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1. Pb (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → PbCl2 (s) + H2 (g)

Sn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) → SnCl2 (s) + H2 (g)

2. Yes. The reactions between the elements and hydrochloric acid are typical of metals
because all the metals react with hydrochloric acid to give bubbles of hydrogen and
metal chloride.

3. a. Nitrogen dioxide
b. Yes. When magnesium is reacted with concentrated nitric acid.
Mg (s) + 4 HNO3 (aq) → Mg(NO3)2 (s) + 2 NO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)
c. Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent, the hydrogen gas produced during its
reaction with metal gets oxidized to H2O.
4. 5. Table 3: Reactions of Sn2+ and Pb2+ with other anions
Equations Comments
Sn2+ (aq) + OH- (aq) → Sn(OH)2 (s) The precipitate dissolves in excess NaOH to
Sn(OH)2 (s) + 4 OH- (aq) → Sn(OH)64- (aq) form a stannate(II) ion, Sn(OH)64-
Pb2+ (aq) + OH- (aq) → Pb(OH)2 (s) The precipitate dissolves in excess NaOH to
Pb(OH)2 (s) + 4 OH- (aq) → Pb(OH)64- (aq) form a plumbate(II) ion, Pb(OH)64-
2 MnO4- (aq) + 16 H+ (aq) + 5 Sn2+ (aq) → The purple MnO4- reduces to pale pink
2 Mn2+ (aq) + 5 Sn4+ (aq) + 8 H2O (l) Mn2+
Pb2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) → PbCl2 (s) Simple precipitation reaction. Precipitate
soluble in hot water.
Cr2O72- (aq) + 14 H+ (aq) + 3 Sn2+ (aq) → The orange Cr2O72- reduces to green Cr3+
2 Cr3+ (aq) + 3 Sn4+ (aq) + 7 H2O (l)
Pb2+ (aq) + CrO42- (aq) → PbCrO4 (s) Precipitation reaction. Yellow precipitate is
insoluble in water.
Pb2+ (aq) + S2- (aq) → PbS (s) Precipitation reaction. Black precipitate is
Sn2+ (aq) + S2- (aq) → SnS (s) Precipitation reaction. Brown precipitate is
insoluble in water, soluble in concentrated
hydrochloric acid
Pb2+ (aq) + 2 I- (aq) → PbI2 (s) Precipitation reaction. Yellow precipitate
becomes orange and red when heated

6. Potassium manganate(VII) solution was acidified with dilute ethanoic acid and not dilute
hydrochloric acid or dilute sulphuric acid. Because potassium manganate(VII) will oxidize
hydrochloric acid to chlorine gas. 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 16 HCl (aq) → 2 KCl (s) + 2 MnCl2 (s) +
8 H2O (l) + 5 Cl2 (g). Pale green gas will be released and it will turn blue litmus paper red and
then bleach it. When potassium manganate(VII) reacts with sulphuric acid, highly reactive
and volatile manganese heptoxide will be produced. 2 KMnO4 (aq) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) →
Mn2O7 (l) + H2O (l) + 2 KHSO4 (s). A dark red oil will be formed.
7. Pb2+ is more stable than Sn2+. This is due to inert pair effect of lead. When getting closer to
the bottom of the group, there is increasing tendency for the s2 pair not to be used in the
bonding. The 6s2 pair is more difficult to remove in lead than the corresponding 5s2 pair in
tin. Lead is heavier element, so there is relativistic contraction of the electrons which tends to
draw the electrons closer to nucleus hence more difficult to remove.

8. Tin(II) ions will reduce mercury(II) ions into mercury(I) ions or mercury metal. Redox
reaction will take place and grey precipitate or white precipitate will form.

Table 4: Reactions of Group IV elements with reagents

Reagent General Comments
reaction Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead
Oxygen X + O2 → Carbon Burns at Slow at red Slow at PbO or
XO2 dioxide red heat heat white heat Pb3O4 are
Except Pb is deposited
( → PbO ) formed depending
Chlorine X + 2 Cl2 No SiCl4 is GeCl4 is SnCl4 on Forms
→ XCl4 reaction formed formed heating PbCl2,
Except Pb PbCl4
(→ unstable
PbCl2 )
Water X + 2 H2 O Forms Hot Si + Very hot Forms a Forms
→ XO2 + CO2 + steam Ge and little H2 at Pb(OH)2
2 H2 H2 react steam react high with
Except C slightly, if temperature aerated soft
( → CO ) at all water
and Pb
in aerated
soft water.
PbSO4 (s)
in hard )
Alkalis H2 and No Hot Hot conc. Slow in hot Molten
oxo-anion reaction conc. alkali conc. alkali alkali
salts alkali needed needed
formed needed
Conc. X + 2H+ No No No reaction Forms Insoluble
Hydrochloric → X2+ + reaction reaction hydrated
acid H2 SnCl2
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