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Canad. M. A. J.

MEDICAL SOCIETIES 391


Oct. 1951, vol. 65

MEN and BOOKS may be achieved, with the maintenance of the


waking conscwusness.
THE CONCEPT OF LEVELS OF REFERENCES
CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE UPANISHADS"' 1. ALCORN, D. E.: Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis,
Bull. Vancouver M. A., 16: 204, 1940.
(A Historical Note) 2. CARUS, P.: The Soul of Man. Open Court, Chicago,
1891.
3. DASGUPTA, S.: A History of Indian Philosophy, 4 vols.,
Edward L. Margetts, M.D. University Press, Cambridge, 1922-1949.
4. DEuSSEN P.: (a) The Philosophy of the Upanishads.
Allan Memorial Institute of Psychiatry, Transfated by A. S. Geden, T. & T. Clark, Edin-
McGill University, Montreal, Que. burgh 1906. (b) The System of the VedAnta (etc.).
Translated by C. Johnston, Open Court, Chicago,
1912.
It is clear from the Sanscrit writings that 5. GARBE, R.: Vedanta, J. Hastings, Encyclopedia of
ancient Indian philosophers had a pretty good Religion and Ethics, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 13
Vols., Vol. 12, p. 597, 1908-1926.
idea of what we nowadays call "the unconsci- 6.
7.
GEDEN, A. S.: Upanisads, Hastings, Vol. 12, p. 540.
HUME, R. E.: The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, 2nd
ous". One of the earliest works to indicate this ed., rev. by G. C. 0. Haas, Oxford University Press,
is the Upanishads, a collection of documents, London, 1931.
8. RAVI VARMA, L. A.: (I am indebted to Dr. Ravi Varma
dating about 600 B.C., which constituted the of Trivandrum, S. India, and I here quote from one
of his letters to me.)
earliest written presentation of the efforts of NOTE.-Accents have been omitted from the Sanscrit
the Hindus to construe the world as a rational words in the text.
whole, and to regard the ultimate as a unifica-
tion of the individual self with the Supreme
Being, the Absolute, Brahma.
Sanscrit scholars have written in great detail
about the "types of soul", or levels of consci- MEDICAL SOCIETIES
ousness, in the Upanishads.3 to 6 The German
philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), Canadian Dermatological Association
was greatly influenced by them. Alcorn1 believes At the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Dermatologi-
that Paul Carus2 derived his theory of the un- cal Association, in Montebello, Quebec, June 18 and 19,
conscious from the Upanishads, since Carus was 1951, there was an attendance of fifty-three members
a student of Indian philosophy. and guests. The presiding officer was Dr. E. Gaumolnd.
The Upanishads, particularly Mandukya Sixteen papers were presented. In addition to these, a
clinical meeting was held at the Hotel Dieu Hospital on
Upanishad 3-11 (ref. 7 pp. 391-3), set forth June 20.
quite clearly the "four states of self". They are: The following officers were elected: President-Dr.
1. The waking state (jagarita-sthana). Equiv- B. Usher, Montreal, Que; Vice-President-Dr. J. P.
alent to the "Conscious". Man accepts the uni- Foisy, Montreal, Que.; Secretary Treasurer-Dr. S. E.
Grimes, Ottawa, Ont.
verse as he finds it. Perception, volition, and
memory are preserved. This state is recognizable
in the well-developed animal kingdom, including
man. (According to Vedanta philosophy, a Canadian Association of Pathologists
psyche exists in animal, vegetable and mineral The third Annual Meeting of the Canadian
kingdoms). Association of Pathologists was held at the
2. The dreaming state (svapna-sthana). The Pathological Institute, McGill University, on
"Subconscious". The self loses contact with June 19, 1951. The subjects discussed included:
reality, and the soul fashions its own world in "The Training of Laboratory Technicians",
the imagery of its dreams. The usual state of "The Standardization and Accuracy of Labora-
mind in the less developed animal kingdom. tory Tests", "Laboratory Services for Civil
3. The deep-sleep state (susupta-sthana). A Defence", and "The Economic Status of the
deeper level of the subconscious approaching Pathologist". It was also decided that the Asso-
complete unconsciousness. State of bliss in which ciation should operate a registry of pathologists
there is no contact with reality, no desire, no and a registry of positions vacant in order that
dreams. This is the situation in the vegetable those pathologists seeking a position would
and mineral kingdoms. have knowledge of possible posts. This registry
4. The fourth state (caturtha, turiya, turya). will be operated by the Secretary-Treasurer of
The "Super- (or Supra-) conscious". "According the Association, Dr. M. B. Mackenzie, Herbert
to Vedanta, it is in this state that Seers get Reddy Memorial Hospital, Westmount, Mtl. 6,
flashes of Great Truths in the form of vague Que.
apprehensions, which are afterwards elaborated The following slate of officers was elected
in the jagrat state or waking consciousness".8 for the ensuing year: President, D. F. Moore,
Deussen4 reasoned that full appreciation of this St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon; Eastern Vice-
state of soul became prominent with the rise of President, M. 0. Klotz, Ottawa Civic Hospital,
the Yoga school, which believes that by intense Ottawa; Western Vice-President, Daniel Nichol-
meditation and self-control, the union of tlle son, Department Pathology, University Mani-
human soul with the Supreme Soul, Brahma, toba, Winnipeg; Secretary-Treasurer, M. B.
*
This historical investigation was supported by a Mackenzie, Herbert Reddy Memorial Hospital,
grant from the Ciba Co., Ltd., Montreal. Tupper St., Montreal.