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- Pipeline Buckling Caused by Axial Loads
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advanced analysis and fire design are just a few of IN THE SPEC?

the updates in the 2016 AISC Specification. BY SAM BAER AND

MATTHEW TROEMNER

AISC IS SET to release the 2016 edition of the Specification for tions that included the width-to-thickness ratio of the element

Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-16) in the near future. and was a constant for a particular shape, regardless of the load

Changes from the 2010 edition reflect the Committee on on the column; these Q values were tabulated in the Manual.

Specifications desire to implement only essential changes For stiffened elements, Q was based on the ratio of a reduced

that reflect new research, provide for more efficient designs effective area to the gross area of the member and was a func-

or broaden its scope. Many of these changes were technical in tion of the magnitude of the column stress.

nature, though edits were also made that focused on improving While the 2010 Specification used a reduced effective area ap-

usability, transparency and editorial content. proach for stiffened elements, this methodology has now been

The following is a brief overview of the most significant refined and expanded to include both stiffened and unstiffened

changes, some of which have the potential to substantially af- elements. The new provisions determine the reduced effective

fect design procedures. A complete list of differences between area and use that along with the unmodified column critical

the 2010 and 2016 AISC Specification will soon be available as a stress to determine compressive strength. As in the past, classifi-

free download at www.aisc.org/manualresources. cation of members as slender element members, as determined

in Table B4.1a, is based on the assumption that the column

HSS Standards stress has reached the yield stress, Fy. Thus, members that were

ASTM A1085 and ASTM A1065 have been added to the considered slender in prior editions of the Specification continue

2016 Specification as approved hollow structural section (HSS) with that same designation. However, because the magnitude

material standards. ASTM A1085 is a newly developed mate- of the stress on the column influences the local buckling of the

rial standard that has more stringent requirements than other member elements (for all but round HSS), members that have

already approved HSS standards (such as ASTM A500), includ- been designated as slender element members may not actually

ing a mass tolerance and a stricter wall thickness tolerance. As experience a reduction in strength due to that slender element.

a result of these requirements, the design wall thickness can be For round HSS, the effective area is based on the diameter-to-

taken as the full nominal wall thickness. thickness ratio and the yield stress of the material.

ASTM A1065 is an HSS standard based on the use of al-

ready approved ASTM plate material standards. Due to the

similarly reduced tolerances of these existing plate standards,

design wall thickness for A1065 can also be taken as the full

nominal wall thickness. It is important to note, however, that

the 2016 Specification still requires that the design thickness of

other HSS materials, including the more common ASTM A500,

be taken as 0.93 times the nominal wall thickness.

Additionally, ASTM A1085 and A1065 specify a minimum

yield stress of 50 ksi regardless of shape. Further information

on the benefits and impact of A1085 is detailed in the Septem-

ber 2013 article Hollow Product, Solid Benefit, available at

www.modernsteel.com.

The method for determining compressive strength of mem- Sam Baer is a civil engineering student at Cornell University and a

bers with slender elements has been revised in the 2016 Speci- former engineering and research intern with AISC, and Matthew

fication. Since 1969, the Specification used an approach centered Troemner, troemner@aisc.org is a an architectural and structural

on a reduction factor, Q, which modified the column critical engineering student at the Illinois Institute of Technology and a

stress. For slender unstiffened elements, Q was given by equa- current engineering and research intern with AISC.

specwise

The provisions for double angles and tees in flexure have ASTM A1085 and ASTM A1065 have been added to the

been reorganized for clarity. 2016 Specification as approved HSS material standards.

The changes in determining compressive strength for mem- For tension field action, several of the restrictions found in

bers with slender elements have significantly altered the nomi- the 2010 Specification have been relaxeddesigners may see

nal compressive strength of select steel shapes (the difference some increased shear strength for interior panels of beams with

for one such case is shown in Figure 1). Further information stiffener spacing less than or equal to the height of the beam

on the impact of this change and other affected shapes can be web in cases that previously could not have taken advantage of

found in the third-quarter 2016 Engineering Journal article tension field action.

Notes on the AISC 360-16 Provisions for Slender Compres- With the increase in available shear strength, the require-

sion Elements in Compression Members. ments for stiffeners have been increased. If the increase in avail-

able shear strength is to be used, larger transverse stiffeners

WT1545 with slender stem, Fy = 50 ksi than were required by the 2010 Specification may be necessary.

350

The provisions for double angles and tees in flexure have been

250 reorganized so that the distinction between their provisions is

clearer. In addition, the lateral-torsional buckling provisions for

200

Pn, kips

stems and legs in tension are given separately from the provi-

150 sions for stems and legs in compression. Flange local buckling

provisions for tees have remained unchanged but for double

100

angles it is now clear that strength should be determined as that

50 of two single angles. Stem local buckling of tees was added to the

2010 Specification for the first time and these provisions have been

0 revised in 2016 to more correctly reflect the strength for this

0 10 20 30 limit state. As with flange local buckling, stem local buckling of

Effective Length, Lc, (KL)

double angles is to be assessed as for two single angles.

Figure 1. Comparison of available compressive strength to The 2016 Specification contains revised provisions for the

effective length from the 2010 to the 2016 Specification. lateral-torsional buckling limit state of single angles that are

simply a reorganization of the previous editions equations. The

nominal moment strength is a function of the elastic lateral-

Shear Strength for I-Shaped Members and Channels torsional buckling moment, formerly defined as Me and now

Chapter G of the 2016 Specification includes two significant as Mcr , which is given for bending about the major principal

changes in the provisions for I-shaped members and channels. axis of all single angles or the special case of bending about the

The provisions for determining shear strength without consid- geometric axis of equal leg angles.

eration of tension field action have been revised to allow for

inclusion of some post-buckling strength. This leads to an in- Connections

crease in available shear strength for certain built-up girders. In The requirement for length of longitudinal fillet welds when

addition, the web plate shear buckling coefficient has been in- used alone in end connections of tension members has been

creased from 5 to 5.34 to better reflect its theoretical derivation. revised. The requirement from Section J2.2bthat weld length

Since all W-shapes have webs that will be controlled for shear be at least equal to the distance between the parallel weldshas

by the limit state of yielding, these changes will not impact the been replaced by a revised approach for calculation of the shear

shear strength of these members. lag factor in Section D3 for longitudinal welds in end connec-

DECEMBER 2016

specwise

J when applicable to HSS connections and only uses Chapter

K for specific requirements pertinent to HSS and box-section

connections. This resulted in the Chapter K tables being re-

vised to reflect a reduction in the types of connections covered

in that chapter, with the other cases treated according to the

more fundamental approaches provided in Chapter J.

Appendix 1 permits the use of analysis methods that are

more sophisticated than those normally used in design. Section

1.2 has been added to Appendix 1 in the 2016 Specification to

permit elastic analysis that includes direct modeling of system

and member imperfections. The advantage of this analysis ap-

proach is in the determination of compressive strength using

only the member cross-section strength without the need to

Welding requirements have seen some changes in the new spec. consider member length effects.

Design for Fire Conditions includes two additions. A new table

tions of tension members. Thus, shorter welds, as well as differ- relating bolt temperature to available strength is provided, and a

ent length parallel welds, are permitted, but the resulting shear simplified method is presented for calculating the nominal flexural

lag factor will be small and the strength of the member will be strength of a composite beam using the bottom flange tempera-

reduced accordingly. In addition, the specific situational limi- ture. This new method incorporates the use of a tabulated reten-

tations for fillet weld terminations, stopped short or extended, tion factor dependent on the bottom flange temperature and the

have been removed and replaced with a performance-based re- nominal flexural strength of the composite beam at ambient tem-

quirement that the termination does not result in a notch sub- perature, calculated according to the provisions of Chapter I.

ject to applied tension loads. The weld also must not prevent These are just some of the changes to the Specification and

deformation required to provide assumed design conditions. should not be thought of as the only ones that might impact a

Two new ASTM bolt standards originally approved in 2014, particular project. A complete review is highly recommended so

that address bolts with a minimum tensile strength of 200 ksi, have that one is familiar with the new version when building codes

been approved for use in the 2016 Specification. These bolts have that incorporate it are adopted. For additional information on

been incorporated into the Specification via the designation Group the major differences between the 2010 and 2016 Specification,

C bolts and cover ASTM F3043 and F3111 material. To date, take a look at the 2016 NASCC: The Steel Conference presenta-

these are only available as proprietary products, but ASTM en- tion An Overview: The 2016 AISC Specification for Structural

courages other producers to propose alternatives. Another change Steel Building, available at www.aisc.org/2016nascconline.

implemented by ASTM that impacts the Specification is the devel-

opment of a summary bolt standard, F3125 which includes the

former A325, A490 and similar standards as grades. For Group A The new version of the specification includes a handful of

bolts of diameters greater than 1 in., the specified minimum bolt significant updates to bolted connections.

tensile strength had previously been 105 ksi and is now the same as

for smaller bolt diameters: 120 ksi. This increase results in a higher

available slip resistance for larger Group A bolts.

The requirement of pretensioned bolted connections in

multistory structures over 125 ft for column splices and con-

nections of beams and girders bracing columns has been re-

moved, since it was arbitrary and could not be supported by any

technical rationale. Additionally, for bolts of diameter 1 in. and

greater, the maximum nominal diameter of standard size holes

and the maximum nominal width of short-slots and long-slots

has been increased by 116 in. The increase in maximum allow-

able hole size provides for greater ease of erection when con-

nections make use of large-diameter bolts.

Chapter K in the Specification was changed from Design

of HSS and Box Member Connections to Additional Re-

quirements for HSS and Box Section Connections to reflect

a change in approach that uses the requirements of Chapter

DECEMBER 2016

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