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EnR-Steel Technical Reference

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Version 3.0

Technical Reference

Copyright March 2003

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

COPYRIGHT

The software program EnR-Steel and all associated

documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products.

Worldwide rights of ownership rest with EnR Soft. Unlicensed

use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any

form, without prior written authorization form EnR Soft is

prohibited.

obtained from:

95 Brown Rd., Suite 1012

Ithaca, NY 14850 USA

(607) 257-0544

EnR Soft

3221 Wellington Court

Raleigh, NC 27615

(800) 840-8591

E-Mail: support@EnRSolutions.com

Web: www.EnRSoft.com

Printed in USA

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

DISCLAIMER

Considerable time, effort, and expense have gone into the development

and documentation of EnR-Steel. The program has been thoroughly

tested and used. In using the program, however, the user accepts and

understands that no warranty is expressed or implied by the developers

or the distributors on the accuracy or reliability of the program.

However, the user must thoroughly read the manuals and clearly

recognize the aspects of design that the programs algorithms do not

address.

The user must understand the assumptions of the programs and must

independently verify the results.

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1

2 GENERAL PROVISIONS ............................................................ 2

2.1 Gross Area................................................................................................... 2

2.2 Effective Net Area ........................................................................................ 2

2.3 Limiting Slenderness Ratio .......................................................................... 2

3 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-ASD89 .......................... 3

3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 3

3.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections ............................................................. 3

3.1.2 Slender-Element Compression Sections............................................... 4

3.2 Allowable Stress in Tension......................................................................... 4

3.2.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 4

3.2.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 4

3.3 Allowable Stress in Compression................................................................. 4

3.3.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 5

3.3.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 5

3.4 Allowable Stress in Bending ........................................................................ 8

3.4.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 8

3.4.2 Deflection Criterion................................................................................ 8

3.4.3 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 8

3.5 Allowable Stress in Shear .......................................................................... 14

3.5.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 14

3.5.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................. 14

3.6 Combined Stresses.................................................................................... 14

3.6.1 Axial Tension and Bending.................................................................. 15

3.6.2 Axial Compression and Bending ......................................................... 15

4 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-LRFD99 ...................... 16

4.1 General ...................................................................................................... 16

4.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections ........................................................... 16

4.1.2 Slender Compression Elements .......................................................... 17

4.2 Nominal Tensile Strength........................................................................... 18

4.2.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 18

4.2.2 Tension Capacity................................................................................. 18

4.3 Nominal Compressive Strength ................................................................. 18

4.3.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 18

4.3.2 Compression Capacity ........................................................................ 19

4.4 Nominal Strength in Bending ..................................................................... 24

4.4.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 24

4.4.2 Bending Capacity ................................................................................ 25

4.5 Nominal Shear Strength............................................................................. 32

4.5.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 32

4.5.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................. 32

4.6 Combined Stresses.................................................................................... 33

4.6.1 Single-Angle ........................................................................................ 33

4.6.2 Steel Hollow Structural Sections ......................................................... 35

4.6.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Sections)............ 35

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Lists of Tables

Table 1 ASD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements...............4

Table 2 LRFD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements ..........17

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

1 INTRODUCTION

EnR-Steel designs steel structures in accordance with both Allowable Stress Design

(ASD 1989) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD 1999). EnR-Steel

allows the user to design or check standard sections subjected to different types of

loading. This manual presents the main assumptions that are included in the program.

Limitations, if any, of the use of steel design in EnR-Steel are shown.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

2 GENERAL PROVISIONS

This chapter presents general provisions, which are taken into consideration in steel

design utilizing EnR-Steel. These provisions are applicable for both the Allowable

Stress Design (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methods

unless mentioned otherwise.

In EnR-Steel the gross area Ag is taken from the AISC tables (LRFD 1999).

EnR-Steel calculates the effective net area by multiplying the gross area by a factor,

which is greater than zero and is less than 1.0, given by the user.

Under compression (Kx Lux / rx and Ky Luy / ry) 200

Under tension (Kx Lux / rx and Ky Luy / ry) 300

For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration is used instead of rx, ry

Where,

Lux length of the member in the x direction

Luy length of the member in the y direction

rx radius of gyration in the x direction

ry radius of gyration in the y direction

rmin minimum radius of gyration

Kx buckling coefficient in the x direction

Ky buckling coefficient in the y direction

2

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.1 General

For a section to qualify as compact, its flanges must be continuously connected to the

web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not

exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios in table 1. Steel sections that do not qualify

as compact sections are classified as non-compact sections, if the width-thickness

ratios of the compression elements do not exceed the values shown for non-compact

in table 1. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds the latter applicable

value, the section is classified as a slender-element section.

For unstiffened elements, which are supported along only one edge, parallel to the

direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:

For flanges of I-shaped members and tees, the width b is half the full-flange

width

For legs of angles and flanges of channels and zees, the width b is the full

nominal dimension

For stems of tees, d is taken as the full nominal depth

For stiffened elements, i.e. which are supported along two edges parallel to the

direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:

For webs of rolled, h is the clear distance between flanges less the fillet or

corner radius at each flange

For webs of rolled, d is the full nominal depth

For flanges of rectangular hollow structural sections, the width b is the clear

distance between webs less the inside corner radius on each side. The width

may be taken as the total section width minus three times the thickness

For webs of rectangular hollow structural sections, the width b is the clear

distance between flanges less the inside radius on each side. The width may

be taken as the total section depth minus three times the thickness

3

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Width Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios

Description of Element Thickness

Ratio Compact Non-Compact

Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams

and channels in flexure and flanges b/t 65 / Fy 95 / Fy

of tees

Unstiffened elements simply

supported along one edge, such as

legs, single-angle, legs of double-

b/t NA 76 / Fy

angle

Flanges of hollow structure sections

of uniform thickness subjected to b/t 190 / Fy 238 / Fy

bending or compression

All other uniformly compressed

b/t

stiffened elements, i.e. supported

h/tw

NA 253 / Fy

along two edges

For Fa / Fy 0.16

640 f

D/tw

1 3.74 a

Webs in combined flexural and axial

Fy Fy -------------

compression

For Fa / Fy } 0.16

h/tw

257 / Fy

760 / 0.6 Fy

In axial compression D/t

In flexural -------------

3300 / Fy

This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial tension caused by forces

acting through the centroidal axis.

3.2.1 Limitations

Design and/or check does not apply to members subjected to fatigue, threaded rods,

pin connected members and eye bars.

According to the ASD Specification the allowable stress in tension shall neither exceed

0.60 of the yield stress on the gross area nor 0.50 of the ultimate stress on the

effective net area.

This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial compression caused by

forces acting through the centroidal axis.

4

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.3.1 Limitations

The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural

buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The allowable compressive stresses are

determined according to the following subsections.

3.3.2.1 Flexural-Buckling

The computed compressive stress, Fa in a compression member shall not exceed its

allowable value given by,

(KL / r)2

[1 2

]Fy

2Cc

, if Kl / r Cc

5 3(Kl / r) (Kl / r)3

+ 3

3 8Cc 8Cc (ASD E2-1 & E2-2)

Fa =

12 2 E

, if Kl / r > Cc

23(Kl / r)2

Where,

KL/r slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment

K effective length factor of the compression member

L unbraced member length

r radius of gyration of the cross-section

E modulus of elasticity

Cc slenderness ratio that demarcates inelastic members buckling from

elastic member buckling. Cc = (2 2 E / Fy )

KL/r should be evaluated for both buckling axes x, y and the larger value must be used

in the design process.

Singly symmetric and unsymmetric columns, such as angles or tee-shaped columns,

and doubly symmetric columns, may require taking into consideration flexural-torsional

and torsional buckling.

ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for

the calculation of Fe. EnR-Steel performs checks based in the 1999 version of the

AISC-LRFD that replaced the 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code.

Appendix E3 of the LRFD specifications (AISC, 1999) may be used to establish the

effect of flexural-torsional buckling. The critical elastic buckling stress Fe can be

obtained directly from the equations in LRFD Appendix E3 the effective slenderness is

then given by,

KL E

= (ASD C-E2-2)

r e Fe

The allowable stress is then obtained from Equations (ASD E2-1 or ASD E2-2) as

mentioned above.

EnR-Steel deals with single angles from LRFD Specifications for Single Angle

5

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Members (LRFD C4), hollow structure sections HSS from LRFD Specifications, steel

hollow structure sections from LRFD Specifications and with steel hollow structure

sections from LRFD Specifications for steel hollow structure sections.

Axially loaded members subjected to compression, which have a width thickness ratio

in excess of the applicable non-compact value, shall be proportioned according to the

following:

3.3.2.3.1 Unstiffened Compression Elements

The allowable stress of unstiffened compression elements whose width thickness ratio

exceeds the applicable non-compact value shall be subjected to a reduction factor Qs.

The value of Qs shall be determined by equations (ASD A-B5-1) through (ASD A-B5-

6), as applicable. The allowable stress of axially loaded compression member shall be

modified by the appropriate reduction factor Q as will be shown later.

For single angles:

When, 76.0 / F y < b / t < 155 / Fy :

Qs = 1.340 0.00447(b / t ) Fy (ASD A-B5-1)

When, b / t 155 / Fy :

Qs = 15,500 /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-2)

For other compression members, and for projecting elements of compression flanges

of beams and girders:

When, 95.0 / Fy / k c < b / t < 195 / Fy / k c :

Qs = 1.293 0.00309(b / t ) Fy / kc (ASD A-B5-3)

When, b / t 195 / Fy / k c :

Qs = 26,200k c /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-4)

For stems of tees:

When, 127 / F y < b / t < 176 / Fy :

Qs = 1.908 0.00715(b / t ) Fy (ASD A-B5-5)

When b / t 176 / Fy :

Qs = 20,000 /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-6)

Where:

b width, unstiffened compression element (Classification of Steel Sections)

t thickness of unstiffened element

Fy specified minimum yield stress

k c = 4.05 /(h / t ) 0.46 If h/t > 70, otherwise k c = 1.0

3.3.2.3.2 Stiffened Compression Elements

When the width thickness ratio of uniformly compressed stiffened elements exceed the

non-compact limit, a reduced effective width, be, is used in computing the design

properties of the section containing the element.

253t 44.3

be = ( )[1 ]b (ASD A-B5-8)

f (b / t ) f

Where,

b actual width of a stiffened compression element (as defined in

Classification of Steel Sections)

be reduced width

t element thickness

6

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

stiffened elements, based on the design properties.

If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f for the stiffened

element must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened

element does not exceed FaQs or FbQs, as applicable.

Members with diameter-to-thickness ratios D/t greater than 3,300/Fy shall not exceed:

662

Fa = + 0.40 Fy (ASD A-B5-9)

D/t

Where,

D outside diameter, in.

t wall thickness, in.

3.3.2.3.3 Design Properties

Properties of sections shall be determined using the full cross section, except as

follows:

In computing the moment of inertia and section modulus of flexural members, the

effective width of uniformly compressed elements, as mentioned above shall be used

in determining effective cross-sectional properties.

For stiffened elements of the cross section:

effective area

Qa = (ASD A-B5-10)

actual area

For unstiffened elements of the cross section, Qs is determined from Unstiffened

Compression Elements mentioned above.

For axially loaded compression members the gross cross-sectional area and the

radius of gyration r shall be computed based on the actual cross section

The allowable stress, for axially loaded compression members containing unstiffened

or stiffened elements shall not exceed:

( Kl / r ) 2

Q[1 ]Fy

2C c '2

Fa = (ASD A-B5-11)

5 3( Kl / r ) ( Kl / r ) 3

+

3 8Cc' 8C c '3

When Kl/r is less than Cc where,

2 2 E

Cc ' =

QFy

And,

Q = Qs Qa

Cross sections composed entirely of unstiffened elements

Q = Qs, i.e. (Qa =1.0)

Cross sections composed entirely of stiffened elements

Q = Qa, i.e. (Qs =1.0)

Cross sections composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements

Q = QsQa

When Kl/r exceeds Cc:

12 2 E

Fa = (ASD A-B5-12)

23(Kl / r )

2

7

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.4.1 Limitations

Design and/or check apply to channels loaded in a plane passing through the shear

center parallel to the web or restrained against twisting at load points.

Design and/or check does not apply to members with yield stress greater than 65 Ksi.

Design and/or check does not apply to hybrid beams

EnR-Steel does not perform any checks for deflections; the user must separately

undergo deflection checks.

The allowable stress depends on the axis of bending, geometric shape of cross

section (I, C-shape, etc) and the compactness of the section.

3.4.3.1.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)

Members with compact sections:

For members with compact sections, as defined earlier in section of local buckling

(ASD Section B5.1), they are symmetrical about and loaded in the plane of their minor

axis. Provided that the flanges are connected continuously to the web or webs and the

laterally unsupported length of the compression flange Lb does not exceed the value of

Lc, as given,

76b f 20000

Lc = min

Fy

and

(d / Af )Fy (ASD F1-2)

Where,

Lb is the length of member in x-direction (Lux)

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For members meeting the requirements mentioned above except that their flanges are

non-compact (excluding built-up members),

bf

The allowable stress is Fb = Fy 0.79 0.002 Fy (ASD F1-3)

2t f

For members with a non-compact section as defined earlier in section of local buckling

(ASD Section B5.1), not included above,

The allowable stress is Fb = 0.6 Fy (ASD F1-5)

Members with compact or non-compact sections with unbraced length greater than Lc:

Section B5.1), and with unbraced lengths greater than Lc as calculated earlier, the

allowable stress Fb is calculated as follows,

l 102 *103 C b

For,

rT Fy

Fb = 0.6 Fy

102 *103 C b l 510 *103 Cb

Fy rT Fy

For,

2 Fy (l / rT )

2

3 1530 * 10 C

b

l 510 *103 Cb

For,

rT Fy

170 *103 Cb

Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-7)

(l / rT )2

For any value of l / rT , Fb should not be greater than,

12 *103 Cb

Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-8)

ld / A f

Where,

l length of the member in the x direction (Lux)

2

Af area of the compression flange, in

rT radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange

and 1/3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web

Cb bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

Members with Slender sections:

For slender sections it is designed as a non-compact section. Additional

considerations are taken when the web depth-to-thickness ratio exceeds non-compact

limits. The previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows:

Fb Fb R pg Re

'

(ASD G2-1)

Where,

Fb applicable bending stress given earlier as applicable, Ksi

Aw h 760

Rpg = 1.00 0.0005

Af t F

b

Re = 1.0 (non-hybrid girders, Re =1.0)

9

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Fb Qs (0.6 Fy )

'

3.4.3.1.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)

Fb = 0.75Fy (ASD F2-1)

bf

Fb = Fy 1.075 0.005 Fy (ASD F2-3)

2t f

bf

Fb = Fy 1.075 0.005 Fy (ASD F2-3)

2t f

3.4.3.2.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)

Members with compact sections:

For members with compact sections as defined earlier in section of local buckling

(ASD Section B5.1) they are symmetrical about, and loaded in, the plane of their minor

axis. Provided that the flanges are connected continuously to the web or webs and the

laterally unsupported length of the compression flange Lb does not exceed the value of

Lc, as given,

76b f 20000

Lc = min

Fy

and

(d / Af )Fy (ASD F1-2)

Where,

Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)

For members meeting the requirements mentioned above except that their flanges are

non-compact (excluding built-up members),

bf

The allowable stress is Fb = Fy 0.79 0.002 Fy (ASD F1-3)

2t f

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For members with a non-compact section as defined earlier in section of local buckling

(ASD Section B5.1), not included above,

The allowable stress is Fb = 0.6 Fy (ASD F1-5)

Members with compact or non-compact sections with unbraced length greater than Lc:

For compact or non-compact sections as defined in section of Local Buckling (ASD

Section B5.1), and with unbraced lengths greater than Lc as calculated earlier, the

allowable stress Fb is calculated as follows,

12 *103 Cb

Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-8)

ld / A f

Where,

L length of the member in the x direction (Lux)

2

Af area of the compression flange, in

rT radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1/3

the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web

Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

For slender sections, they are designed as non-compact sections. Additional

considerations are taken when the web depth-to-thickness ratio exceeds non-compact

limits. The previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows:

Fb Fb R pg Re

'

(ASD G2-1)

Fb is the applicable bending stress given earlier as applicable, Ksi.

Aw h 760

Rpg = 1.00 0.0005

Af t F

b

Re = 1.0 (non-hybrid girders, Re =1.0)

If the flange is slender:

Fb Qs (0.6 Fy )

'

3.4.3.2.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)

Fb = 0.60Fy

3.4.3.3.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)

Members with Compact and Non-Compact Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F2-2)

Members with Slender Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy Qs

3.4.3.3.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)

Members with Compact and Non-Compact Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F2-2)

Members with Slender Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy Qs

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.4.3.4.1 Strong & Weak Bending Axis (X&Y-axis)

Members with Compact Sections:

In case of members bent about their strong or weak axes and members with compact

sections, they are treated as defined in the local buckling section (ASD Section B5). In

case of depth not greater than 6 times the width and a flange thickness not greater

than 2 times the web thickness in addition to unsupported length Lb checks which the

user should separately investigate these limitations and use equation (ASD F3-2) if

applicable,

Fb = 0.66Fy (ASD F3-1)

Members with Non-Compact Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F3-3)

Members with Slender sections

Fb Q(0.6Fy )

'

3.4.3.5.1 Strong & Weak Bending Axis (X&Y-Axis)

Members with Compact Sections

For members bent about their strong or weak axes, members with compact sections

as defined in section of local buckling (ASD Section B5),

Fb = 0.66Fy (ASD F3-2)

Members with Non-Compact Sections

Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F3-3)

Members with Slender sections

Fb Q(0.6Fy )

'

To prevent local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression, an angle leg

shall be considered in compression (ASD Section 5.1.1)

When, b / t 65 / Fy :

Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD 5-1a)

When, 65 / Fy b / t 76 / Fy :

Fb = 0.60 Fy (ASD 5-1b)

When, b / t w 76 / Fy :

Fb = 0.66QFy (ASD 5-1c)

For the tip of an angle leg in tension (ASD Section 5.1.2)

Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD 5-2)

To prevent lateral-torsional buckling, the maximum compression stress shall not

exceed (ASD Section 5.1.3)

When, Fob Fy

Fb = (0.55 0.10Fob / Fy )Fob (ASD 5-3a)

When, Fob Fy :

12

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

(

Fb = 0.95 0.50 Fy / Fob Fy 0.66Fy) (ASD 5-3b)

Where,

Fb allowable bending stress at leg tip, Ksi

Fob elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress, as will be defined latter as

applicable, Ksi

Fy yield stress, Ksi

3.4.3.6.1 Equal Leg Angle

Equal leg members without lateral-torsional restraint subjected to bending about one

of the geometric axes may be designed considering only geometric axis bending as

shown.

The calculated compressive stress Fb, using the geometric axis section modulus, is

increased by 25%.

For the angle leg tips in compression the allowable bending stress is determined

according to Equations (ASD 5-3a, ASD 5-3b as applicable) where,

Fob =

85900

(

Cb 1 + 0.78 lt / b 2 )

2

1 (ASD 5-4)

(l / b)

2

If the leg tips are in tension, Fb is determined as mentioned above according to (ASD

5-2)

3.4.3.6.2 Unequal Leg Angle

Unequal leg members without lateral-torsional restraint under bending about one of

the geometric axes are designed using principal axis bending (ASD Section 5.3).

The allowable bending stress is determined according to Equations (ASD 5-1a through

ASD 5-1c as applicable) and Equations (ASD 5-3a, ASD 5-3b as applicable) where,

Cb Bw + 0.052(lt / rz ) + Bw

143100I z

Fob =

2 2

(ASD 5-6)

Swl 2

Where,

3

Sw section modulus of the tip of leg in compression, in

4

Iz minor Principal axis moment of inertia, in

rz radius of gyration for minor principal axis, in

1

( )

Bw = z w2 + z 2 dA 2zo ,

Iw A

Special section property for unequal leg angles is +ve for short leg in compression and

ve for long leg in compression.

If the long leg is in compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member

use the ve values of Bw

zo coordinate along z axis of the shear center with respect to centroid, in.

4

Iw Major principle axis moment of inertia, in.

For the angle leg tips in compression, the allowable bending stress is determined

according to Equations (ASD 5-1a through ASD 5-1c as applicable)

For the leg tips are in tension Fb is determined according to (ASD 5-2)

13

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.5.1 Limitations

stiffeners are provided (i.e. distance between stiffeners equals to member length)

3.5.2.1.1 I-Shaped, C-shaped and Rectangular HSS sections

The allowable shear stress Fv is

For, h / t w 380 / Fy

Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

Fy

Fv = C v 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -2)

2.89

Where,

45000 K v

Cv = When Cv is less than 0.8

Fy (h / t w )

2

190 Kv

= When Cv is more than 0.8

h / tw Fy

5.34

K v = 4.00 + When a/h is less than 1.0

(a / h )2

4.00

= 5.34 + When a/h is more than 1.0

(a / h )2

a clear distance between transverse stiffeners, Currently is taken as member

length ,in.

h clear distance between flanges, in.

3.5.2.1.2 Single-Angles, Double-Angles, Pipes , Round HSS and Tees

The allowable shear stress Fv is

Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

The allowable shear stress Fv for all sections is taken as

Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

When a member is subject to the combined action of bending and axial force, it must

be designed to resist stresses and forces arising from both bending and axial actions.

While a tensile axial force may induce a stiffening effect on a member, a compressive

axial force tends to destabilize the member.

14

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Members subjected to both axial tension and bending stresses shall be proportioned

at all points along their length to satisfy the following equation,

f a f bx f by

+ + 1.0 (ASD H2-1)

Ft Fbx Fby

Where,

fb computed bending tensile stress

fa computed axial tensile stress

Fb the allowable bending stress as defined earlier

Ft the governing allowable tensile stress as defined earlier

proportioned to satisfy the following requirements:

For, f a / Fa } 0.15

fa C mx f bx C my f by

+ + 1.0 (ASD H1-1)

Fa fa f

1 ' Fbx 1 a F

F F ' by

ex ey

fa f f by

+ bx + 1 .0 (ASD H1-2)

0.6 Fy Fbx Fby

For, f a / Fa 0.15

fa f f by

+ bx + 1 .0 (ASD H1-3)

Fa Fbx Fby

In Equations (ASD H1-1), (ASD H1-2), (ASD H1-3), the subscripts x and y, combined

with subscripts b, m and e indicate the axis of bending about which a particular stress

or design property applies, and,

fa is the axial compressive stress that is permitted if axial forces alone existed, Ksi

fb is the compressive bending stress that is permitted if bending moment alone existed

12 2 E

Fe ' =

23(Kl b / rb )

2

Where,

E Euler stress divided by a factor of safety, Ksi

fa computed axial stress , Ksi

fb computed compressive bending stress at the considered point, Ksi

Cm coefficient where its value is proposed by the user

15

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.1 General

For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the

web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not

exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p in table 2. If the width-thickness ratio of

one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r the section is

non-compact. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds r, the section is

referred to as a slender-element compression section.

For unstiffened elements, which are supported along only one edge parallel to the

direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:

For flanges of I-shaped members and tees, the width b is half the full-flange

width, bf.

For legs of angles and flanges of channels, the width b is the full nominal

dimension.

For stems of tees, d is taken as the full nominal depth.

For stiffened elements, which are supported along two edges parallel to the direction

of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:

For webs of rolled sections, h is the clear distance between flanges less the

fillet or corner radius at each flange; hc is twice the distance from the centroid

to the inside face of the compression flange less the fillet or corner radius.

For round HSS, =D/t, where D is the outside diameter and t is the wall

thickness.

For flanges of rectangular HSS, =b/t, where b is the clear distance between

webs less the inside corner radius at each web and t is the wall thickness. it

is permitted to use as the overall flange width B minus three times the wall

thickness t.

For webs of rectangular HSS, =h/t, where h is the clear distance between

flanges less the inside corner radius at each flange and t is the wall

thickness. it is permitted to use as the overall web depth h minus three times

the wall thickness t.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Width Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios

Description of Element Thickness

Ratio

p (compact) r (non-compact)

beams and channels in b/t 0.38 ( E / Fy ) 0.83 E /( Fy 10)

flexure

Flanges of I-shaped

sections in pure

compression, angles in

continues contact and

b/t NA 0.56 ( E / Fy )

flanges of channels in pure

compression

with separators, flanges of b/t NA 0.45 ( E / Fy )

tees

For Pu / b Py 0.125

2.75 Pu

3.76 E / Fy 1

P 0.74 Pu

b y

5.70 E / F y 1

b Py

Webs in combined flexural

Unstiffened Elements

h/tw For Pu / b Py 0.125

1.12

P

E / Fy 2.33 u

b Py

1.49 E / Fy

All other uniformly

compressed stiffened b/t

elements, i.e., supported h/tw

NA 1.49 ( E / Fy )

along two edges

For Pipe sections D / t [a]

In axial compression N/A. 0.114 E / Fy

In flexure 0.0714 E / Fy 0.309 E / Fy

b/t N/A

For Single angles 0.446 ( E / Fy )

Round HSS D/t [a]

For axial compression N/A. 0.114 E / Fy

For flexure 0.0714 E / Fy 0.309 E / Fy

b/t or h/t

Rectangle HSS wall 1.40 E / Fy

For uniform compression 1.12 E / Fy

as a web in combined

flexure and axial h/t 2.75 Pu

compression 3.76 E / Fy 1

P

b y

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

0.74 Pu

For Pu / b Py 0.125 5.70 E / F y 1

b Py

1.12

P

E / Fy 2.33 u

b Py

1.49 E / Fy

This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial tension caused by forces

acting through the centroidal axis.

4.2.1 Limitations

Design and/or check does not apply to members subjected to fatigue, threaded rods,

pin connected members and eye bars. In addition, effective net area is taken as a ratio

of the gross area.

Tension members are designed to resist a factored axial force of Pu that satisfies the

condition of t Pn Pu

For yielding in the gross section:

t Pn = 0.9 [Fy Ag] (LRFD D1-1)

Fracture in effective net section

t Pn = 0.75 [Fu Ae] (LRFD D1-2)

Where,

t resistance factor for tension

2 2

Ag gross cross-section area of the member, in (mm )

2 2

Ae effective net area, in (mm )

Pn nominal axial strength, kips (N)

Fy specified minimum yield stress of the material, ksi (MPa)

Fu specified minimum tensile strength, ksi (MPa)

This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial compression caused by

forces acting through the centroidal axis.

4.3.1 Limitations

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

The design strength of compression members shall be cPn

c = 0.90

Pn =AgFcr

Fcr shall be determined as follows:

For c Q 1.5

Q(0.658Qc ) Fy

2

Fcr = (LRFD 4-1)

0.877

Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD 4-2)

c 2

Where,

KL

c slenderness parameter, c = ( Fy / E )

r

Fy specified minimum yield stress of steel

Q reduction factor for local buckling

The reduction factor Q shall be:

b

When, 0.466 ( E / Fy )

t

Q = 1.0 (LRFD 4.3a)

b

When, 0.466 ( E / Fy ) < < 0.910 E / Fy

t

b

Q = 1.34 0.761 ( Fy / E ) (LRFD 4.3b)

t

b

When, 0.910 E / Fy

t

0.534 E

Q= (LRFD 4.3c)

b

Fy ( ) 2

t

Where,

b full width of longest angle leg

t thickness of angle

The design strength for flexural buckling of compression members is c Pn.

c = 0.85

Pn =Fcr Ag (LRFD 4.2-1)

Fcr shall be determined as follows:

For c Q 1.5

Q(0.658Qc ) Fy

2

Fcr = (LRFD 4.2-2)

For

c Q > 1.5

0.877

Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD 4.2-3)

c 2

Where,

19

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

KL

c = slenderness parameter, c = ( Fy / E )

r

The reduction factor Q shall be:

For r in (See table 2)

Q = 1 .0

For r in (See table 2)

(I) For round HSS with < 0.448E/Fy

0.0379 E 2

Q= + (LRFD 4.3a)

Fy (D / t ) 3

(II) For rectangular HSS

effective area

Q= (LRFD 4.3c)

Ag

Where the effective area is equal to the summation of the effective areas of the

sides using,

E 0.381 E

be = 1.91t 1 b

f (b / t ) ) f

With f = Pu / Ag , For Pu =0,

The design strength of compression members shall be the minimum value obtained

from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The design strength is

determined according to the following subsections.

The design strength for flexural buckling of compression members whose elements

have width-thickness ratios less than

r from (see table 2) is c Pn:

c =0.85

Pn = Ag Fcr (LRFD E2-1)

Fcr shall be determined as follows:

For,

c Q 1.5

Q(0.658Qc ) Fy

2

For,

c Q > 1.5

0.877

( ) Fy

Fcr =

c

2

(LRFD E2-3)

Where,

KL Fy

c slenderness parameter, c = r E . (LRFD E2-4)

Ag gross area of member in. 2 (mm 2)

Fy specified minimum yield stress, ksi (MPa)

E modulus of elasticity, ksi (MPa)

K effective length factor

L laterally unbraced length of member, in. 2 (mm 2)

r governing radius of gyration about the axis of buckling, in. (mm)

For members whose elements do not meet the requirements of LRFD Section B5.1

(table 2) see Slender Compression Elements for calculating reduction factor

Q , else

Q =1.

20

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

The design strength for flexural-torsional buckling of double-angle and tee-shaped

compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r from

(table 2) is c Pn:

Where:

c =0.85

Pn = Ag Fcrft (LRFD E3-1)

Fcrft = 1 1 (LRFD E3-2)

2H ( Fcry + Fcrz ) 2

GJ

Fcrz = 2

Aro

2

yo

H = 1 2

ro

Fcry is determined (see section of flexural buckling) for flexural buckling about the y-

KL Fy

axis of symmetry for c =

ry E

For double-angle and tee-shaped members whose elements do not meet the

requirements of LRFD Section B5.1 (see table2), see section of Slender Compression

Elements for calculating Fcry

torsional and flexural-torsional buckling for all sections (Except double-angle and tee-

shaped sections) is c Pn:

c =0.85

Pn = AgFcr (LRFD E3-1)

The nominal critical stress Fcr is determined as follows:

For e Q 1.5

Q(0.658Qe ) Fy

2

Fcr = (LRFD A-E3-2)

0.877

Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD A-E3-3)

e

2

Where,

Pn nominal resistance in compression, kips (N)

e = Fy / Fe (LRFD A-E3-4)

Q 1.0 for elements meeting the width-thickness ratios r (see table2)

QsQa for elements not meeting the width-thickness ratios r of (see

table2) and determined in accordance with the provisions of the section

of Slender Compression Elements

The critical torsional or flexural-torsional elastic buckling stress Fe is determined as

follows:

For double symmetric shapes:

2 EC w 1

Fe = + GJ (LRFD A-E3-5)

(K z L ) Ix + Iy

2

21

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Fey + Fez 4 Fey Fez H

Fe = 1 1 (LRFD A-E3-6)

2 H ( Fey + Fez ) 2

For single symmetric shapes where x is the axis of symmetry:

Fex + Fez 4 Fex Fez H

Fe = 1 1 (LRFD A-E3-6)

2H ( Fex + Fez ) 2

For unsymmetric shapes, the critical flexural-torsional elastic buckling stress Fe is the

lowest root of the cubic equation,

2 2

y

(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) Fe (Fe Fey ) xo

2

Fe (Fe Fex ) o

r

(LRFD A-

ro o

E3-7)

Where,

Kz effective length factor for torsional buckling

Kx, Ky effective length factors in x and y directions

L unbraced length, in. (mm)

G shear modulus, ksi (MPa)

J torsional constant, in.4 (mm4)

Cw warping constant, in.6 (mm6)

A cross-sectional area of member, in.2 (mm2)

Ix, Iy moment of inertia about the principal axes, in.4 (mm4)

rx, ry radii of gyration about the principal axes, in. (mm)

xo, yo coordinates of shear center with respect to the centroid, in. (mm)

ro polar radius of gyration about the shear center, in. (mm)

2 Ix + Iy

ro = xo + yo +

2 2

(LRFD A-E3-8)

A

x 2+y 2

H = 1 o 2 o (LRFD A-E3-9)

r

o

2E

Fex = (LRFD A-E3-10)

(KL / r )x 2

2E

Fey = (LRFD A-E3-11)

(KL / r ) y 2

2 EC w 1

Fez = + GJ (LRFD A-E3-12)

(K z L )

2 2

Aro

4.3.2.3.3 Slender Compression Elements

Members containing elements subject to compression that have a width-thickness

ratio in excess of the applicable r as stipulated earlier in section of local buckling (see

table2) shall be proportioned according to this section.

The design strength of unstiffened compression elements whose width-thickness ratio

exceeds the applicable limit r as stipulated in section of local buckling (see table2)

shall be subjected to a reduction factor Qs. The value of Qs shall be determined by

Equations (LRFD A-B5-3 through A-B5-10), as applicable. When such elements

comprise the compression flange of a flexural member, the design flexural strength, in

22

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Ksi, shall be computed using b Fy Qs, where b = 0.90. The design strength of axially

loaded compression members shall be modified by the appropriate reduction factor Q,

as provided in section of Slender

For Flanges projecting from rolled beams, columns or other compression members:

When 0.56 E / Fy < b / t < 1.03 E / Fy :

Qs = 1.415 0.74(b / t ) Fy / E (LRFD A-B5-5)

When b / t 1.03 / E / Fy :

Qs = 0.69 E /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (LRFD A-B5-6)

For stems of tees:

When 0.75 E / Fy < d / t < 1.03 E / Fy :

Qs = 1.908 1.22(d / t ) Fy / E (LRFD A-B5-9)

When d / t 1.03 / E / Fy :

Qs = 0.69 E /[ Fy (d / t ) 2 ] (LRFDA-B5-10)

Where,

d = width of unstiffened compression element as defined in section of (LRFD Section

B5.1) .in. (mm)

t = thickness of unstiffened element .in. (mm)

When the width thickness ratio of uniformly compressed stiffened elements exceeds

the non-compact limit r as stipulated in section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)

a reduced effective width, be, is used in computing the design properties of the section

containing the element.

b E

When, 1.49 /

t f

E 0.34 E

be = 1.91t 1 (LRFDA-B5-12)

f (b / t ) f

Otherwise,

be = b

Where,

b actual width of a stiffened compression element as defined in the

local buckling section (LRFD Section B5.1)

be reduced effective width in. (mm)

t element thickness in. (mm)

f computed compressive stress (axial plus bending stresses) in the

stiffened elements, based on the design properties as specified later in

this section (LRFD Appendix B5.3c).

If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f of the stiffened element

must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened element doesnt

exceed b Fcr, as defined in the latter design strength (LRFD Appendix B5.3d). Q = Qs

and c =0.85 or b Fy Qs with b =0.9 as applicable.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For axially loaded circular sections, with diameter-to-thickness ratios D/t greater than

0.11E/Fy:

0.038E 2

Q = Qa = + (LRFDA-B5-13)

Fy ( D / t ) 3

Where,

D outside diameter in. (mm)

t wall thickness. in. (mm)

Properties of sections shall be determined using the full cross section, except as

follows:

In computing the moment of inertia and section modulus of flexural members, the

effective width of uniformly compressed elements, as determined earlier in this section

(LRFD Appendix B5.2b), shall be used in determining effective cross-sectional

properties.

For stiffened elements of the cross section:

effective area

Qa = (LRFDA-B5-14)

actual area

For, unstiffened elements of the cross section, Qs is determined according to this

section (Appendix B5.2a)

For axially loaded compression members, the gross cross-sectional area and the

radius of gyration r shall be computed based on the actual cross section. The critical

stress Fcr shall be determined as follows:

For c Q 1.5

Q(0.658Qc ) Fy

2

Fcr = (LRFD A-B5-15)

0.877

Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD A-B5-16)

c 2

Where,

Q = Qs Qa (LRFD A-B5-17)

Cross sections comprised of only stiffened elements, Q = Qa, (Qs = 1.0)

Cross sections comprised of both stiffened and unstiffened elements, Q = Qs Qa

4.4.1 Limitations

Design and/or check apply to channels loaded in a plane passing through the shear

center parallel to the web or restrained against twisting at load points.

Design and/or check do not apply to members with yield stress greater than 65 Ksi.

Design and/or check do not apply to hybrid beams.

24

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.4.2.1 Single-Angle

For the limit state of local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression:

(LRFD Section 5.1.1)

E

When b / t 0.54 :

Fy

M n = 1.5 Fy S c (LRFD 5-1a)

E E

When 0.54 b / t 0.91 :

Fy Fy

b/t

M n = Fy S c 1.5 0.93 1 (LRFD 5-1b)

0.54 E / Fy

E

When b / t 0.91 :

Fy

M n = 1.34QFy S c (LRFD 5-1c)

Where,

b full width of angle leg with tip in compression

Q reduction factor per Equation 4-3c

Sc elastic section modulus to the tip in compression relative to bending axis

E modulus of elasticity

For the limit state of yielding when the tip of an angle leg is in tension (LRFD Section

5.1.2)

M n = 1 .5 M y (LRFD 5-2)

Where,

My yield moment about the axis of bending

When M ob M y

M n = (0.92 0.17M ob / M y )M ob (LRFD 5-3a)

When M ob My:

( )

M n = 1.92 1.17 M y / M ob M y 1.5M y (LRFD 5-3b)

Where Mob elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment

4.4.2.1.1 Equal Leg Angle

Equal-leg angle members, without lateral-torsional restraint, subjected to flexure

applied about one of the geometric axes, are permitted to be designed considering

only geometric axis bending.

The yield moment shall be based on use of 0.80 of the geometric axis section

modulus.

With maximum compression of the angle-leg tips, the nominal flexural strength Mn

shall be determined by the provisions in (LRFD Section 5.1.1 & Section 5.1.3) as

mentioned earlier, where,

25

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

M ob =

0.66Eb2tCb

(

1 + 0.78 lt / b2 ) 2

1 (LRFD 5-4)

l 2

Where,

L Unbraced length

Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

With maximum tension at the angle-leg tips, the nominal flexural strength shall be

determined according to (LRFD Section 5.1.2 and in Section 5.1.3) using Mob in (LRFD

5-4) with -1 being replaced by +1.

4.4.2.1.2 Unequal Leg Angle

Unequal-leg angle members without lateral-torsional restraint subjected to bending

about one of the geometric axes shall be designed using (LRFD Section 5.3).

The nominal flexural strength Mn about the major principal axis shall be determined by

the provisions in (LRFD Section 5.1.1) for the compression leg and in (LRFD Section

5.1.3) as mentioned earlier, where,

Cb Bw + 0.052(lt / rz ) + Bw

Iz

M ob = 4.9E

2 2

(LRFD 5-6)

l 2

Where,

4

Iz minor Principal axis moment of inertia, in

rz radius of gyration for minor principal axis, in

1

( )

Bw = z w2 + z 2 dA 2zo

Iw A

Bw special section property for unequal leg angles, +ve for short leg in

compression and ve for long leg in compression. If the long leg is in

compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member use the

ve values of Bw.

zo coordinate along z axis of the shear center with respect to centroid, in.

Iw major principle axis moment of inertia, in.4

The nominal design strength Mn about the minor principal axis shall be determined by

(LRFD Section 5.1.1) when leg tips are in compression and by (LRFD Section 5.1.2)

when the leg tips are in tension, as mentioned earlier.

The design flexural strength b Mn shall be determined as follows:

b = 0.9

4.4.2.2.1 Round HSS

p, r as defined earlier in Section of local buckling (LFRD for HSS Section 2.2),

For p

M n = M p = Fy Z (LRFD 5.1-1)

For p r

0.0207 E

Mn = + 1 Fy S (LRFD 5.1-2)

D/t F

y

For r 0.448 E / Fy

26

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

0.330 E

Mn = S (LRFD 5.1-3)

D/t

4.4.2.2.2 Rectangular HSS

p, r as defined earlier in Section of local buckling (LFRD for HSS Section 2.2),

For p

M n = M p = Fy Z (LRFD 5.1-4)

For p r

p

M n = M p (M p M r )

(LRFD 5.1-5)

r p

Where,

M r = Fy S

For r

M r = Fy S eff (LRFD 5.1-6)

Where, Seff is the effective section modulus with the effective width of the compression

flange taken,

E 0.381 E

be = 1.91t 1 b (LRFD 5.1-7)

Fy (b / t ) ) Fy

Lb is not limited for HSS structures designed by elastic analysis.

4.4.2.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Structure Sections)

The nominal flexural strength Mn is the lowest value obtained according to the limit

state in regards to: (a) yielding; (b) lateral-torsional buckling; (c) flange local buckling;

and (d) web local buckling.

4.4.2.3.1 Yielding

The design flexural strength of beams, determined by the limit state of yielding, is

bMn:

Where,

b = 0.9

Mn = Mp (LRFD F1-1)

Mp = plastic moment (= Fy Z 1.5M y ), kip-in. (N-mm)

My = moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic

stress distribution (= Fy S), kip-in. (N-mm)

4.4.2.3.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling

This limit state is only applicable to members subject to major axis bending. The

flexural design strength, determined by the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling, is

bMn

Where,

b = 0.9

Mn = nominal flexural strength is determined as follows:

Lb Lr )

Lb L p

M n = Cb M p (M p M r ) Mp (LRFD F1-2)

L L

r p

Where,

Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)

Lp limiting laterally unbraced length as defined below, in. (mm)

27

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Mr limiting buckling moment as defined below, kip-in. (N-mm)

Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

E

L p = 1.76ry (LRFD F1-4)

Fyf

The limiting laterally unbraced length Lr and the corresponding buckling moment Mr

shall be determined as follows:

ry X 1

Lr = 1 + 1 + X 2 FL

2

(LRFD F1-6)

FL

M r = FL S x (LRFD F1-7)

Where,

EGJA

X1 = (LRFD F1-8)

Sx 2

2

C S

X2 = 4 w x (LRFD F1-9)

I y GJ

3 3

Sx section modulus about major axis, in. (mm )

E modulus of elasticity of steel, ksi (MPa)

G shear modulus of elasticity of steel, ksi (MPa)

FL smaller of (Fyf - Fr) or Fyw , ksi (MPa)

Fr compressive residual stress in flange; 10 ksi (MPa) for rolled Shapes

Fyf yield stress of flange, ksi (MPa)

Fyw yield stress of web, ksi (MPa)

4 4

Iy moment of inertia about y-axis, in. (mm )

6 6

Cw warping constant, in. (mm )

Lb } Lr )

The nominal flexural strength is:

M n = M cr Mp (LRFD F1-12)

Where Mcr is the critical elastic moment, determined as follows:

2

E

M n = Cb EI y GJ + I y C w (LRFD F1-13)

Lb Lb

2

CS X 2 X1 X 2

= b x 1 1+

2(Lb / ry )

2

Lb / ry

For tees and double-angle beams loaded in the plane of symmetry:

M n = M cr =

EI y GJ

Lb

[B + 1 + B2 ] (LRFD F1-15)

Where,

M n 1.5M cr , Stems in tension

M n 1.0M cr , Stems in compression

B = (d / Lb ) I y / J (LRFD F1-16)

B is positive when the stem is in tension and negative when the stem is in

compression. If the tip of the stem is in compression anywhere along the unbraced

28

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.4.2.3.3 Flange Local Buckling

The nominal flexural strength Mn shall be determined as follows,

For p

Mn = M p (LRFD A-F1-1)

For, p r

p

M n = M p (M p M r ) (LRFD A-F1-3)

r p

For, } r

M n = M cr = SFcr M p (LRFD A-F1-4)

Where,

Mn nominal flexural strength, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mp Fy Z, plastic moment 1.5 Fy S, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mcr buckling moment, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mr limiting buckling moment (equal to Mcr when = r ), kip-in. (N-mm)

controlling slenderness parameter

minor axis slenderness ratio Lb / ry for lateral-torsional buckling

flange width-thickness ratio b /t for flange local buckling as defined in

section of local buckling

web depth-thickness ratio h /tw for web local buckling as defined in

section of local buckling

p Largest value of for which Mn = Mp

r Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic

Fcr critical stress, ksi (MPa)

Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

3 3

S section modulus, in. (mm )

Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)

ry radius of gyration about minor axis, in. (mm)

The parameters , p , r , Mr, Fcr for flange local buckling for different types of

shapes are mentioned below:

= b/t (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

E

p = 0.38 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

Fyf

E

r = 0.83 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

FL

M r = S x FL (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

0.69 E

Fcr = (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

2

= b/t (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

29

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

E

p = 0.38 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

Fyf

E

r = 0.83 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

FL

M r = S y Fy (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

0.69 E

Fcr = (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

2

4.4.2.3.4 Web Local Buckling

The nominal flexural strength Mn shall be determined as follows:

For p

Mn = M p (LRFD A-F1-1)

For p r

p

M n = M p (M p M r ) (LRFD A-F1-3)

r p

For, } r

See Section of Slender Web listed below (LRFD Appendix G).

Where,

Mn nominal flexural strength, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mp Fy Z, plastic moment _ 1.5 Fy S, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mcr buckling moment, kip-in. (N-mm)

Mr limiting buckling moment (equal to Mcr when = r ), kip-in. (N-mm)

Controlling slenderness parameter

Minor axis slenderness ratio Lb / ry for lateral-torsional buckling

flange width-thickness ratio b /t for flange local buckling as defined in

Section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)

web depth-thickness ratio h /tw for web local buckling as defined in

Section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)

p largest value of for which Mn = Mp

r largest value of for which buckling is inelastic

Fcr critical stress, ksi (MPa)

Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

3 3

S section modulus, in. (mm )

Lb is taken length of member in x- direction (Lux)

ry radius of gyration about minor axis, in. (mm)

The parameters , p , r , Mr, Fcr for flange local buckling of different types of

shapes are mentioned below:

= h / tw (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

E

p = 3.76 (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

Fyf

r is calculated in the local buckling section. (LRFD Section B5.1)

30

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Re=1.0 for non-hybrid girders (LRFD Appendix G2)

No further considerations.

4.4.2.3.5 Slender Web

The design flexural strength of plate girders with slender webs shall be bMn , where b

= 0.9 and Mn is the lower value obtained according to the limit states of tension-flange

yield and compression-flange buckling.

For tension-flange yield:

M n = S xt Re Fyt (LRFD A-G2-1)

For compression-flange yield:

M n = S xc RPG Re Fcr (LRFD A-G2-2)

Where,

ar hc

RPG = 1 5 .7 E 1 .0 (LRFD A-G2-3)

1200 + 2ar t Fcr

w

Re=1.0 for non-hybrid girders (LRFD Appendix G2)

ar ratio of web area to compression flange area ( 10 )

m ratio of web yield stress to flange yield stress or to Fcr

Fcr critical compression flange stress, ksi (MPa)

Fyt yield stress of tension flange, ksi (MPa)

3 3

Sxc section modulus referred to compression flange, in. (mm )

3 3

Sxt section modulus referred to tension flange, in. (mm )

hc twice the distance from the centroid to the nearest line of fasteners at the

compression flange or the inside of the face of the compression flange

when welds are used, in. (mm)

The critical stress Fcr to be used is dependent upon the slenderness parameters, ,p,

r and as follows:

For, p

p r

For,

1 p

Fcr = C b Fyf 1 Fyf (LRFD A-G2-5)

2 r p

For, r

C

Fcr = PG (LRFD A-G2-6)

2

In the foregoing, the slenderness parameter shall be determined for both the limit state

of lateral-torsional buckling and the limit state of flange local buckling; the slenderness

parameter, which results in the lowest value of Fcr, governs.

For the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling:

= Lb / rT (LRFD A-G2-7)

E

p = 1.76 (LRFD A-G2-8)

Fyf

E

r = 4.44 (LRFD A-G2-9)

FL

31

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For the limit state of Flange local buckling:

= b/t See Section of local buckling (LRFD Table B5.1)

E

p = 0.38 (LRFD A-G2-12)

Fyf

E

r = 1.35 (LRFD A-G2-13)

Fyf / K c

C PG = 26200 K c (LRFD A-G2-14)

Where,

K c = 4 / h / t w And 0.35 K c 0.763

For the limit state of Web local buckling:

The limit state of flexural web local buckling is not applicable.

4.5.1 Limitations

Design and/or check of shear stress is based on the assumption that no transverse

stiffeners are provided (i.e. distance between stiffeners equals to member length).

4.5.2.1 Single-Angle

4.5.2.1.1 Major Direction (Y-axis)

The design shear strength vVn , where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength defined

as follows.

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD 3-1)

The design shear strength vVn , where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength defined

as follows,

Vn = 0.6 Fyw A f (LRFD 3-1)

The design shear strength of unstiffened HSS vVn, where v=0.9 shall be determined

as follows:

4.5.2.2.1 Round HSS,

Vn = 0.6 Fcr Ag / 2 (LRFD 5.2-1)

Where Fcr is currently taken as 0.6Fy

4.5.2.2.2 Rectangular HSS

Vn = Fn Aw (LRFD 5.2-3)

For h / t 2.45 E / Fy

Fn = 0.6 Fy (LRFD 5.2-5)

32

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

2.45 E / Fy

Fn = 0.6 Fy (LRFD 5.2-6)

h/t

For, 3.07 E / Fy h / t 260

0.458 2 E

Vn = (LRFD 5.2-7)

(h / t )2

4.5.2.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Structure Sections)

4.5.2.3.1 For Major Direction (Y-axis)

The design shear strength of unstiffened webs, with h / t w 260 is vVn, where v=0.9

and Vn nominal shear strength defined as follows.

For, h / t w 2.45 E / Fyw

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD F2-1)

2.45 E / Fyw

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD F2-2)

h / tw

For, 3.07 E / Fyw h / t w 260

4.52 E

Vn = Aw (LRFD F2-3)

(h / t w ) 2

4.5.2.3.2 For Minor Direction (X-axis)

The design shear strength vVn, where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength, defined

as follows.

Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw ` (LRFD F2-1)

When a member is subject to the combined action of bending and axial force, it must

be designed to resist stresses and forces arising from both bending and axial actions.

While a tensile axial force may induce a stiffening effect on a member, a compressive

axial force tends to destabilize the member.

4.6.1 Single-Angle

The interaction of flexure and axial compression applicable to specific locations on the

cross section shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b):

Pu

For 0 .2

Pn

Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 6-1a)

Pn 9 b M nx b M ny

33

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Pu

For 0 .2

Pn

Pu M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 6-1b)

2Pn b M nx b M ny

Where,

Pu required compressive strength

Pn nominal compressive strength determined in accordance with Section 4

Mu required flexural strength

Mn nominal flexural strength for tension or compression in accordance with

(LRFD Section 5), as appropriate. Use section modulus for specific

location in the cross section and consider the type of stress.

= t resistance factor for compression 0.90

b resistance factor for flexure 0.90

W subscript relating symbol to major-axis bending

z subscript relating symbol to minor-axis bending

In Equations (LFRD 6-1a) and (LFRD 6-1b) when Mn represents the flexural strength

of the compression side, the corresponding Mu shall be multiplied by B1.

Cm

B1 = 1.0 (LRFD 6-2)

Pu

1

Pe1

Where,

Cm bending coefficient defined in AISC LRFD given from the user

Pe1 elastic buckling load for the braced frame defined in AISC LRFD

For members constrained to bend about a geometric axis with nominal flexural

strength determined per (LRFD Section 5.2.1), the radius of gyration r for Pe1 shall be

taken as the geometric axis value. The bending terms for the principal axes in

Equations (LRFD 6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b) shall be replaced by a single geometric axis

term.

Alternatively, for equal-leg angles without lateral-torsional restraints along the length

and with bending applied about one of the geometric axes, the provisions of (LRFD

Section 5.2.2) are permitted for the required and design bending strength. If (LRFD

Section 5.2.2) is used for Mn , the radius of gyration about the axis of bending r for Pe1

shall be taken as the geometric axis value of r divided by 1.35 in the absence of a

more detailed analysis. The bending terms for the principal axes in Equations (LRFD

6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b) shall be replaced by a single geometric axis term.

The interaction of flexure and axial tension shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 6-1a)

and (LRFD 6-1b) where,

Pu required tensile strength

Pn nominal tensile strength determined in accordance with Section 2

Mu required flexural strength

Mn nominal flexural strength for tension or compression in accordance with

(LRFD Section5), as appropriate .Use section modulus for specific

location in the cross section and consider the type of stress.

t resistance factor for tension 0.90

b resistance factor for flexure 0.90

For members subjected to bending about a geometric axis, the required bending

strength evaluation shall be in accordance with LRFD Sections 6.1.2 and 6.1.3.

Second-order effects due to axial tension and bending interaction are permitted to be

considered in the determination of Mu for use in Formulas (LRFD 6-1a and 6-1b). In

lieu of using formulas (LRFD 6-1a and 6-1b), a more detailed analysis of the

34

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

The interaction of flexure and axial compression applicable to specific locations on the

cross section shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 7.1-1) and (LRFD 7.1-2):

Pu

For 0.2

Pn

Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 7.1-1)

Pn 9 b M nx b M ny

P

For u 0.2

Pn

Pu M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 7.1-2)

2Pn b M nx b M ny

Where,

Pu required axial tensile or compressive strength, kips (N)

Pn nominal tensile or compressive strength determined in accordance with

(LRFD Sections 3.1 or 4.2), kips (N)

Mu required flexural strength determined in accordance

with (LRFD Section C1), kip-in. (N-mm).

Mn nominal flexural strength determined in accordance

with (LRFD Section 5.1), kip-in. (N-mm)

x subscript relating symbol to strong-axis bending

y subscript relating symbol to strong-axis bending

= t from Section 3.1 for tension

0.85 for compression

b 0.90

For biaxial flexure of round HSS that are laterally unbraced along their length and with

end conditions such that the effective length factor K is the same for any direction of

bending, the design is permitted to be based upon a single resultant moment Mur

M ur = M ux + M uy

2 2

(LRFD 7.1-3)

Pu

For 0.2

Pn

Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD H1-1a)

Pn 9 b M nx b M ny

P

For, u 0.2

Pn

Pu M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD H1-1b)

2Pn b M nx b M ny

Where,

35

EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Pn nominal tensile strength determined in accordance with (LRFD Section

D1), kips (N)

Mu required flexural strength determined in accordance

with (LRFD Section C1), kip-in. (N-mm)

Mn nominal flexural strength determined in accordance

with (LRFD Section F1), kip-in. (N-mm)

x subscript relating symbol to strong axis bending

y subscript relating symbol to weak axis bending

= t resistance factor for tension (see LRFD Section D1)

b resistance factor for flexure = 0.90

The interaction of flexure and compression in symmetric shapes shall be limited by

Equations (LRFD H1-1a) and (LRFD H1-1b)

Where,

Pu required compressive strength, kips (N)

Pn nominal compressive strength determined in accordance

with (LRFD Section E2 ) ,kips (N)

= c resistance factor for compression = 0.85 (see LRFD Section E2)

b resistance factor for flexure = 0.90

36

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