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Circular Current Loop: A Closer Look

Robert A. Schill, Jr., Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractThis paper presents a general theory for the fields gular cross section, and polygon cross section of constant ax-

generated by a circular current loop and compares it with existing imuthal current. These expressions are written in terms of the

theories. The existing, general, closed solution for the vector mag-

Jacobian elliptic and elliptic integrals. Computational accuracy,

netic field may be expressed in a number of seemingly different

but equivalent forms. These relations offer alternative closed-form stability, and speed are obtained as compared to typical numer-

solutions that may find various applications, including the charac- ical techniques used to find fields from complex geometries.

terization of Helmholtz coils. The paper provides alternative closed The filament study [24] is shown to agree with classic expres-

forms in both spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems. It em- sions [21][23]. Alternative forms of the classic expressions

ploys Gausss magnetic law to show that the alternative closed form

is self-consistent and correct and also shows agreement with well- were not uncovered using their approach. With the aid of the

known solutions. Finally, it develops a new (or not readily found) modified Laden transformation and the Bartky transformation,

tabulated mathematical identity. the range of the complete and the incomplete elliptic functions

Index TermsBioelectromagnetics, Helmholtz coil, low-fre- has been extended [29], [30]. These extended elliptic integrals

quency time-varying magnetic fields, magnetostatics, measure- reduce redundant computations as compared to the conventional

ments and instruments.

methods. These efforts have not shown, under special condi-

tions, that the complete elliptic functions of the second and third

I. INTRODUCTION kind are related. Such a result is shown in this work.

The expressions for the magnetic vector potential in both a

T HE HELMHOLTZ coil has found many applications from

the time of its inception to the present. Currently, the coil

finds applications in bioelectromagnetic experiments [1][3], in

spherical coordinate system [14] and a cylindrical coordinate

system [21][23] are well established. Using the vector poten-

tial, alternative vector magnetic field expressions in both coordi-

diagnostic studies on electron beams [4], in the calibration of

nate systems are obtained. Agreement between these relations is

magnetic instruments [5], [6], and in the study of magnetic prop-

shown. The point form of Gausss magnetic law is applied estab-

erties of materials [7], [8]. Some early and present theories have

lishing self-consistency in the new closed-form relation. Lim-

exploited on axis [9][12], various series expansion [13][16],

iting expressions are obtained from the vector magnetic field in

and/or approximation [4], [5], [7], [17], [18] techniques to ex-

closed form. These agree with commonly accepted theories. A

amine the magnetic fields generated by current loops. These

new integral form appears to have been uncovered. Applying

are typically used as guides in the design of optimal Helmholtz

the integral form, the alternative field expressions are shown to

coils where the field is nearly uniform over a specified volume.

agree with well-known existing closed-form theories. The al-

More sophisticated studies have [6] or appear to have [19], [20]

ternative expressions developed here have been applied in the

employed closed-form expressions [21][23] for the magnetic

design and calibration of a large Helmholtz coil with a spatially

fields generated by closed current loops. Decisions regarding

varying current [31].

magnetic measurement standards may be dependent on the ac-

This paper is organized in the following fashion. The general

curacy of the closed-form expressions employed [6].

closed-form expression for the vector magnetic field is indepen-

A variety of sources have partial [14], [23] or complete

dently obtained in a cylindrical coordinate system in Section II

derivations [21], [22] of the closed form of the magnetic vector

and in a spherical coordinate system in Section III. Agreement

potential and the vector magnetic field generated by a circular

between the relations is shown in Section III. Gausss magnetic

current loop. The validity of these works are based on how

law is used to show self-consistency among results in Section IV.

these expressions simplify as one approaches the loop axis

In Section V, the closed-form expression for the vector magnetic

[21], [22]. In this effort, existing field expressions are shown

field yields the on-axis solution when evaluated near the loop

to be self-consistent.

axis. A brief discussion with concluding remarks is provided in

A series of papers [24][28] derive analytical expressions for

Section VI.

the components of the vector potential and the magnetic field

generated by a finite arc segment of a filament, sheet, rectan-

II. FIELDS FROM A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP IN A

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

Manuscript received October 17, 2001; revised October 23, 2002.

The author is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, A circular current loop of radius with loop axis along the

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4026 USA (e-mail: schill@

ee.unlv.edu). axis lies in the plane in a cylindrical coordinate system

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2003.808597 ( , , ). The current is oriented to flow in the direction.

0018-9464/03$17.00 2003 IEEE

962 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 39, NO. 2, MARCH 2003

The general magnetic vector potential characterizing the field is The axial or component of the magnetic field may be shown

[21][23] to yield the intermediate expression

(1)

where

(9)

(2)

where

and are, respectively, the complete elliptic integral

functions of the first and the second kind, and is the perme- (10)

ability of free space. The vector magnetic flux density is related

to the curl of the magnetic vector potential as Using (2), (6a), (6b), and (10), the component of the magnetic

field simplifies to

(3)

Treating the radial component of the field yields upon substitu-

tion (11)

literature. Equations (B1) and (B2) do not appear to have the

(4) same form as (8a) [or (8b)] and (11), respectively. With the aid of

(2), the coefficient external to the brackets containing the elliptic

where functions of (B1) and (8a) [or (8b)] and of (B2) and (11) are

identical.

(5)

III. FIELDS FROM A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP IN A

From Appendix A SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

The closed-form solution for the vector magnetic field due to

(6a) a circular current loop in a spherical coordinate system is not

readily available. In this coordinate system, the field solution

(6b) is commonly expressed in terms of a spherical harmonic series.

The motivation for this form of solution is to examine the multi-

Here, is the complete elliptic integral function of pole nature of the problem. By minimizing or eliminating lower

the third kind commonly written as order multipole terms in the series solution over a region of in-

terest, an optimal uniform field may be obtained. Such methods

have been applied to improve the uniformity of the magnetic

(7)

fields generated by single and double Helmholtz coils [15]. In

this section, a closed-form solution for the vector magnetic field

Upon substituting (5)(7) in (4) and simplifying using (2), the is determined from the magnetic vector potential written in a

radial component of the magnetic field becomes spherical coordinate system ( , , ) for a current loop located

in the plane. Excluding the location of the plane of the

loop with respect to the origin, the field expressions in this sec-

tion are compared to those obtained in the circular cylindrical

(8a) coordinate system.

The magnetic vector potential as written in a spherical coor-

or equivalently dinate system is [14]

(8b) (12)

SCHILL: GENERAL RELATION FOR THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD 963

the cylindrical coordinate system (8a) [or (8b)] and (11) can be

(13) recovered.

The vector magnetic flux density is related to the magnetic IV. SELF CONSISTENCY

vector potential as To demonstrate that the field solutions obtained are self-con-

sistent, Gausss magnetic law

(14) (20)

Upon substituting (12) into (14) and using the following rela-

tions, (15a) and (15b) must be verified. Consider the fields in a cylindrical coordinate

system. Consequently

(15a)

(21)

(15b)

Although the algebra is cumbersome, the procedure to verify

along with (6a) and (6b), the radial and the conical magnetic Gausss magnetic law is straightforward. An intermediate step is

field components, respectively, are provided for the readers convenience. Performing the operation

on the right- and left-hand side of (21) yields, with the aid of (2),

(5), (6a), and (10)

(16)

(17)

a spherical coordinate system is in terms of the complete elliptic (22a)

functions of the second kind and third kind. The radial field in

a cylindrical coordinate system is in terms of the complete el-

liptic functions of the first kind and third kind. A more complete

derivation of (16) and (17) is provided in Appendix C.

To transform the field components into a cylindrical coordi-

nate system, the following transformations are required:

(18a)

(18b)

(18c)

(18d)

(18e)

(22b)

(19a)

It is observed that the last term in each expression is identical.

(19b) To complete the verification, identical coefficients of the com-

plete elliptic integrals and the derivative of the complete elliptic

Employing (18a) and (18c) in (13), (2) and (13) are equiva- integrals in each of the two expressions, (22a) and (22b), can be

lent. Substituting (16) and (17) appropriately in (19a) and (19b) shown to be equivalent.

964 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 39, NO. 2, MARCH 2003

Now, consider the existing expressions (B1) and (B2). Care- From the Biot Savart Law and symmetry, the vector magnetic

fully following the derivation leading to these results, the tabu- field on loop axis is

lated formula [32]

(27)

(23)

Equations (8a) and (11) are to be evaluated in the limit as ap-

is used in place of (6b). For consistency in proof, (23) will be proaches zero. Appendix A contains the derivation of the com-

used in lieu of (6b). As above, the procedure to verify Gausss plete elliptic integral functions expanded about small . The re-

magnetic law is straightforward but algebra rich. Substituting sults are

(B1) and (B2) appropriately into (21) after it has been divided

through by yields with the aid of (2), (5), (6a), (10), and (23) (28a)

(28b)

(28c)

(28a) and (28c) and substituting into (8a) [or (8b)], the radial

(24) component of the magnetic field vanishes identically without

further expansions. The elliptic functions in (11) are appropri-

ately replaced by (28a)(28c). Only the term of order in (28a)

It is observed that both (6b) and (23), employed indepen- and terms to order are (28b) and (28c) are required in the ex-

dent of each other, yield solutions for the magnetic field for the pansions. Dropping terms on the order of and higher, the

loop of current that is self-consistent satisfying Gausss mag- component of the magnetic field simplifies to

netic law. By comparing these expressions, it is concluded that

(25)

Substituting (25) into (8) and (11), one can recover (B1) and

(B2) with the aid of (2).

(29)

Equation (25) offers a third alternate form for writing the

component of the magnetic field. By direct substitution in either

(B2) or (11), it can be shown that Upon binomial expanding the terms , , and

for small, (29) simplifies to (27) as expected.

Consider the closed-form expression for the radial magnetic

field (B2) developed by others [21][23] written in the nota-

tion consistent with this work. For simplicity, the current loop

(26) is chosen to lie in the plane and, therefore, . With

, the denominator of the coefficient of the elliptic func-

The main difference between (26) and (B2) lies in the singu- tion of second kind is expanded about small to yield

larity that arises with the second term in brackets associated

with or . As approaches one ( approaches and ap-

proaches ), the elliptic function of second kind is well behaved (30)

but the coefficient associated with this term in (B1) is singular. Retaining the first two terms in the expansions of (28a) and

As shown in (25), the elliptic function of third kind is singular (28b) and allowing to approach zero, (30) vanishes as ex-

because of the coefficient of the elliptic function of second kind. pected. The expansion of the coefficients of the elliptic func-

The coefficient associated with the elliptic function of third kind tions is necessary in showing the on axis limit of (B2), but was

in (26) is well behaved in the limit. not required in (8a).

In this section, the on-axis solution is examined based on bi- It has been demonstrated by comparison, by limiting solu-

nomial expansions of the complete elliptic integral functions tion, and by self-consistency of theories that (25) is valid and

and other appropriate terms. Agreement with commonly ac- leads to alternative forms for expressing the magnetic field gen-

cepted solutions is shown. erated by a current loop. Although not investigated here, there

SCHILL: GENERAL RELATION FOR THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD 965

may be some numerical advantage in using one form of solu- Note that the above proof applies to the appropriate incomplete

tion as compared to another. For the on-axis limiting solution, elliptic integral functions as well. The only modification re-

it was observed that the radial component of the magnetic field quired is to replace ( ) in the integral limits of (A3) and (A4)

as developed by others required careful handling of the coeffi- and in the elliptic argument of (A6) by the appropriate ampli-

cients of the elliptic functions in order to demonstrate that the tude usually denoted with the symbol or [33]. Also, note

field vanishes. Employing the alternative form developed in this that some handbooks [33] employ the symbol instead

work, the field component vanishes without special handling of of to represent the parameter of the elliptic integral functions.

the coefficients. It is commonly known that the elliptic function The convention of choice in this effort is . The tabulated forms

of second kind is well behaved over its parameter space. As one readily found in mathematical handbooks are (A5) and (23).

approaches the current loop, approaches 1. It is observed that The limiting solutions require knowledge of the expansion of

the coefficient of the elliptic function of second kind in (25) be- the complete elliptic integral functions of first, second, and third

comes singular implying that the elliptic function of third kind kinds. The first two can be found in literature, but the third does

with the appropriate parameters becomes singular. Examining not seem to be available. In order to establish a correct proce-

(26) and (B2), the coefficient of the elliptic function of third dure in developing the series representation of these integrals,

kind is well behaved whereas that of the second kind becomes series solutions for all three are derived and the first two com-

singular as the current loop is approached. The impact of this pared with tabulated results for correctness in approach. The in-

singularity may now be handled either in the coefficient of the tegrands of each of the three integral forms are expanded using a

elliptic function of second kind or in the elliptic function of third binomial series and then appropriately integrated. The series ex-

kind depending on whether (26) or (B2) is employed. pansions used in the integrands of the complete elliptic integral

functions of the first, second, and third kinds are, respectively

APPENDIX A

NEEDED MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS

Two mathematical formulas dealing with the derivative of

elliptic integral functions with respect to their parameters are (A7a)

derived. These are compared to existing tabulated expressions.

Series approximations of the elliptic integral functions are also

(A7b)

examined and compared to literature. These expansions find ap-

plications to limiting solutions.

The derivative of elliptic integral functions of first kind (A7c)

and second kind with respect to their parameters may be

obtained by using the chain rule on the derivative of the product

of the elliptic integral functions with parameter as follows: where and . Employing the ex-

pansions (A7a)(A7c) in the integrands of the complete elliptic

integral functions, integrating and retaining up to orders of

(A1) yields (28a)(28c). Equations (28a) and (28b) are identical to

what exists in literature [33].

(A2)

Substituting in the integral form for the complete elliptic inte- APPENDIX B

grals on the left-hand side of these relations yields, upon differ- EXISTING MAGNETIC FIELD SOLUTIONS FOR A CURRENT LOOP

entiating and simplifying

The vector magnetic field as generated by a circular loop of

current is commonly expressed in component form in a cylin-

(A3)

drical coordinate system as [21][23]

(A4)

tuting (A3) and (A4), respectively, into (A1) and (A2) yields (B1)

(A5)

(A6) (B2)

966 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 39, NO. 2, MARCH 2003

APPENDIX C REFERENCES

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cility, Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, pp. 203215, 1999.

Equations (16) and (17) are derived in a more complete [2] P. Doynov, H. E. Cohen, M. R. Cook, and C. Graham, Test facility for

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[4] R. C. Calhoun, An elementary derivation of the midplane magnetic

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[5] J. Nissen and L.-E. Paulsson, Influence of field inhomogeneity in

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(C3b) [14] J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley,

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[15] K. Kaminishi and S. Nawata, Practical method of improving the uni-

Again, using (13), the right-hand sides of (C3a) and (C3b) re- formity of magnetic fields generated by single and double Helmholtz

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[25] , Vector potential and magnetic field of current-carrying finite arc

segment in analytical form, Part II, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 18, pp.

911917, May 1982.

(C5) [26] , Vector potential and magnetic field of current-carrying finite arc

segment in analytical form, Part III, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 18, pp.

The coefficients of each of the elliptic integrals are grouped to- 18601867, Nov. 1982.

gether in both (C4) and (C5). Extensively employing (13) in [27] , Vector potential and magnetic field of current-carrying finite arc

segment in analytical form, Part IV, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 20, pp.

(C4) and (C5), one reproduces (16) and (17), respectively. It is 21452150, 1984.

interesting to note that the coefficients of the complete elliptic [28] , Vector potential and magnetic field of current-carrying finite arc

integral of the first kind identically cancel in (C4). This segment in analytical form, Part V, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 26, pp.

11711180, May 1990.

is easily seen when the following factor is written as [29] L. Urankar and P. Henninger, Compact extended algorithms for elliptic

inegrals in electromagnetic field and potential computations Part I: El-

liptic integrals of the first and second kind with extended integration

range, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 27, pp. 43384342, Sept. 1991.

SCHILL: GENERAL RELATION FOR THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD 967

[30] L. Urankar, P. Henninger, and F. S. Nestel, Compact extended Robert A. Schill, Jr. (M91SM93) received the B.S.E.E. degree from the Mil-

algorithms for elliptic inegrals in electromagnetic field and potential waukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI, in 1979, and theM.S.E.E. and

computations Part II: Elliptic integral of the third kind with extended Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1981 and 1986.

integration range, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 30, pp. 12361241, May respectively.

1994. He taught and performed research at the University of Illinois, Chicago, be-

[31] R. A. Schill, Jr. and K. Hoff, Characterizing and calibrating a large tween 1986 and 1993. From 1993 to present, he has been teaching and per-

Helmholtz coil at low AC magnetic field levels with peak magnitudes forming research at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). In 1997, he

below the Earths magnetic field, Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 72, pp. was promoted to Associate Professor. He is the founder and director of the Elec-

27692776, June 2001. tromagnetics and Optics Research Laboratory at UNLV (established September

[32] H. B. Dwight, Tables of Integrals and Other Mathematical Data, 4th 1994). He is the director and co-founder of the Pulse Power Research Labora-

ed. New York: MacMillan, 1961, p. 186, Eqs. 788.1 and 788.2. tory at UNLV (established May of 2001), which houses the Nevada Shocker.

[33] M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical He has published over 20 peer reviewed papers journal, secured a significant

Functions. New York: Dover, 1972, Dover edition, 9th printing, p. number of theoretical and experimental grants, and performed local community

591, Eqs. 17.3.11 and 17.3.12. service annually on a professional level.

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