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ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

TOPIC 1.2B WEBINAR

Presented by – Deepak Pais

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Learning outcomes
• Complex impedances
• Series: RL, RC, RLC circuits
• Parallel: RL, RC, LC circuits
• Power in AC circuits - components of power,
power factor
• Calculations on power factor correction
• Calculation of real, reactive, apparent power and
power factor

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RC in series
• RC in series

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RL in series

• Similarly with RL in series

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Exercise
If R = 5 ohms, L = 5mH, calculate Z if f = 50Hz

XL = 2 x pi x 50 x 5/1000 = 1.57ohms

Z = sqrt (25 + 2.46) = 5.24 ohms

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Exercise
If R = 5 ohms, C = 2 mF, calculate Z if f = 50Hz

XC = 1/(2 x pi x 50 x 2/1000) = 1.59ohms

Z = sqrt (25 + 2.53) = 5.25 ohms

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RLC circuit in series

Figure b is for XL>XC and Figure c is for XC>XL

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Example
A coil of resistance 5 ohms and inductance 120mH in series with a 100μF
capacitor, is connected to a 300V, 50Hz supply. Calculate XL, XC, Z & I.

XL = 2πfL = 2π(50)(120 ×10−3) = 37.70 ohms

XC = 1/2π f C = 1/2π(50)(100 ×10−6)= 31.83 ohms

Since XL is greater than XC the circuit is inductive.


XL −XC=37.70−31.83=5.87 ohms

Impedance Z =√R2 +(XL −XC)2 = √(5)2+(5.87)2 =7.71 ohms

Current I = V/Z = 300/7.71 = 38.91A

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RL in parallel
• RL in parallel

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Example
A 20 ohm resistor is connected in parallel with an inductance of 2.387mH across a
60V, 1kHz supply. Calculate (a) the current in each branch, (b) the supply current,
(c) the circuit phase angle, (d) the circuit impedance, and (e) the power consumed.

(a) Current flowing in the resistor IR= V/R= 60/20 =3A

Current flowing in the inductance IL = V/XL = V/2πf L


= 60/2π(1000)(2.387×10−3) = 4A

(b) From the phasor diagram, supply current, I =√(IR2+IL2 )= √(32+42) = 5A

(c) Circuit phase angle, φ= tan−1(IL/IR) = tan−1 (4/3) =53.13◦ lagging

(d) Circuit impedance, Z =V/I =60/5 =12 ohms

(e) Power consumed P=VI cosφ =(60)(5)(cos 53.13◦) =180W


(Alternatively, power consumed)= P=I2R =32 x 20 180W

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RC in parallel

I =√(IR2+IC2), (by Pythagoras’ theorem)


where IR = V/R and IC = V/XC

tanα= IC/IR

sinα= IC/I

and cosα= IR/I

Circuit impedance Z = V/I

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Example
A capacitor C is connected in parallel with a resistor R across a 120V, 200Hz
supply. The supply current is 2A at a power factor of 0.6 leading. Determine the
values of C and R.

Power factor=cosφ=0.6 leading, hence φ=cos−1 0.6 = 53.13◦ leading.

IR =I cos53.13◦=(2)(0.6) =1.2A

and IC =I sin 53.13◦=(2)(0.8)=1.6A

From the circuit diagram, IR = V/R from which R = V/IR = 120/1.2 = 100 ohms

and IC = V/XC = 2πf CV, from which,

C = IC/2πf V = 1.6/2π(200)(120) = 10.61μF

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LC in parallel

For the L–C parallel circuit, IL = V/XL

IC = V/XC

I =phasor difference between IL and IC

Z = V/I

i) IL >IC (giving a supply current, I =IL −IC lagging V by 90◦)

(ii) IC >IL (giving a supply current, I =IC −IL leading V by 90◦)

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Example
A pure inductance of 120mH is connected in parallel with a 25μF capacitor and the
network is connected to a 100V, 50Hz supply. Determine (a) the branch currents,
(b) the supply current and its phase angle, (c) the circuit impedance, and (d) the
power consumed.

(a) Inductive reactance, XL =2πf L =2π(50)(120×10−3) =37.70 ohms


Capacitive reactance, XC = 1/2πf C =1/2π(50)(25×10−6) =127.3 ohms
Current flowing in inductance, IL = V/XL = 100/37.70 =2.653A
Current flowing in capacitor, IC = V/XC = 100/127.3 =0.786A

(b) IL and IC are anti-phase. Hence supply current,


I=IL −IC =2.653−0.786=1.867A and the current lags the supply voltage V by 90◦

(c) Circuit impedance, Z = V/I = 100/1.867 =53.56 ohms

(d) Real Power consumed, P=VI cosφ =(100)(1.867)(cos 90◦) =0W

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Ohm’s Law in AC

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Real Power

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Reactive Power

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Apparent Power

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Power components
 AC power flow has the three components:
– Active power (P) – measured in Watt, KW, MW
• In phase with the applied voltage (V)
– Reactive power (Q) – measured in VAr, kVAr, MVAr
• Not in phase with the applied voltage (V)
– Apparent power (S) – measured in VA, kVA, MVA
• It is the vector sum of active and reactive power

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Power triangle

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AC Power

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Power Factor

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Power Factor

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Improvement of Power Factor
I
• Inductive load takes
lagging current
• Must be supplied by V C IC L IL

source
• Capacitor takes leading
current
• Capacitor Current added
to inductive current
brings total current in
phase with supply
voltage

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Power Factor Correction

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Power Factor Correction (cont.)

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Power Factor Correction

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Power Factor Correction
A tester is placed on a single phase ac motor and it displays a motor current of
14.29A at a power factor of 0.7 lagging. What is required to correct the power
factor to unity?

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1. Calculate the motor VA, W and Vars
Apparent power S = 120V * 14.29 A = 1714 VA
Active power P = 1714 VA * 0.7 = 1200 W
Reactive power Q = √ (S2 – P2) = √ (17142 – 12002) = 1224 VAR

2. Calculate the Value of C


In order to obtain a circuit power factor of 100 percent, the inductive apparent
power of the motor and the capacitive apparent power of the capacitor must be
equal.
QC must equal 1224 VARS for 100 percent power factor.
XC = V2 / QC = 1202 / 1224 = 11.76 Ω
C = 1 / ωXC = 1 / ((2 *  * 60) * 11.76) = 225 µF

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Example
a) Find Real, Reactive and Apparent power for the circuit below:

S^2 = Q^2 + P^2

ZT = 4 + j2 = 4.47<26.56

I = 3.35<-21.56

X=2; R=4

P = 44.9 W; Q = 22.5 VAR; S = 50.2 VA

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Example (continued)
a) Find Real, Reactive and Apparent power for the circuit below:

b) Find the power factor


c) Find the phase angle between voltage and current

pf = 0.89.
power factor angle = 26.56

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Example

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Solution (to be worked in class)
V = 240V
I = 11.6A
Pf = cos(phi) = cos65 =
Z= V/I =
R = Z x cos (phi) =
X = Z x sin(phi) =
P = I^2 x R =
Q = I^2 x X =
S = I^2 x Z =

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QUESTIONS?

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