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Capediem Tech-Protection Section 1

Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

Restricted Earth Fault Relay


Objective: To understand the working principle of REF Relay

Power Equipment to be Protected: Power Transformer

Relay Used: 7PG23

Discussion: REF is employed basically on transformer with vector group delta star , it is usually like
Differential Protection of Transformer.

In this we employed 1 Current transformer at star point of star-secondary point of Transformer , three
current transformers with ring type connection is employed as per figure below.
Capediem Tech-Protection Section 2
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

In Ring Connection , the Principle of Current circulation is applied

Ia+Ib+Ic=0

and in star point of Transformer will be zero.

concept of high impedance and low impedance:

in high impedance REF relay ,the star point of transformer must be equipped with internal or external
resistor , the internal resistor must be located in high impedance relay and external resistor will be
provided outside relay .

in high impedance REF relay the ratio of Phase and neutral CTs must be same, but in low impedance REF
relay it is not necessary, knee point voltage of high impedance REF relay CTs must be same, stabilization
voltage of high impedance relay is another deciding factor in relay operation when setting voltage is
equal to stabilization voltage relay not operate , but when stabilization voltage will higher then setting
voltage the relay operates.

in high impedance REF relay we must provide Metal oxide varistor(MOV) for protection from high
voltages surges, and if CT ratios are different then we employees the interposing CTs(auxiliary CTs) to
prevent from spill current, in low impedance no such thing as interposing CTs required.

stabilization voltage=(Maximum fault current relay*Ct secondary resistance * lead resistance)/CT Turn
ratio

safety factor recommended is 2,

Vk=2*Vsetting

Minimum primary operating current of Relay=CT turn ratio*(Relay operating current*no: of


CTs*magnetization current of CTs*Varistor Current at Setting voltage)
Capediem Tech-Protection Section 3
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

when fault occur outside the restricted area, the zero sequence of Red phase to earth still flows through
Red and neutral Ct so new Relay not operates.

in case of internal fault , the equilibrium disturbed , and abnormal current of red to earth flows through
CT-neutral also, this result in relay operation.
Capediem Tech-Protection Section 4
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

Example Working:
8 MVA transformer with Z=0.0835p.u,Tap=+/-10%,CTR=800/1 Location: Confidential

Solution:

Fault MVA=8MVA/0.0835=95.8084

Fault Current Primary=(Fault MVA/(1.732*6.6KV))*1000=8281.06A

in secondary, CTR=800/1 and Fault Secondary Current=Fault maximum/CT


Ratio=8281.06/800=10.4763A

Vs=Fault Secondary current*(Rct+RL)

since Rl we consider 1 ohm with two leads, Rct is usually 4ohms

Vs=10.4763*(4+2)=65.8579V

Relay will be set 0.1In for maximum sensitivity

Stabilizing Resistor=Rs =(Vs/0.1)-(AC burden/0.1 sqr)

AC burden setting in 7PG23 relay is given as Vs*20mA=65.8579*20mA=1.317158VA

Rs=(65.8579/0.1)-(1.317158/0.01)=526.8632ohms

CTs must have Knee point voltage = 2*Vs=131.7158( i.e. safety factor=2)

Operating time of Relay= 45ms at 3*Vs

Thank you