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Energy stored in capacitor

V = VB Stored charge
V = VB Charging capacitor
+Q
+Q
V = VB
V = VB
-Q
-Q

V = VB Stored charge produces the current


+Q

10mA
V = VB R
-Q
Energy stored in capacitor
Electric Energy = Charge x Voltage: W = Q × V
This formula would be true for capacitors, had the
charge between plates been transferred at a constant voltage.
For capacitors, Q = C × V
As the charge Q on the plate increases,
the voltage V increases too (and vice versa).
Suppose the capacitor was charged to the voltage V0:

Q
The stored energy is the area under V0 Q0
the Q – V line. WC =
Q0 2
CV02
Note that, Q0 = C V0:
WC =
WC 2
V0 V
V0 is the voltage on the charged capacitor
Example problem 1

The capacitor of 1 mF has been charged to 100 V.


What energy is stored in the capacitor in Joules?
2
CV0
WC =
2

0
of
5

120
Timed response
Commercial capacitors

ε d ⋅ ε0 A
C=
d

20 mF capacitor
Capacitor bank (series-parallel)
Parallel connection of capacitors
C1 C2
V = VB
Q1 = C1 V1

Q2 = C2 V2

Capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in parallel: both terminal of each


capacitor are connected to the same wires.
The voltage on each of the capacitors is the same, VB
The charge on the capacitor C1, Q1 = C1×VB
The charge on the capacitor C2, Q2 = C2×VB
Total charge stored in both capacitors:
QTot = Q1 + Q2 = (C1 + C2) × VB
The equivalent capacitance, Ceq = QTot/ VB = C1 + C2

Cpar= C1 + C2
Parallel connection of capacitors
C1 C2
V = VB

IT I1 I2

We can also find the equivalent capacitance from the KCL.


For the 1st and 2nd capacitors, ∂V ∂V
I1 = C1 ; I 2 = C2 ;
∂t ∂t
According to the KCL, the total current IT = I1 + I2.
Substituting the values for I1 and I2:

 ∂V ∂V  ∂V ∂V
IT =  C1 + C2  = (C1 + C2 ) = C par ;
 ∂t ∂t  ∂t ∂t

Cpar= C1 + C2
Series connection of capacitors

V = VB
C1 C2
Q = C1 V1 ; Q = C2 V2 ;
V1 V2
C1
V2 = V1
C2
Capacitors C1 and C2 are connected in series:
the charge Q on C1 and C2 is the same; For each of the capacitors,
From the KVL, VTot= V1 + V2.

The total charge, on the C1 – C2 combination is still Q.


The equivalent capacitance is defined as: Q = CEqS VTot
 C1   C1 
Q = CEqS (V1 + V2 ) = CEqS  V1 + V1  ; Q = C1 V1 ; CEqS 1 +  = C1 ;
 C2   C2 
 CC 
1/CSer= 1/C1 + 1/C2  CS = 1 2 
 C1 + C2 
Example problem 2

Three capacitors 2 mF each are connected in parallel.


What is the total capacitance in mF?

0
of
5

120
Timed response
Example problem 3

Three capacitors 2 mF each are connected in series.


What is the total capacitance in mF?

0
of
5

120
Timed response
Example problem 4

Parallel-plate capacitor has a capacitance of 9 nF.


A thin metal plate has been inserted in the middle
between the top and bottom plates.
What is the capacitance (in nF) of the capacitor now?
ε d ε0 A
C=
d

0
of
5

120
Timed response
Transients in R-C circuit
C
d VC
IC = C ×
dt
VB R
VR
IR =
R
Series R-C circuit
The first moment after closing the switch, the voltage across the capacitor = 0;
The capacitor behaves as a short-circuit;
The current at t=0, I0 = VB/R;
After all the transients are over (t Yh) , I = 0
Commutation rule for capacitors
C
Consider a capacitor right before and right
after commutation in an arbitrary circuit.
VB R The capacitor voltage (charge) does not
have to be zero before the commutation.
VC
V+
V_
Commutation event
time

If VC changes instantaneously after the commutation, the current in the


connected circuit would be infinitely high:
d VC V+ − V−
IC = C × =C× If V+ is different from V- when dt 0,
dt dt |→0 then IC  ∞

The capacitor voltage does not change after commutation: VC- = VC+
Graphs showing the current and
voltage for a capacitor charging

t
VB −
I (t ) = e RC
R

 −
t

VC (t ) = VB × 1 − e RC

 
Capacitor voltage

τRC = R×C

When t = 3 ×τRC,
VC = 0.95VB ;
Graphs showing the current and
voltage for a capacitor discharging
Capacitor starting voltage is VB
t
VB −
I (t ) = e RC
R

t

VC (t ) = VB e RC

τRC = R×C

When t = 3 τRC,
VC = 0.05VB=5% VB
General formula for step response of an arbitrary R-C circuit
C

VS R

R-C circuit

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e −t /τ
τ = RC

VC0 is the capacitor voltage right after (or right before) the commutation;
VCF is the capacitor voltage long time after all the transient processes are over.

R is the total resistance connected to the capacitor after commutation


(al the sources are zeroed to find the equivalent total resistance)
Example 1

Delayed alarm circuit


S1
S2
R=10 k
VB=4.5 V
C=0.5 mF

Sensor switch: S1.


Electronic switch S2 triggers the alarm system when the voltage
across it exceeds the preset threshold value VT.
R = 10k; C = 0.5 mF; VB = 4.5 V.
Assume the S2 resistance infinitely high.

The required time delay between the switch S1 turn-on and triggering
switch S2 must be tt = 3s.

What threshold voltage VT must the switch S2 be tuned to?


Example 1

Delayed alarm circuit


S1
S2
R=10 k
VB=4.5 V
C=0.5 mF

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e − t / τ
VC0 = 0; VCF = VB; τ = R×C;

vC = vB − vB e − t / τ The required alarm triggering time: tt=3s

The required switch threshold voltage vSW = vc(tr):

vsw = 4.5 − 4.5 e −3 /(10 e 3×0.5e−3) = 4.5 − 4.5 × e −0.6 = 2V


Example 2

The switch in the circuit shown in Fig. 7.25 has been in position
a for a long time. At t = 0 the switch is moved to position b.
What is the vC time dependence at t>0?

vC = vCF + ( vC 0 − vCF ) e − t / τ

vC0 = V60Ω = −40V *60/(60+20) = -30 V

vF = 90 V; τ = RC = 400 kΩ ∗ 0.5µF = 0.2 s.

vC = 90 −120 e − t / 0.2 V