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May 2010

Using a Power Combining Technique

By Tom Valencia and Stephane Wloczysiak, Skyworks Solutions, Inc.

Abstract

Today’s broadband communications use high order modulation transmission scheme that provide higher spectrum

efficiency but with a high crest factor [1,2]. As a result, a linear power amplifier (PA) in the transmit chain operates at

a significantly backed-off power from compression to meet the linearity performance of error vector magnitude (EVM)

and adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR).

Portable electronics such as laptops and cell phones that integrate a broadband interface like WLAN need to minimize current

consumption. In these cases, the PA circuit is usually designed and optimized for a given rated transmit power to maximize

efficiency. And the headroom or margin to its maximum operating power that guarantees EVM and ACPR performance may be in

the order of a single decibel. Therefore, usage of the device is limited to a fairly narrow power range.

This document describes a method to extend the headroom of a PA by the use of a power combining technique. Power combiners

and splitters are popular RF components that can be used to combine power from different sources, or to split RF receive signals for

processing through different receive chains.

The first section of this document presents the theory of power combining. It is demonstrated that combining the output of two

identical PAs can increase the transmitter output power by a factor of 3 dB while maintaining the same level of linearity performance.

The second section provides an example that illustrates and verifies the theory of operation. It shows the results of combining two

Skyworks SKY65152-11 PAs [3] using a WLAN 802.11g test bench.

Transmit Power Extension

Power Combiners/Splitters

A passive power combiner is a multi-port device that performs the linear function of adding incoming signals to a single output. As a

passive device, the power combiner is reversible and can be used as a power splitter when using the combined output as the input.

There are various types of power combiner circuits, depending on the number of signals combined together and whether they

combine power in phase, in quadrature or even out of phase. [3] provides additional information about power combiner design.

A two-way power combiner circuit that adds two incoming signals in phase is shown in Figure 1. Insertion loss from an ideal circuit

(3 dB) is diagrammed in Figure 2.

A 3 dB Output Power Increase

Figure 3 shows a power combiner excited by two in-phase sources, V1 and V2. The sources are plotted against time along with the

output of the combiner, V3.

From a mathematical standpoint, the ideal power combiner adds the two signals according to the following equation:

Where A1, A2, f1, f2 and φ being the amplitude, frequency and phase shift of the two tones V1 and V2.

With the two signals V1 and V2 having the same amplitude, frequency and phase, the ideal combiner output voltage, V3, shown in

Figure 4, is therefore:

Figure 5 shows the results when one of the inputs is zero (V2 in this case). It is interesting to note that the output of the combiner,

V3, is now 3 dB lower than the input, V1, which equation (1) demonstrates as well.

Combined and standalone amplifier circuits are diagrammed in Figure 6. The top circuit shows two amplifiers in a combined

configuration. The RF source, V1, is split into two signals, each one equal in amplitude and phase. The two signals feed the input of

two PAs, AMP1 and AMP2.

The outputs of the two amplifiers are combined together in the same way previously described. The bottom circuit shown in Figure

6 diagrams the corresponding standalone amplifier, AMP3, which has 32 dB of gain and a 1 dB output compression point (OP1dB)

of +33 dBm.

Figure 7 shows the results of a simulation of output power versus input power for both circuits. The saturated power (Psat) of the

combined amplifier circuit (marker 2) is 3 dB higher than the Psat of the standalone amplifier (marker 1).

Figure 8 shows the gain versus output power (Pout) characteristic of both circuits. It is very interesting to notice that in the linear

region, both circuits have the same 32 dB Small Signal Gain (SSG). However, the gain rolls off sooner for the standalone amplifier

(solid line) and the OP1dB of the combined circuit is +36 dBm (m7) compared to only +33 dBm (m8) for the standalone amplifier.

A possible application of the combined amplifier may be to improve linearity. As a matter of fact, for a given output power, the gain

compression of the combined amplifier circuit is less than the gain compression of the standalone amplifier. In practice, the

combiner has some loss (S31 = S32 < –3 dB) that reduces the combined OP1dB in the order of 0.5 dB for a 2.5 GHz combiner.

Note that the power splitter insertion loss has no impact on OP1dB because it is placed before the PA, but does affect the SSG.

Other parameters may also reduce OP1dB. In fact, the peak voltages of the two amplifiers add up only if they are in phase.

Figure 9 shows that a 45 degree phase shift between the two legs of the circuit produces a 0.7 dB drop in gain. (The gain is

reduced from 32dB to 31.3dB (marker 2)). Because the input for the two amplifiers comes from the same RF source, the phase

mismatch is only due to the power splitter, PA, combiner, and board layout.

A narrow band splitter/combiner can easily achieve less than a 5 degree phase imbalance while the PA contribution (such as with

the SKY65152-11) is fairly small when the input/output matching is integrated within a multi chip module (MCM). Eventually, the RF

designer should pay attention to the PCB layout design to make sure the traces that connect each side of the splitter and combiner

to the PAs have the same length, which will help to minimize any phase difference.

Test Set Up

A WLAN 802.11g test bench is diagrammed in Figure 10. The 802.11g output waveform of the signal generator feeds a power

splitter. The outputs of the power splitter provide an input signal to both of the 27dBm SKY65152-11 WLAN PAs [4].

A power combiner combines the output of the two PAs, which is analyzed for EVM using a vector demodulator.

The insertion loss of the power splitter is 3.3 dB (see Figure 11). The insertion loss of the power combiner is 3.5 dB (see Figure 12).

The phase mismatch between the two paths was measured to be less than 5 degrees, which does not impact the output power, as

indicated in Figure 9.

In Figure 13, gain is plotted against output power at 2.442GHz frequency for the three different circuits: two standalone circuits

(PA1 and PA2) and one combined circuit (PA1/PA2).

The gain of standalone circuits PA1 and PA2 is 32.7 dB and 31.8 dB, respectively, at an output power of +3 dBm. The gain of the

combined circuit (PA1/PA2) is 31.7 dB because of the insertion loss due to the splitter and combiner. However, the saturated output

power plotted in Figure 14 is about 2 dB higher (+38 dBm) for the combined circuit compared to the standalone circuits (PA1 = +36

dBm and PA2 = +35.1 dBm).

WLAN 802.11g Modulated Measurements

The EVM performance of the combined PA circuit was compared to a standalone PA circuit for compliance with the WLAN 802.11 g

standard. Figure 15 shows that a standalone WLAN PA can transmit up to +27.6 dBm and meet a 2.5 percent EVM. However, the

combined PAs can transmit up to +30 dBm for the same 2.5 percent EVM level.

The impact on EVM of phase mismatch between the two paths is shown in Figure 16. EVM has no effect at a lower output power.

The main affect on the RF performance, which was theoretically evaluated in the previous section of this document (refer to Figure

9), is to decrease the combining efficiency and reduce the maximum output power.

Theoretically, power drops by 0.7 dB and 3 dB for a 45 degree and 90 degree phase imbalance, respectively.

EVM measurement data follow the same trend: 2.5 percent EVM is achieved for an output power of +28 dBm and +25.5 dBm, which

corresponds to a 45 degree and 90 degree phase imbalance, respectively, compared to +30 dBm when there is no mismatch.

Efficiency was also compared between the different PA circuits. For the 2.5 percent EVM threshold, Figure 17 shows that the

standalone PA transmits +27 dBm and achieves 15% efficiency. For the same EVM performance, the combined PA circuit transmits

+30 dBm and achieves 14% efficiency.

Conclusion

Power combining techniques can significantly increase the transmit output power of a PA, ideally up to 3 dB. The example described

in this document shows the simplicity of the combined circuit. It also demonstrates that the output power of the SKY65152-11 WLAN

PA can be extended from 27 to +30 dBm while maintaining good linearity and efficiency performance.

References

[1] Fong, B., Hong, G. Y., and Fong, A. C. M. “A Modulation Scheme for Broadband Wireless Access in High Capacity Networks.”

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 3, August 2002.

[2] RF Testing of WLAN Products. Agilent Application Note 1380-1. http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5988-3762EN.pdf.

[3] Pozar, D.M., Microwave Engineering, Third Edition, New York, John Wiley & Sons: 2005.

[4] WLAN Power Amplifier Datasheet. http://www.skyworksinc.com/uploads/documents/200968F.pdf.

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