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Lecture note

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You are on page 1of 34

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Learning outcomes

• Complex impedances

• Series: RL, RC, RLC circuits

• Parallel: RL, RC, LC circuits

• Power in AC circuits - components of power,

power factor

• Calculations on power factor correction

• Calculation of real, reactive, apparent power and

power factor

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RC in series

• RC in series

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RL in series

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Exercise

If R = 5 ohms, L = 5mH, calculate Z if f = 50Hz

XL = 2 x pi x 50 x 5/1000 = 1.57ohms

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Exercise

If R = 5 ohms, C = 2 mF, calculate Z if f = 50Hz

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RLC circuit in series

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Example

A coil of resistance 5 ohms and inductance 120mH in series with a 100μF

capacitor, is connected to a 300V, 50Hz supply. Calculate XL, XC, Z & I.

XL −XC=37.70−31.83=5.87 ohms

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RL in parallel

• RL in parallel

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Example

A 20 ohm resistor is connected in parallel with an inductance of 2.387mH across a

60V, 1kHz supply. Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the supply current,

(c) the circuit phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power consumed.

= 60/2π(1000)(2.387×10−3) = 4A

(Alternatively, power consumed)= P=I2R =32 x 20 180W

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RC in parallel

where IR = V/R and IC = V/XC

tanα= IC/IR

sinα= IC/I

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Example

A capacitor C is connected in parallel with a resistor R across a 120V, 200Hz

supply. The supply current is 2A at a power factor of 0.6 leading. Determine the

values of C and R.

IR =I cos53.13◦=(2)(0.6) =1.2A

From the circuit diagram, IR = V/R from which R = V/IR = 120/1.2 = 100 ohms

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LC in parallel

IC = V/XC

Z = V/I

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Example

A pure inductance of 120mH is connected in parallel with a 25μF capacitor and the

network is connected to a 100V, 50Hz supply. Determine (a) the branch currents,

(b) the supply current and its phase angle, (c) the circuit impedance, and (d) the

power consumed.

Capacitive reactance, XC = 1/2πf C =1/2π(50)(25×10−6) =127.3 ohms

Current flowing in inductance, IL = V/XL = 100/37.70 =2.653A

Current flowing in capacitor, IC = V/XC = 100/127.3 =0.786A

I=IL −IC =2.653−0.786=1.867A and the current lags the supply voltage V by 90◦

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Ohm’s Law in AC

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Real Power

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Reactive Power

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Apparent Power

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Power components

AC power flow has the three components:

– Active power (P) – measured in Watt, KW, MW

• In phase with the applied voltage (V)

– Reactive power (Q) – measured in VAr, kVAr, MVAr

• Not in phase with the applied voltage (V)

– Apparent power (S) – measured in VA, kVA, MVA

• It is the vector sum of active and reactive power

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Power triangle

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AC Power

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Power Factor

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Power Factor

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Improvement of Power Factor

I

• Inductive load takes

lagging current

• Must be supplied by V C IC L IL

source

• Capacitor takes leading

current

• Capacitor Current added

to inductive current

brings total current in

phase with supply

voltage

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Power Factor Correction

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Power Factor Correction (cont.)

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Power Factor Correction

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Power Factor Correction

A tester is placed on a single phase ac motor and it displays a motor current of

14.29A at a power factor of 0.7 lagging. What is required to correct the power

factor to unity?

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1. Calculate the motor VA, W and Vars

Apparent power S = 120V * 14.29 A = 1714 VA

Active power P = 1714 VA * 0.7 = 1200 W

Reactive power Q = √ (S2 – P2) = √ (17142 – 12002) = 1224 VAR

In order to obtain a circuit power factor of 100 percent, the inductive apparent

power of the motor and the capacitive apparent power of the capacitor must be

equal.

QC must equal 1224 VARS for 100 percent power factor.

XC = V2 / QC = 1202 / 1224 = 11.76 Ω

C = 1 / ωXC = 1 / ((2 * * 60) * 11.76) = 225 µF

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Example

a) Find Real, Reactive and Apparent power for the circuit below:

ZT = 4 + j2 = 4.47<26.56

I = 3.35<-21.56

X=2; R=4

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Example (continued)

a) Find Real, Reactive and Apparent power for the circuit below:

c) Find the phase angle between voltage and current

pf = 0.89.

power factor angle = 26.56

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Example

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Solution (to be worked in class)

V = 240V

I = 11.6A

Pf = cos(phi) = cos65 =

Z= V/I =

R = Z x cos (phi) =

X = Z x sin(phi) =

P = I^2 x R =

Q = I^2 x X =

S = I^2 x Z =

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QUESTIONS?

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