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EnR-Steel

Version 3.0

Technical Reference

EnR Soft A division of the EnR Solutions Group


Copyright March 2003
EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

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First Edition, First Printing, March 2003


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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

DISCLAIMER
Considerable time, effort, and expense have gone into the development
and documentation of EnR-Steel. The program has been thoroughly
tested and used. In using the program, however, the user accepts and
understands that no warranty is expressed or implied by the developers
or the distributors on the accuracy or reliability of the program.

This program is a practical tool for the design of steel structures.


However, the user must thoroughly read the manuals and clearly
recognize the aspects of design that the programs algorithms do not
address.

The user must understand the assumptions of the programs and must
independently verify the results.
EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1
2 GENERAL PROVISIONS ............................................................ 2
2.1 Gross Area................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Effective Net Area ........................................................................................ 2
2.3 Limiting Slenderness Ratio .......................................................................... 2
3 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-ASD89 .......................... 3
3.1 General ........................................................................................................ 3
3.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections ............................................................. 3
3.1.2 Slender-Element Compression Sections............................................... 4
3.2 Allowable Stress in Tension......................................................................... 4
3.2.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 4
3.2.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 4
3.3 Allowable Stress in Compression................................................................. 4
3.3.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 5
3.3.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 5
3.4 Allowable Stress in Bending ........................................................................ 8
3.4.1 Limitations ............................................................................................. 8
3.4.2 Deflection Criterion................................................................................ 8
3.4.3 Allowable Stress.................................................................................... 8
3.5 Allowable Stress in Shear .......................................................................... 14
3.5.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 14
3.5.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................. 14
3.6 Combined Stresses.................................................................................... 14
3.6.1 Axial Tension and Bending.................................................................. 15
3.6.2 Axial Compression and Bending ......................................................... 15
4 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-LRFD99 ...................... 16
4.1 General ...................................................................................................... 16
4.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections ........................................................... 16
4.1.2 Slender Compression Elements .......................................................... 17
4.2 Nominal Tensile Strength........................................................................... 18
4.2.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 18
4.2.2 Tension Capacity................................................................................. 18
4.3 Nominal Compressive Strength ................................................................. 18
4.3.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 18
4.3.2 Compression Capacity ........................................................................ 19
4.4 Nominal Strength in Bending ..................................................................... 24
4.4.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 24
4.4.2 Bending Capacity ................................................................................ 25
4.5 Nominal Shear Strength............................................................................. 32
4.5.1 Limitations ........................................................................................... 32
4.5.2 Allowable Stress.................................................................................. 32
4.6 Combined Stresses.................................................................................... 33
4.6.1 Single-Angle ........................................................................................ 33
4.6.2 Steel Hollow Structural Sections ......................................................... 35
4.6.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Sections)............ 35
EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Lists of Tables
Table 1 ASD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements...............4
Table 2 LRFD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements ..........17
EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

1 INTRODUCTION
EnR-Steel designs steel structures in accordance with both Allowable Stress Design
(ASD 1989) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD 1999). EnR-Steel
allows the user to design or check standard sections subjected to different types of
loading. This manual presents the main assumptions that are included in the program.
Limitations, if any, of the use of steel design in EnR-Steel are shown.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

2 GENERAL PROVISIONS
This chapter presents general provisions, which are taken into consideration in steel
design utilizing EnR-Steel. These provisions are applicable for both the Allowable
Stress Design (ASD) and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methods
unless mentioned otherwise.

2.1 Gross Area


In EnR-Steel the gross area Ag is taken from the AISC tables (LRFD 1999).

2.2 Effective Net Area


EnR-Steel calculates the effective net area by multiplying the gross area by a factor,
which is greater than zero and is less than 1.0, given by the user.

2.3 Limiting Slenderness Ratio


Under compression (Kx Lux / rx and Ky Luy / ry) 200
Under tension (Kx Lux / rx and Ky Luy / ry) 300
For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration is used instead of rx, ry
Where,
Lux length of the member in the x direction
Luy length of the member in the y direction
rx radius of gyration in the x direction
ry radius of gyration in the y direction
rmin minimum radius of gyration
Kx buckling coefficient in the x direction
Ky buckling coefficient in the y direction

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-ASD89

3.1 General

3.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections

Steel sections are classified as compact, non-compact, or slender-element sections.


For a section to qualify as compact, its flanges must be continuously connected to the
web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not
exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios in table 1. Steel sections that do not qualify
as compact sections are classified as non-compact sections, if the width-thickness
ratios of the compression elements do not exceed the values shown for non-compact
in table 1. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds the latter applicable
value, the section is classified as a slender-element section.
For unstiffened elements, which are supported along only one edge, parallel to the
direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:
 For flanges of I-shaped members and tees, the width b is half the full-flange
width
 For legs of angles and flanges of channels and zees, the width b is the full
nominal dimension
 For stems of tees, d is taken as the full nominal depth
For stiffened elements, i.e. which are supported along two edges parallel to the
direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:
 For webs of rolled, h is the clear distance between flanges less the fillet or
corner radius at each flange
 For webs of rolled, d is the full nominal depth
 For flanges of rectangular hollow structural sections, the width b is the clear
distance between webs less the inside corner radius on each side. The width
may be taken as the total section width minus three times the thickness
 For webs of rectangular hollow structural sections, the width b is the clear
distance between flanges less the inside radius on each side. The width may
be taken as the total section depth minus three times the thickness

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.1.2 Slender-Element Compression Sections

Table 1 ASD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements


Width Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
Description of Element Thickness
Ratio Compact Non-Compact
Flanges of I-shaped rolled beams
and channels in flexure and flanges b/t 65 / Fy 95 / Fy
of tees

Stems of tees D/t NA 127 / Fy


Unstiffened elements simply
supported along one edge, such as
legs, single-angle, legs of double-
b/t NA 76 / Fy
angle
Flanges of hollow structure sections
of uniform thickness subjected to b/t 190 / Fy 238 / Fy
bending or compression
All other uniformly compressed
b/t
stiffened elements, i.e. supported
h/tw
NA 253 / Fy
along two edges
For Fa / Fy 0.16

640 f
D/tw
1 3.74 a
Webs in combined flexural and axial
Fy Fy -------------
compression
For Fa / Fy } 0.16
h/tw
257 / Fy
760 / 0.6 Fy

Circular hollow sections 3300 / Fy


In axial compression D/t
In flexural -------------
3300 / Fy

3.2 Allowable Stress in Tension


This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial tension caused by forces
acting through the centroidal axis.

3.2.1 Limitations

Design and/or check does not apply to members subjected to fatigue, threaded rods,
pin connected members and eye bars.

3.2.2 Allowable Stress

According to the ASD Specification the allowable stress in tension shall neither exceed
0.60 of the yield stress on the gross area nor 0.50 of the ultimate stress on the
effective net area.

3.3 Allowable Stress in Compression


This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial compression caused by
forces acting through the centroidal axis.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.3.1 Limitations

Design and/or check does not apply to members subjected to fatigue

3.3.2 Allowable Stress

The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural
buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The allowable compressive stresses are
determined according to the following subsections.

3.3.2.1 Flexural-Buckling
The computed compressive stress, Fa in a compression member shall not exceed its
allowable value given by,
(KL / r)2
[1 2
]Fy
2Cc
, if Kl / r Cc
5 3(Kl / r) (Kl / r)3
+ 3
3 8Cc 8Cc (ASD E2-1 & E2-2)
Fa =

12 2 E
, if Kl / r > Cc
23(Kl / r)2





Where,
KL/r slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment
K effective length factor of the compression member
L unbraced member length
r radius of gyration of the cross-section
E modulus of elasticity
Cc slenderness ratio that demarcates inelastic members buckling from
elastic member buckling. Cc = (2 2 E / Fy )
KL/r should be evaluated for both buckling axes x, y and the larger value must be used
in the design process.

3.3.2.2 Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling


Singly symmetric and unsymmetric columns, such as angles or tee-shaped columns,
and doubly symmetric columns, may require taking into consideration flexural-torsional
and torsional buckling.
ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for
the calculation of Fe. EnR-Steel performs checks based in the 1999 version of the
AISC-LRFD that replaced the 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code.
Appendix E3 of the LRFD specifications (AISC, 1999) may be used to establish the
effect of flexural-torsional buckling. The critical elastic buckling stress Fe can be
obtained directly from the equations in LRFD Appendix E3 the effective slenderness is
then given by,
KL E
= (ASD C-E2-2)
r e Fe
The allowable stress is then obtained from Equations (ASD E2-1 or ASD E2-2) as
mentioned above.

EnR-Steel deals with single angles from LRFD Specifications for Single Angle

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Members (LRFD C4), hollow structure sections HSS from LRFD Specifications, steel
hollow structure sections from LRFD Specifications and with steel hollow structure
sections from LRFD Specifications for steel hollow structure sections.

3.3.2.3 Slender Compression Elements


Axially loaded members subjected to compression, which have a width thickness ratio
in excess of the applicable non-compact value, shall be proportioned according to the
following:
3.3.2.3.1 Unstiffened Compression Elements
The allowable stress of unstiffened compression elements whose width thickness ratio
exceeds the applicable non-compact value shall be subjected to a reduction factor Qs.
The value of Qs shall be determined by equations (ASD A-B5-1) through (ASD A-B5-
6), as applicable. The allowable stress of axially loaded compression member shall be
modified by the appropriate reduction factor Q as will be shown later.
For single angles:
When, 76.0 / F y < b / t < 155 / Fy :
Qs = 1.340 0.00447(b / t ) Fy (ASD A-B5-1)

When, b / t 155 / Fy :
Qs = 15,500 /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-2)
For other compression members, and for projecting elements of compression flanges
of beams and girders:
When, 95.0 / Fy / k c < b / t < 195 / Fy / k c :
Qs = 1.293 0.00309(b / t ) Fy / kc (ASD A-B5-3)

When, b / t 195 / Fy / k c :
Qs = 26,200k c /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-4)
For stems of tees:
When, 127 / F y < b / t < 176 / Fy :
Qs = 1.908 0.00715(b / t ) Fy (ASD A-B5-5)

When b / t 176 / Fy :
Qs = 20,000 /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (ASD A-B5-6)
Where:
b width, unstiffened compression element (Classification of Steel Sections)
t thickness of unstiffened element
Fy specified minimum yield stress
k c = 4.05 /(h / t ) 0.46 If h/t > 70, otherwise k c = 1.0
3.3.2.3.2 Stiffened Compression Elements
When the width thickness ratio of uniformly compressed stiffened elements exceed the
non-compact limit, a reduced effective width, be, is used in computing the design
properties of the section containing the element.
253t 44.3
be = ( )[1 ]b (ASD A-B5-8)
f (b / t ) f
Where,
b actual width of a stiffened compression element (as defined in
Classification of Steel Sections)
be reduced width
t element thickness

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

f computed compressive stress (axial plus bending stresses) in the


stiffened elements, based on the design properties.

If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f for the stiffened
element must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened
element does not exceed FaQs or FbQs, as applicable.

For axially loaded circular sections:


Members with diameter-to-thickness ratios D/t greater than 3,300/Fy shall not exceed:
662
Fa = + 0.40 Fy (ASD A-B5-9)
D/t
Where,
D outside diameter, in.
t wall thickness, in.
3.3.2.3.3 Design Properties
Properties of sections shall be determined using the full cross section, except as
follows:

In computing the moment of inertia and section modulus of flexural members, the
effective width of uniformly compressed elements, as mentioned above shall be used
in determining effective cross-sectional properties.
For stiffened elements of the cross section:
effective area
Qa = (ASD A-B5-10)
actual area
For unstiffened elements of the cross section, Qs is determined from Unstiffened
Compression Elements mentioned above.

For axially loaded compression members the gross cross-sectional area and the
radius of gyration r shall be computed based on the actual cross section
The allowable stress, for axially loaded compression members containing unstiffened
or stiffened elements shall not exceed:
( Kl / r ) 2
Q[1 ]Fy
2C c '2
Fa = (ASD A-B5-11)
5 3( Kl / r ) ( Kl / r ) 3
+
3 8Cc' 8C c '3
When Kl/r is less than Cc where,
2 2 E
Cc ' =
QFy
And,
Q = Qs Qa
Cross sections composed entirely of unstiffened elements
Q = Qs, i.e. (Qa =1.0)
Cross sections composed entirely of stiffened elements
Q = Qa, i.e. (Qs =1.0)
Cross sections composed of both stiffened and unstiffened elements
Q = QsQa
When Kl/r exceeds Cc:
12 2 E
Fa = (ASD A-B5-12)
23(Kl / r )
2

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.4 Allowable Stress in Bending

3.4.1 Limitations

Design and/or check apply to channels loaded in a plane passing through the shear
center parallel to the web or restrained against twisting at load points.
Design and/or check does not apply to members with yield stress greater than 65 Ksi.
Design and/or check does not apply to hybrid beams

3.4.2 Deflection Criterion

EnR-Steel does not perform any checks for deflections; the user must separately
undergo deflection checks.

3.4.3 Allowable Stress

The allowable stress depends on the axis of bending, geometric shape of cross
section (I, C-shape, etc) and the compactness of the section.

3.4.3.1 I - Shaped sections


3.4.3.1.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)
Members with compact sections:
For members with compact sections, as defined earlier in section of local buckling
(ASD Section B5.1), they are symmetrical about and loaded in the plane of their minor
axis. Provided that the flanges are connected continuously to the web or webs and the
laterally unsupported length of the compression flange Lb does not exceed the value of
Lc, as given,
76b f 20000
Lc = min
Fy
and
(d / Af )Fy (ASD F1-2)

Where,
Lb is the length of member in x-direction (Lux)

The allowable stress is Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD F1-1)

Members with non-compact sections:

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For members meeting the requirements mentioned above except that their flanges are
non-compact (excluding built-up members),
bf
The allowable stress is Fb = Fy 0.79 0.002 Fy (ASD F1-3)
2t f
For members with a non-compact section as defined earlier in section of local buckling
(ASD Section B5.1), not included above,
The allowable stress is Fb = 0.6 Fy (ASD F1-5)
Members with compact or non-compact sections with unbraced length greater than Lc:

For compact or non-compact sections as defined in section of Local Buckling (ASD


Section B5.1), and with unbraced lengths greater than Lc as calculated earlier, the
allowable stress Fb is calculated as follows,
l 102 *103 C b
For,
rT Fy
Fb = 0.6 Fy
102 *103 C b l 510 *103 Cb

Fy rT Fy
For,
2 Fy (l / rT )
2

Fb = 3 Fy 0.6 Fy (ASD F1-6)


3 1530 * 10 C
b

l 510 *103 Cb
For,
rT Fy
170 *103 Cb
Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-7)
(l / rT )2
For any value of l / rT , Fb should not be greater than,
12 *103 Cb
Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-8)
ld / A f
Where,
l length of the member in the x direction (Lux)
2
Af area of the compression flange, in
rT radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange
and 1/3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web
Cb bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3
Members with Slender sections:
For slender sections it is designed as a non-compact section. Additional
considerations are taken when the web depth-to-thickness ratio exceeds non-compact
limits. The previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows:
Fb Fb R pg Re
'
(ASD G2-1)
Where,
Fb applicable bending stress given earlier as applicable, Ksi
Aw h 760
Rpg = 1.00 0.0005
Af t F
b
Re = 1.0 (non-hybrid girders, Re =1.0)

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

If the flange is slender:


Fb Qs (0.6 Fy )
'

Where Qs is defined earlier in section of local buckling


3.4.3.1.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)

3.4.3.1.2.1 Members with compact sections


Fb = 0.75Fy (ASD F2-1)

3.4.3.1.2.2 Members with non-compact sections


bf
Fb = Fy 1.075 0.005 Fy (ASD F2-3)
2t f

3.4.3.1.2.3 Members with slender sections


bf
Fb = Fy 1.075 0.005 Fy (ASD F2-3)
2t f

3.4.3.2 C Shaped sections


3.4.3.2.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)
Members with compact sections:
For members with compact sections as defined earlier in section of local buckling
(ASD Section B5.1) they are symmetrical about, and loaded in, the plane of their minor
axis. Provided that the flanges are connected continuously to the web or webs and the
laterally unsupported length of the compression flange Lb does not exceed the value of
Lc, as given,
76b f 20000
Lc = min
Fy
and
(d / Af )Fy (ASD F1-2)

Where,
Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)

The allowable stress is Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD F1-1)

Members with non-compact sections:


For members meeting the requirements mentioned above except that their flanges are
non-compact (excluding built-up members),
bf
The allowable stress is Fb = Fy 0.79 0.002 Fy (ASD F1-3)
2t f

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For members with a non-compact section as defined earlier in section of local buckling
(ASD Section B5.1), not included above,
The allowable stress is Fb = 0.6 Fy (ASD F1-5)
Members with compact or non-compact sections with unbraced length greater than Lc:
For compact or non-compact sections as defined in section of Local Buckling (ASD
Section B5.1), and with unbraced lengths greater than Lc as calculated earlier, the
allowable stress Fb is calculated as follows,
12 *103 Cb
Fb = 0.6Fy (ASD F1-8)
ld / A f
Where,
L length of the member in the x direction (Lux)
2
Af area of the compression flange, in
rT radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1/3
the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web
Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

Members with Slender sections:


For slender sections, they are designed as non-compact sections. Additional
considerations are taken when the web depth-to-thickness ratio exceeds non-compact
limits. The previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows:
Fb Fb R pg Re
'
(ASD G2-1)
Fb is the applicable bending stress given earlier as applicable, Ksi.
Aw h 760
Rpg = 1.00 0.0005
Af t F
b
Re = 1.0 (non-hybrid girders, Re =1.0)
If the flange is slender:
Fb Qs (0.6 Fy )
'

Qs is defined earlier in the local buckling section.


3.4.3.2.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)
Fb = 0.60Fy

3.4.3.3 T Shaped sections & double angles


3.4.3.3.1 Strong Bending Axis (X-axis)
Members with Compact and Non-Compact Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F2-2)
Members with Slender Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy Qs
3.4.3.3.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y-axis)
Members with Compact and Non-Compact Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F2-2)
Members with Slender Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy Qs

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

3.4.3.4 Rectangular HSS


3.4.3.4.1 Strong & Weak Bending Axis (X&Y-axis)
Members with Compact Sections:
In case of members bent about their strong or weak axes and members with compact
sections, they are treated as defined in the local buckling section (ASD Section B5). In
case of depth not greater than 6 times the width and a flange thickness not greater
than 2 times the web thickness in addition to unsupported length Lb checks which the
user should separately investigate these limitations and use equation (ASD F3-2) if
applicable,
Fb = 0.66Fy (ASD F3-1)
Members with Non-Compact Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F3-3)
Members with Slender sections
Fb Q(0.6Fy )
'

Q is defined earlier in the local buckling section.

3.4.3.5 Pipe Sections and Round HSS


3.4.3.5.1 Strong & Weak Bending Axis (X&Y-Axis)
Members with Compact Sections
For members bent about their strong or weak axes, members with compact sections
as defined in section of local buckling (ASD Section B5),
Fb = 0.66Fy (ASD F3-2)
Members with Non-Compact Sections
Fb = 0.60Fy (ASD F3-3)
Members with Slender sections
Fb Q(0.6Fy )
'

Q is defined earlier in the local buckling section.

3.4.3.6 Single Angle


To prevent local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression, an angle leg
shall be considered in compression (ASD Section 5.1.1)
When, b / t 65 / Fy :
Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD 5-1a)

When, 65 / Fy  b / t 76 / Fy :
Fb = 0.60 Fy (ASD 5-1b)

When, b / t w 76 / Fy :
Fb = 0.66QFy (ASD 5-1c)
For the tip of an angle leg in tension (ASD Section 5.1.2)
Fb = 0.66 Fy (ASD 5-2)
To prevent lateral-torsional buckling, the maximum compression stress shall not
exceed (ASD Section 5.1.3)
When, Fob Fy
Fb = (0.55 0.10Fob / Fy )Fob (ASD 5-3a)
When, Fob  Fy :

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

(
Fb = 0.95 0.50 Fy / Fob Fy 0.66Fy) (ASD 5-3b)
Where,
Fb allowable bending stress at leg tip, Ksi
Fob elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress, as will be defined latter as
applicable, Ksi
Fy yield stress, Ksi
3.4.3.6.1 Equal Leg Angle
Equal leg members without lateral-torsional restraint subjected to bending about one
of the geometric axes may be designed considering only geometric axis bending as
shown.

3.4.3.6.1.1 Strong & Weak Axis Bending (X,Y-axis)


The calculated compressive stress Fb, using the geometric axis section modulus, is
increased by 25%.
For the angle leg tips in compression the allowable bending stress is determined
according to Equations (ASD 5-3a, ASD 5-3b as applicable) where,

Fob =
85900
(
Cb 1 + 0.78 lt / b 2 )
2
1 (ASD 5-4)
(l / b)
2

If the leg tips are in tension, Fb is determined as mentioned above according to (ASD
5-2)
3.4.3.6.2 Unequal Leg Angle
Unequal leg members without lateral-torsional restraint under bending about one of
the geometric axes are designed using principal axis bending (ASD Section 5.3).

3.4.3.6.2.1 Strong Bending Axis (X -axis)


The allowable bending stress is determined according to Equations (ASD 5-1a through
ASD 5-1c as applicable) and Equations (ASD 5-3a, ASD 5-3b as applicable) where,

Cb Bw + 0.052(lt / rz ) + Bw
143100I z
Fob =
2 2
(ASD 5-6)
Swl 2

Where,
3
Sw section modulus of the tip of leg in compression, in
4
Iz minor Principal axis moment of inertia, in
rz radius of gyration for minor principal axis, in
1
( )
Bw = z w2 + z 2 dA 2zo ,
Iw A
Special section property for unequal leg angles is +ve for short leg in compression and
ve for long leg in compression.

If the long leg is in compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member
use the ve values of Bw
zo coordinate along z axis of the shear center with respect to centroid, in.
4
Iw Major principle axis moment of inertia, in.

3.4.3.6.2.2 Weak Bending Axis (Y -axis)


For the angle leg tips in compression, the allowable bending stress is determined
according to Equations (ASD 5-1a through ASD 5-1c as applicable)
For the leg tips are in tension Fb is determined according to (ASD 5-2)

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3.5 Allowable Stress in Shear

3.5.1 Limitations

Design and/or check of shear stress is based on the assumption of no transverse


stiffeners are provided (i.e. distance between stiffeners equals to member length)

3.5.2 Allowable Stress

3.5.2.1 Major Direction (Y-axis)


3.5.2.1.1 I-Shaped, C-shaped and Rectangular HSS sections
The allowable shear stress Fv is
For, h / t w 380 / Fy
Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

For, h / t w > 380 / Fy


Fy
Fv = C v 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -2)
2.89
Where,
45000 K v
Cv = When Cv is less than 0.8
Fy (h / t w )
2

190 Kv
= When Cv is more than 0.8
h / tw Fy
5.34
K v = 4.00 + When a/h is less than 1.0
(a / h )2
4.00
= 5.34 + When a/h is more than 1.0
(a / h )2
a clear distance between transverse stiffeners, Currently is taken as member
length ,in.
h clear distance between flanges, in.
3.5.2.1.2 Single-Angles, Double-Angles, Pipes , Round HSS and Tees
The allowable shear stress Fv is
Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

3.5.2.2 For Minor Direction (X-axis)


The allowable shear stress Fv for all sections is taken as
Fv = 0.4 Fy (ASD F4 -1)

3.6 Combined Stresses


When a member is subject to the combined action of bending and axial force, it must
be designed to resist stresses and forces arising from both bending and axial actions.
While a tensile axial force may induce a stiffening effect on a member, a compressive
axial force tends to destabilize the member.

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3.6.1 Axial Tension and Bending

Members subjected to both axial tension and bending stresses shall be proportioned
at all points along their length to satisfy the following equation,
f a f bx f by
+ + 1.0 (ASD H2-1)
Ft Fbx Fby
Where,
fb computed bending tensile stress
fa computed axial tensile stress
Fb the allowable bending stress as defined earlier
Ft the governing allowable tensile stress as defined earlier

3.6.2 Axial Compression and Bending

Members subjected to both axial compression and bending stresses shall be


proportioned to satisfy the following requirements:
For, f a / Fa } 0.15
fa C mx f bx C my f by
+ + 1.0 (ASD H1-1)
Fa fa f
1 ' Fbx 1 a F
F F ' by
ex ey

fa f f by
+ bx + 1 .0 (ASD H1-2)
0.6 Fy Fbx Fby
For, f a / Fa 0.15
fa f f by
+ bx + 1 .0 (ASD H1-3)
Fa Fbx Fby
In Equations (ASD H1-1), (ASD H1-2), (ASD H1-3), the subscripts x and y, combined
with subscripts b, m and e indicate the axis of bending about which a particular stress
or design property applies, and,
fa is the axial compressive stress that is permitted if axial forces alone existed, Ksi
fb is the compressive bending stress that is permitted if bending moment alone existed
12 2 E
Fe ' =
23(Kl b / rb )
2

Where,
E Euler stress divided by a factor of safety, Ksi
fa computed axial stress , Ksi
fb computed compressive bending stress at the considered point, Ksi
Cm coefficient where its value is proposed by the user

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4 DESIGN AND/OR CHECK WITH AISC-LRFD99

4.1 General

4.1.1 Classification of Steel Sections

Steel sections are classified as compact, non-compact, or slender-element sections.


For a section to qualify as compact its flanges must be continuously connected to the
web or webs and the width-thickness ratios of its compression elements must not
exceed the limiting width-thickness ratios p in table 2. If the width-thickness ratio of
one or more compression elements exceeds p but does not exceed r the section is
non-compact. If the width-thickness ratio of any element exceeds r, the section is
referred to as a slender-element compression section.
For unstiffened elements, which are supported along only one edge parallel to the
direction of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:
 For flanges of I-shaped members and tees, the width b is half the full-flange
width, bf.
 For legs of angles and flanges of channels, the width b is the full nominal
dimension.
 For stems of tees, d is taken as the full nominal depth.
For stiffened elements, which are supported along two edges parallel to the direction
of the compression force, the width shall be taken as follows:
 For webs of rolled sections, h is the clear distance between flanges less the
fillet or corner radius at each flange; hc is twice the distance from the centroid
to the inside face of the compression flange less the fillet or corner radius.
 For round HSS, =D/t, where D is the outside diameter and t is the wall
thickness.
 For flanges of rectangular HSS, =b/t, where b is the clear distance between
webs less the inside corner radius at each web and t is the wall thickness. it
is permitted to use as the overall flange width B minus three times the wall
thickness t.
 For webs of rectangular HSS, =h/t, where h is the clear distance between
flanges less the inside corner radius at each flange and t is the wall
thickness. it is permitted to use as the overall web depth h minus three times
the wall thickness t.

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4.1.2 Slender Compression Elements

Table 2 LRFD Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Compression Elements


Width Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
Description of Element Thickness
Ratio
p (compact) r (non-compact)

Flanges of I-shaped rolled


beams and channels in b/t 0.38 ( E / Fy ) 0.83 E /( Fy 10)
flexure
Flanges of I-shaped
sections in pure
compression, angles in
continues contact and
b/t NA 0.56 ( E / Fy )
flanges of channels in pure
compression

legs of double angle struts


with separators, flanges of b/t NA 0.45 ( E / Fy )
tees

Stems of tees d/t NA 0.75 ( E / Fy )

For Pu / b Py 0.125
2.75 Pu
3.76 E / Fy 1
P 0.74 Pu
b y
5.70 E / F y 1
b Py
Webs in combined flexural
Unstiffened Elements

and axial compression


h/tw For Pu / b Py  0.125
1.12
P
E / Fy 2.33 u
b Py

1.49 E / Fy
All other uniformly
compressed stiffened b/t
elements, i.e., supported h/tw
NA 1.49 ( E / Fy )
along two edges
For Pipe sections D / t [a]
In axial compression N/A. 0.114 E / Fy
In flexure 0.0714 E / Fy 0.309 E / Fy
b/t N/A
For Single angles 0.446 ( E / Fy )
Round HSS D/t [a]
For axial compression N/A. 0.114 E / Fy
For flexure 0.0714 E / Fy 0.309 E / Fy
b/t or h/t
Rectangle HSS wall 1.40 E / Fy
For uniform compression 1.12 E / Fy

Rectangle HSS wall For Pu / b Py 0.125


as a web in combined
flexure and axial h/t 2.75 Pu
compression 3.76 E / Fy 1
P
b y

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

0.74 Pu
For Pu / b Py  0.125 5.70 E / F y 1
b Py
1.12
P
E / Fy 2.33 u
b Py

1.49 E / Fy

4.2 Nominal Tensile Strength


This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial tension caused by forces
acting through the centroidal axis.

4.2.1 Limitations

Design and/or check does not apply to members subjected to fatigue, threaded rods,
pin connected members and eye bars. In addition, effective net area is taken as a ratio
of the gross area.

4.2.2 Tension Capacity

Tension members are designed to resist a factored axial force of Pu that satisfies the
condition of t Pn Pu
For yielding in the gross section:
t Pn = 0.9 [Fy Ag] (LRFD D1-1)
Fracture in effective net section
t Pn = 0.75 [Fu Ae] (LRFD D1-2)
Where,
t resistance factor for tension
2 2
Ag gross cross-section area of the member, in (mm )
2 2
Ae effective net area, in (mm )
Pn nominal axial strength, kips (N)
Fy specified minimum yield stress of the material, ksi (MPa)
Fu specified minimum tensile strength, ksi (MPa)

4.3 Nominal Compressive Strength


This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial compression caused by
forces acting through the centroidal axis.

4.3.1 Limitations

Design and/or check do not apply to members subjected to fatigue.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.3.2 Compression Capacity

4.3.2.1 For Single-Angle


The design strength of compression members shall be cPn
c = 0.90
Pn =AgFcr
Fcr shall be determined as follows:
For c Q 1.5
Q(0.658Qc ) Fy
2
Fcr = (LRFD 4-1)

For c Q > 1.5


0.877
Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD 4-2)
c 2
Where,
KL
c slenderness parameter, c = ( Fy / E )
r
Fy specified minimum yield stress of steel
Q reduction factor for local buckling
The reduction factor Q shall be:
b
When, 0.466 ( E / Fy )
t
Q = 1.0 (LRFD 4.3a)
b
When, 0.466 ( E / Fy ) < < 0.910 E / Fy
t
b
Q = 1.34 0.761 ( Fy / E ) (LRFD 4.3b)
t
b
When, 0.910 E / Fy
t
0.534 E
Q= (LRFD 4.3c)
b
Fy ( ) 2
t
Where,
b full width of longest angle leg
t thickness of angle

4.3.2.2 For Steel Hollow Structural Sections


The design strength for flexural buckling of compression members is c Pn.
c = 0.85
Pn =Fcr Ag (LRFD 4.2-1)
Fcr shall be determined as follows:
For c Q 1.5
Q(0.658Qc ) Fy
2
Fcr = (LRFD 4.2-2)

For
c Q > 1.5
0.877
Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD 4.2-3)
c 2
Where,

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

KL
c = slenderness parameter, c = ( Fy / E )
r
The reduction factor Q shall be:
For r in (See table 2)
Q = 1 .0
For  r in (See table 2)
(I) For round HSS with < 0.448E/Fy
0.0379 E 2
Q= + (LRFD 4.3a)
Fy (D / t ) 3
(II) For rectangular HSS
effective area
Q= (LRFD 4.3c)
Ag
Where the effective area is equal to the summation of the effective areas of the
sides using,
E 0.381 E
be = 1.91t 1 b
f (b / t ) ) f
With f = Pu / Ag , For Pu =0,

4.3.2.3 Other Sections


The design strength of compression members shall be the minimum value obtained
from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The design strength is
determined according to the following subsections.

4.3.2.3.1 Flexural Buckling


The design strength for flexural buckling of compression members whose elements
have width-thickness ratios less than
r from (see table 2) is c Pn:
c =0.85
Pn = Ag Fcr (LRFD E2-1)
Fcr shall be determined as follows:

For,
c Q 1.5
Q(0.658Qc ) Fy
2

Fcr = (LRFD E2-2)

For,
c Q > 1.5
0.877
( ) Fy
Fcr =
c
2
(LRFD E2-3)
Where,
KL Fy
c slenderness parameter, c = r E . (LRFD E2-4)
Ag gross area of member in. 2 (mm 2)
Fy specified minimum yield stress, ksi (MPa)
E modulus of elasticity, ksi (MPa)
K effective length factor
L laterally unbraced length of member, in. 2 (mm 2)
r governing radius of gyration about the axis of buckling, in. (mm)
For members whose elements do not meet the requirements of LRFD Section B5.1
(table 2) see Slender Compression Elements for calculating reduction factor
Q , else
Q =1.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.3.2.3.2 Torsional and Flexural - Torsional Buckling


The design strength for flexural-torsional buckling of double-angle and tee-shaped
compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r from
(table 2) is c Pn:
Where:
c =0.85
Pn = Ag Fcrft (LRFD E3-1)

Fcry + Fcrz 4 Fcry Fcrz H


Fcrft = 1 1 (LRFD E3-2)
2H ( Fcry + Fcrz ) 2
GJ
Fcrz = 2
Aro
2
yo
H = 1 2
ro
Fcry is determined (see section of flexural buckling) for flexural buckling about the y-
KL Fy
axis of symmetry for c =
ry E
For double-angle and tee-shaped members whose elements do not meet the
requirements of LRFD Section B5.1 (see table2), see section of Slender Compression
Elements for calculating Fcry

The design strength of compression members determined by the limit states of


torsional and flexural-torsional buckling for all sections (Except double-angle and tee-
shaped sections) is c Pn:
c =0.85
Pn = AgFcr (LRFD E3-1)
The nominal critical stress Fcr is determined as follows:

For e Q 1.5
Q(0.658Qe ) Fy
2
Fcr = (LRFD A-E3-2)

For e Q > 1.5


0.877
Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD A-E3-3)
e
2

Where,
Pn nominal resistance in compression, kips (N)
e = Fy / Fe (LRFD A-E3-4)
Q 1.0 for elements meeting the width-thickness ratios r (see table2)
QsQa for elements not meeting the width-thickness ratios r of (see
table2) and determined in accordance with the provisions of the section
of Slender Compression Elements
The critical torsional or flexural-torsional elastic buckling stress Fe is determined as
follows:
For double symmetric shapes:
2 EC w 1
Fe = + GJ (LRFD A-E3-5)
(K z L ) Ix + Iy
2

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For single symmetric shapes where y is the axis of symmetry:


Fey + Fez 4 Fey Fez H
Fe = 1 1 (LRFD A-E3-6)
2 H ( Fey + Fez ) 2
For single symmetric shapes where x is the axis of symmetry:
Fex + Fez 4 Fex Fez H
Fe = 1 1 (LRFD A-E3-6)
2H ( Fex + Fez ) 2
For unsymmetric shapes, the critical flexural-torsional elastic buckling stress Fe is the
lowest root of the cubic equation,

2 2
y
(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) Fe (Fe Fey ) xo
2
Fe (Fe Fex ) o
r
(LRFD A-

ro o
E3-7)
Where,
Kz effective length factor for torsional buckling
Kx, Ky effective length factors in x and y directions
L unbraced length, in. (mm)
G shear modulus, ksi (MPa)
J torsional constant, in.4 (mm4)
Cw warping constant, in.6 (mm6)
A cross-sectional area of member, in.2 (mm2)
Ix, Iy moment of inertia about the principal axes, in.4 (mm4)
rx, ry radii of gyration about the principal axes, in. (mm)
xo, yo coordinates of shear center with respect to the centroid, in. (mm)
ro polar radius of gyration about the shear center, in. (mm)
2 Ix + Iy
ro = xo + yo +
2 2
(LRFD A-E3-8)
A
x 2+y 2
H = 1 o 2 o (LRFD A-E3-9)
r
o

2E
Fex = (LRFD A-E3-10)
(KL / r )x 2
2E
Fey = (LRFD A-E3-11)
(KL / r ) y 2
2 EC w 1
Fez = + GJ (LRFD A-E3-12)
(K z L )
2 2
Aro
4.3.2.3.3 Slender Compression Elements
Members containing elements subject to compression that have a width-thickness
ratio in excess of the applicable r as stipulated earlier in section of local buckling (see
table2) shall be proportioned according to this section.

4.3.2.3.3.1 Unstiffened Compression Elements


The design strength of unstiffened compression elements whose width-thickness ratio
exceeds the applicable limit r as stipulated in section of local buckling (see table2)
shall be subjected to a reduction factor Qs. The value of Qs shall be determined by
Equations (LRFD A-B5-3 through A-B5-10), as applicable. When such elements
comprise the compression flange of a flexural member, the design flexural strength, in

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Ksi, shall be computed using b Fy Qs, where b = 0.90. The design strength of axially
loaded compression members shall be modified by the appropriate reduction factor Q,
as provided in section of Slender

For Flanges projecting from rolled beams, columns or other compression members:
When 0.56 E / Fy < b / t < 1.03 E / Fy :
Qs = 1.415 0.74(b / t ) Fy / E (LRFD A-B5-5)

When b / t 1.03 / E / Fy :
Qs = 0.69 E /[ Fy (b / t ) 2 ] (LRFD A-B5-6)
For stems of tees:
When 0.75 E / Fy < d / t < 1.03 E / Fy :
Qs = 1.908 1.22(d / t ) Fy / E (LRFD A-B5-9)

When d / t 1.03 / E / Fy :
Qs = 0.69 E /[ Fy (d / t ) 2 ] (LRFDA-B5-10)

Where,
d = width of unstiffened compression element as defined in section of (LRFD Section
B5.1) .in. (mm)
t = thickness of unstiffened element .in. (mm)

4.3.2.3.3.2 Stiffened Compression Elements


When the width thickness ratio of uniformly compressed stiffened elements exceeds
the non-compact limit r as stipulated in section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)
a reduced effective width, be, is used in computing the design properties of the section
containing the element.
b E
When, 1.49 /
t f
E 0.34 E
be = 1.91t 1 (LRFDA-B5-12)
f (b / t ) f
Otherwise,
be = b
Where,
b actual width of a stiffened compression element as defined in the
local buckling section (LRFD Section B5.1)
be reduced effective width in. (mm)
t element thickness in. (mm)
f computed compressive stress (axial plus bending stresses) in the
stiffened elements, based on the design properties as specified later in
this section (LRFD Appendix B5.3c).

If unstiffened elements are included in the total cross section, f of the stiffened element
must be such that the maximum compressive stress in the unstiffened element doesnt
exceed b Fcr, as defined in the latter design strength (LRFD Appendix B5.3d). Q = Qs
and c =0.85 or b Fy Qs with b =0.9 as applicable.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

For axially loaded circular sections, with diameter-to-thickness ratios D/t greater than
0.11E/Fy:
0.038E 2
Q = Qa = + (LRFDA-B5-13)
Fy ( D / t ) 3
Where,
D outside diameter in. (mm)
t wall thickness. in. (mm)

4.3.2.3.3.3 Design Properties


Properties of sections shall be determined using the full cross section, except as
follows:
In computing the moment of inertia and section modulus of flexural members, the
effective width of uniformly compressed elements, as determined earlier in this section
(LRFD Appendix B5.2b), shall be used in determining effective cross-sectional
properties.
For stiffened elements of the cross section:
effective area
Qa = (LRFDA-B5-14)
actual area
For, unstiffened elements of the cross section, Qs is determined according to this
section (Appendix B5.2a)

4.3.2.3.3.4 Design Strength


For axially loaded compression members, the gross cross-sectional area and the
radius of gyration r shall be computed based on the actual cross section. The critical
stress Fcr shall be determined as follows:
For c Q 1.5
Q(0.658Qc ) Fy
2
Fcr = (LRFD A-B5-15)

For, c Q > 1.5


0.877
Fcr = ( ) Fy (LRFD A-B5-16)
c 2

Where,
Q = Qs Qa (LRFD A-B5-17)

Cross sections comprised of only unstiffened elements, Q = Qs, (Qa = 1.0)


Cross sections comprised of only stiffened elements, Q = Qa, (Qs = 1.0)
Cross sections comprised of both stiffened and unstiffened elements, Q = Qs Qa

4.4 Nominal Strength in Bending

4.4.1 Limitations

Design and/or check apply to channels loaded in a plane passing through the shear
center parallel to the web or restrained against twisting at load points.
Design and/or check do not apply to members with yield stress greater than 65 Ksi.
Design and/or check do not apply to hybrid beams.

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

4.4.2 Bending Capacity

4.4.2.1 Single-Angle
For the limit state of local buckling when the tip of an angle leg is in compression:
(LRFD Section 5.1.1)
E
When b / t 0.54 :
Fy
M n = 1.5 Fy S c (LRFD 5-1a)

E E
When 0.54  b / t 0.91 :
Fy Fy
b/t
M n = Fy S c 1.5 0.93 1 (LRFD 5-1b)
0.54 E / Fy

E
When b / t  0.91 :
Fy
M n = 1.34QFy S c (LRFD 5-1c)
Where,
b full width of angle leg with tip in compression
Q reduction factor per Equation 4-3c
Sc elastic section modulus to the tip in compression relative to bending axis
E modulus of elasticity

For the limit state of yielding when the tip of an angle leg is in tension (LRFD Section
5.1.2)
M n = 1 .5 M y (LRFD 5-2)
Where,
My yield moment about the axis of bending

For the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling: (LRFD Section 5.1.3)

When M ob M y
M n = (0.92 0.17M ob / M y )M ob (LRFD 5-3a)
When M ob  My:
( )
M n = 1.92 1.17 M y / M ob M y 1.5M y (LRFD 5-3b)
Where Mob elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment
4.4.2.1.1 Equal Leg Angle
Equal-leg angle members, without lateral-torsional restraint, subjected to flexure
applied about one of the geometric axes, are permitted to be designed considering
only geometric axis bending.

4.4.2.1.1.1 Strong & Weak Axis Bending (X&Y - axis)


The yield moment shall be based on use of 0.80 of the geometric axis section
modulus.
With maximum compression of the angle-leg tips, the nominal flexural strength Mn
shall be determined by the provisions in (LRFD Section 5.1.1 & Section 5.1.3) as
mentioned earlier, where,

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

M ob =
0.66Eb2tCb
(
1 + 0.78 lt / b2 ) 2
1 (LRFD 5-4)
l 2

Where,
L Unbraced length
Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

With maximum tension at the angle-leg tips, the nominal flexural strength shall be
determined according to (LRFD Section 5.1.2 and in Section 5.1.3) using Mob in (LRFD
5-4) with -1 being replaced by +1.
4.4.2.1.2 Unequal Leg Angle
Unequal-leg angle members without lateral-torsional restraint subjected to bending
about one of the geometric axes shall be designed using (LRFD Section 5.3).

4.4.2.1.2.1 Strong Axis Bending (X -axis)


The nominal flexural strength Mn about the major principal axis shall be determined by
the provisions in (LRFD Section 5.1.1) for the compression leg and in (LRFD Section
5.1.3) as mentioned earlier, where,

Cb Bw + 0.052(lt / rz ) + Bw
Iz
M ob = 4.9E
2 2
(LRFD 5-6)
l 2
Where,
4
Iz minor Principal axis moment of inertia, in
rz radius of gyration for minor principal axis, in
1
( )
Bw = z w2 + z 2 dA 2zo
Iw A
Bw special section property for unequal leg angles, +ve for short leg in
compression and ve for long leg in compression. If the long leg is in
compression anywhere along the unbraced length of the member use the
ve values of Bw.
zo coordinate along z axis of the shear center with respect to centroid, in.
Iw major principle axis moment of inertia, in.4

4.4.2.1.2.2 Weak Axis Bending (Y -axis)


The nominal design strength Mn about the minor principal axis shall be determined by
(LRFD Section 5.1.1) when leg tips are in compression and by (LRFD Section 5.1.2)
when the leg tips are in tension, as mentioned earlier.

4.4.2.2 Steel Hollow Structural Sections


The design flexural strength b Mn shall be determined as follows:
b = 0.9
4.4.2.2.1 Round HSS
p, r as defined earlier in Section of local buckling (LFRD for HSS Section 2.2),
For p
M n = M p = Fy Z (LRFD 5.1-1)
For p  r
0.0207 E
Mn = + 1 Fy S (LRFD 5.1-2)
D/t F
y
For r  0.448 E / Fy

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

0.330 E
Mn = S (LRFD 5.1-3)
D/t
4.4.2.2.2 Rectangular HSS
p, r as defined earlier in Section of local buckling (LFRD for HSS Section 2.2),
For p
M n = M p = Fy Z (LRFD 5.1-4)
For p  r
p
M n = M p (M p M r )

(LRFD 5.1-5)
r p
Where,
M r = Fy S
For r 
M r = Fy S eff (LRFD 5.1-6)
Where, Seff is the effective section modulus with the effective width of the compression
flange taken,
E 0.381 E
be = 1.91t 1 b (LRFD 5.1-7)
Fy (b / t ) ) Fy
Lb is not limited for HSS structures designed by elastic analysis.

4.4.2.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Structure Sections)
The nominal flexural strength Mn is the lowest value obtained according to the limit
state in regards to: (a) yielding; (b) lateral-torsional buckling; (c) flange local buckling;
and (d) web local buckling.
4.4.2.3.1 Yielding
The design flexural strength of beams, determined by the limit state of yielding, is
bMn:
Where,
b = 0.9
Mn = Mp (LRFD F1-1)
Mp = plastic moment (= Fy Z 1.5M y ), kip-in. (N-mm)
My = moment corresponding to onset of yielding at the extreme fiber from an elastic
stress distribution (= Fy S), kip-in. (N-mm)
4.4.2.3.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling
This limit state is only applicable to members subject to major axis bending. The
flexural design strength, determined by the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling, is
bMn
Where,
b = 0.9
Mn = nominal flexural strength is determined as follows:

4.4.2.3.2.1 Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels (


Lb Lr )

Lb L p
M n = Cb M p (M p M r ) Mp (LRFD F1-2)
L L
r p
Where,
Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)
Lp limiting laterally unbraced length as defined below, in. (mm)

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Lr limiting laterally unbraced length as defined below, in. (mm)


Mr limiting buckling moment as defined below, kip-in. (N-mm)
Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3

E
L p = 1.76ry (LRFD F1-4)
Fyf
The limiting laterally unbraced length Lr and the corresponding buckling moment Mr
shall be determined as follows:
ry X 1
Lr = 1 + 1 + X 2 FL
2
(LRFD F1-6)
FL
M r = FL S x (LRFD F1-7)
Where,
EGJA
X1 = (LRFD F1-8)
Sx 2
2
C S
X2 = 4 w x (LRFD F1-9)
I y GJ
3 3
Sx section modulus about major axis, in. (mm )
E modulus of elasticity of steel, ksi (MPa)
G shear modulus of elasticity of steel, ksi (MPa)
FL smaller of (Fyf - Fr) or Fyw , ksi (MPa)
Fr compressive residual stress in flange; 10 ksi (MPa) for rolled Shapes
Fyf yield stress of flange, ksi (MPa)
Fyw yield stress of web, ksi (MPa)
4 4
Iy moment of inertia about y-axis, in. (mm )
6 6
Cw warping constant, in. (mm )

4.4.2.3.2.2 Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels (


Lb } Lr )
The nominal flexural strength is:
M n = M cr Mp (LRFD F1-12)
Where Mcr is the critical elastic moment, determined as follows:
2
E
M n = Cb EI y GJ + I y C w (LRFD F1-13)
Lb Lb
2
CS X 2 X1 X 2
= b x 1 1+
2(Lb / ry )
2
Lb / ry

4.4.2.3.2.3 T-Sections and Double Angles


For tees and double-angle beams loaded in the plane of symmetry:

M n = M cr =
EI y GJ
Lb
[B + 1 + B2 ] (LRFD F1-15)

Where,
M n 1.5M cr , Stems in tension
M n 1.0M cr , Stems in compression
B = (d / Lb ) I y / J (LRFD F1-16)
B is positive when the stem is in tension and negative when the stem is in
compression. If the tip of the stem is in compression anywhere along the unbraced

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

length, use the negative value of B.


4.4.2.3.3 Flange Local Buckling
The nominal flexural strength Mn shall be determined as follows,
For p

Mn = M p (LRFD A-F1-1)
For, p  r

p
M n = M p (M p M r ) (LRFD A-F1-3)

r p
For, } r
M n = M cr = SFcr M p (LRFD A-F1-4)
Where,
Mn nominal flexural strength, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mp Fy Z, plastic moment 1.5 Fy S, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mcr buckling moment, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mr limiting buckling moment (equal to Mcr when = r ), kip-in. (N-mm)
controlling slenderness parameter
minor axis slenderness ratio Lb / ry for lateral-torsional buckling
flange width-thickness ratio b /t for flange local buckling as defined in
section of local buckling
web depth-thickness ratio h /tw for web local buckling as defined in
section of local buckling
p Largest value of for which Mn = Mp
r Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic
Fcr critical stress, ksi (MPa)
Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3
3 3
S section modulus, in. (mm )
Lb length of member in x- direction (Lux)
ry radius of gyration about minor axis, in. (mm)
The parameters , p , r , Mr, Fcr for flange local buckling for different types of
shapes are mentioned below:

4.4.2.3.3.1 Channels and I-Sections bent about major axis (X axis)


= b/t (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

E
p = 0.38 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)
Fyf
E
r = 0.83 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)
FL
M r = S x FL (LRFD TableA-F1.1)
0.69 E
Fcr = (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
2

4.4.2.3.3.2 Channels and I-Sections bent about minor axis (Y axis)


= b/t (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

E
p = 0.38 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)
Fyf
E
r = 0.83 (LRFD TableA-F1.1)
FL
M r = S y Fy (LRFD TableA-F1.1)

0.69 E
Fcr = (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
2
4.4.2.3.4 Web Local Buckling
The nominal flexural strength Mn shall be determined as follows:
For p

Mn = M p (LRFD A-F1-1)
For p  r

p
M n = M p (M p M r ) (LRFD A-F1-3)

r p
For, } r
See Section of Slender Web listed below (LRFD Appendix G).
Where,
Mn nominal flexural strength, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mp Fy Z, plastic moment _ 1.5 Fy S, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mcr buckling moment, kip-in. (N-mm)
Mr limiting buckling moment (equal to Mcr when = r ), kip-in. (N-mm)
Controlling slenderness parameter
Minor axis slenderness ratio Lb / ry for lateral-torsional buckling
flange width-thickness ratio b /t for flange local buckling as defined in
Section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)
web depth-thickness ratio h /tw for web local buckling as defined in
Section of local buckling (LRFD Section B5.1)
p largest value of for which Mn = Mp
r largest value of for which buckling is inelastic
Fcr critical stress, ksi (MPa)
Cb Bending coefficient given by the user 1 Cb 2.3
3 3
S section modulus, in. (mm )
Lb is taken length of member in x- direction (Lux)
ry radius of gyration about minor axis, in. (mm)

The parameters , p , r , Mr, Fcr for flange local buckling of different types of
shapes are mentioned below:

4.4.2.3.4.1 Channels and I-Sections bent about major axis


= h / tw (LRFD Table A-F1.1)

E
p = 3.76 (LRFD Table A-F1.1)
Fyf
r is calculated in the local buckling section. (LRFD Section B5.1)

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

M r = Re S x Fyf (LRFD Table A-F1.1)


Re=1.0 for non-hybrid girders (LRFD Appendix G2)

4.4.2.3.4.2 Channels and I-Sections bent about minor axis


No further considerations.
4.4.2.3.5 Slender Web
The design flexural strength of plate girders with slender webs shall be bMn , where b
= 0.9 and Mn is the lower value obtained according to the limit states of tension-flange
yield and compression-flange buckling.
For tension-flange yield:
M n = S xt Re Fyt (LRFD A-G2-1)
For compression-flange yield:
M n = S xc RPG Re Fcr (LRFD A-G2-2)
Where,
ar hc
RPG = 1 5 .7 E 1 .0 (LRFD A-G2-3)
1200 + 2ar t Fcr
w
Re=1.0 for non-hybrid girders (LRFD Appendix G2)
ar ratio of web area to compression flange area ( 10 )
m ratio of web yield stress to flange yield stress or to Fcr
Fcr critical compression flange stress, ksi (MPa)
Fyt yield stress of tension flange, ksi (MPa)
3 3
Sxc section modulus referred to compression flange, in. (mm )
3 3
Sxt section modulus referred to tension flange, in. (mm )
hc twice the distance from the centroid to the nearest line of fasteners at the
compression flange or the inside of the face of the compression flange
when welds are used, in. (mm)

The critical stress Fcr to be used is dependent upon the slenderness parameters, ,p,
r and as follows:
For, p

Fcr = F yf (LRFD A-G2-4)


p  r
For,
1 p
Fcr = C b Fyf 1 Fyf (LRFD A-G2-5)

2 r p
For,  r
C
Fcr = PG (LRFD A-G2-6)
2
In the foregoing, the slenderness parameter shall be determined for both the limit state
of lateral-torsional buckling and the limit state of flange local buckling; the slenderness
parameter, which results in the lowest value of Fcr, governs.
For the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling:
= Lb / rT (LRFD A-G2-7)

E
p = 1.76 (LRFD A-G2-8)
Fyf
E
r = 4.44 (LRFD A-G2-9)
FL

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

C PG = 286000Cb (LRFD A-G2-10)


For the limit state of Flange local buckling:
= b/t See Section of local buckling (LRFD Table B5.1)

E
p = 0.38 (LRFD A-G2-12)
Fyf
E
r = 1.35 (LRFD A-G2-13)
Fyf / K c
C PG = 26200 K c (LRFD A-G2-14)
Where,
K c = 4 / h / t w And 0.35 K c 0.763
For the limit state of Web local buckling:
The limit state of flexural web local buckling is not applicable.

4.5 Nominal Shear Strength

4.5.1 Limitations

Design and/or check of shear stress is based on the assumption that no transverse
stiffeners are provided (i.e. distance between stiffeners equals to member length).

4.5.2 Allowable Stress

4.5.2.1 Single-Angle
4.5.2.1.1 Major Direction (Y-axis)
The design shear strength vVn , where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength defined
as follows.
Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD 3-1)

4.5.2.1.2 Minor Direction (X-axis)


The design shear strength vVn , where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength defined
as follows,
Vn = 0.6 Fyw A f (LRFD 3-1)

4.5.2.2 Steel Hollow Structural Sections


The design shear strength of unstiffened HSS vVn, where v=0.9 shall be determined
as follows:
4.5.2.2.1 Round HSS,
Vn = 0.6 Fcr Ag / 2 (LRFD 5.2-1)
Where Fcr is currently taken as 0.6Fy
4.5.2.2.2 Rectangular HSS
Vn = Fn Aw (LRFD 5.2-3)

For h / t 2.45 E / Fy
Fn = 0.6 Fy (LRFD 5.2-5)

For 2.45 E / Fy  h / t 3.07 E / Fy

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

2.45 E / Fy
Fn = 0.6 Fy (LRFD 5.2-6)
h/t

For, 3.07 E / Fy  h / t 260

0.458 2 E
Vn = (LRFD 5.2-7)
(h / t )2
4.5.2.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Structure Sections)
4.5.2.3.1 For Major Direction (Y-axis)
The design shear strength of unstiffened webs, with h / t w 260 is vVn, where v=0.9
and Vn nominal shear strength defined as follows.
For, h / t w 2.45 E / Fyw
Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD F2-1)

For, 2.45 E / Fyw  h / t w 3.07 E / Fyw


2.45 E / Fyw
Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw (LRFD F2-2)
h / tw

For, 3.07 E / Fyw  h / t w 260

4.52 E
Vn = Aw (LRFD F2-3)
(h / t w ) 2

4.5.2.3.2 For Minor Direction (X-axis)
The design shear strength vVn, where v=0.9 and Vn nominal shear strength, defined
as follows.
Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw ` (LRFD F2-1)

4.6 Combined Stresses


When a member is subject to the combined action of bending and axial force, it must
be designed to resist stresses and forces arising from both bending and axial actions.
While a tensile axial force may induce a stiffening effect on a member, a compressive
axial force tends to destabilize the member.

4.6.1 Single-Angle

4.6.1.1 Axial Compression and Bending


The interaction of flexure and axial compression applicable to specific locations on the
cross section shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b):
Pu
For 0 .2
Pn
Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 6-1a)
Pn 9 b M nx b M ny

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Pu
For  0 .2
Pn
Pu M ux M uy
+ + 1.00 (LRFD 6-1b)
2Pn b M nx b M ny
Where,
Pu required compressive strength
Pn nominal compressive strength determined in accordance with Section 4
Mu required flexural strength
Mn nominal flexural strength for tension or compression in accordance with
(LRFD Section 5), as appropriate. Use section modulus for specific
location in the cross section and consider the type of stress.
= t resistance factor for compression 0.90
b resistance factor for flexure 0.90
W subscript relating symbol to major-axis bending
z subscript relating symbol to minor-axis bending

In Equations (LFRD 6-1a) and (LFRD 6-1b) when Mn represents the flexural strength
of the compression side, the corresponding Mu shall be multiplied by B1.
Cm
B1 = 1.0 (LRFD 6-2)
Pu
1
Pe1
Where,
Cm bending coefficient defined in AISC LRFD given from the user
Pe1 elastic buckling load for the braced frame defined in AISC LRFD

For members constrained to bend about a geometric axis with nominal flexural
strength determined per (LRFD Section 5.2.1), the radius of gyration r for Pe1 shall be
taken as the geometric axis value. The bending terms for the principal axes in
Equations (LRFD 6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b) shall be replaced by a single geometric axis
term.
Alternatively, for equal-leg angles without lateral-torsional restraints along the length
and with bending applied about one of the geometric axes, the provisions of (LRFD
Section 5.2.2) are permitted for the required and design bending strength. If (LRFD
Section 5.2.2) is used for Mn , the radius of gyration about the axis of bending r for Pe1
shall be taken as the geometric axis value of r divided by 1.35 in the absence of a
more detailed analysis. The bending terms for the principal axes in Equations (LRFD
6-1a) and (LRFD 6-1b) shall be replaced by a single geometric axis term.

4.6.1.2 Axial Tension and Bending


The interaction of flexure and axial tension shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 6-1a)
and (LRFD 6-1b) where,
Pu required tensile strength
Pn nominal tensile strength determined in accordance with Section 2
Mu required flexural strength
Mn nominal flexural strength for tension or compression in accordance with
(LRFD Section5), as appropriate .Use section modulus for specific
location in the cross section and consider the type of stress.
t resistance factor for tension 0.90
b resistance factor for flexure 0.90

For members subjected to bending about a geometric axis, the required bending
strength evaluation shall be in accordance with LRFD Sections 6.1.2 and 6.1.3.
Second-order effects due to axial tension and bending interaction are permitted to be
considered in the determination of Mu for use in Formulas (LRFD 6-1a and 6-1b). In
lieu of using formulas (LRFD 6-1a and 6-1b), a more detailed analysis of the

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

interaction of flexure and tension is permitted.

4.6.2 Steel Hollow Structural Sections

4.6.2.1 Axial Force and Bending


The interaction of flexure and axial compression applicable to specific locations on the
cross section shall be limited by Equations (LRFD 7.1-1) and (LRFD 7.1-2):
Pu
For 0.2
Pn
Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD 7.1-1)
Pn 9 b M nx b M ny
P
For u  0.2
Pn
Pu M ux M uy
+ + 1.00 (LRFD 7.1-2)
2Pn b M nx b M ny
Where,
Pu required axial tensile or compressive strength, kips (N)
Pn nominal tensile or compressive strength determined in accordance with
(LRFD Sections 3.1 or 4.2), kips (N)
Mu required flexural strength determined in accordance
with (LRFD Section C1), kip-in. (N-mm).
Mn nominal flexural strength determined in accordance
with (LRFD Section 5.1), kip-in. (N-mm)
x subscript relating symbol to strong-axis bending
y subscript relating symbol to strong-axis bending
= t from Section 3.1 for tension
0.85 for compression
b 0.90

For biaxial flexure of round HSS that are laterally unbraced along their length and with
end conditions such that the effective length factor K is the same for any direction of
bending, the design is permitted to be based upon a single resultant moment Mur
M ur = M ux + M uy
2 2
(LRFD 7.1-3)

4.6.3 All Sections (Except Single-Angle and Steel Hollow Sections)

4.6.3.1 Axial Tension and Bending


Pu
For 0.2
Pn
Pu 8 M ux M uy

+ + 1.00 (LRFD H1-1a)
Pn 9 b M nx b M ny
P
For, u  0.2
Pn
Pu M ux M uy
+ + 1.00 (LRFD H1-1b)
2Pn b M nx b M ny
Where,

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EnR-Steel V3.0 Technical Reference

Pu required tensile strength, kips (N)


Pn nominal tensile strength determined in accordance with (LRFD Section
D1), kips (N)
Mu required flexural strength determined in accordance
with (LRFD Section C1), kip-in. (N-mm)
Mn nominal flexural strength determined in accordance
with (LRFD Section F1), kip-in. (N-mm)
x subscript relating symbol to strong axis bending
y subscript relating symbol to weak axis bending
= t resistance factor for tension (see LRFD Section D1)
b resistance factor for flexure = 0.90

4.6.3.2 Axial Compression and Bending


The interaction of flexure and compression in symmetric shapes shall be limited by
Equations (LRFD H1-1a) and (LRFD H1-1b)
Where,
Pu required compressive strength, kips (N)
Pn nominal compressive strength determined in accordance
with (LRFD Section E2 ) ,kips (N)
= c resistance factor for compression = 0.85 (see LRFD Section E2)
b resistance factor for flexure = 0.90

36