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SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEERING

PROJECT REPORT

PROJECT TITLE

PRESSURE VESSEL VERTICAL STAND

COURS CODE MENG 3161

PREPARED BY:

SHUSHAY HAILU

ID NO 4142/07

SECTION 2

SUBMITED TO INSTRACTOR: BERIHU

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Table content

CHAPTER ONE .............................................................................................................................................. vi


PRESSURE VESSELS ....................................................................................................................................... vi
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ vi
1.1 WORKING PRINCIPAL ............................................................................................................................ vi
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ..................................................................................................................... viii
1.3 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................................ viii
1 General objective .................................................................................................................................... viii
2 specific objective ..................................................................................................................................... viii
1.4 methodologies: ...................................................................................................................................... ix
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ......................................................................................................................... ix
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................................. 11
LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................................... 11
2.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF LOAD CASES .......................................................................................................... 11
2.2.1 VERTICAL LOADS ................................................................................................................................ 11
2.2.2 HORIZONTAL LOADS .......................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.3 LIVE LOADS ......................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.4 ECCENTRIC LOADS .............................................................................................................................. 12
2.3 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................................................ 12

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Acknowledgement
I would like to acknowledge and appreciate the great guidance from my project
supervisor, instructor berihu
I would also like to thank my parents and classmates for their encouragement understanding and
support throughout the entire project.
I would also like to thank the almighty God for bringing me this far and giving me the strength to carry
out the project.

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ABSTRACT
Vertical vessels are massive structures used in oil industries which store oil and different fluids. Duet the
massiveness of the structure and pedestal considerations, lug suport design is designed in place of a
simple rectangular footing. The design includes analyzing of loads from superstructure,designof base
plate and design of shell end ,opening,lefftinglug,support. This case study is divided into various sections
that describes classification of varous types of pressure vesseles, design analysis ,result and dissection
,conclusion and recommendation parts of the vertical pressuer vessel and selection of materials used for
construction that are in agreement with current industry practice of vertical pressure vessel.

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CHAPTER ONE

PRESSURE VESSELS

INTRODUCTION

The pressure vessels (i.e. cylinders or tanks) are usedto store fluids under pressure. The fluid being
stored mayundergo a change of state inside the pressure vessel as incase of steam boilers or it may
combine with other reagentsas in a chemical plant. The pressure vessels are designedwith great care
because rupture of a pressure vessel meansan explosion which may cause loss of life and property.The
material of pressure vessels may be brittle such as castiron, or ductile such as mild steel.The pressure
vessels may be classified as follows:1. According to the dimensions. Thepressurevessels,according to
their dimensions, may be classifiedas thin shell or thick shell. If the wall thickness of the shell(t) is
lesshan 1/10 of the diameter of the shell (d), then it iscalled a thin shell. On the other hand, if the wall
thicknessof the shell is greater than 1/10 of thediameter of the shell, then it is said tobe a thick shell. Thin shells are
usedin boilers, tanks and pipes, whereasthickshells are used in high pressurecylinders, tanks, gun barrels etc. Note:
Another criterion to classify thepressure vessels as thin shell or thick shellis the internal fluid pressure (p)
and theallowable stress (t). If the internal fluidpressure (p) is less than 1/6 of the allowablestress, then it
is called a thin shell. On theother hand, if the internal fluid pressure isgreater than 1/6 of the allowable
stress, thenit is said to be a thick shell.2. According to the endconstruction.Thepressurevessels,according
to the end construction, may be classified as open end or closed end. A simple cylinderwith a piston, such
as cylinder of a press is an example of an open end vessel, whereas a tank is anexample of a closed end
vessel. In case of vessels having open ends, the circumferential or hoopstresses are induced by the fluid
pressure, whereas in case of closed ends, longitudinal stresses inaddition to circumferential stresses are
induced. Pressure vessel like cylinder tanks are used to store fluides under heigh pressure .the fluides
being stored many udergo change of state insied the pressuer vessel . the pressure vesseles are
designed wihe great care because raputure of pressure vessel or explosion which may cause loss of life
and propertiy. Pressure vesseles are classified us acording to the dimensions .the pressure vessel
acording to the dimension may be classified us thin or thick shell.if the well thicknes is less than 1/10 of
the diametr of the sheel it is called thine shell.if it is grater than it is called thick shell

1.1 WORKING PRINCIPAL


Vertical pressure vessel consistes of inlet nozzle,head and sheel,skrit suport,blined flanges,cover plat.the
skrit support helpes to suport or to balance the pressure vessel. A nozzle is a cylindrical component that
penetrates into the shell or head of pressure vessel. The nozzle uses Attach piping for flow into or out
of the vessel.Attach instrument connection (level gauges, Thermowells, pressure gauges). Provide access
to the vessel interior at MANWAY.Provide for direct attachment of other equipment items (e.g. heat
exchangers).

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1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
As i start from observing our surrounding problem there are problems and i focus on one point which is
related storage of water, as we know that the water can be taken out from deep dig holes and distributed
through pipes.The suction and pumping process can be done by electrical motor, but sometimes failures
occur on electrical motor, may the pipe lines burst and normally there may be a shortage of water. So
those problems bring shortage of water therefore we should have to design an equipment that store water
with in enough range for solving our problem. Generally, we will design water horizontal pressure vessel.

Vesseles failure can be grouped in to three majore catagories which describes why a vessel failuer
occures .

1 material improper material selection ;defectes in material .


2 designe _ incrrect design data ;in accurate designe method s,in adequate shop testing.
3 Fabrication_ poor quality control;improper in sufficient fabrication procuduers including
welding.

1.3 OBJECTIVE
Objective of this design is to overcome the problem of statement.

1 General objective
_to design and modal vertical pressure vessel

2 specific objective
_to designs

_to select materials

_to draw 2D and 3D

_to outline dimensions

_to determine cylinderical section of pressure vessel

_to select and determine the plate thicness of the end heades.

_to design the skrit suport of the pressure vessel.

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1.4 methodologies:
I use books, like gupta

Ashby,m.f 2005.material selection in mechanical designe.3rd ed. New

Like bhandari,v.b., 2010.design of machine elements.

Like strength of materi

Like material science

Like internet source

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The scope of the project is starting from acknowledgment, abstract, nomenclature, introduction to
screw, litracher review, material selection, force analysis, design analyses, result and diction,
conculition, recommendation.

Collection of input data from research work.

. Study of weight-dimensional parameters

. Study of stresses, deformations in lift

. Study of Vibration and impact resistance.

. Study of Keeping of service life at different loading

. Study of Reliable operation

.study of vibration and impact resistanc.

1.6 Limitation
During designing of water vertical pressure vessel, I have got different limitation. Some of these
are;

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There was a limitation in finding enough literatures concerning with the water
vertical pressure vessel,
Lack of experimental lab/ work shop to do a sample of water vertical pressure vessel.
Limitation of internet accesses.
Shortage of time

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL
In this section a general study on the different type of loads and load combinations is carried out using the
STE03350 - Vertical Vessel Foundation Design guide and various other literatures available. The most
relevant literature available on the study of different load cases has been reviewed and presented in this
Chapter.

2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF LOAD CASES


Different loads are taken into account while analyzing the superstructure i.e. the various vertical loads, the
horizontal wind loads and the eccentric loads.

2.2.1 VERTICAL LOADS


Structure dead load- It is the sum of weights of the pedestal, footing and the overburden soil.
Erection dead load- It is the fabricated weight of the vessel taken from the certified vessel drawing.
Empty dead load- It is the load coming from the trays, insulations, piping, attachments taken from the
drawings.
Test dead load- It is the load coming from the empty weight of the vessel and that of the test fluid
(usually water) required for hydrostatic test.
Operating dead load- It is the weight of the empty vessel plus the weight of the operating fluid during
service conditions.

2.2.2 HORIZONTAL LOADS


Wind load- It is the wind pressure acting on the surface of the vessel, piping and other attachments of
the vessel.

Seismic load- The horizontal earthquake load is applied 100 % in one direction and 30 % on the
orthogonal direction.

2.2.3 LIVE LOADS


Live loads are taken into account as per STE03350 - Vertical Vessel Foundation Design guidelines. Live
loads would not typically control the design of the foundation.

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2.2.4 ECCENTRIC LOADS
Eccentric vessel loads must be taken into account which is caused by large pipes and boilers.

2.3 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


To check stability of structure against stability and overturning.
To check soil bearing pressures not exceeding the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil.
Anchor bolt design to be carried out.
But us we see in the litrature reviw there is no complit spesfications of the design.so I will start to
design steep by steep and with leg support.

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CHAPTER 3

FORCE ANALISES
3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Materials
Materials that used to design this project are:
Stainless steel vessel, unsterilised (304).
Stainless steel nozzle, unstabilised (304).
Carbon Steel skirt support, silicon killed.
50 sieve plates.
Access ladder with plat form.
Insulation mineral wool.

3.2 Assumptions
In order to develop a preliminary design, some assumptions are made and listed below.
No significant loading from piping and external equipment.
Plates and plate supports design is negligible.
Material is double welded butt or equivalent and fully radiographed.
Assume flanges are standard flanges.
Earth quake loading need not be considered

Types of flange, and selection


Several different types of flange are used for various applications. The principal types
used in the process industries are:
1. Welding-neck flanges.
2. Slip-on flanges, hub and plate types.
3. Lap-joint flanges.
4. Screwed flanges.
5. Blank, or blind, flanges.
Welding-neck flanges, Figure 3.1: have a long tapered hub between the flange
ring and the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity
stresses between the flange and branch, and increases the strength of the flange
assembly. Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions; where the
flange is likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will
normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and process
equipment.
Slip-on flanges, Figure 3.1 &: slip over the pipe or nozzle and are welded externally,
and usually also internally. The end of the pipe is set back from 0 to 2.0 mm. The
strength of a slip-on flange is from one-third to two-thirds that of the corresponding
standard welding-neck flange. Slip-on flanges are cheaper than welding-neck flanges and

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Figure 3.1Flange types (a) Welding-neck (b) Slip-on (c) Lap-joint (d) Screwed
are generally used for pipe work. Figure 3.1 ft shows a forged flange with a hub; for
light duties slip-on flanges can be cut from plate.Lap-joint flanges, Figure 3.1 c: are used for piped work.
They are economical whenused with expensive alloy pipe, such as stainless steel, as the flange can be
made frominexpensive carbon steel. Usually a short lapped nozzle is welded to the pipe, but with
some schedules of pipe the lap can be formed on the pipe itself, and this will give a cheap

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method of pipe assembly.Lap-joint flanges are sometimes known as "Van-stone flanges".
Screwed flanges, Figur 3.1 d: are used to connect screwed fittings to flanges. Theyare also
sometimes used for alloy pipe which is difficult to weld satisfactorily,Blind flanges (blank
flanges); are flat plates, used to blank off flange connections, and as covers for manholes and
inspection are easier to align, but have poor resistance to shock and vibration loads. Slip-on
flanges
Flange faces
Flanges are also classified according to the type of flange face used. There are two basic
types1. Full-faced flanges, Figure 3.2 #: where the face contact area extends outside thecircle of bolts;
over the full face of the flange.

Figure 3.2 Flange types and faces (a) Full-face (b) Gasket within bolt circle (c) Spigot and socket (d) Ring
type join

2. Narrow-faced flanges, Figure 3.2, c, d: where the face contact area is located
within the circle of bolts.Full face, wide-faced, flanges are simple and inexpensive, but are only suitable for
lowpressures. The gasket area is large, and an excessively high bolt tension would be neededto achieve sufficient
gasket pressure to maintain a good seal at high operating pressures.The raised face, narrow-faced, flange shown in
Figure 3.4& is probably the mostcommonly used type of flange for process equipment.Where the flange has a plain
face, as in Figure 3.2&, the gasket is held in place byfriction between the gasket and flange surface. In the spigot and
socket, and tongue andgrooved faces, Figure 3.2c, the gasket is confined in a groove, which prevents failure
by"blow-out". Matched pairs of flanges are required, which increases the cost, but this typeis suitable for high
pressure and high vacuum service. Ring joint flanges, Figure 3.2are used for high temperatures and high pressure
services.
Flange design
Standard flanges will be specified for most applications (see Section 13.10.5). Specialdesigns would be used only if
no suitable standard flange were available; or for largeflanges, such as the body flanges of vessels, where it may be
cheaper to size a flangespecifically for the duty required rather than to accept the ports.

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nearest standard flange, whichof necessity would be over-sized.

Figure 3.3. Forces acting on an integral flange

Deflection of a weak flange (exaggerated)

For design purposes, the flanges are classified as integral or loose flanges.Integral flanges are those in which the
construction is such that the flange obtainssupport from its hub and the connecting nozzle (or pipe). The flange
assembly and nozzleneck form an "integral" structure. A welding-neck flange would be classified as an integral
flange,Loose flanges are attached to the nozzle (or pipe) in such a way that they obtain nosignificant support from the
nozzle neck and cannot be classified as an integral attachment.Screwed and lap-joint flanges are typical examples of
loose flanges.The design procedures given in the codes and standards can be illustrated by consideringthe forces and
moments which act on an integral flange, Figure 3.3.The total moment Mop acting on the flange is given by

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WELDED JOINT DESIGN
Process vessels are built up from preformed parts: cylinders, heads, and fittings, joined
by fusion welding. Riveted construction was used extensively in the past (prior to the
1940s) but is now rarely seen.Cylindrical sections are usually made up from plate sections rolled to the required
curvature. The sections (strakes) are made as large as is practicable to reduce the number
of welds required. The longitudinal welded seams are offset to avoid a conjunction of
welds at the corners of the plates.Many different forms of welded joint are needed in the construction of a pressure
vessel. Some typical forms are shown in Figures 3.4 to 3.5.
The design of a welded joint should satisfy the following basic requirements:
1. Give good accessibility for welding and inspection.
2. Require the minimum amount of weld metal.
3. Give good penetration of the weld metal; from both sides of the joint, if practicable.
4. Incorporate sufficient flexibility to avoid cracking due to differential thermal
expansion.codes and standards.The correct form to use for a given joint will depend on the material, the method of
welding (machine or hand), the plate thickness, and the service conditions. Double-sided
V- or U-sections are used for thick plates, and single V- or U-profiles for thin plates.
A backing strip is used where it is not possible to weld from both sides. Lap joints
are seldom used for pressure vessels construction, but are used for atmospheric pressure
storage tanks.

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Figure 3.4. Weld profiles; (b to e) butt welds (a) Lap joint (b) Single V (c)
Backing strip (d) Single U (e) Double U
Figure 3.5. Typical weld profiles Branches (a), (b) Set-on branches (c), (d) Set-in branches

(b) Welded plate (c) Welded plate (a), (b) Set-on branches

(c), (d) Set-in branches

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Figure 3.6. Typical construction methods for welded jackets

Figure 3.7. Transition between plates of unequal thickness

Where butt joints are made between plates of different thickness, the thicker plate is
reduced in thickness with a slope of not greater than 1 in 4 (14) (Figure 3.6).
The local heating, and consequent expansion, that occurs during welding can leave the
joint in a state of stress. These stresses are relieved by post-welding heat treatment. Not

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all vessels will be stress relieved. Guidance on the need for post-welding heat treatment is
given in the codes and standards, and will depend on the service and conditions, materials
of construction, and plate thickness. To ensure that a satisfactory quality of welding is maintained,
welding-machineoperators and welders working on the pressure parts of vessels are required to pass
welderapproval tests; which are designed to test their competence to make sound welds

FATIGUE ASSESSMENT OF VESSELS


During operation the shell, or components of the vessel, may be subjected to cyclic
stresses. Stress cycling can arise from the following causes:
1. Periodic fluctuations in operating pressure.
2. Temperature cycling.
3. Vibration.
4. Water hammer.
5. Periodic fluctuation of external loads.
A detailed fatigue analysis is required if any of these conditions is likely to occur to
any significant extent. Fatigue failure will occur during the service life of the vessel if the
endurance limit (number of cycles for failure) at the particular value of the cyclic stress
is exceeded. The codes and standards should be consulted to determine when a detailed
fatigue analysis must be undertaken.

Fundamental equations
Thick walls are required to contain high pressures, and the assumptions made in the earliersections of this chapter to
develop the design equations for thin-walled vessels will notbe valid. The radial stress will not be negligible and
the tangential (hoop) stress will varyacross the wall.Consider the forces acting on the elemental section of the wall
of the cylinder shownin Figure 3.8. The cylinder is under an internal pressure Pi and an external pressurePe. The
conditions for static equilibrium, with the forces resolved radially, give:

Figure 3.8. Thick cylinder

A second equation relating the radial and tangential stresses can be written if the

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longitudinal strain L and stress _L are taken to be constant across the wall; that is, that
there is no distortion of plane sections, which will be true for sections away from the
ends. The longitudinal strain is given by

If L and _L are constant, then the term must


also be constant, and can be
written as:

THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS UNDER


INTERNAL PRESSURE
3.5.1. Cylinders and spherical shells
For a cylindrical shell the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure canbe determined from
equation 3.7; the cylindrical stress will be the greater of the twoprincipal stresses.If Di is internal diameter
and e the minimum thickness required, the mean diameterwill be _Di C e_; substituting this for D in
equation 13.7 gives

where f is the design stress and Pi the internal pressure. Rearranging gives:
This is the form of the equation given in the British Standard PD 5500.
An equation for the minimum thickness of a sphere can be obtained from equation
The equation for a sphere given in BS 5500 is:

If a welded joint factor is used equations

Heads and closures

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The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. The principal
types used are:
1. Flat plates and formed flat heads;
2. Hemispherical heads;
3. Ellipsoidal heads;
4. Torispherical heads;

Choice of closure

Flat plates are used as covers for manways, and as the channel covers of heat exchangers.
Formed flat ends, known as flange-only ends, are manufactured by turning over a flange
with a small radius on a flat plate, Figure 13.9a. The corner radius reduces the abrupt

Figure 3.9. Domed heads (a) Hemispherical


(b) Ellipsoidal (c) Torispherical

Design of Torispherical heads

There are two junctions in a torispherical end closure: that between the cylindrical section
and the head, and that at the junction of the crown and the knuckle radii. The bending
and shear stresses caused by the differential dilation that will occur at these points must
be taken into account in the design of the heads. One approach taken is to use the basic
equation for a hemisphere and to introduce a stress concentration, or shape, factor to
allow for the increased stress due to the discontinuity. The stress concentration factor is
a function of the knuckle and crown radii

The ratio of the knuckle to crown radii should not be less than 0.06, to avoid buckling;and the crown
radius should not be greater than the diameter of the cylindrical section.Any consistent set of units can be
used with equations 3.4 and 3.4. For formed heads(no joints in the head) the joint factor J is taken as 1.0

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COMPENSATION FOR OPENINGS AND BRANCHES
All process vessels will have openings for connections, manways, and instrument fittings.
The presence of an opening weakens the shell, and gives rise to stress concentrations.
The stress at the edge of a hole will be considerably higher than the average stress in
the surrounding plate. To compensate for the effect of an opening, the wall thickness is
increased in the region adjacent to the opening. Sufficient reinforcement must be provided
to compensate for the weakening effect of the opening without significantly altering the
general dilation pattern of the vessel at the opening. Over-reinforcement will reduce the
flexibility of the wall, causing a hard spot, and giving rise to secondary stresses; typical
arrangements are shown in Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.10. Types of compensation for openings (a) Welded pad (b) Inset nozzle (c) Forged
ring

Calculation of reinforcement required


The equal area method is the simplest method used for calculating the amount of
reinforcement required, and is allowed in most design codes and standards. The principle
used is to provide reinforcement local to the opening, equal in cross-sectional area to the
area removed in forming the opening,

Figure 3.10. If the actual thickness of the vessel

Figure3.11. Equal-area method of compensation

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Special flanges that are required to be designed shouldonly be used as a last resort. Whenever possible,
standardflanges should be utilized. In general, special designs as outlinedin this procedure are done for
large or high-pressuredesigns. Flanges in this category will be governed by one oft u 7 0 conditions:
1. Gasket seating force, Wm7
2. Hydrostatic end force, H
For high-pressure flanges, typically the hydrostatic endforce, H, will govern. For low-pressure flanges,
the gasketseating force will govern. Therefore the strategy forapproaching the design of these flanges will
vary. The strategyis as follows:e For low-pressure flanger<I. Minimize the gasket width to reduce
theforce necessaryto seat the gasket.b LJse a larger number of smaller diameter bolts to minimizethe bolt
circle diameter and thus reduce themoment drm which governs the flange thickness.c Utilize liubless
flanges (either lap joint or plate flanges)to minimize the cost of forgings.e For high-pressure
flangesHigh-pressure flanges require a large bolt area to counteracthe large hydrostatic end force.
Largebolts, in turn,increase the bolt circle with a corresponding increase inthe moment arm. Thicker
flanges and large hubs arenecessary to distribute the bolt loads. Seek a balancebetween the quantity and
size of bolts, bolt spacing, andbolt circle diameter.Figure 13.14. Branch compensationSpecial Flanges

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DESIGN OF VESSELS SUBJECT TOEXTERNAL PRESSURE
3.7.1. Cylindrical shells
Two types of process vessel are likely to be subjected to external pressure: those operated
under vacuum, where the maximum pressure will be 1 bar (atm); and jacketed vessels,
where the inner vessel will be under the jacket pressure. For jacketed vessels, the maximumz
pressure difference should be taken as the full jacket pressure, as a situation may arise
in which the pressure in the inner vessel is lost. Thin-walled vessels subject to external
pressure are liable to failure through elastic instability (buckling) and it is this mode of
failure that determines the wall thickness required.For an open-ended cylinder, the critical pressure to
cause buckling Pc is given by thefollowing expression; see Windenburg and Trilling (1934)

where L = the unsupported length of the vessel, the effective length,


DO = external diameter,
t = wall thickness,
E = Young's modulus,
v Poisson's ratio,
n = the number of lobes formed at buckling.
For long tubes and cylindrical vessels this expression can be simplified by neglecting
terms with the group (2L/Do)2 m me denominator; the equation then becomes:

Lug support
This is a common means of support for vertical vessType equation here.els that are mounted on I-beams.
Brackets or lugs offer many advantages over other types of supports. They are inexpensive, can absorb
diametrical expansions, areeasily attached to the vessel by minimum amounts of welding, and are easily
leveled in the field. As a result of eccentricity of this type of support, compressive, tensile and shear
stresses are introduced in the wall of the vessel. Lug supports are ideal for thick-walled vessels since the
thick wall has a considerable moment of inertia and is therefore capable of absorbing flexural stresses due
to the eccentricity of the loads. In thin-walled vessels, however, this type of support is not convenient
unless the proper reinforcements are used or many lugs are welded to the vessel.

2.2. Design of Leg Support


The dimensions of leg support are found out by considering the pressure vessel as a cantilever beam
Subjected toaxial lading at its centre of gravity and subjected to bending load of wind. The free body
diagram for above mentionloading condition and considered I section will be as follows-

Fig 1 Free body diagram and cross section of Le


Assumptions for above I section are as follows Width = height of I section = b (mm)
Thickness of web = d (mm) = 0.1 b Distance between ground and CG = 1113 + 15242637 mm
The area of cross section (A) for above section will be

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