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Kyra Powell

Chapter 16 Vocab
Antibonding Orbital: In chemical bonding theory, an antibonding orbital is a type of
molecular orbital (MO) that weakens the bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the
molecule relative to the separated atoms. Such an orbital has one or more nodes in the bonding region
between the nuclei.

Bond Dissociation Energy: Bond-dissociation energy (BDE or D0) is one measure of the strength of a
chemical bond. It can be defined as the standard enthalpy change when a bond is cleaved by hemolysis,
with reactants and products of the hemolysis reaction at 0 K (absolute zero).

Bonding Orbital: Noun. (plural bonding orbitals) (chemistry, physics) A molecular orbital, responsible for
a covalent bond between two atoms, formed by overlap of their corresponding atomic orbitals.

Coordinate Covalent Bond: A covalent chemical bond between two atoms that is produced when one
atom shares a pair of electrons with another atom lacking such a pair. Also called semi
polar bond. coordinate bond in Science. Coordinate bond. A type of covalent bond in which both the
shared electrons are contributed by one of the two atoms.

Diamagnetic: (of a substance or body) Tending to become magnetized in a direction at 180° to the
applied magnetic field.

Dipole: A pair of equal and oppositely charged or magnetized poles separated by a distance.

Dipole Interaction: Dipole-Dipole interactions result when two dipolar molecules interact with each
other through space. When this occurs, the partially negative portion of one of the polar molecules is
attracted to the partially positive portion of the second polar molecule.

Dispersion Force: The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The
London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent
atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an
induced dipole-induced dipole attraction.

Double Covalent Bond: A double covalent bond is where two pairs of electrons are shared between the
atoms rather than just one pair. Some simple molecules containing double bonds. Oxygen, O2. Two
oxygen atoms can both achieve stable structures by sharing two pairs of electrons as in the diagram.

Hybridization: The process of an animal or plant breeding with an individual of another species or
variety.

Hydrogen Bond: A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction
between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.

Molecular Orbital: In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the
wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and
physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region.
Network Solid: A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which
the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material. In
network solid there are no individual molecules, and the entire crystal or amorphous solid may be
considered a macromolecule.

Nonpolar Covalent Bond: Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share
a pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of
electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.

Paramagnetic: (of a substance or body) Very weakly attracted by the poles of a magnet, but not
retaining any permanent magnetism.

Pi Bond: In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on
one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom. Each of these atomic orbitals has zero
electron density at a shared nodal plane, passing through the two bonded nuclei.

Polar Bond: A polar bond is a covalent bond between two atoms where the electrons forming
the bond are unequally distributed. This causes the molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment
where one end is slightly positive, and the other is slightly negative.

Polar Covalent Bond: Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a
pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of
electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.

Polar Molecule: Also called dipole. Contemporary definitions for polar molecule. noun. an
asymmetric molecule with non-uniform positive and negative charges; also called dipole. A polar
molecule has a partial positive charge in one part of the molecule and complementary negative charge
in another part.

Resonance Structure: Resonance structures are two forms of a molecule where the chemical
connectivity is the same, but the electrons are distributed differently around the
structure. Resonance occurs when electrons can flow through neighboring pi systems.

Sigma Bond: In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most simply defined
for diatomic molecules using the language and tools of symmetry groups.

Single Covalent Bond: When atoms bond by sharing electrons, it is called covalent bond. One pair of
shared electrons is a single covalent bond. Two shared pairs are a double covalent bond, and three
shared pairs is a triple covalent bond.

Structural Formula: A formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in the molecule of a compound.

Tetrahedral Angle: Bond angle(s) ≈109.5° In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located
at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Triple Covalent Bond: A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving
six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond. The most common triple bond,
that between two carbon atoms, can be found in alkynes.
Unshared Pair: In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with
another atom and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair. Lone pairs are found in the outermost
electron shell of atoms. They can be identified by using a Lewis structure.

Van Der Waals Force: Weak, short-range electrostatic attractive forces between uncharged molecules,
arising from the interaction of permanent or transient electric dipole moments.

VSEPR Theory: Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to
predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their
central atoms.