernoullis Equation from

Retrieved on 18th May 2014

5. Venturi Meters from Retrieved on 13th Oct 2014


The purpose of this experiment is to verify the validity of Bernoullis equation for fluid

flow upon the converging and diverging flow passage at the tube. Bernoulli's law indicates that,

if an in viscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at

constrictions with respect to its velocity which is higher, and pressure will become higher at

large cross-sectional area and the fluid stagnates.

Overall, from the tables provided previously, it can be seen that by using Bernoullis

equation, the highest velocity, V


is achieved at cross section D. This is because the tube has

small diameter second only to C, which is equivalent to 20mm, providing its large cross
sectional area, thus resulting low pressure and high velocity. However, by using continuity


equation, the highest velocity, Vic is achieved at cross section C which has the smallest diameter of
16mm. Therefore, we had calculated the difference between Vib and Vic for each section to further
investigate the significance of these two equations (i.e. Bernoulli equation and Continuity equation)
and how they are related to each other.

According to Bernoullis, as the speed of the liquid increased, the pressure is lower.

Taking example from Table 1.3, this statement can be proved. Constant flow rate of 25.714

L/min equivalent to m3/s has the lowest speed which was calculated at the cross section A. The

velocity, V ib at A is recorded 1.112 m/s and hi was recorded at 0.215 m. This is because the

difference between height (level) of liquid, (h hi) with respect to tube A is high resulting the
highest pressure in the system. Hence, the velocity at A is lower. Next, is where the fastest

velocity in the tube, at cross section D with velocity of 2.054 m/s and hi at 0.035 m, this time

with the lowest pressure in the system. Thus, the Bernoullis statement was proven.


For continuity, it is based on a condition that is, what goes in equal to what goes out (Q in= Q out).
Plus that the fluid is considered as incompressible. For this case, water can be

considered as incompressible. Looking at the calculation using continuity equation, in all flow

rates, the highest velocity is also achieved at cross section C, due to its largest cross-sectional

area. It obeys the theory where the cross sectional area is larger, the pressure is lower. Hence,

when the pressure is lower, the velocity is increased. In this experiment, this situation happened

accordingly to cross-section C at all readings. The condition is vice versa at low velocity. If it

was gas, continuity cannot be applied as it can be compressed, changing its density, thus

resulting in Q in Q out.

However, while demonstrating the significance of both Bernoulli equation and Continuity

equation, there is though one abnormally results which can be seen at each table, at cross section

C. The difference of velocity (Bernoullis minus Continuity) is negative. Basically, this condition

cannot happen as explained earlier, continuity equation was derived on one basic condition, what

goes in equal to what goes out. But in Bernoullis, the kinetic energy of the fluid was also

calculated. So actually, the Bernoullis should have a bigger velocity. The reason for this may

happen is because; there is a bubble formation in the venturi tube. This may be cause by low

flow rate in of the water, but high flow out of the tube. When this happen (the air inside tube),

the reading of hi will not be accurate.



From the experiment conducted, there are different cross-sections for each tube A, B, C, D, E

and F. These differences resulted in varieties of value obtained for stagnation head h* and

pressure head hi. By using Bernoulli equation to calculate the velocity, it can be said that the

velocity of fluid increase as the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity
decrease in the opposite direction. This also indicates that the pressure of fluid decreases as the

velocity increases. The Bernoullis principle is proven where the highest velocity V


2.054 m/s

is achieved at cross section D because of the small tube diameter. As for the larger diameter tube

at A, the velocity is the lowest which is 1.112 m/s. The first inclination might be to say that,

where the velocity is the greatest, the pressure is higher. A big force could be feel on the hand in

the flow where its going the fastest. However, the force does not come from the pressure there

from the hand taking away the momentum from the liquid.

The continuity equation is also used in this experiment to relate the pressure in pipes to their

changes in diameter. The equation of continuity shows that liquid flows at constant mass rate and

can also relates speed to pressure. There are few readings which go against the continuity

equation. These circumstances occurred due to errors when the experiment was conducted. In

order to prevent error, proper precautions must be taken before the experiment starts.

The Bernoulli equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of fluid flow problems such as

jets issuing from an orifice, flows associated with pumps and also turbines. Bernoullis equation

is also useful in demonstration of aerodynamic properties such as drag and lift. From the result

obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoulli equation is valid for flow as it obeys the equation.

As the area decreases at a section, velocity increase and the pressure decrease.



1. The eyes of the observer may not be parallel to the scale and will cause parallax error.

To prevent this from happen during the experiment, the eyes of the observer must be

perpendicular to the reading scale.

2. The factors such as temperature, pressure and other things especially for the air bubble

inside the tubes should be stabilized first before conducting the experiment for the

accurate results.
3. The reading of the venture meter level should be taken more than three times in order to

get an accurate value.



1. Holzner, S. (n.d.). Use Bernoullis Equation to Calculate Pressure Difference between

Two Points. Retrieved from


2. Fitzpatrick, R. 2012. Bernoullis Theorem. Retrieved from

3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Bernoullis Theorem Lab. Retrieved from