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Readings:

Resistance Training NSCA text: Chapter 15 pp 347 385

Program Design

Resistance Training Program Design 1 Resistance Training Program Design 2

General Training Principles General Training Principles


Specificity Overload
Anatomical: If you want better shoulder muscle You must stress your neuromuscular system
function, use must train THOSE muscles greater than what it is used to
Functional: If you want better muscle Load (i.e. lbs lifted), speed, # sets, frequency/wk, rest
size/strength/power/endurance in the shoulders, (min between sets, days between work outs)
you must design a program for muscle Progression in overload
size/strength/power/endurance, respectively Appropriate increases (frequency and size) in
training stress as the body adapts

Resistance Training Program Design 3 Resistance Training Program Design 4

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Program Design Variables William A Sands, NSCA Education Director, When the
Program Design Variables (NSCA text) Perfect Plan is NOT the Best Plan, NSCA Connect Feb 2012
1. Periodization Model (KIN 416) 5. per career 6. school
2. Exercise selection (KIN 416) 19. Body part(s)/muscle group(s) (KIN 416) 7. class
3. Tension type(s) (KIN 410) 20. Time of day 38. Altitude
1. concentric 21. Time relative to menstrual cycle, females 39. Coach presence

1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation 2.

3.

4.
eccentric
isometric
Stretch shortening cycle
22.

23.

24.
Period of year
Period of macrocycle (KIN 416)
Period of mesocycle (KIN 416)
40.

41.

42.
Testing or training
Freshness/Rest/Recovery
Noise/music (KIN 410)
1. speed 25. Period of microcycle (KIN 416) 43. Equipment

2. Choice of exercises 2.

3.

4.
drop height
rebound or not
direction of rebound
26.

27.
Timing in training lesson
Age of athlete
1. Child/Adolescent (KIN 308)
1. free weights (KIN 410)
1.

2.
barbell
dumb bells
speed of rebound sexual maturity water

Frequency
5. 1. 3.

3. 4.
6. neuromuscular efficiency
Exercise order (KIN 416)
2.

3.
developmental maturity
skeletal maturity
4.

5.
medicine balls
body weight
5. Number of Sets (KIN 416) 4. muscular maturity 2. machines (KIN 410)

4. Order of exercises 6.

7.

8.
Number of Reps (KIN 416)
Weight/resistance (KIN 416)
Rest between sets (KIN 416) 2.
5.

6.

Adult
neuromuscular coordination maturity
mental maturity
1.

2.

3.
isokinetic
isoinertial
isometric
9. Single Joint or Multi-Joint (KIN 410) 1. young adult (15-30) 4. isotonic

5. Load (weight) 10.

11.

12.
Rhythm
To Failure?
Repetition duration
2.

3.

4.
middle adult (30-50)
elderly adult (50-70) (KIN 409)
old age adult (>70)
5.

6.
plyometric
does the machine or device fit the
athlete?
13. Repetition speed 28. Training age of athlete 1. tubing/bands

6. Volume 14. Repetition ROM (KIN 410)


1.

2.
Plane
Axis
29.

30.

31.
Health status
Injury status
Handicap status
2.

3.

4.
body weight/device (KIN 416)
mirrors
lighting
Variable Mental status 44. Audience?

Rest periods
3. 32.

7. 15.

16.
Volume (KIN 416)
Intensity
33.

34.
Nutritional status
Supplementation
45.

46.
Temperature
Humidity
17. Density 35. Hydration 47. Progression
Sex

Variation 1. Amount of total load per unit time 36. Closed or Open Kinetic Chain 48.

8. 18.
2. number of training sessions per day
Frequency (KIN 416)
37. Environment
1. group
49.

50.
Motivation
Nutrition timing
1. per day (KIN 416) 2. individual 51. Indoors/outdoors

9. Progression 2.

3.

4.
per week (KIN 416)
per month
per year
3.

4.

5.
home
alone
partner

Resistance Training Program Design 5 Resistance Training Program Design 6

Program Design Variables Initial consultation and fitness evaluation


Initial consultation
1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Goals?
2. Choice of exercises Exercise history?
3. Frequency Experience with
4. Order of exercises resistance training?
Injuries?
5. Load (weight)
Illnesses?
6. Volume (diabetes?, high
7. Rest periods BP? etc.)
8. Variation
9. Progression
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Initial consultation and fitness evaluation Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Initial consultation: resistance training status Fitness Evaluation resistance training
specific (for this 416 unit)
1-RM strength assessment for a variety of
resistance exercises is standard
Two 1-RM techniques covered in KIN 306
Compare to norms or criterion standards (KIN 306)
Assessment of other muscular function (power &
endurance), &/or functional movement screen
not typically done outside of athlete assessment
(& not done in KIN 416)

Resistance Training Program Design 9 Resistance Training Program Design 10

Initial consultation and fitness evaluation Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Set goals Set goals
Muscular Endurance
Performance of many reps at submaximal loads
Muscular Hypertrophy
Muscle size
Muscular Strength
Ability to lift heavy loads
Muscular Power
Ability to move moderate to heavy loads at high speeds
not mentioned as training goal in NSCA chpt 15
discussed in KIN 410

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Initial consultation and fitness evaluation Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Set goals Set goals
Do not use the term TONE.
Many people refer to lifting weights as Strength
e..g, He is really well toned
toned is a nonspecific, misused term.
Training (even though they are not really doing a
The accurate physiological use of the term Muscle Tone
program designed to effectively develop
refers to a basal level of muscle activation, even when strength)
relaxation is attempted
Use the term RESISTANCE TRAINING,
encompasses:
Different training goals (strength, size, endurance,
power)
Different loading modalities (free or machine weights,
body weight, medicine balls, etc.)

Resistance Training Program Design 13 Resistance Training Program Design 14

Program Design Variables Choice of exercises


Overwhelming number of choices
1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
2. Choice of exercises
3. Frequency
4. Order of exercises
5. Load (weight)
6. Volume
7. Rest periods
8. Variation
9. Progression
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Choice of exercises Choice of exercises - definitions


Select based on: Core versus Assistance exercises
Equipment available
Time available (# exercises possible, time to learn
What does the term CORE
new exercises) mean
Clients experience (no to high skill) to do exercise
properly
Specific body parts to be trained

Resistance Training Program Design 17 Resistance Training Program Design 18

Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


Core Exercise: (NSCA text) Core exercise examples: (NSCA text)
typically more effective at helping a client reach Bench Press
their exercise goals Shoulder + elbow joints
A multijoint exercise (2 or more primary joints Pecs
move) Anterior deltoid & triceps brachii
Recruits one or more large muscle group(s) or
area(s) Squat
e.g., chest, shoulder, upper back, hip/thighs Hip + knee + ankle joints
Involves synergistic help of one or more smaller Gluts + quads
muscle groups plantar flexors
e.g., biceps, triceps, abs, calves, forearms, lower back Another example?

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Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


Structural Core Exercise: (NSCA text) Power (explosive) Structural Exercise:
Core exercise that places load on the spine
(NSCA text)
Structural core exercise that is performed very
Requires torso muscles to maintain erect or near-
quickly
erect posture during exercise
e.g., power clean, snatch
e.g., Shoulder press, back squat

Another example?

Note: other exercises can be performed


powerfully, that are not structural core exercises
Resistance Training Program Design 21 Resistance Training Program Design 22

Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


Assistance Exercise: (NSCA text) What does the term CORE
A single primary joint exercise

Recruits a small muscle group or only one large


mean
muscle group or area
e.g., biceps curl, dumbbell fly

Resistance Training Program Design 23 Resistance Training Program Design 24

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Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


Web site Stecyk
definition definition

Resistance Training Program Design http://www.ab-core-and-stomach-exercises.com/core-exercises-.html 25 Resistance Training Program Design Stecyk et al., (2008) The Missing Link: Integrated Core Training. 26
NSCAs Performance Training Journal. 7(6): 13-16

Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


McGill So now we can answer the question
of what is the core? Proximal
What does the term CORE
definition stiffness occurs between the ball
and socket joints (i.e., the hips and
mean
shoulders). It involves all of the
muscles in the torso. They function
primarily to stop motion and they
should be trained this way. The core
also involves the muscles that cross
the ball and socket joints that have
distal connections, such as psoas,
the gluteals, latissimus, pectoralis,
etc.

Why Everyone
Resistance NeedsProgram
Training Core Training,
DesignNSCA Strongest Links and Stuart McGill PhD, July 2014 27 Resistance Training Program Design 28
http://www.nsca.com/Education/Articles/Why-Everyone-Needs-Core-Training/

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Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


What does the term CORE Open Kinetic Chain Exercise
Distal aspect of the extremity is free in space
mean?

Straight leg raise, hamstring curl, knee extension, etc.


In 416 we use the term Core Exercise
(& Assistance Exercise) as defined in
NSCA text.
We also will have a lab to learn about
Trunk & Pelvis Core Exercises

Resistance Training Program Design 29 Resistance Training Program Design 30

Choice of exercises - definitions Choice of exercises - definitions


Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise Open & Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise terms
Distal aspect of the extremity is fixed to an object are widely & commonly used to define leg
that is either stationary or moving exercises, particularly related to joint
Leg press, squat, lunge, step-ups, etc. rehabilitation
e.g., pg 547 text; Fleming et al., (2005) Open- or closed-kinetic chain exercise
after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Ex Sci Sports Rev. 33:134-140

For healthy exercisers:


DO NOT use open and closed
exercises as a basis for deciding
good versus bad exercises. It
does not work.

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Choice of exercises guidelines Choice of exercises guidelines


Functional training?? Functional training??
Exercise program that involves: Functional EFFECTIVE
Biceps curls, triceps Very poor 90% multijoint
Isolated 90% whole body, hand-to-foot
Exercise
extensions, knee
exercises, free or
extensions,
training. The forces
machine body does not work 90% on your feet
hamstring curls
this way in No machines (except cable
producing real life machines)
movements Some movements patterns that
are similar to performance
PLUS
Exercises involve Boxing arm thrust, Very poor Training
Opposing movements
ONLY patterns and golf swing, soccer
Fundamental movement
loads used in kick, swim stroke patterns (push, pull, squat)
performance Selective isolated muscle
exercises for activation and/or
rehab

Resistance Training Program Design 33 Resistance Training Program Design 34

Choice of exercises guidelines Choice of exercises McGills


recommendations of exercises to avoid, for
Functional training Mike Boyle
To better understand the concept of functional training, ask yourself a few simple low back health
questions.
1.How many sports are played sitting down? As far as I can tell, only a few sports, generating twisting torque while twisting
such as rowing, are performed from a seated position. If we accept this premise,
we can see that training muscles from a seated position would not be functional for away from neutral, appears to be
most sports. problematic. Now consider the torso twisting
2.How many sports are played in a rigid environment where stability is provided by
outside sources? The answer would appear to be none. Most sports are contested
machines found in various fitness and
on fields or courts. The stability is provided by the athlete, not by some outside training facilities. here is a machine that
source. Reasoning again would tell us that most machine-based training systems
are not by definition functional because the load is stabilized for the lifter by the will lead to troubles in many athletes. (pg 103 3 rd

machine. ed)
the kinematic act of twisting [against no load = one end of force vs
3.How many sports skills are performed by one joint acting in isolation? Again, the
velocity curve] or generating the kinetic variable of twisting torque while
answer is zero. Functional training attempts to focus on multijoint movement as
not twisting [isometric against load = opposite end of force vs velocity
much as possible. Multi-joint movements which integrate muscle groups into
curve] seems less dangerous than epidemiological surveys suggest (pg
movement patterns are very functional. 102 3rd ed)
http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/three-questions-to-define-functional-training

Resistance Training Program Design 35 Resistance Training Program Design 36

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Choice of exercises McGills Choice of exercises McGills


recommendations of exercises to avoid, for recommendations of exercises to avoid, for
low back health low back health
we do not recommend the spine twisting Back extension machines that take spine to
machines (pg 70 3 ed) rd full flexion (pg 70 3 ed) rd

Low back health requires extensor endurance


NOT strength (pg 233 3 ed) rd

Resistance Training Program Design 37 Resistance Training Program Design 38

Choice of exercises McGills Choice of


recommendations of exercises to avoid, for exercises McGills
low back health recommendations of
exercises to avoid, for
low back health

Neutral (=good)
versus
Flexed (=bad)
lumbar spine

(McGill 3rd ed pg 75)

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Choice of exercises Choice of exercises - definitions


McGills recommendations of Keep
exercises to avoid, for low back
health
your
lumbar McGill So now we can answer the question of
what is the core? Proximal stiffness
spine
occurs between the ball and socket
There is a message
Move
stable
(to transfer
forces
definition joints (i.e., the hips and shoulders). It
here for those who with generated
elsewhere,
involves all of the muscles in the torso.
your
have no injury thoracic
not
generating They function primarily to stop
movement).

history: the spine spine


and
abs are
designed to
motion and they should be
hips
resist
trained this way. The core also
must not bend movement,
not create
it (pg 48)
involves the muscles that cross the ball
when under Develop
and socket joints that have distal
core
stability
connections, such as psoas, the
load (pg 301 3 ed) rd NOT
crunches
gluteals, latissimus, pectoralis, etc.
Picture Source: The
IMPACT! Body Plan,
Todd Durkin

Resistance Training Program Design 41 Why Everyone


Resistance NeedsProgram
Training Core Training,
DesignNSCA Strongest Links and Stuart McGill PhD, July 2014 42
http://www.nsca.com/Education/Articles/Why-Everyone-Needs-Core-Training/

Choice of exercises Choice of exercises McGills recommendations


To train the core of exercises to avoid, for low back health
#5. If only I had trained my core for three-dimensional stability... the spine must not bend when under load (pg 301 3 rd ed)
Swimming is all about slicing through the water with as little drag as possible. A floppy
midsection that snakes from side to side with every stroke not only leaks a ton of The spine should be held in a neutral position during the lift of the weight,
energy but also creates serious drag. Unfortunately, ask most swim coaches, and the spine does not flex or extend under the load
theyll tell you the way to a strong core is a few hundred crunches, V-ups, and
Russian twists daily. These movements are minimally sports-specific, however, as the e.g., rowing movements
only time flexion occurs in swimming is during the flip-turn. And even then,
several muscles in addition to the abdominals help generate the movement.
To create the rigid, canoe-like core thats truly needed for swimming
(and all sports, really), core stability work is the key. Anti-
extension, anti-rotation, and anti-lateral flexion
exercises, plus rotational medicine ball work.

Eric CresseyIf Only: 7 Lessons from a


Record-Setting Paralympic Medalist,
August 26, 2014,
http://www.ericcressey.com/if-only-7-
lessons-paralympic-
medalist?utm_source=feedburner&utm_
medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A
+CresseyTrainingSystems+%28Cressey+
Training+Systems%29

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Choice of exercises McGills recommendations Choice of exercises McGills recommendations of


of exercises to avoid, for low back health exercises to avoid, for low back health
the spine must not bend when under load (pg 301 3rd ed) the spine must not bend when under load (pg 301 3 rd ed)

The spine should be held in a neutral position during the lift of the weight, e.g., squat = hip flexion/extension NOT lumbar flexion/extension (pg 314 3rd ed)

the spine does not flex or extend under the load


e.g., flexion movements

Gustav Zanders Abdominal Machine 1890s

Resistance Training Program Design 45 Resistance Training Program Design 46

Choice of exercises McGills recommendations of Choice of exercises McGills


exercises to avoid, for low back health
recommendations of exercises to avoid, for
the spine must not bend when under load (pg 301 3 rd ed)
low back health
e.g., squat = hip flexion NOT lumbar flexion
Athletes should avoid end range of motion during
exertion (pg 140 3 ed) rd

e.g., golf swing = high rotational velocity forces passive tissues to


experience impulse loading when they act to create a mechanical
stop to motion

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Choice of exercises McGills Choice of exercises McGills


recommendations of exercises to avoid, for recommendations of exercises to avoid, for
low back health low back health
This is not Trunk flexion exercises:
1000 lbs 1400 lbs
justifiable for any compression on compression on hanging with the arms on an
the spine the spine
patient and is a poor overhead bar and flexing the hips
method for athletes to raise the legsgenerates well
as well! (pg 99 3 ed) rd
over 100 Nm of abdominal torque
Superior exercises for to a spine that is often flexed due
back extensors
Low back health
to faulty technique. (McGill 3 ed pg 95)rd

requires extensor Use side bridge for similar muscle


endurance NOT activation with lower spine loads
strength (pg 233 3 ed)rd

Resistance Training Program Design 49 Resistance Training Program Design 50

Choice of exercises McGills Choice of exercises McGills recommendations


recommendations of exercises to avoid, for of exercises to avoid, for low back health Sitting:
low back health There are many other
examples of machines
Sitting: that require consideration
for optimizing
the sitting posture required of many performance and safety:
machines results in increased bending Any machine that
loading to the back for example many
seated leg press machines force the lumbar requires a sitting posture.
(McGill 3rd ed pg 43)
spine into flexion with the application of
combined shear and compression. I
Certainly, athletes who
would very rarely recommend this approach, resistance train in a
seated position would be
except in some very particular cases (McGill 3rd
well advised to question
ed pg 42)
their rationale (McGill 3 ed pg 94)rd

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Choice of exercises McGills recommendations Choice of exercises McGills recommendations


of exercises to avoid, for low back health Sitting: of exercises to avoid, for low back health:
no
single,
ideal sitting Avoid the high
posture shearing forces
exists;
rather they
recommend good-bye to
a variable good-mornings
posture to
minimize the
risk of tissue
overload.
(McGill 3rd ed pg 94)

Resistance Training Program Design 53 Resistance Training Program Design 54

Program Design Variables Frequency


# of workouts/week Determined by:
1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Clients training status (1-3 days between training
2. Choice of exercises the same muscle group)
3. Frequency
4. Order of exercises
5. Load (weight)
6. Volume
7. Rest periods
8. Variation Other exercise & physical activities
9. Progression Clients schedule, health, other life demands, etc.
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Frequency Frequency
Beginner clients can train Intermediate or advanced clients can train 4+
(2-)3 days/wk days/wk AND have rest days between
Whole body workouts training the same muscle group by:
One Exercise per muscle Split routines:
group Different muscle groups are trained on
At least 48 hrs different days
rest/recovery between
workouts
Exercise of a specific body
part occurs (2-)3 x/week

Resistance Training Program Design 57 Resistance Training Program Design 58

Frequency Frequency
Split routine examples:
Split routine examples:
Selected combo 1 upper & lower body
Upper body Mon & Thurs (More upper body exercises
than in beginner whole body workout) Selected combo 2 upper & lower body

Lower Body Tues & Fri (More lower body exercises than Selected combo 3 upper & lower body
in beginner whole body workout) 3 days workout, one day rest, repeat, repeat,
At least 72 hrs rest/recovery between same body repeat.
part At least 96 hrs rest/recovery between same
Note that exercise of a specific body part only exercise
occurs 2x/week Note that same exercise only occurs approx
2x/week

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Frequency: Rest/Recovery days Program Design Variables


To Facilitate Recovery on Rest Days
1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
Consider :
2. Choice of exercises
Active recovery = low intensity
cardiovascular activity 3. Frequency
4. Order of exercises
On all days, to support recovery, think about: 5. Load (weight)
Sleep
6. Volume
Nutrition
7. Rest periods
Hydration
8. Variation
9. Progression
Resistance Training Program Design 61 Resistance Training Program Design 62

Order of exercises Order of exercises


Sequence of exercises within a single workout Core vs. Assistance exercise
1. Power exercises first
Arrange order so that fatigue caused by one
These require the greatest motor skill & focus, &
exercise has the least possible impact on the
are typically core multijoint exercises using large
capacity to perform the subsequent exercises muscles
Consider and combine the following: 2. Core exercises second
These are multijoint, large muscles
Core vs. Assistance exercise
3. Assistance exercises third
Muscle area in body
These are small muscles and/or single joint
Nature of the movement (push/pull)
movements

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Order of exercises Order of exercises


Muscle area in body Muscle area in body
TRY: TRY:
Alternating upper and lower body Alternating Push & Pull
e.g, lat pull downs then leg extensions then shoulder E.g., bench press then seated rows
press then Lunges, etc. But this does not reduce fatigue between exercises as
well (as alternating upper & lower) because antagonists
are always active as stabilizers. E.g., once you fatigue
your pecs & triceps you will not do a rowing pull as
strongly

Resistance Training Program Design 65 Resistance Training Program Design 66

Program Design Variables Load


1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation Weight to lift for a given exercise
2. Choice of exercises Two methods to set load:
3. Frequency 1. % of 1-RM

4. Order of exercises 2. Repetition Maximum (RM)

5. Load (weight) (% of body weight technique not discussed)


6. Volume
7. Rest periods
8. Variation
9. Progression
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Load Load
Basic Definitions: %1-RM method to set load (overview more details
later):
Repetition = rep = a single movement cycle 1. Determine clients maximum strength for the
against a resistance (e.g., flexion + exercise
extension cycle of a bicep curl, a throw of a = max weight that can be lifted once with proper
medicine ball) technique
= 1-repetition maximum, (1-RM)
Set = a group of repetitions performed
consecutively (typically with rest period 2. Set training load based on training goals as
between sets) % of 1-RM

Resistance Training Program Design 69 Resistance Training Program Design 70

Load Load
As load decreases you can do more
Repetition Maximum (RM) method to set load reps
(overview more details later): BUT: table is guideline only, not
mathematical or physiological rule
because many factors affect the
RM = Most weight client can lift for a specified relationship
number of repetitions Training

status
More trained = more reps possible at given % 1-RM
Applies to single set
Subsequent sets lower reps due to fatigue
e.g, The most weight a client can bicep curl 6x

Table largely based only bench press, back

is 35 lbs squat, power clean


Application to other exercises?
the biceps curl 6RM is 35 lbs More reps possible on a machine vs. free
weight version of same exercise
# reps for assistance exercise may be lower

Resistance Training Program Design 71 Resistance Training Program Design 72

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Load: %1-RM based methods Load: %1-RM based methods


How to determine clients 1-RM strength for Method #1: Progressively increase load to
an exercise? find max load client can lift 1x
Rarely done, particularly in personal training
Method #1: Progressively increase load to find
settings, because it is not to be done:
max load client can lift 1x
1. If training status or general health is low

2. It technique is low
e.g., a well trained person starting a new lift but lacking
technique
3. If safety and physical risk of max load is high,
even for highly trained person (1-RM load is
huge!)
e.g. lunge balance safety and spinal compression with
extreme load
Continues next slide.
Resistance Training Program Design 73 Resistance Training Program Design 74

Load: %1-RM based methods Load: %1-RM based methods


Method #1: Progressively increase load to How to determine
find max load client can lift 1x clients 1-RM
Rarely done, particularly in personal training strength for the
settings, because it is not to be done:
exercise?
4. For assistance exercises
Do not apply high loads to single muscle groups and Method #2: Use submaximal
joints (core only) loads to predict the max
Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning text (3rd ed, pg 395) states: load client can lift 1x
1RM testing is reserved for resistance trained athletes who are who are
classified as intermediate or advanced, and who have technique experience in
the lift being tested
Is for core exercises
Is NOT for core exercises that require stabilization by smaller muscle groups
(e.g. in test of upper back muscles in bent over row, lower back muscles may
fatigue)
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Load: %1-RM based methods Assigning Training Load


Method #2: Use submaximal loads to predict the
max load client can lift 1x
Based on the clients
Method discussed in Strength Testing Unit of KIN
training goal
306
Determine heaviest load client can lift 10x

Use chart* to estimate 1-RM load


Use <4 trials to avoid fatigue
Cross-out discussed later
*Table 15.4 pg 373,
NSCA Personal Training text

Resistance Training Program Design 77 Resistance Training Program Design 78

Assigning Training Load Assigning Training Load


%1-RM method example %1-RM method example continued
Previously calculated: Intermediate client wants to increase strength of
Client wants to increase strength of bench bench press, Load to train at: = 35 lbs
press
TRY the weight, there should be a limit
Estimated 1-RM for bench press = 40 lbs
of 6 reps (for core exercise), or
Intermediate client will train 85%1RM for weight is too light
strength
(remember the %1-RM & Reps relationship is
Load to train at: = .85(40) = 34 = 35 lbs approximate)

Resistance Training Program Design 79 Resistance Training Program Design 80

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Load: RM based method (you dont need to know Load: RM based method
what the max capacity is)
Notes for use:
1. Use min # trials (<4) possible to avoid
First: Decide how many reps fatigue
you want the client to 2. Assistance exercises should use 8RM
perform when exercising loads or lighter (to avoid high load
stresses on single joints and small
(e.g., 6 reps) muscle groups) (this means you dont
use heavier loads that can only be
lifted 1-7x)
3. Untrained clients should use 8RM
loads or lighter (this means you dont
Then: the trainer tries increasing use heavier loads that can only be
lifted 1-7x)
loads to find the maximum
load the client can lift the
desired # of times
Resistance Training Program Design 81 Resistance Training Program Design 82

Assigning Training Load Assigning Training Load: There is a Source: NSCA


continuum of effects as reps increase and load decreases Essentials of Strength &
Conditioning Text
STRENGTH REP RANGE

RM method example NOTE: The


max # reps
Client wants to increase strength of bench possible,
not the Power training discussed in KIN 410
press %1RM,
determines
Hypertrophy training discussed later KIN 416
the training
Weight should selected that can be lifted a result of
It is NOT this simple to set load %1RM & reps to produce or AVOID hypertrophy
the
maximum of 6x (< 4 trials) exercise!
ENDURANCE REP RANGE

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Approximate


%1RM level to
Weight used 25 30 35 result in desired 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65%
Max # times 11 8 6 # reps (from earlier
chart):
lifted

Load to train at: = 35 lbs


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Max reps determines training effect


Assigning Training Load: Further % 1RM load is only an approximate indicator of reps possible

considerations
Two methods to set training load:
1. % of 1-RM

2. Repetition Maximum (RM) RM Count


RM Count: = accurate
way to set
Approximate
%1RM level to 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% %1RM level training
load for
result in e.g. 80% 1RM load can result in a range = inaccurate
desired # reps: specific
of reps AND RANGE OF TRAINING way to set

Which is best EFFECTS depending on: training status,


sets after first set (i.e. fatigue), which core
training load
for specific
training
goal

lift performed, machine vs free lift, core vs training goal


assistance lift.

Resistance Training Program Design 85


THE REPS DONT LIE
Resistance Training Program Design 86

Assigning Training Load: example Assigning Training Load: Further


considerations
In subsequent sets as fatigue occurs you may do Two methods to set training load, Which is best
% of 1-RM
fewer reps with same load
1RM calculation good for evaluating training progress
You want the reps to stay in the appropriate 1RM calculation good for motivation
range for your training goal % of 1RM ALONE is a poor way to set training load (must be
combined with count of maximum reps)
SOYou may need to decrease weight to keep # %1-RM methods dominate in basic to intermediate resistance training
reps appropriate for your training goal literature
Repetition Maximum (RM)
REMEMBER: The max # Allows training load to be directly determined to put client in the
reps possible, not the appropriate # reps zone for training goal (no calculations, estimates
%1RM, determines the or errors)
training result of the Many people dont understand it or know about it
exercise! Seen used more commonly in more advanced training programs
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Program Design Variables Volume


1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation repetition-volume: total # reps in a training
2. Choice of exercises session
3. Frequency = # reps/set X # sets

4. Order of exercises
5. Load (weight) load-volume: total amount of weight lifted
in a training session
6. Volume
= # reps/set X # sets X weight/rep
7. Rest periods
8. Variation
9. Progression
Resistance Training Program Design 89 Resistance Training Program Design 90

Volume Volume
Load-Volume depends on # reps, Volume is largely determined by # sets
weight lifted, # sets
But # reps & weight lifted, are largely
determined by training goal (strength, size,
endurance)
So volume is
largely Strength: Core exercises 3-6 sets, Assistance exercises 1-3 sets

determined by #
sets
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Volume Program Design Variables


Volume is largely 1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
determined by # sets 2. Choice of exercises
3. Frequency
Beginners: One set is 4. Order of exercises
sufficient training stimulus 5. Load (weight)
until client is able to 6. Volume
perform multiple sets 7. Rest periods
8. Variation
9. Progression
Resistance Training Program Design 93 Resistance Training Program Design 94

Rest periods Types of Sets (affects Exercise


Order, Volume & Rest variables)
Time between multiple sets of same exercise,
or different exercises for the same muscle Straight set
group, within the same session Standard set and rest pattern
described previously

Techniques for advanced clients


Compound set (NSCA text)
2 exercise sets in a sequence
Untrained clients need up to 2x amount of rest work the same muscle group
listed E.g., bench press & dumbbell flys

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Types of Sets (affects Exercise Types of Sets (affects Exercise


Order, Volume & Rest variables) Order, Volume & Rest variables)
Techniques for advanced clients Techniques for advanced clients
Super sets (NSCA text) Drop Sets (Exercise web site definition)
2 exercise sets in a sequence stress antagonistic 3-4 exercise sets of the same exercise, performed
muscle groups in a sequence without rest, using a lighter weight
E.g., bench press then seated rows on each set
Circuit training (NSCA text)
Exercise sets are performed with minimal rest
periods

Resistance Training Program Design 97 Resistance Training Program Design 98

Program Design Variables Variation


1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
2. Choice of exercises TO:
3. Frequency Lower risk of overtraining
4. Order of exercises Lower risk of injuries
5. Load (weight) Relieve boredom
6. Volume Maintain training intensity
7. Rest periods Stimulate muscle groups in different ways
8. Variation KEEP IMPROVEMENT HAPPENING
9. Progression
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Variation Variation
BY: Pyramid Training (within workout variation)
Changing program variables discussed above increase load & decrease reps across sets
to change the physical (and mental) stimuli
1. Choice of exercises
2. Frequency
Set 1: 75% 1RM, 10 reps
3. Order of exercises Set 2: 80% 1RM, 8 reps
4. Load (weight) Set 3: 85% 1RM, 6 reps
5. Volume
6. Rest periods
Variety within workout
Variety across workouts

Resistance Training Program Design 101 Resistance Training Program Design 102

Variation Variation
Heavy & Light days (across workout variation) Heavy & Light
Heavy day: First day in week you do an days example:
The Path to Athletic Power, Boyd Epley,
exercise, use load calculated as shown Human Kinetics, 2004, ISBN-13:
9780736047012
previously
note: "intensity" = load

Light day: Second day in week you do an


exercise, use 80% load calculated as shown
previously, same # reps
These are not lazy or wimp days,
these are critical to program
design (see next two examples)

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Variation Program Design Variables


Heavy & Light
days 1. Initial consultation and fitness evaluation
example: 2. Choice of exercises
3. Frequency
Faster, Better,
4. Order of exercises
Stronger,
Heiden, Testa, 5. Load (weight)
Musolf, pgs 3-4, 6. Volume
54
7. Rest periods
From: 10 rules to
follow to get in 8. Variation
better shape 9. Progression
Resistance Training Program Design 105 Resistance Training Program Design 106

Progression Progression of load


Client will plateau in gains if progression in 2-for-2 rule:
training stimulus is not provided when if the client can perform two or more repetitions
needed over his or her assigned repetition goal in the last
set in two consecutive workouts for a given
Can increase training stimulus by:
exercise, weight should be added to that exercise
1. Increasing freq/week for the next training session
2. Increasing # exercises
3. Increasing # sets
4. Increasing speed of movement
5. Increasing load
6. Decrease rest period
7. More difficult versions of exercise
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Progression of load Progression of More difficult


How big should the increase be: versions of exercise
Change your position (to fire different motor
units) change hand/foot width & angles, body
position/angle
Change the type of resistance (machine,
cable, free)
Go from bilateral to unilateral
Add a realistic balance challenge
Do more compound movements

Resistance Training Program Design 109 Resistance Training Program Design 110

Progression of More difficult Progression of More difficult


versions of exercise versions of exercise
Machine Progression Progression Progression Leg press Progression Progression Progression
bench press ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Comparison of NSCA text guidelines to 2008 Physical


Progression Activity Guidelines for Americans. US Dept of Health &
Human Services. www.health.gov
Progression, and training, will not, and
should not be planned or envisioned as a Adults (aged 18-64): Should do muscle strengthening
exercises involving major muscle groups 2 or more
staircase +2, so increase load
days/wk
+2, so increase load
Training Weight training, resistance bands, body weight
+2, so increase load
Workload calisthenics, heavy gardening, etc.
+2, so increase load
Perform to point where it would be difficult to do
Time
another repetition
Periodization, discussed later in Athlete One set 8-12 reps is effective, 2-3 sets may be more
Training (but applicable to non-athletes as well) will effective
discuss planned lighter weeks (extensions of the Progressive increase of load is needed

light days discussed previously in this unit). How does this match with NSCA guidelines for strength
development?
Resistance Training Program Design 113 Resistance Training Program Design 114

Comparison of NSCA text guidelines to Comparison of NSCA text guidelines to


other sources. other sources.
HOW TO TRAIN TO HOW TO TRAIN TO PRODUCE
PRODUCE HYPERTROPHY?
HYPERTROPHY?

NSCA view

Strength and Power Hour podcast 09-06-14, Dr. Kramer


and Al Vermeil views. 705

How does this match with NSCA guidelines for hypertrophy


How does this match with NSCA
development? guidelines for hypertrophy development?
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CONDITIONING Task you are


4 Rules of Posture, Chris Leib Jan 13, 2016, http://www.ericcressey.com/4-rules-of-posture
conditioning for
Activities that help the person
an individuals movement practice [i.e. conditioning] should be about movement

KIN 410 Chalmers


be ADAPTABLE Practice or
quality and variability as much as about cultivating strength and conditioning.
E.G. use the warm up as an opportunity for Perform
Mindless prescription of physical activity (i.e. 30-60 minutes of aerobic reinforcing fundamental movement skills
(FMS). I then introduce more Motor Skills SPORT
exercises; 3 sets of 10 of machine based resistance exercise) prioritizes activities that then allow my athletes to improve or
strength and conditioning capacity over movement capability and variability, their skill acquisition.
It is apparent that having a greater store of motor do
hoping that by blindly improving ones quantity of routine movements the skills will enable the athlete not only to adapt to
DAILY
quality of movement will also improve. Dont get me wrong, in moderation, more learning new specific skills more rapidly, but also
to adjust to changing situations within open ACTIVITIES
movement is better than less movement. However, too much of the same ended games more rapidly.
movements can create similar problems as too little movement. PLUS Reinforce the FMS of rolling, crawling, walking,
skipping, balancing and throwing in the warm
Which are

KIN 416 Chalmers


up, working on Balance, rhythm, movement
choice, kinesthetic choice, spatial awareness highly
and reaction to signals
Concepts from Vern Gambetta: I introduce gymnastics into the warm up. variable
Source: http://excelsiorgroup.co.uk/blog/
The goal of conditioning is to develop the ability and
to deliver: unpredictable
PLAY?
The right force
At the right time = quality movement (LACK OF PLAY IN CHILDHOOD IS
At the right place LAMENTED BY GAMBETTA AS
Under control PRODUCES ADAPTATION IMPAIRING THE ATHLETIC ABILITIES OF
CURRENT ATHLETES)
Safely To these exercises
"We want adaptable athletes, not adapted athletes" "We want adaptable athletes, not adapted athletes"
Resistance Training Program Design 117 Resistance Training Program Design 118

CONDITIONING Task you are


1. Stay on top of your soft Activities that help the person conditioning for
tissue work and mobility drills.
be ADAPTABLE
// Eric Cressey | High Performance Training, Personal Training

2. Do a small amount of pre- Practice or


training plyos. Perform
3. Emphasize full-body
exercises that teach transfer of
SPORT
10. Play. Don't be afraid to or
force from the lower body to
have some fun. The longer
the upper body. do
4. Emphasize ground-to- you've been training, the
DAILY
standing transitions. more you realize that your
10 Ways to Remain Athletic as You Age

5. Get strong in single-leg. ACTIVITIES


strength and conditioning
6. Use core exercises that force
you to resist both extension programs have to be Which are
and rotation. PLUS versatile enough to preserve highly
7. Train outside the sagittal your athleticism and
plane. variable
functional capacity while still
8. Chuck medicine balls! and
9. Be fast on your concentric. keeping training fun. unpredictable

PRODUCES ADAPTATION
To these exercises
"We want adaptable athletes, not adapted athletes"
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