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V = VB Stored charge

V = VB Charging capacitor

+Q

+Q

V = VB

V = VB

-Q

-Q

+Q

10mA

V = VB R

-Q

Energy stored in capacitor

Electric Energy = Charge x Voltage: W = Q × V

This formula would be true for capacitors, had the

charge between plates been transferred at a constant voltage.

For capacitors, Q = C × V

As the charge Q on the plate increases,

the voltage V increases too (and vice versa).

Suppose the capacitor was charged to the voltage V0:

Q

The stored energy is the area under V0 Q0

the Q – V line. WC =

Q0 2

CV02

Note that, Q0 = C V0:

WC =

WC 2

V0 V

V0 is the voltage on the charged capacitor

Example problem 1

What energy is stored in the capacitor in Joules?

2

CV0

WC =

2

0

of

5

120

Timed response

Commercial capacitors

ε d ⋅ ε0 A

C=

d

20 mF capacitor

Capacitor bank (series-parallel)

Parallel connection of capacitors

C1 C2

V = VB

Q1 = C1 V1

Q2 = C2 V2

capacitor are connected to the same wires.

The voltage on each of the capacitors is the same, VB

The charge on the capacitor C1, Q1 = C1×VB

The charge on the capacitor C2, Q2 = C2×VB

Total charge stored in both capacitors:

QTot = Q1 + Q2 = (C1 + C2) × VB

The equivalent capacitance, Ceq = QTot/ VB = C1 + C2

Cpar= C1 + C2

Parallel connection of capacitors

C1 C2

V = VB

IT I1 I2

For the 1st and 2nd capacitors, ∂V ∂V

I1 = C1 ; I 2 = C2 ;

∂t ∂t

According to the KCL, the total current IT = I1 + I2.

Substituting the values for I1 and I2:

∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V

IT = C1 + C2 = (C1 + C2 ) = C par ;

∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t

Cpar= C1 + C2

Series connection of capacitors

V = VB

C1 C2

Q = C1 V1 ; Q = C2 V2 ;

V1 V2

C1

V2 = V1

C2

Capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in series:

the charge Q on C1 and C2 is the same; For each of the capacitors,

From the KVL, VTot= V1 + V2.

The equivalent capacitance is defined as: Q = CEqS VTot

C1 C1

Q = CEqS (V1 + V2 ) = CEqS V1 + V1 ; Q = C1 V1 ; CEqS 1 + = C1 ;

C2 C2

CC

1/CSer= 1/C1 + 1/C2 CS = 1 2

C1 + C2

Example problem 2

What is the total capacitance in mF?

0

of

5

120

Timed response

Example problem 3

What is the total capacitance in mF?

0

of

5

120

Timed response

Example problem 4

A thin metal plate has been inserted in the middle

between the top and bottom plates.

What is the capacitance (in nF) of the capacitor now?

ε d ε0 A

C=

d

0

of

5

120

Timed response

Transients in R-C circuit

C

d VC

IC = C ×

dt

VB R

VR

IR =

R

Series R-C circuit

The first moment after closing the switch, the voltage across the capacitor = 0;

The capacitor behaves as a short-circuit;

The current at t=0, I0 = VB/R;

After all the transients are over (t Yh) , I = 0

Commutation rule for capacitors

C

Consider a capacitor right before and right

after commutation in an arbitrary circuit.

VB R The capacitor voltage (charge) does not

have to be zero before the commutation.

VC

V+

V_

Commutation event

time

connected circuit would be infinitely high:

d VC V+ − V−

IC = C × =C× If V+ is different from V- when dt 0,

dt dt |→0 then IC ∞

The capacitor voltage does not change after commutation: VC- = VC+

Graphs showing the current and

voltage for a capacitor charging

t

VB −

I (t ) = e RC

R

−

t

VC (t ) = VB × 1 − e RC

Capacitor voltage

τRC = R×C

When t = 3 ×τRC,

VC = 0.95VB ;

Graphs showing the current and

voltage for a capacitor discharging

Capacitor starting voltage is VB

t

VB −

I (t ) = e RC

R

t

−

VC (t ) = VB e RC

τRC = R×C

When t = 3 τRC,

VC = 0.05VB=5% VB

General formula for step response of an arbitrary R-C circuit

C

VS R

R-C circuit

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e −t /τ

τ = RC

VC0 is the capacitor voltage right after (or right before) the commutation;

VCF is the capacitor voltage long time after all the transient processes are over.

(al the sources are zeroed to find the equivalent total resistance)

Example 1

S1

S2

R=10 k

VB=4.5 V

C=0.5 mF

Electronic switch S2 triggers the alarm system when the voltage

across it exceeds the preset threshold value VT.

R = 10k; C = 0.5 mF; VB = 4.5 V.

Assume the S2 resistance infinitely high.

The required time delay between the switch S1 turn-on and triggering

switch S2 must be tt = 3s.

Example 1

S1

S2

R=10 k

VB=4.5 V

C=0.5 mF

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e − t / τ

VC0 = 0; VCF = VB; τ = R×C;

Example 2

The switch in the circuit shown in Fig. 7.25 has been in position

a for a long time. At t = 0 the switch is moved to position b.

What is the vC time dependence at t>0?

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e − t / τ

vC = 90 −120 e − t / 0.2 V

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