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CE354: Transportation Engineering

Module 1: Highway Network Planning

Different modes of transportation, role of highway

transportation, classification, network patterns

Planning surveys, preparation of plans, final report, master plan, evaluation by saturation system 20 year road development plans, salient features,

determination of road lengths, introduction to

highway economics

CSRK Prasad

Importance of Transportation

Contributes to the economic, industrial, social

and cultural development of any country

Reduce sectionalism

Enhances community development

Facilitate to maintain law and order

Provides connectivity to rural areas & access to education, health care, employment centers, market areas, etc.

Different Modes of Transportation

Roadways or Highways

Railways

Waterways

Airways

Pipelines

Elevators

Belt conveyors

Cable cars

aerial ropeways

Monorails, etc

Comparison of Transportation Modes

Criteria

Airways

Waterways

Railways

Highways

Product options

Narrow

Broad

Narrow

Very broad

Accessibility

Very low

Low

Moderate

High

Relative Speed

Very high

Slow

Moderate

Moderate

Cost

Very high

Very low / low

Low / medium

Medium

Capacity

Very low

Very high

Moderate

Low

Intermodal

Moderate

Very high

Very high

Very high

Capability

Reliability

Very good

Limited

Good

Good

Flexibility

Medium

Low

Low

High

Trip Lengths

Long

Long

Medium to long

Short to

medium

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography , Hofstra University, New York, USA.

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography , Hofstra University, New York, USA. The Geography of Transport Systems.

Comparison of Transportation Modes

Mode

Advantages

Disadvantages

Airways

Available to & from more countries Carry high value items Fast speed & reliable Limited losses Long distances Easy tracking & tracing

More expensive High cost of transportation Limited network Restricted loading capacity

Waterways

Transport bulky product; large quantities International transportation Economical - Very low cost Long distances

Depend weather Slow Restricted network Loss of material Not flexible

Railways

Transport bulky goods Medium to Long distances Flexible Minimal times and costs; Economical

High investment Long construction periods Limited & fixed infrastructure Delays, transhipment, inflexible, tracking

Highways

Extensive network Relatively fast Max. Flexibility in route, direction, time & speed

Short distances High cost Blocked during rainy seasons

of travel

No transshipment; Direct delivery Efficient for short & medium distances Low investment

Characteristics of Road Transport

Various types of road vehicles

Relatively small investment

Flexibility of changes location, direction, speed and timings of travel

Efficient mode for short distance travel

High degree of accidents

Provide accessibility to nook & corner of the

country

World Development Indicators 2014, THE WORLD BANK

 

Motor vehicles

Passenger cars

Road density

per 1,000

Per kilometer of road

per 1,000 people

km. of road per 100 sq. km of land area

Country

people

2011

2011

2011

2011

Australia

703

19

559

11

Belgium

562

40

491

504

Brazil

210

25

179

19

Canada

608

14

420

14

China

69

23

54

43

France

582

36

482

192

Germany

588

75

531

180

India

18

5

11

143

Italy

682

80

605

162

Japan

588

222

455

90

Mexico

278

85

195

19

Netherlands

531

64

471

331

New Zealand

708

33

597

35

Norway

591

31

480

29

Sweden

525

9

466

129

Switzerland

573

63

526

173

United Kingdom

516

77

454

172

United States

786

37

403

67

World

168

32

123

33

Highway Development in India

Roads in ancient India

Mohenjo-daro and Harappa 25 to 35 centuries BC

Aryan

period

4 th

century

BC

(Arthasastra

by

Kautilya Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya)

5 th Century AD Emperor Ashoka

Roads in Mughal Period

Roads in Nineteenth Century (British rule)

PWD formed by Lord Dalhousie in 1865

Highway Development in India

Jayakar Committee, 1927-28: Recommendations

The road development in the country should be considered as a national interest

Central Road Fund: An extra tax on petrol

A semi-official technical body should be formed

A research organisation

Highway Development in India

Central Road Fund, 1 st March 1929

20%: Central Reserve Meeting expenses on the

administration of the road fund, road experiments and research on road and bridge projects

80%: Allotted to various states based on actual petrol

consumption or revenue collected.

Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 1934

Motor Vehicle Act, 1939 (Revised in 1988)

Regulate road traffic : traffic laws, ordinances & regulations driver, vehicle ownership & operation

Highway Development in India

Nagpur Road Plan (First Twenty Year Road

Development Plan): 1943-63

Central Road research Institute (CRRI), 1950

National Highway Act, 1956

Bombay Road Plan (Second Twenty Year Road

Development Plan): 1961-81

Highway Research Board (HRB), 1973

National Transport Policy Committee, 1978

Highway Development in India

Lucknow Road Plan (Third Twenty Year Road

Development Plan): 1981-2001

Golden Quadrilateral (NHDP Phase I) - 2001

Fourth Twenty Year Road Development Plan:

Road Development Plan Vision 2021

Rural Road Development Plan: Vision 2025 - 2005

National Transport Development Policy

Committee, 2014 (Rakesh Mohan Committee):

India Transport Report Moving India to 2032

References

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, 2013. The Geography of Transport Systems, Third

Edition. Dept. of Global Studies & Geography , Hofstra University, New York, USA. http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/index.html

csrk_prasad@yahoo.com 0870-2462117 (O)

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