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Table of Contents

Table of Contents........................................................................................................................... 1
1 System Description...................................................................................................................... 2
1.1 Design Basis..................................................................................................................2
1.1.1 Design Flow Rates ................................................................................................................2
1.1.2 Design Feed Water Characteristics........................................................................................2
1.2 Process Description.......................................................................................................4
1.3 Biological Process Design.............................................................................................4
1.4 ZW-500D Ultrafiltration Membrane Design...............................................................13
1.5 Mechanical Process Equipment...................................................................................14
1.6 Membrane Cleaning Requirements.............................................................................15
1.6.1 Relaxation............................................................................................................................16
1.6.2 Backpulse or Backwash.......................................................................................................16
1.6.3 Maintenance Clean..............................................................................................................18
1.6.4 Recovery Clean....................................................................................................................19
1.7 Dosing Pumps and Tanks.............................................................................................21

Annexure I- Compressed Air Calculations


Anneuxre II -List of Antifoam with MSDS
Annexure III List of Installations

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1 System Description
GE Water & Process Technologies (GEWPT) has prepared a design summary for the ZeeWeed
MBR for BINA refinery. This summary includes the following information:
Basis of design
Biological design and estimated chemical consumption for biological process
Membrane design and estimated cleaning chemical consumption
Process description and treatment philosophy

1.1 Design Basis


1.1.1 Design Flow Rates
The ZeeWeed MBR system has been designed for a constant flow of 9.0 MLD. Any flow greater
than mentioned above has to be equalized prior to the bioreactor.
The membrane trains have a capacity of 9.0 MLD with all membrane trains in operation. If one of
the trains is off line for cleaning or maintenance, the plant flow capacity will be reduced
accordingly. This document provides a detailed description on cleaning procedures and the
Operations and Maintenance Manual will include description of all the MBR operations.
Table 1.1: Design Flow Rates

Flow Rate Flow Rate


Parameter (MLD) (m3/h)
Design Flowrate (with all membrane trains in operation) 9.0 375
Design Flowrate (with one membrane train off line) 6.75 281

1.1.2 Design Feed Water Characteristics


The wastewater treatment for BINA refinery will consist of primary treatment (API, TPI
Separators & DAF Units) followed by Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) and ZeeWeed MBR
system.
Table 1.2 summarizes the feed characteristics to the MBR system provided by Hindustan Dorr-
Oliver Limited (HDO). The feed quality is the expected effluent quality of the SBR. Assumptions
and exceptions have been included in the notes below the tables.
The influent minimum water temperature was not specified on the tender specifications.
Therefore, an assumed minimum feed water temperature of 25C was utilized for designing the
biological and membrane processes.

Table 1.2: Feed Characteristics and Effluent Quality

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Parameter Unit Influent Effluent
25 (minimum)
Water Temperature (Note 1) C N/A
35 (Maximum)
BOD3, 27C mg/L 100 5
COD mg/L 200 20 (Note 2)
Maximum Oil mg/L 5 1 (Note 3)
TSS mg/L 20 3
Phenols mg/L 20 0.35 (Note 4)
Sulfides mg/L 30 0.5 (Note 5)
Cyanide mg/L 1 0.2 (note 6)
Total Nitrogen mg/L 25 3 (Note 7)
Phosphorous mg/L 3 3
Influent Alkalinity (Note 8) mg/L 0 R1 N/A
SDI N/A 3
pH 7-8 6.5 8.5

o
R1 Note 1: Minimum Wastewater temperature has been assumed to be 25 C. A maximum of 35 C
is acceptable for the biological process and membrane operation.
Note 2: An effluent COD 20 mg/L is achievable if the non-biodegradable portion of influent
COD is <20 mg/L.
Note 3: Oil present in the wastewater should not be free oil. The effluent value is achievable if oil
present is biodegradable in nature.
Note 4: The effluent value is achievable if phenols present are biodegradable in nature.
Note 5: It is assumed that sulphides present in wastewater are all in metal form and there is no
H2S present.
Note 6: The effluent value is achievable based if cyanide present is biodegradable in nature
R1 Note 7: An effluent TN < 3 mg/L in the effluent can only be achieved on below assumptions:
1. Influent TN to MBR: 25 mg/L
2. TN in suspended form: 15 mg/L. It is assumed that this concentration will be
maintained in suspended form and will be rejected by the membrane system.
3. TN in soluble form: 10 mg/L.
4. Maximum non-biodegradable content of soluble TN: 0.3 mg/L
R1 Note 8: The influent alkalinity is zero as the alkalinity of 183 mg/l present in the effluent is
consumed in SBR. The additional alkalinity required will be added at inlet. The typical
design for target effluent alkalinity is 50 mg/L.

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1.2 Process Description
Prior to the Membrane Bioreactor, the wastewater treatment for BINA refinery will consist of
primary treatment (API, TPI Separators and DAF Units) followed by Sequencing Batch Reactors
(SBR).
The effluent of the SBR treatment will be collected in an MBR feed tank where submersible
pumps will transfer wastewater into the Bioreactor Splitter Box. Wastewater is combined with
the recycled mixed liquor from the membrane trains and is equally distributed into two biological
trains. Supplemental carbon will be added in the Splitter Box should the influent carbon be
insufficient for the biological process. Sodium hydroxide and antifoam agents will be added if
required. A bypass of the SBR is included should the influent to the MBR be deficient in nutrients
which will affect the biological process.
Mixed liquor flows through each biological process train by gravity from the anoxic to the
aerobic zone and into the Bioreactor Collector Channel. Foam and scum are collected in a foam
trap located at one end of the overflow channel via a motorized downward opening gate. Dry-pit
centrifugal pumps will transfer foam, scum and waste activated sludge to the sludge handling
facility.
Mixed liquor recirculation pumps will transfer mixed liquor from the Bioreactor Collector
Channel into the Membrane Tank Splitter Channel. Mixed liquor flows by gravity into (4)
parallel ZeeWeed membrane tanks via partially submerged sluice gates, which are designed to
ensure equal flow distribution to all the membrane tanks and same water level in all tanks. The
mixed liquor overflows to the Membrane Tank Collector Channel and it flows by gravity to the
Bioreactor Splitter Box where it is combined with the influent before entering the anoxic zones.
Clean water is withdrawn from the mixed liquor through the membrane using a dedicated
permeate pump and is discharged to a common collector header discharging to the Treated
Effluent Tank. Permeate will be used from this tank for backpulsing and cleaning the
membranes.
The system is completed with membrane tank drain pumps. These pumps are common to all
membrane trains and will drain the membrane tanks when required.

1.3 Biological Process Design


Based on the process requirements and influent characteristics provided by HDO, a Modified
R1 Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process was selected for BINA MBR system. This process is a
standard design in wastewater treatment industry, for further details, please refer to Wastewater
Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, Ed. 4th.
This design consists of the influent being fed into an anoxic zone followed by an aerobic zone.
Nitrate formed in the aerobic and membrane zones, is recycled back to the anoxic zone where it is
denitrified. Having the anoxic zone as a first zone, allows for maximum influent BOD utilization
for denitrification (maximized C:N ratio).
The design for BINA consists of two biological trains, each with two (2) anoxic zones and two
(2) aerobic zones. The following three tables (1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6) summarize the process design
and further sections provide detailed calculations.

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Table 1.3: Membrane Bioreactor Operating Volumes

Design Parameters Anoxic Zone Aerobic Zones

Number of Biological Trains 2 2


Number of Tanks per Train R1 2 2
Working Volume per Tank 125 m3 207.5 m3
Working Volume per Train 250 m3 415 m3
Total Operating Volume per Plant 500 m3 830 m3
Total Biological Operating Volume 1330 m3
Assumed Average Tank Working Depth 5.8 m 5.5 m
Minimum Freeboard* 0.5 m 0.8 m R1

*Freeboard required for any level variation and for foam containment

Table 1.4: Membrane Bioreactor Operating Conditions

The following table is a summary of the membrane bioreactor operating


conditions. Detailed calculations are provided on Table 1.9.

Design Parameters Values Units


Average MLSS in Aerobic Tanks 8 g/L
Average MLSS in Membrane Tanks 10 g/L
Design MLVSS/MLSS ratio (%
volatile Solids) 92.0 %
Assumed Inert Fraction of MLVSS 20 %
(Note 1)
Design Hydraulic Retention Time 4.3 hours
Design Solids Retention Time 30 days
Combined F:M Ratio 0.07 kgBOD/kgMLVSS/d
451 kg/d
Design Total Sludge Wasting per day (56)(Note 2) (m3/d)

Note 1: Includes membrane tank volume


Note 2: WAS will have a concentration of 8 mg/L as it is wasted from the bioreactor. Please refer
to table 1.9 for process calculations.

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Table 1.5: Membrane Bioreactor Oxygen Requirements

The following table is a summary of the membrane bioreactor operating conditions. Detailed
calculations are provided on Table 1.10.

Design Parameters Values Units

Actual Oxygen Requirement (AOR)(Note 1 95.6 kg/d


Aeration Tank Oxygen Uptake Rate
(OUR)Note 2 90 R1 mg/L/h

Note 1: includes biological oxygen requirements and sulfide oxidation requirements and safety
factors

Note 2: OUR does not include sulphide oxidation as it is not part of the biological process

Note 3: Aeration demand to be determined by diffuser supplier. The typical alpha and beta values
of 0.54 & 0.95 respectively.

Table 1.6: Estimated Chemical Requirements

Design Parameters Dosing Concentration Flowrate


Assumed Methanol Addition Required
(10%) (Note 1) 30 mg BOD/L of WW 134 L/h
NaOH Addition (10% w/w NaOH)(Note 2) 64 mg/L 216 L/h
Antifoam Addition 10% (SP 0.95) (Note 3) 2 mg/L 6 L/h
Note 1: Since Carbon to Nitrogen ratio is low, supplemental carbon may be required. This will be
achieved by addition of Methanol or Equivalent. Please note this is an assumed dosing
concentration as it is not possible to determine the actual amount at this stage without
operating data.
Note 2: NaOH addition might be required should influent alkalinity be insufficient for proper
biological process and pH adjustment be required. No chemical system will be provided.
Note 3: Antifoam agent should be non-silicon based and compatible with membrane chemistry.
Please consult GEWPT prior to adding antifoam agents into the system. Make and MSDS
of antifoam attached.

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Process Design Calculations
Table 1.7: Design Conditions

Summary of Design Conditions

Design Flow 9,000 m3/d


Min/Max Wastewater Temperature 25 (minimum) / 35 (maximum)
Influent/Effluent Characteristics Please refer to Table 1.2
Number of Biological Trains 2
Table 1.8: Tank Sizing

Basin sizing
Total Volume of Anoxic ZoneNote 1 500 m3
Total Volume of Aerobic ZoneNote 1 830 m3
Total Membrane VolumeNote 2 324 m3
Note 1: Anoxic and aerobic volume sizing based on parameters such as SRT, temperature and
sludge wasting. Calculations as per standard models. Please refer to Wastewater
Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalfe & Eddy, 4th Edition
Note 2: Based on standard GEW&PT membrane tank dimensions and number of membrane
cassettes per tank

Zone Design HRT Number of basins per train


Anoxic
(Anoxic volume/flow)
(500 x 24 /9000) 1.3 h 2
Aerobic
(Aerobic volume/flow)
(830 x 24 / 9000) 2.2 h 2
Note: the HRT is an output based on the bioreactor volumes
Volume No. of Volume per Internal Internal
Zone per Train zones Zone SWD Width Length

Anoxic 250 m3 2 125 m3 5.800 m 6.396 m 3.380 m

Aerobic 415 m3 2 207.5 m3 5.500 m 6.396 m 6.000 m

Membranes 80.9 m3 n/a n/a 3.073 m 3.048 m 8.636 m


WAS/Foam
1 n/a 2.200 m + X(1)
Tank n/a 2.500 m 1.224 m
(1)
X = wall thickness between the bioreactor collector channel and the membrane feed channel

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Table 1.9: Process Calculations

Influent loadings
Influent flow 9.0 MLD
COD loading (CODin X flow)
(200 x 9x106 / 1x106) 1,800 Kg/d
BOD loading (BODin X flow)
(100 x 9x106 / 1x106) 900 kg/d
TKN loading (TKNin X flow)
(10 x 9x106 / 1x106) 90 kg/d
Sulphide loading (Sulphidein X flow)
(30 x 9x106 / 1x106) 270 kg/d
Assumed inert fraction of MLVSS 20%
Inert loading (TSSin X inert fraction X
flow)
(20 x 0.2 x 9x106 / 1x106) 36 kg/d

MLSS concentrations and RAS


Design MLSS bioreactor, MLSSbio 8,000 mg/L
Design MLSS ZW tank, MLSSzw 10,000 mg/L
Recirculation rate (RAS from ZW tank
to bioreactor)Note1 4

Design Net Sludge Generation and SRT


Aerobic SRTNote 2 17 days
R1 kg VSS produced/kg COD
Biological yieldNote 3 0.19 treated/d
Assumed Methanol Concentration 30 mg BOD/L WW
Flowrate of Methanol (@ 100%) 321.6 L/day
COD in methanol product 1.188 kg COD/L methanol
COD loading from methanol
(methanol flowrate x COD in methanol
product)
(321.6 x 1.188) 382 kg COD/d
Biological sludge wasting rate
(biological yield X (COD loading +
COD loading from methanol))
((0.19 x (1800 + 382)) 415 kg/d
Inert ss wasting rate
(TSSin X inert fraction X flow)
(20 x 0.2 x 9x106 / 1x106) 36 kg/d
Total sludge wasting rate
(biological sludge wasting rate + inert
ss wasting rate)
(415 + 36) 451 kg/d

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Total volume of sludge wasting
(total sludge wasting rate / MLSSbio)
(451 x 1x106/(8000 x 1000)) 56 m3/d
Percent volatile solids
(biological sludge wasting rate/total
sludge wasting rate)
(415/451) 92.0% MLVSS/MLSS
Total MLSS in the system
((aerobic vol + anoxic vol) X MLSSbio
+ ZW membrane vol X MLSSzw)
((500 + 830) x 8000 + 324 x 10000) x
1000 / 1x106 13,880 kg
Total SRT
(total MLSS in the system/total sludge
wasting rate)
(13880 / 451) 30 days

F:M
MLVSS bioreactor, MLVSSbio
(Percent volatile solids x MLSSbio)
(0.92 x 8000 x 1000 / 1x106) 7.36 kg/m3
MLVSS ZW membrane, MLVSSzw
(Percent volatile solids x MLSSzw)
(0.92 x 10000 x 1000 / 1x106) 9.20 kg/m3
Aerobic F:M ratio
[BOD loading /[ (MLVSSbio x aerobic
vol) + (MLVSSzw x ZW membrane
vol) ] ]
[900 / (7.36 x 830 + 9.2 x 324)] 0.10 kg BOD/kg MLVSS/d
Anoxic F:M ratio
[BOD loading / (MLVSSbio x anoxic
vol) ]
[900 / (7.36 x 500)] 0.24 kg BOD/kg MLVSS/d
Combined F:M ratio
[BOD loading /[ (MLVSSbio x (aerobic
vol+ anoxic vol) + (MLVSSzw x ZW
membraned volume) ] ]
[900 / (7.36 x (830 + 500) + 9.2 x
324)] 0.07 kg BOD/kg MLVSS/d
Note 1: Typical MLSS concentration design on an MBR is 8,000 mg/L on the bioreactor with a
concentration of 10,000 mg/L on the Membranes. To achieve this, a mixed liquor
recirculation, from the membranes to the bioreactor, of 4 is required. These target
concentrations are based on GE experience in order to balance and optimize MBR size,
membrane performance and oxygen transfer efficiency.
MLSSzw = MLSSbio (R+1/R), where R is the recirculation factor
R= 1 / (10,000/8,000 -1)

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Note 2: SRT selected based on typical wastewater design practices. Please refer to Wastewater
Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalfe & Eddy, 4th Edition
Note 3: Equation:: Yobs = Y / (1+kd*Aerobic SRT) * (1.01^(20-Temperature))
R1
Yobs=observed yield, g biomass/g substrate
Y = true yield, g biomass/g substrate (typical value: 0.731)
Kd=endogenous decay rate g biomass/g biomass/d (typical value: 0.05)
Reference: Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants, WEF Manual of Practice No. 8,
Fourth Edition, 1998

Table 1.10: Oxygen Requirements Calculations

Oxygen Requirements
Influent flow 9.0 MLD
COD requirements (1 kg COD/ kg O2)
COD eliminated
(COD loading=CODin x influent flow)
(200 x 9x106 / 1x106) 75 kg COD/ h
COD loading from methanol
(382/24) 15.9 kg COD/ h
Oxygen required for CODNote1 1 kg O2/ kg COD
Total COD oxygen requirement
(COD eliminated + COD loading from methanol) x
Oxygen required for COD
(75 + 15.9) x 1 90.9 kg O2/ h

TKN-requirements
Assumed nitrogen fraction removed by waste by MLVSS 8 %
Nitrogen removed by waste, Nwaste
(biological sludge wasting rate*nitrogen fraction removed
by waste)
(415 x 0.08) 33.2 kg/day
Target effluent ammonia, NH3effl (table 1.2) 0.1 mg/L
Non-biodegradable TKN fraction (table 1.2) 0.3 mg/L
TKN oxidized
[TKN loading-Nwaste-((NH3effl+non biodegradable TKN
fraction)*Influent flow)]
[(90-33.2 ((0.1 + 0.3) x 9x106/1x106))/24] 2.2 kg /h
Oxygen Required for NitrificationNote1 4.57 kg O2 / kg NH3
TKN oxygen requirement
(TKN oxidized x Oxygen required for nitrification)
(2.2 x 4.57) 10.1 kg O2/ h

Denitrification credit
TNeffl (Effluent TN x influent flow)
(3 x 9x106 / (24 x 1x106)) 1.12 kg/h

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Nitrate denitrified
(TKN loading TNeffl Nwaste)
((90 1.12 x 24 33.2) / 24) 1.24 kg /h
Nitrate oxygen equivalentNote1 2.86 kg O2/kg NO3-N
Denitrification credit
(Nitrate denitrified x Nitrate oxygen equivalent)
( 1.24 x 2.86) -3.6 kg O2/ h

Waste sludge credit


waste sludge
(biological sludge wasting rate x percent volatile solids)
(415 x 0.92 / 24) 15.9 kg VSS/h
Kg COD/kg
Credit of COD/ VSSNote1 1.42 VSS
waste sludge credit
(waste sludge x credit of COD/ VSS)
(15.9 x 1.42) -22.6 kg O2/ h

Sulphide oxidation
Sulphide oxidized
(sulphide loading sulphide effluent x influent flow)
((270 (0.5 x 9x106/1x106))/24) 11.06 kg/h
Oxygen required for sulphide oxidation 1.88 kg O2/ kg H2S
Sulphide oxygen requirement
(sulphide oxidized x oxygen required for sulphide
oxidation)
(11.06 x 1.88) 20.8 kg O2/ h

Total Actual Oxygen Requirements


(COD oxygen requirement + TKN oxygen requirement
Denitrification credit - waste sludge credit + sulphide
oxidation)
(90.9+10.1-3.6-22.6+20.8) 95.6 kg O2/ h
(90.9+10.1-3.6-22.6+20.8) x 24 2,294 kg/d

Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR)


Biological AORNote 2
(COD oxygen requirement + TKN oxygen requirement
Denitrification credit - waste sludge credit)
(90.9+10.1-3.6-22.68) 74.8 kg O2/ h
OUR (Biological AOR/aerobic vol)
(74.8 x 1x106/ 830 x 1000) 90 mg/L/hr
Note1: As per Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalfe & Eddy, 4 th Edition
Note 2: Biological AOR does not include sulphide oxidation as oxidation is only a chemical
reaction and not biological

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Table 1.12: Alkalinity Balance
R1
Alkalinity Balance

Influent alkalinityNote 1 0 mg/L


NH3 nitrified
(TKNin - Non-biodegradable TKN fraction
NH3effl (Nwaste/influent flow))
(10 - 0.3 - 0.1 (33.2 x 1x106/ 9x106)) 5.91 mg/L
Note 2
Alkalinity depletion for nitrification 7.14 mg CaCO3/mg NH3 nitrified
Alkalinity depleted
(NH3 nitrified x alkalinity depletion)
(5.91 x 7.14) 42.2 mg/L

Max NO3 in effluent


(TNeffl-NH3effl - non-biodegradable TKN
fraction)
(3 0.1 0.3) 2.60 mg/L
NO3 denitrified
(TKNin-Max NO3 in effluent - Non-
biodegradable TKN fraction - Nwaste/influent
flow))[10 2.6 0.3 (33.2 x 1x106/ 9x106)] 3.41 mg/L
Alkalinity recovered for denitrificationNote 2 3.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3 denitrified
Alkalinity recovered
(NO3 denitrified x alkalinity recovered)
(3.41 x 3.57) 12.2 mg/L

Calculated effluent alkalinity


(influent alkalinity - alkalinity depleted +
alkalinity recovered)
(0 42.2 + 12.2) -30 mg/L
Target effluent alkalinity 50 mg/L
Additional NaOH requiredNote 3
((target effluent alkalinity-calculated effluent
alkalinity) / 1.25)
((50 (- 30))/1.25) 64 mg/L
Stock Solution of NaOH 10 %
Specific gravity 1.109
NaOH flowrate
(Additional NaOH required x influent flow/
(stock solution x specific gravity)
((64 x 9x106) / (1.109 x 0.10 x 1x106 x 24)) 216 L/h
Note 1: As per HDO
Note 2: As per Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalfe & Eddy, 4 th Edition.
Note 3: 1 mg/L NaOH provides 1.25 mg/L of alkalinity

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1.4 ZW-500D Ultrafiltration Membrane Design
The membrane net flux is the most important parameter when designing a membrane filtration
system. The selection of conservative membrane flux depends on a number of factors including
the minimum operating temperature, flow rates, and assumed sludge characteristics. Our flux
selection is based on design curves developed from years of experience from full scale operating
MBR plants under different conditions.
The membrane design for BINA MBR consists of four (4) membrane trains with four (4)
cassettes per train, each cassette having 40 modules and each module having 31.59 m 2 of surface
area. This corresponds to 5,054.4 m 2 of membrane area installed per train and a total of 20,217.6
m2 of membrane area installed in the four (4) trains.
Each cassette has a maximum capacity of 48 modules, which means that a 16.7% spare space is
included within the installed cassette
s. This percentage is within the range of our typical design (15-20% spare space).
The table below presents a summary of major design parameters and the membrane configuration
for the design condition and for the condition with all spaces filled.

Table 1.13: Membrane Design

Parameter All trains in operation One train off-line


Annual Average Flow Rate 9.00 MLD 6.75 MLD
Number of Membrane Trains 4 3
Number of Cassettes installed per train 4 4
Number of Membrane modules installed
40 40
per cassette
Maximum Number of Module spaces
48 48
available per Cassette
Total Number of Cassettes in plant 16 12
Total number of modules installed in plant 640 480
Surface area of each membrane module 31.59 m2 31.59 m2
Surface area per plant 20,217.6 m2 15,163.2 m2
Design Net Flux 18.55 lmh 18.55 lmh
Design Net Flux will all available spaces
15.46 lmh 15.46 lmh
filled
% Spare space 16.7% 16.7%

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1.5 Mechanical Process Equipment
Chemical pumps (1 duty + 1 standby) will add a carbon source (i.e. methanol) to the Bioreactor
Splitter Box should the influent carbon be insufficient for denitrification.
Chemical pumps (1 duty + 1 standby) will add antifoam agents (approved by GEWPT) to the
Bioreactor Splitter Box should it be required.
A sodium hydroxide line from the pre-treatment system will be directed to the Bioreactor Splitter
Box to maintain a pH between 6.5-8.5, if required. A pH transmitter is located on the permeate
collector header for monitoring purposes. As per specifications, analyzers for silica, conductivity
and TOC are also installed on the permeate collector header. A common turbiditimeter is installed
on the permeate collector header. The solenoid valve arrangement allows the turbiditimeter to
monitor each train or the common discharge.
A line that bypasses the SBR is included in the design should the biological process require it.
This by-pass provides flexibility to the operation of the system as the influent wastewater might
be deficient of nutrients affecting the MBR biological process. The by-pass will provide nutrients
to the system to maintain the biomass.
The two biological trains are identical. Each biological train is designed with two (2) anoxic, and
two (2) aerobic zones. Each anoxic zone has a dedicated submersible mixer to ensure
homogeneous mixed liquor, maximizing denitrification and alkalinity recovery.
From the anoxic zones, the mixed liquor flows to the aerobic tanks which are equipped with one
(1) independent fine bubble aeration grid that supplies oxygen necessary for the biological
process as well as keeps the mixed liquor fully mixed. The dropleg on each aeration grid is
equipped with a motorized valve. Process aeration is provided by a common group of three (3)
positive displacement blowers (2 duty + 1 standby) completed with variable frequency drives.
The air flow rate can be regulated to control the DO level in the aerated zones. On each process
train, the second aerobic zone has a Dissolved Oxygen probe.
The mixed liquor flows by gravity from the aeration basins to the Bioreactor Collector Channel
through partially submerged gate valves to allow foam to pass.
The foam and scum are collected in the foam/WAS tank located at one end of the Channel via
downward opening weir gates. Foam, scum and waste activated sludge are removed from the
system via two (2) dry-pit foam wasting pumps (1 duty + 1 standby). A sprayer system is
included in the design to facilitate the removal of the foam.
The mixed liquor is transferred to the Membrane Tank Splitter Channel via three (3) recirculation
pumps (2 duty + 1 standby) with a design flowrate of 5 times the influent flow (5Q).
The mixed liquor flows from the Channel into four (4) identical ZeeWeed membrane trains.
Each train is equipped with partially submerged weir manual gates which are designed to ensure
equal flow distribution and same water level in all membrane tanks. To protect the membrane
cassettes, a deflector plate is installed on the inlet of each tank.
Each train is designed with a dedicated permeate pump (variable speed). The permeate pump will
generate a slight vacuum that draws water from the mixed liquor through the membranes.
Permeate flowrate demand is based on the influent flow with trim to the level in the bioreactor via
control loops in the programmable logic controller (PLC).

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Since the membrane system operates under a slight vacuum, there will be a tendency for
dissolved air to be released from the water. In order to prime the permeate system, an ejector
system is provided which incorporates the use of compressed air.
The permeate pumps discharge the treated water into a common collector header that discharges
into the Treated Effluent Tank. Backpulse water will be from this tank. Chemicals for membrane
cleaning (i.e. sodium hypochlorite and citric acid) will be directly injected into the permeate
header.
In order to maintain and chemically clean the membranes, permeate is used for backpulsing the
membrane trains. A common pair of Backpulse/Clean-In-Place (CIP) pumps (1 duty + 1
standby) is used to service all membrane trains.
Membrane aeration is provided by a common group of air scour blowers. As per design, a group
of three positive displacement blowers (2 duty + 1 standby) will discharge to a common air
supply header leading to the membrane tanks. Each membrane train is designed with two air
headers in order to cycle air within each train via cyclic air valves.
The membrane tanks are drained by two common centrifugal pumps (1 duty + 1 standby) that
discharge to the Membrane Tank Collector Channel.
The activated sludge flows by gravity to the Membrane Tank Collector Channel which terminates
in a pipe that recirculates the combined mixed liquor to the head of the bioreactor. The
recirculated mixed liquor flowrate will be 4 time the influent flowrate.
Common cleaning chemical dosing pumps with dedicated installed standby units are used to
service all membrane trains.
The compressed air required for the operation of the ZeeWeed MBR system will be provided by
Others. The quantity and quality of commpressed air requirements is provided in a separate
schedule.
R1
1.6 Membrane Cleaning Requirements
Cleaning is necessary to ensure a smoothly operating MBR. ZeeWeed modules are based on a
hollow fiber geometry which is more versatile as cleaning can be carried out quickly, easily, and
automatically.
GEWPT incorporates a multi-level approach to maintaining membrane performance in every
MBR system. We offer several cleaning strategies for membranes that ensure optimum permeate
production with a minimum investment in time and resources. The cleaning systems included for
BINA Refinery MBR System incorporate fully automated processes such as relaxation,
backpulsing, maintenance cleaning and recovery cleaning. The cleaning methodology is very
flexible and the system can be optimized to reduce the frequency of chemical cleaning based on
site specific conditions.
During normal operation, the GEWPT system is operated with a repeated filtration cycle, which
consists of a production period (permeation) followed by a relaxation or backpulse period.
ZeeWeed MBR systems have the unique capability to operate in either relaxation or backpulse
mode. Under normal conditions the system is operated in relaxation mode, whereas during start-
up or under conditions of poor sludge filterability the system can be operated in backpulse mode.
Details of the filtration cycle with relaxation and backpulse are provided below.
The membrane filtration system, including membranes, headers and mechanical equipment is
sized to produce the design net flow rates under all operating scenarios.

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1.6.1 Relaxation
While operating in relax mode, the permeate pump for each train is stopped sequentially for a
short period of time (30-45 sec) every 12-15 minutes to allow air scouring of the membrane
without permeation. No chemical or permeate is used during relaxation mode.

From Backpulse Pump

Process Flow Schematic Relaxation Mode

Table 1.14: Relaxation Sequence per Train


Step Description Duration
1 Permeation permeate pump draws water from the 12 min
outside-in through the membrane
2 Stop permeate pump continue all other functions 30 sec

1.6.2 Backpulse or Backwash


Under certain fouling conditions or when experiencing poor sludge characteristics, the ability to
backpulse is essential to maintaining a clean membrane. This feature allows for flexible and
reliable system performance during unexpected influent or process operating scenarios. Applying
the backpulse cleaning option is one of the simplest methods to ensure that immersed membranes
retain optimum permeability throughout all operating conditions.
Backpulsing involves reversing the flow through the membranes to slightly expand the membrane
pores and dislodge any particles that may have adhered to the membrane fiber surface. An entire
membrane train is backpulsed at a time using permeate stored in the backpulse tank with no
addition of chemicals.
For BINA Refinery MBR System design, the backpulse pumps will provide the reverse flow at
low pressures. R1
An optimized backpulse cleaning schedule can ensure that the plant benefits from:
high membrane permeability;
efficient plant operation with minimal downtime;
reduced frequency of chemical cleans;
lower consumption of cleaning chemicals.

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From Backpulse Pump

Process Flow Schematic Backpulse Mode

Table 1.15: Backpulse Sequence per Train


Step Description Duration
1 Permeation permeate pump draws water from the 12 min
outside-in through the membrane
2 Stop permeate pump and backpulse permeate through the 30 sec
membrane at 33.94 lmh all other functions continue

The frequency and duration can be optimized in response to operating conditions and sludge
characteristics.
Table 1.16: Summary of Filtration Cycle with Backpulse
Parameter Units Value
Frequency min 12
Duration of BP sec 30
Backpulse Flux Rate lmh 33.94
2
Membrane Surface Area per Train (installed) m 5,054.4
3
Backpulse Flow Rate m /hr 171.5
Volume of Permeate Required per Train per L 1,429
BP
Backpulse Pressure, Min Max bar 0.14 0.55

In addition to the normal filtration cycle, regular chemical cleaning is essential to maintain the
performance of the membrane. GEWPTs philosophy is to always maintain the membrane in a
state of readiness to effectively handle all operating conditions. This is achieved by using
automatic in-situ maintenance cleans as described below.

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1.6.3 Maintenance Clean
Sodium hypochlorite is used to oxidize organic foulants and citric acid to remove inorganic
scaling.
For this project, maintenance cleaning is recommended up to once per week using sodium
hypochlorite and once per week using citric acid.
The maintenance cleaning procedure incorporates the following features;
fully automated and the frequency is set by the operator;
performed without draining the membrane tank;
< One (1) hour duration per clean per train
Based on the site specific requirements, cleaning procedures can be modified to obtain effective
cleaning and maximize chemical savings.
From Backpulse
Pump

Process Flow Schematic Maintenance Clean Mode

Table 1.17: Maintenance Clean Sequence per Train


Step Description Duration
1 Isolate the train to be cleaned by stopping permeation,
membrane aeration, and mixed liquor feed to the train
2 Backpulse chemical solution at 20.3 lmh to fill the 1 min
membrane fibers and headersNote 1
3 Relax allow contact time for the chemical 3 min
4 Backpulse chemical solution at 20.3 lmh to renew 20 sec
chemicals in the fibers
5 Relax allow contact time for the chemical 4.5 min
6 Repeat Steps #4 and #5 for a total of eight times 40 min
7 Backpulse chemical free water at 20.3 lmh to flush the 1 min
cleaning chemicals from the membrane headers and
inside the fibers
8 Restart membrane aeration, mixed liquor feed and then
permeation.
Note 1: As per table 1.18, chemical solution is 200 mg/L of NaOCl (@ 10.3%) or 2,000 mg/L of Citric Acid (@ 50%)
depending on the type of cleaning performed.

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Similar to the backwash procedures, the frequency and duration can be optimized in response to
operating conditions and sludge characteristics. Neutralization of cleaning chemicals is achieved
with mixed liquor.
Table 1.18: Summary of Maintenance Cleaning Procedure
Parameter Units NaOCl Citric Acid
(10.8% as (50%)
Cl2)
Frequency per clean days 7 7
Total Chemical Contact Time per TrainNote 1 min 40 40
Chemical Dosing Concentration mg/L 200 2,000
Backpulse Flux lmh 20.3 20.3
Backpulse TMP bar 0.55 0.55
Membrane Surface Area per Train (installed) m2 5,054.4 5,054.4
Chemical Volume Per Clean Per TrainNote 2 L 10 20.6
Total Annual Chemical Consumption per L 2,080 4,290
Plant

R1 Note 1: Total cleaning time, which includes chemical pulsed dosing and relaxation. During
relaxation, the chemical and backpulse pumps will not operate.
Note 2: Based on installed number of membranes.
Chemical volume per clean per train: surface area per train x backpulse flux x total
chemical dosing time (3.67 min) x chemical dosing concentration / (60 min x Chemical
bulk concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22)
Chemical volume per NaOCl clean per train: ((5054.4x20.3x3.67x200)/(60x0.108x1.168
x 1x106))
Chemical volume per Citric Acid clean per train: ((5054.4x20.3x3.67x2000)/(60x0.5x1.24
x 1x106))

1.6.4 Recovery Clean


Recovery cleaning is required to restore the permeability of the membrane once the membrane
becomes fouled. A recovery clean should be initiated when permeability declines to less than
50% of initial stable permeability. This will generally occur when the trans-membrane pressure
(TMP) consistently exceeds 4-5 psi (vacuum) under normal flow conditions. The recovery
cleaning procedure consists of a chemical backpulse sequence, followed by a chemical soak
period. The cleaning chemical concentrations typically used to soak the membranes are sodium
hypochlorite (NaOCl) for the removal of organic foulants and citric acid for the removal of
inorganic foulants.
Key features of the recovery cleaning procedure for ZeeWeed membrane filtration system are:
fully automated and initiated by the operator;
cleans all membrane cassettes in a train at the same time;
recommended four times per annum

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requires moderate chemical concentration
spent cleaning chemicals will be neutralized with mixed liquor R1

The recovery cleaning sequence is depicted in the figure below.

From Backpulse
Pump

Process Flow Schematic Recovery Clean Mode

Table 1.19: Recovery Clean Sequence per Train

Step Description Duration


1 Isolate the train to be cleaned by stopping permeation,
membrane aeration, and mixed liquor feed to the train
2 Drain membrane filtration tank 30 min
3 Backpulse chemical solution at 33.94 lmh to renew < 120 min
chemicals in the fibers and fill membrane filtration tank
with relaxation time between pulses
4 Backpulse chemical free water at 33.94 lmh to flush the 5 min
cleaning chemicals from the membrane headers and
inside the fibers
5 Relax allow contact time for the chemical (Chemical 4 8 hrs
Soak)
6 Allow mixed liquor feed into the tank and mix using air to 30 min
neutralize residual chemical
7 Resume membrane aeration and recirculation
8 Resume permeation

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Table 1.20: Summary of Recovery Cleaning Sequence
Parameter Unit NaOCl Citric Acid
(10.8% as Cl2) (50%)
Frequency #/year 1 1
Cleaning Duration per Train hr 6 12 6 12
Soaking Concentration mg/L 1,000 2,000
Backpulse Flux lmh 33.94 33.94
Backpulse TMP bar 0.55 0.55
Cleaning Tank Volume m3 63.5 63.5
Chemical Volume per Tank Per CleanNote 1 L 504 204

Total Annual Chemical Volume per Plant L 2,016 816

Note 1: Chemical volume per clean per tank per clean: cleaning tank volume x chemical
soaking concentration / (Chemical bulk concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22)
Chemical volume per NaOCl clean per tank per clean: (63.5 x 1000 x 1000)/ (0.108 x 1.168 x
1x106)
Chemical volume per Citric Acid clean per tank per clean: (63.5 x 2000 x 1000)/ (0.5 x 1.24 x
1x106)

1.7 Dosing Pumps and Tanks


The following tables outline the storage requirements for the chemicals utilized for the process and
membrane design.

Table 1.21: Estimated Process Chemical Dosing tanks

Bulk Assumed No. of


Concentrati Dosing Dosing Dosing
on Concentration Flowrate tank Tanks
30 mg BOD/L 1
Methanol 10% WW 9,000 m3/d 3,500 L
10%
Antifoam(note 1) SP=0.95 2 mg/L WW 9,000 m3/d 1890 L 1
Note 1: Antifoam agent should be non-silicon based and compatible with membrane chemistry.
Please consult GEWPT prior to adding antifoam agents into the system.

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Table 1.22: Membrane Cleaning Chemical Dosing tanks

Minimum No. of
Specific Chemical used per Chemical used per Vol for Dosing
Bulk Gravity Maintenance Recovery Clean per 15-day Tanks
Conc. (SP) Clean per train train Storage
Sodium 1
10.8% 1.168 10 L 504 L 600 L
Hypochlorite
Citric Acid 50% 1.24 21 L 204 L 380 L 1
Table 1.23: Chemical Dosing Pumps

No. of Working
Dosing rate for Dosing rate for No. of Duty
Maintenance Clean Recovery Clean(Note1) Pumps
Pumps
Sodium Hypochlorite 2.7 - 3.3 L/min 22.7 - 27.2 L/min 1 1
Citric Acid 5.5 -6.6 L/min 9.2 - 11.1 L/min 1 1
Note 1: Recovery clean dosing has been extended to the whole tank fill duration. This has
reduced the turn down of the chemical dosing pumps between the maintenance and recovery
clean dosing.

Note 2: Calculations:

1. Dosing rate calculation for maintenance clean (min): surface area per train (installed
modules, i.e. 40) x backpulse flux x chemical dosing concentration / (60 min x Chemical
bulk concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22))

Dosing rate calculation for NaOCl maintenance clean (min): ((4 x 40 x 31.59 x 20.3 x 200) /
(60 x 0.108 x 1.168 x 1x106))

Dosing rate calculation for Citric Acid maintenance clean (min): ((4 x 40 x 31.59 x 20.3 x
2000) / (60 x 0.5 x 1.24 x 1x106))

2. Dosing rate calculation for maintenance clean (max): surface area per train (all spaces
filled, i.e. 48 modules) x backpulse flux x chemical dosing concentration / (60 min x
Chemical bulk concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22))

Dosing rate calculation for NaOCl maintenance clean (max): ((4 x 48 x 31.59 x 20.3 x 200) /
(60 x 0.108 x 1.168 x 1x106))

Dosing rate calculation for Citric Acid maintenance clean (max): ((4 x 48 x 31.59 x 20.3 x
2000) / (60 x 0.5 x 1.24 x 1x106))

3. Dosing rate calculation for recovery clean (min): surface area per train (installed
modules, i.e. 40) x backpulse flux x chemical dosing concentration / (60 min x Chemical
bulk concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22)

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Dosing rate calculation for NaOCl recovery clean (min): ((4 x 40 x 31.59 x 33.94 x 1000) /
(60 x 0.108 x 1.168 x 1x106))

Dosing rate calculation for Citric Acid maintenance clean (min): ((4 x 40 x 31.59 x 33.94 x
2000) / (60 x 0.5 x 1.24 x 1x106))

4. Dosing rate calculation for recovery clean (max): surface area per train (all spaces filled,
i.e. 48 modules) x backpulse flux x chemical dosing concentration / (60 min x Chemical bulk
concentration x specific gravity (table 1.22)

Dosing rate calculation for NaOCl recovery clean (max): ((4 x 48 x 31.59 x 33.94 x 1000) /
(60 x 0.108 x 1.168 x 1x106))

Dosing rate calculation for Citric Acid maintenance clean (max): ((4 x 48 x 31.59 x 33.94 x
2000) / (60 x 0.5 x 1.24 x 1x106))

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