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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

From: Marketing Practitioner

To: Senior Management

Subject: Entrepreneurial / Innovative approaches required to deliver better value to Customers.

Date: 10th November, 2016

This brief captures how G4s Security Services (Ghana) Limited can respond to the changing nature of
Customers.

It includes methods to identify innovative changes occurring in the customer / user environment with
potential marketing approaches.

It concludes with an internal marketing plan to encourage a change regime.

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Task 1 (a). Organisation Summary ....................................................................................................... 3


Task 1 (b): Existing Entrepreneurial Processes and approaches within G4S Security ................................ 4
1 (b). 1: Creating Competitive Advantage............................................................................................. 4
1 (b).2: Environmental Scanning .................................................................................................... 54
1 (b).3: Exploring trends. .................................................................................................................. 5
1 (b).4: Blue Ocean against Red Ocean Strategy. ................................................................................. 5
Task 1(c): Recommended new approach for developing a product/Service. ............................................. 6
Task 2 (a): Internal Creative Climate....................................................................................................... 9
2 (a) 2: Management Support ................................................................................................................ 10
2 (a) 4: Dynamism/Risk-taking ........................................................................................................... 1110
2 (a) 5: Organizational Systems and Processes .................................................................................. 1110
Task 2 (b): Key External Stake Holders ............................................................................................... 1211
Vendors ............................................................................................................................................. 12
The Community ............................................................................................................................. 1312
Governments and Regulators ........................................................................................................ 1312
Task 2 (c): Marketing function supporting greater innovation ................................................................ 13
Task 3 (a) – Internal Marketing Plan....................................................................................................... 16
3(b) 2: How internal business functions can work together innovatively to deliver better value ............ 20
3 (c): Measuring internal marketing plan. Suitable methods .............................................................. 2221

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

Task 1 (a). Organisation Summary -


Organisation name

G4s Security services (Ghana) Limited.

Type of organisation

G4s security services is a for profit security and risk management organisation with Global presence in
over 120 countries. G4S works to safeguard the welfare and prosperity of millions of people worldwide –
helping to create safer and better environments in which people live and work. G4s security services
provides security consultancy services for private homes, commercial properties, G4S Security Services
(GH) Limited - has been operational since 2002 and is managed from the Local Head Quarters in Labone,
Accra. In addition to Labone, G4S operates in four branch offices in Tema, Takoradi, Tarkwa and Kumasi.
We also have satellite office in Volta Region, Sunyani, Obuasi, Tamale, Koforidua, and Wa.

Size of the organisation

G4S is the largest employer quoted on the London Stock Exchange and has a secondary stock exchange
listing in Copenhagen. G4S has operations in more than 125 countries and 657,000 employees.
(www.g4s.com.) G4s’s operations in Africa have been established for over 50 years and now employ over
111,000 people in 30 Countries across the continent. 2015 turnover was GHc 65,618.803.00

Range of products and services

G4s provides integrated security approaches, combining manned guarding with electronic security
solutions. Products and services include; Specialized Manned Guarding, Access Control Solutions –
Biometric, RFID, Turnstiles, Intruder Detection Systems, CCTV Systems and Remote Monitoring, Electrical
Fencing / Perimeter Protection/ Security Lighting, Vehicle/Asset Tracking & Fleet Management Systems,
Alarm Monitoring and Response Services, Fire Detection and Suppression Systems Design, Installation &
Maintenance, Security Control Rooms, Scanners and Detectors ( Handheld and Walk through Metal
Detectors), Journey Management ( Airside Meet and Greet Services, Secured Ground Transportation), VIP
Security Escort & Close Protection Services, Event Security Management
Cash Management, All of these devices are sourced and purchased from third parties, affiliated partners
and acquired or merged manufacturing companies.

Customer base

G4s’s customer spans both Business-to-business and Business-to-customer. G4S GH has a comprehensive
operational footprint with a strong presence across the country; with over 6,000 personnel working for
over 600 customers, ranging from Government/Diplomatic through to Financial Institutions, Mining and
to International Charities.

Main competitors

Main competitors are other security companies offering similar products and services; namely WESTEC
security services, Topp core security services, Edern security services and INETCON security.

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

Task 1 is a briefing paper. Please use the proper format. Formatted: Font: Not Bold

Task 1 (b): Existing Entrepreneurial Processes and approaches within G4S Security
The American Marketing Association defines marketing as "the process of planning and executing
the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges
that satisfy individual and organizational goals" (Bennett 1988). Sheth and Sisodia (1999) note that
marketing is context dependent, and that when changes occur in the contextual elements surrounding
it, the discipline may find much of its toolkit and conceptual inventory becoming obsolete. Innovation
is then needed at this stage to propose new strategies.

Entrepreneurship is defined as the proactive identification and exploitation of opportunities for acquiring
and retaining profitable customers through innovative approaches to risk management, resource
leveraging and value creation.

Entrepreneurship creates value by bringing together a unique package of resources to exploit an


opportunity (Stevenson, Roberts, and Grousbeck 1989). Entrepreneurial marketing synthesizes critical
aspects of marketing and entrepreneurship into a comprehensive conceptualization where marketing
becomes a process that firms can use to act entrepreneurially. In this regard, it is a continuous process
of products and processes innovation cycle to remove or replace outdated models, systems, approaches
and items with new ones, termed Creative destruction.(Schumpeter 1942).
G4s security services have adopted the following entrepreneurial processes that have existed as a
strategic approach to enhancing value to its customers; Commented [EFA1]: I remember I said in class that you need to
show an understanding of what value is and what your customers
perceive as value.

1 (b). 1: Creating Competitive Advantage


A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value,
either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and services profitably.
Competitive advantage is what provides an edge over rivals and an ability to generate greater value for
G4s and its stakeholders.G4s security services have been constrained in previous years in the search and
recruitment of suitable security personnel to answer to its growing demand for manned guarding services.
Personnel were usually sourced from external recruitment agencies at very high service charges. The high
charges in turn meant that clients have to pay more. In the quest for a better and a cheaper approach,
the human resources department innovated its recruitment process by the use of virtual recruitment
kiosks. These kiosks have been strategically placed in high traffic areas in the city to generate as much
contact with passer-bys who wish to be employed.

The process is much cheaper and quicker recruitment avenue. The greater value to clients is that their
service charge per month has seen a marginal reduction in price with improved service delivery. Guards Commented [EFA2]: Is marginal reduction really a valuable
are now deployed to site as scheduled without delays thus enhancing customer value. As a result of the thing for customers? Maybe you should use a different word.

more affordable recruitment system, operational cost has reduced with general overhead cost.
As described by Michael Porter in his generic business strategies to gain competitive advantage,
differentiation focus instructs the business to differentiate within just on a small number of target market
segments. The special customer needs of that segment means that there are opportunities to provide
products/services that are clearly different from the competition.

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

1 (b).2: Environmental Scanning


It is the careful monitoring of an organizations internal and external environment for detecting early signs
of opportunities, next trends, wearable technology and monitor emerging uncertainties. Brown and
Weiner (1985) define environmental scanning as "a kind of radar to scan the world systematically and
signal the new, the unexpected, the major and the minor”. Aguilar (1967), in his study of the information
gathering practices of managers, defined scanning as the systematic collection of external information in
order to (1) lessen the randomness of information flowing into the organization and (2) provide early
warnings for managers of changing external conditions.

Through Environmental Scanning, G4s identified that its clients were not exactly satisfied by its intruder
alarm system. This old system was prone to generating false alarms that prompts unnecessary phone calls
and visits to homes, violating customer’s privacy. Alarm teams also have to make long drives to ascertain
or verify authentic intrusions. These factors were impacting negatively on G4s’s operations and creating
post purchase dissonance in customers. The scan also identified that customers were charged extra for
false alarms especially. Through collaboration with technical and security experts G4s as an early adopter,
adopted a new videofied security system. This system captures and transmits short video clips with alarm
notifications to the central control station for immediate response. The new system completely
eliminated false alarms by giving real time situational video clips of intrusions. Alarm teams are now
adequately informed and armed accordingly with video verification before responding to alarm triggers.
The targeted segment now benefits from options such as self monitoring with alarm receiving center and
initial system upgrade to existing infrastructure, thus enhancing value to customers.

1 (b).3: Exploring trends.


G4s’ identified opportunity was discovered through the study of scanning results and trends (Discovery
and Creation theory). Discovery theory assumes that opportunities arise independently of any action
taken by entrepreneurs and are waiting to be discovered. Creation theory takes a different view that
opportunities are not created by exogenous shocks but are created by endogenously by the actions of
entrepreneurs as they explore and develop new offerings.(Murphy,2011)’s “ Eureka (high serendipity /
high deliberation), Deliberate search (low serendipity high deliberation), Legacy (low serendipity / low
deliberation) and Serendipitous Discovery (high serendipity / low deliberation) ” is considered. The
environmental scan introduced new security devices that were quickly adopted by its target audience
because the market saw the new offerings as analogous to already existing or previous technology or
offering. Commented [EFA3]: In this section you have not really brought
out how the exploration of trends can be used to improve a product
of service and thereby create value for customers.

1 (b).4: Blue Ocean against Red Ocean Strategy.


Red and Blue Ocean strategies define strategy on “How to create uncontested Market Space and make
the competition irrelevant. This strategy postulates that instead of trying to find ways to compete in
crowded known markets (Red Ocean), we should look for completely new markets that are apart from
the crowd (Blue Ocean). (Chan Kim & Mauborgne, 2005).

RED OCEAN STRATEGY VS. BLUE OCEAN STRATEGY

Red Ocean Strategy Blue Ocean Strategy


Compete in existing market space Create uncontested market space
Beat the competition Make the competition irrelevant

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Exploit existing demand Create and capture new demand


Make the value-cost trade-off Break the value-cost trade-off
Align the whole system of a firm’s activities with Align the whole system of a firm’s of activities in
its strategic choice of differentiation or low cost pursuit of differentiation and low cost

Structuralist approach Reconstructionist approach

Instead of attacking its competitors like Intercon and Westec security who are contesting in the same
manned guard and electronic market, G4s sought a new approach to respond to its segment needs
profitably. G4s has exclusive distributorship in the new videofied systems, with plans to absorb the Commented [EFA4]: Is there a word like videofied?
partnering company so as to enjoy some monopoly before the market saturates with me-too products.

G4s products and services emanated from anticipating needs, experimentation and education of its
target niche to create that required revolution in the market place. (Market driving). Market driving is
therefore Disruptive in nature, innovative, creative, agile to trends, decisive and dynamic as opposed to a
market driven approach that determines actions and response to innovation in a reactive, rigid, static and
confused state. – you have not adequately addressed the question with this answer. Again you have not
shown how blue ocean thinking can be used to improve a product or service and most importantly how it
creates value for customers. The Innovation book has several entrepreneurial approaches that you can
use. For most Ghanaian companies I am not sure if they use Blue Ocean at all.

Task 1(c): Recommended new approach for developing a product/Service. Formatted: Font: +Body (Calibri), 11 pt, Font color: Auto
1(c) 1: In an innovative strategy, G4s generated its idea from the desire to give better value to customers
through eliminating false alarms, avoiding constant charges to customers and a better verifiable system.
These ideas came from market intelligence, own idea generation, environmental scanning and internal
competences and goals. Before ideas are turned into product specifications in the future, G4s should
identify better processes of preliminarily viewing the business case for the product, definition of what the
value proposition would be, tentative pricing and specification of the core product.

In G4s’ fire fighting division, it was identified that traditional fire fighting substances like Carbon dioxide
and water caused as much damage to property as the flames. Documents, electronic devices were
damaged beyond repair by these substances. G4s therefore sought a new material that would not cause
much damage or to completely eliminate the damage caused.

At this idea generation stage, G4s could encourage all employees to come up with ideas and create a
system of rewarding individuals who present feasible ideas. This will motivate the entire work force to
participate. G4s could also form teams that will have diverse groups of people with different behavioral
skill, strength, versatility and competence to constantly develop ideas for new product creation. Market
research approaches should be considered to identify segments with specific needs.

Market intelligence gathering will also expose ideas by (a) observation of market opportunities that will
spot gaps in the market or an area that is under-served by the competition. (b) Customer inputs gathers

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

information from customers about their needs and as to whether those needs have evolved. (c) Crowd
sourcing can be used also to get customers suggest new offerings.

External sources must be considered to gain ideas from distributors and suppliers who work very closely
with customers and the market. Suppliers will provide new concepts, technique or materials. Competitors
are also another source of valuable ideas. Researching competitors reveals gaps that are not served and
niches. How about the use of social media for example to gather ideas.

Screening; At this stage, G4s must decide the criteria by which to proceed with the idea or not. G4s should
consider the criterion that explains;

 How well the idea fits with its company or product strategy, brand, planned portfolio of product.
 How good the business cases looks like in its preliminary estimate of cost, pricing, volumes and
expected profits and also view of the competitive positioning.

A SWOT analysis can help G4s identify the strength and weakness of each idea. It will analyze the internal
and external factors that will affect the product. It will help G4s know whether to build on strength,
minimize weakness, seize opportunities or counteract threats. A SWOT analysis will aid decisions as to
whether to introduce a new product or service or change its processes, workout areas that need
improving and understand its market. – You should consider the use of digital at this stage too. The
Innovation Book has some good ideas.

Developing the Business Case; The business model for the product must capture actual product costing
to cover cost and profits, whether to use skimming or penetration pricing strategies. Cost –plus pricing
must be used at this to ensure no marginal losses are incurred in materials, labor or overhead cost;

Cost of material GHc 2,000


+Cost of labor 50.00
+overhead 70.00
=Total cost GHc 2,120
+Desired profit (30% on sales) 160.00
=Required sales price GHc 2,280.00

Segmented market or niche should be identified at this stage so as to satisfy product specification,
attributes and appropriate branding and labeling. This aid identifies the route to target market with
appropriate distribution strategies to include direct or indirect approaches.

Trialing and Testing; before full scale launch, focus groups or channel customer’s should be formed to
test the product to ensure or guarantee suitability for the market. By measuring levels of consumer
awareness, product trial, repeat purchase, market share, and sales volume, the test market gives some
indication of the productivity of the elements of the marketing plan.

Beta-test and proto-typing or limited trials of pre-launch versions of the product will also provide feedback
as to whether to modify the product. It will also give early warnings of failure. These measures are the
basis for making the “go/no-go” decision. Such a decision can be made on the basis of rule-of-thumb—for
example, drop the product if the trial rate is less than 60%.

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Murphy’s Law says: “If anything can go wrong, it will.” This law is particularly descriptive of the new
product development process. Disasters are common in the development and introduction of new
products, and test markets are one of the ways to avoid as many disasters as possible.

Commercial Launch; The final process of launching will require G4s to have fully ensured technical
readiness, commercial readiness and operational readiness. G4s should have all technical aspects of
product design and architecture completed, Technical testing completed (including performance testing),
all technical documentation finalized (eg. product technical guide), All technical training finalized and
delivered.

All product internal (sales guides, FAQ, proposals) documentation ready, communication of information
to various stakeholders. These processes will ensure that customers enjoy value at a successful product
launch.

With all these considered G4s should have an exit route if the product fails. Products may fail as a result
of a lack of a particular marketing mix element, or acts of the competition.
G4s should thus consider the following strategies;
 The sale of the new product to another company where it fits neatly with their portfolio.
 The product could also be moved to overseas markets
 Quick withdrawal of the offering if the adoption rate is slow
 G4s security services should also consider selling the intellectual property right to that offering.

Because you are proposing a new approach is it important that at each stage you briefly describe what
currently happens in the organization so that the new approach you proposing can be very clear and stand
out.

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Driving Innovation (2202) Membership Number 40008336

Task 2 (a): Internal Creative Climate


Organizational creativity is the act of creativity that takes place as the result of the interactions within a
complex social system.

The organizational climate is the behavioral manifestation of underlying values, beliefs and assumptions
of the members of an organization. The climate is perceived by members through organization processes
and practices which provide an aggregated idea of how to function in the organization and what the
organizational goals and objectives are.

One of the basic outputs of innovation is to produce new knowledge which can describe and develop new
solution for societies. G4s has seen innovation as an activity which captures, acquires, manages and
diffuses knowledge with the aim of creating new knowledge to drive the production of new products and
services in order to meet customer needs and preference in different ways, as well as to develop
processes, structures and technology that can improve those segments. To encourage constant change
and dynamism in new approaches G4s has inculcated freewill and broken down organizational hierarchies
that sought to promote bureaucracies. G4s’ climate embraces aspects of the psychological atmosphere in
teams and surrounding organizational environment that conveys expectations about which behaviors and
attitudes are acceptable.

Organizational creativity is the act of creativity that takes place as the result of the interactions within a
complex social system.

The organizational climate is the behavioral manifestation of underlying values, beliefs and assumptions
of the members of an organization. The climate is perceived by members through organization processes
and practices which provide an aggregated idea of how to function in the organization and what the
organizational goals and objectives are. (Patrik Axelsson, Narges Sadari 2011).

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These measures has characterized G4s as enabling the following creative climate attributes as captured
below.

2 (a) 1: Work Characteristics


Work characteristics refer to the properties of each employee’s work that increase the likelihood of a
creative contribution to the organization. According to Amabile (1998), matching people with the right
assignments is one of the most effective ways to increase creativity. This means that people should use
their expertise and creative-thinking abilities in their work, which in turn will increase their intrinsic
motivation towards the task. G4s employees have the freedom to experiment with new ideas.
Management must shares????? its vision among the employees if they are to produce an innovative
result. Amabile (1998) claims that a sense of mutual purpose is central to intrinsic motivation. The vision
must also be clear and possible to change (Anderson et al., 1992). Control is one obstacle towards a
creative climate with regard to work characteristics. Sternberg et al. (1997) and Rasulzada (2007) talk
about control as a way for organizations to try to cope with the uncertainties inherited in the creative
process. In a controlled environment, creative employees are often met with skepticism and resistance.

2 (a) 2: Management Support


One of the key ways managers can influence their employees’ creativity is by providing them with
sufficient support and encouragement. In order to nourish the intrinsic motivation that leads to creative
behavior, managers must continuously recognize the employees’ efforts .Managers must avoid
questioning innovative behavior in a reactive manner but instead really consider the creative ideas.
Supervisory encouragement also means that managers should act as role models for their employees and
pay attention to employees’ needs and feelings. Further the managers should encourage their employees
to speak their concerns, provide them with positive and informational feedback, and assist them in
developing their skills. Non-controlling means that managers should not closely monitor their employees;
not make decisions concerning the employees without involving them; and not try to make employees
feel, think or act in a certain way. If employees feel that they are being controlled in any of these ways, it
will hamper their creative potential.

2 (a) 3: Co-worker Support


Co-worker support is the willingness of co-workers to cooperate and help each other instead of creating
a climate of secrecy. Such co-workers make one another feel more excited about their work and do not
distract each other. This can occur by motivating each other, adding complexity, or the emergence of a
healthy competitive environment. Ekvall (1996) suggests idea support as a climate dimension increasing
organizational creativity. This means that co-workers listen to each other’s ideas and support them, giving
rise to a constructive and positive atmosphere.

An obstacle to creativity for co-worker support is secrecy (Cummings, 1965). When secrecy prevails, each
individual or sub-unit guards its own strategies and tactics in the pursuit of individual goals.

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2 (a) 4: Dynamism/Risk-taking
Dynamism/Risk-taking contains attributes that refer to a climate that can be called dynamic and risk-
taking, which in turn urges creativity. This dimension refers to a situation in which there is always
something new going on within the organization. The atmosphere provides a sense of urgency and speed,
eventfulness and excitement. This is characterized by processes and personal attitudes that seek for
continuous improvement.

Risk-taking refers to the capability of the organization to handle the risks inherent to the unpredictable
nature of creative efforts. Creativity needs sufficient financial support. However, this does not mean that
the greater resources employees get the more creative the organization will become. Therefore, a
sufficient and feasible level of resource allocation must exist.

2 (a) 5: Organizational Systems and Processes


The Organizational Systems and Processes category is about the explicitly established systems and
processes of an organization, including organizational structures, which can influence the creativity.
Establishing social networks can be a way of sharing heterogeneous information and perspectives, which
in turn increases creativity. A flat organization increases the spans of control and minimizes strict direction
from management. It also encourages a flexible structure with low degree of formalization of workplace
relationships.

Staffing the right people to fill roles in an innovative marketing team requires new techniques such as
video screening, problem solving, candidates answering impossible questions and reverse interview.
Games and virtual strategies allow candidates find solutions to puzzles and virtual job related tasks.

Specific individuals are required within the marketing team to specifically collect external information to
develop partnerships and collaborations by building sustainable relationships, managing through
influence and negotiation, and seeking to understand motives, roles and responsibilities internally and
externally to generate relevant information to aid creativity.

Creating teams to conceive, develop and implement innovation also require the right people with skills,
enthusiasm and the right commitment. Team members need to have good understanding of the task.
Team members should come from different backgrounds so that there will be diversity of thoughts and
perception.

For most of the discussions you have not clearly assessed the creative climate of G4S. in most instances
you have simply done a general discussions of the various dimensions of a creative climate. Remember in
class I said the context of the organization must always be clear. Please revise this section to reflect the
requirements of the question and please read the assignment brief again.

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Task 2 (b): Key External Stake Holders


Effective outputs of innovation are rarely achieved with a purely internally focused approach. Market
orientation is organizational wide generation of market intelligence pertaining to current and future
customers needs, dissemination of intelligence across departments and organizational wide
responsiveness to it.( Kahli and Jawarsky, 1790)

To benefit from its external publics such as retailers, competitors, Suppliers, retailers, customers and
regulation bodies, G4s has formed new systems to work with them through;

Competitors are rivals in the same industry trying to achieve such goals as increasing profits, market share
and sales volume by varying the elements of the marketing mix. G4s’ alliance with the Safetech security
limited has informed Learning’s and processes, thus equipping G4s and parties with adequate
information, resources to birth novel products and services that will be well protected without
competitive threats and a more firmly economic grip. It has consolidated multiple functions into one
thereby saving money, time, space and storage.

G4s security services have also joined an innovative network that comprise companies, universities and
governments agencies to create, acquire and integrate the diverse knowledge and skills required in an
app challenge to develop application that could benefit customers with security needs in order to reduce
user effort.

Customers
The reason for a company’s existence is to provide products or services that meet the needs of its target
customers and benefit them in a meaningful way. G4s’ customers provide valuable feedback about
products and customer service level. This feedback enables the company to improve what it offers and to
come up with entirely new solutions to customer needs based on what its customers asked for. Through
environmental scanning and study of buying patterns of customers, G4s is able to identify the trends and
new developed tastes of its target market. Because G4s involves customers at the new product
development stage, rate of adoption of product is high. Co-creation of the videofied system with
customers has made the final product a high end product with benefits such as improved software
interface and increased customization thereby giving great value to customers.

Vendors
G4s’ ability to quickly respond to its customer requests on time and bring the highest quality goods to the
marketplace is through its vendors. Vendors play a role of introducing new applications or solutions to
the company so it can become more efficient, more productive and lower its costs and increase its margins
and profits.
Ideagoras and Crowdsourcing enabled G4s to connect and tap wealth of information, skills and formed
collaborations with new suppliers to inform new product and service lines. New suppliers were discovered
and new alliances formed. This ensured that G4s was always able to meet customer demands through a
wide spread of vendors across continents through just-in-time agreements. This meant that no huge stock
level cost was kept by G4s. The value to customers is that constantly innovated security products were

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guaranteed through the wide array of vendors thus ensuring better service and decreased need for
suppliers and equipment.

The Community
The community provides the skilled workforce that a company depends upon to maintain its competitive
edge. Members of the community, including the news media, often play a watchdog role, ensuring that
the company is a good citizen with fair business practices, concern for the environment, and a willingness
to contribute to charitable and social causes. G4s’ radio link repeaters were mounted on very tiny pylons
that will mostly fall in a rain storm rousing complaints from the community. In response, G4s upgraded its
repeater system that did not require huge and bulky devices to be installed at higher altitudes. The new
systems came with very small wall mountable repeaters that could be installed at ground level. This result
was demanded by a community action.

Governments and Regulators


Security activities and companies are regulated by the central government through the ministry of interior
in Ghana. All licensing, permits, security procedure, arms regulation and documentation is controlled by
central government. Activities are regulated by the association of private security firms. They seek to
ensure fair practice and pricing of manned security services to curb unruly competition and maneuvers.

These regulations ensure public safety and restraint on the powers of security officers in the discharge of
their duties. Sanitization in pricing of services guides G4s in conforming to standards and compels the
competition to price as per regulation. The value to customers is that;

 They are not cheated through unfair pricing and practices.


 Customers are empowered to seek redress in unfair circumstances.
 Their safety is assured through the use of weapons such as batons, electro-shock batons, tazers
and fire arms.

Task 2 (c): Marketing function supporting greater innovation


Before innovation can elicit support, it must its self be suitable to the organization, feasible to ensure easy
implementation or adoption and acceptable to customers, the community, the company its self and other
stakeholders. The marketing function should realign the various marketing strategies and approaches
towards new processes in the areas of:

2 (c) 1: The Human resources that will be needed to support the innovation.

This includes the recruitment and selection of team. Recruiting the right people to fill roles in an innovative
marketing team requires the process its self be innovative. A new strategy demands that it is very
important to review the key functional and emotional elements that a single role requires prior to starting
the recruitment process. The organization must ensure that it shows the person that they want to recruit

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a very positive and attractive set of characteristics in order to get potential people to join rather than
having the right to choose from a number of similar candidates.

In order to identify innovative traits in job applicants, some creative interview techniques that could be
used will include: video screening that allows potential recruits to record videos of themselves responding
to a task or self introduction to enable the organization to deduce intrinsic innovation in recruits or give
candidates an existing potential problem to solve to ensure that the potential recruit is thinking along the
same lines as the organization requires. The organization could also recruit from within the existing work
forces who already understand the DNA of the organization. Recruiting in-house gives the added
advantage of less or no training as compared to an external recruit who will need time to adjust to
processes and structures. It is also important to keep the zeal in recruits so that they do not become
disillusioned and look elsewhere for other jobs. The organization must therefore ensure that recruits have
challenging work that is interesting but not overwhelming. Conducive working environments and
innovative benefits to recruits are necessary to encourage loyalty and passion. Some reward options can
include salary/bonus compensation, share options, phantom or venture equity as a commensurate
remuneration package.

2 (c) 2: Teams offer the benefit of approaching innovation as a group effort, where developing
multidisciplinary teams and recourses encourage staff to work together for the greater good for the
organization. Ensuring that the right people are being recruited into marketing teams is the basis of well
operating teams. Teams need appropriate leadership that can orchestrate various roles and activities from
start to end and can define the functions that encourage innovation such that decision making is
constantly in response to new ideas and discoveries. According to Belbin, (2012) an effective team must
be balanced with the right skills and competence otherwise, similar skills set in the same team will create
gaps and conflicts. Teams guarantee diverse thoughts to a problem. The diverse nature of teams means
individuals will have differing perspectives and useful information to aid the innovation.
Virtual teams can be used from across the regional and international branches of G4s spread over a
hundred countries. Because virtual teams are geographically scattered, electronic communication
through e-mail, FAX, video or voice conferencing will be needed to collaborate.

A Team Role is defined as "a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular
way." (Belbin, 2012). For a team to be successful it needs to have access to each of the 9 Belbin Team
Roles as follows:

Shaper Challenges the team to improve


Action Oriented Roles Implementer Puts ideas into action
Completer Finisher Ensures thorough, timely completion
Coordinator Acts as a chairperson
People Oriented Roles Team worker Encourages cooperation
Resource investigator Explores outside opportunities
Plant Presents new ideas and approaches
Thought Oriented Roles Monitor-Evaluator Analyzes the options
Specialist Provides specialized skills

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Belbin’s Team Roles. (Belbin, 2012).

2 (c) 3: G4s could further support innovation through the use of digital media to aid new product
development processes, research, product testing prior to commercialization and use of virtual teams to
aid innovative decisions. As Argyres (1999) and Tzokas and Saren (1997) put it, information
communication technology is a source of acquisition and generation of market information. It is one of
the most appropriate media for getting close to the environment and acquiring or creating knowledge
about the different agents that are part of it. Thus G4s gains access to a vast quantity of relevant and up-
to-date information quickly, easily and cheaply

Finally, applying innovation to the marketing mix elements will result in:
2 (c) 4: Pricing innovation: Instead of selling alarm devices to customers, G4s rather gives it out on rent to
customer at a monthly charge. Customers are able to enjoy security service without any huge initial
financial commitment to purchase the devices.

Process Innovation: Process innovation must focus on controlling or reducing waste, improving quality,
reducing processing time, reducing cost, improving efficiency and productivity. Efficient and clear
process management will significantly contribute to satisfaction levels.

Product innovation: The internet of things has brought significant effect on product design. The
availability of Customer information or purchasing trend has made it possible design customer specific
products to suit specific needs. Co-creation will give added advantage in leveraging resources and
processes profitably.

Advertising Innovation: G4s has direct contact with all of its customers through panic alarm systems.
These systems give direct access to customers phones. G4s could send new product and service updates
to its customers. Timely security information could also be sent to customers that will communicate new
security threats and possible mitigating solutions available.

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Task 3 (a) – Internal Marketing Plan


3(a).1: To begin a change program G4s must first answer these leading questions: why do we need to
change? Why is change necessary? What is to be expected of change? What will the benefits of change
be?

What disadvantages or problems might arise and how will they be handled, what behavior changes will
be needed in programs, tasks, and activities?

According to Kanter (1992): Change involves the crystallization of new possibilities (new policies, new
behaviors, new patterns, new methodologies, new products or new market ideas) based on the
reconceptualised patterns in the institution. The architecture of change involves the design and
construction of new patterns, or the reconceptualisation of old ones, to make new, and hopefully more
productive actions possible.

In order to deliver better value to customers, G4s security services decided that customers will now have
to pay their monthly alarm bills through bank standing orders to replace the old system that required
customers to be physically present to make payment at the office premises. The old system employed
numerous credit controllers to follow up on unpaid invoices that were manually sent to customers.
Monthly billings of customers will now be electronically done and sent directly to customers.

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The new process will necessitate job cuts and streamlining of accounts processes. This need for change
was established through an audit. To implement this change G4s should consider Kotter’s 8 step
framework:

1. Create a sense of urgency - to inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.
2. Build the guiding team - so that the right people are put in place with the right emotional
commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.
3. Form a strategic vision and initiative - to get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy to
focus on the emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.
4. Enlist a volunteer army - to involve as many people as possible to communicate the essentials,
simply; and appeal and respond to people’s needs through emails, videoconferencing and
teleconferencing.
5. Enable action by removing barriers or obstacles - to enable constructive feedback and support from
leaders; reward and recognize progress and achievement.
6. Generate short- term wins - Here leadership should set aims that are easy to achieve and should be
finished before starting new ones.
7. Sustain Acceleration – Leadership should foster and encourage determination and persistence in
ongoing changes; encourage progress reporting to highlight achieved and future milestones.
8. Institute change – Leadership should reinforce the value of success change via recruitment of new
skills set, promotion, new change leaders and then weave the change into the culture of the
organization.

According to Kotter most major change efforts consist of a variety of small and medium-sized change
projects. He also maintained that the emergent approach is a result of the assumption that ‘change is a
continuous, open-minded and unpredictable process of aligning and realigning an organisation to its
changing environment’. It recognizes the fact that organizations must adapt their internal practices and
behaviors to meet changing external conditions (Burnes 2001).

For the model to be successfully implemented, all of the eight stages must be worked through in order,
and to completion. Failing to reinforce earlier stages results in the sense of urgency dissipating, or the
guiding coalition breaking up. Without the follow-through which takes place in the final step, the
organisation may never get to the finish line and make changes stick. Furthermore, the model should not
focus on the change itself, but rather the acceptance and preparedness for this change, which makes for
easier transitions.

A less formal approach in comparison is storytelling, modelling and knowledge sharing method.
Stories can be used to shape vision, to pass on knowledge and wisdom, and to shape identity and
organizational culture. Sole & Wilson (2002) identify the role of storytelling as a way of Sharing norms
and values, developing trust and commitment, sharing tacit knowledge and facilitating unlearning. Senior
managers could share experiences with to employees communicating the benefits of electronic payment
systems and then participating in the change process to actually demonstrate it.

3(a) 2: Engagement of key internal stakeholders

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All stakeholders that will be affected by the change should be identified. This can be done through
stakeholder mapping. This will identify the different groups and the power they have to influence any
decision. Key stakeholders will include finance providers, customers and interest groups. A more fitting Commented [EFA5]: You said internal stakeholders but you
have identified external stakeholders.
technique to engage finance publics and customers will be to build alliance to effect the change. Company
bankers can be engaged to communicate the need for the new payment system to employees to
understand the process required. Interest groups such as company lawyers, clerks, caretakers and interns
can be engaged through constructive manipulation which will encourage them to overcome reluctance to
the change program. Back- staging is proactive method of trying to preempt resistant from stakeholders.
Strategies are then put in place to work backwards such that concerns and acceptance from stakeholders
will be guaranteed prior to implementation of the change.

To encourage reluctant customers to use the new payment system, French and Raven’s 5 bases of power
can be used. Customers can be rewarded with discounts on payments in the initial implementation stages
to encourage adoption of the change. Changes can be forced through using coercive power or
encouragement with reward.

Task 3(b): Internal Marketing plan

3(b) 1: Ahmed (2000) defined internal marketing as planned effort using a marketing-like approach
to overcome organizational resistance to change; align motivate and inter functional co-ordinate as
well as integrate employees towards the effective implementation of corporate and functional
strategies in order to deliver customer satisfaction through a process of creating motivated and
customer oriented employees. Internal marketing must takes into account both internal and external
relationships, thus ensuring both a customer-oriented and an employee-oriented view. A successful
implementation of an internal marketing plan is outlined in seven stages below:

1. Analysis of the situation


The starting point of internal marketing implementation is the analysis of the current situation the
company is facing. This analysis will focus on identifying strengths and weaknesses in four major areas:
employees' orientation towards clients, company’s orientation toward personnel, organizational culture
and leadership style. Instruments that could be used for the strategic analysis are questionnaires filled in
by employees, focus groups, internal online discussion groups, in-depth interviews with employees,
complex psychological profiles of employees or internal benchmarking (Morgan, 2010).
Through questionnaires and internal bench marking, it was found out that 60% of employees lacked
essential customer service skills and remuneration was not commensurate with staff effort, resulting in
very high turnover. Also the strict adherence to regulations has created timid employees with senior

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management detachment . G4s’ organizational culture does not incorporate a marketing philosophy in its
approaches.

2. Establishing internal Marketing objectives


Defining the internal marketing objectives will give a coherent image to the results desired. Objectives
will include personnel motivation, satisfaction and acceptance with external objectives capturing client
satisfaction and customer oriented behavior. A company’s marketing results are influenced not only by
the quality of the marketing department, but by its entire staff, who must acknowledge their role and
responsibility for attracting, serving and delighting customers (Kotler and Keller, 2008). In order to prevent
the occurrence and development of resistance to change, it is necessary to increase the acceptance level
of employees. The main methods used are aimed at encouraging employees to embrace the objectives of
the company and to get involved in the planning and implementation of action plans (David, 2008). Well
motivated and satisfied employees are selfless in serving customers.

3. Personnel Segmentation
To generate adequate data for analysis, segmentation must be considered. Segmentation criteria that can
be used are: age, nature of relationship with the company, hierarchical position, professional background,
work related attitudes or employees' objectives (Bruhn, 2001). Our segmentation will be founded on
motivation. To do this, different groups of employees must be identified to establish what actually
motivates them. The different groups as classified by Luis E. Romero are the freeloader, the worker and
the entrepreneur. The free loaders want a source of income; not a job. They are motivated to work by
money and are willing to work for it only if they have to. The workers are those actually looking for a job
to dignify their status. They feel the need to work and be useful and earn their money. The worker is
motivated by recognition, promotion and dignified status. The entrepreneurs are those pursuing a higher
purpose. Their main motivation transcends the need for money and their idea of being useful is
intrinsically tied to doing something that they love. They are driven by success. With this knowledge,
Employees absolute attention can be gain to focus on the internal marketing plan. The different categories
of employees can also be targeted with different but fitting roles according to their motivation
parameters.

4. Management Involvement
The important managerial changes in an organization start at superior hierarchical levels and gradually
spread to lower levels through the intercession of informal leaders. According to Harrel and Fors (1992),
the successful implementation of internal marketing in an organization is conditioned by the level of
managerial support and involvement in the internal marketing process, during all implementation stages
and beyond.
Superior hierarchical levels have embraced the philosophy that "internal marketing sustains people,
people sustain company performances". Superior management must implement a management vision
focused on leadership and on supporting a proper leadership climate, while also adopting a vision focused
on integrated marketing communication, in which every employee contributes to communicating the
value to customers. Through the support provided by management, a climate of trust should be created
between management and personnel, facilitating the acceptance of internal marketing programs at all
hierarchical levels. Source (Munteanu C Catalin, Pagalea Andreea and Cristea Adina, 2014).

5. Internal Communication
All stakeholders in the organization needs to be adequately informed. The purpose and desired outcomes
of the internal marketing plan should be communicated to the various teams. Staff is informed through
trainings, weekly internal newsletters, notice boards, journals and electronic messaging. Internal

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communication has to create efficient feedback mechanisms regardless of hierarchical levels and to
communicate important messages to all concerned members. The use of email ensures that messages are
read with feedback to the sender. The use of ‘’ read request’’ ensures feedback. This will be effectively
used to disseminate information.

6. Employees Involvement
Employees’ involvement is a combination of measures that build employees’ commitment to the company
and its activities, stimulating employees’ will to work as a team while providing a relevant contribution to
the final result (Saks, 2006). For the process to be efficient, employees' involvement needs to be built on
relationships of bidirectional cooperation and mutual support between the employer and the employee.
The entire accounts department should be involved in the planning .They should have the ability to make
inputs that will result in desired outcomes. Because of their involvement, they will accept the change
program as their own. This way, there will be little or no resistance at all.
Motivation also needs to be adapted to employees’ objectives and expectations. A compensation system
is one of the most efficient methods to shape desired behaviors (Saks, 2006). A highly motivated and
rewarded staff is open to furthering organizational values and will e loyal to the company.

7. Internal Marketing Control (Implementation)


The plan is then implemented with monitoring as main means of control mechanism. Early monitoring
makes it easy to identify faults or deviations from the original plan and then institute correction action
immediately. A customer oriented objective should depict the employee as a genial person. A corrective
action will be required immediately through additional training if it is noticed that a staff is doing
otherwise. Timeliness of instituted corrective measure is very essential at the implementation stage.
When deviations are not corrected immediately, a wrong signal might be sent to the employees who will
perceive the change program as peripheral strategy of very little or no consequence.

3(b) 2: How internal business functions can work together innovatively to deliver better value
Internal marketing assumes that all parts of the organization must be motivated to provide customer
satisfaction, that all members of staff are important in creating high quality customer service, and that
this will lead to customer satisfaction and retention.
For an internal marketing campaign to be successful, the plan must comprise of:

Aligning, educating and motivating employees. It is important that everyone understands and
communicates a consistent message and kept abreast with current updates. Employees who are well
motivated will work more efficiently and produce better quality of work. Employees must be well paid or
adequately motivated otherwise, low morale or dissatisfaction will give rise to higher than usual staff
resignations or turnover, higher levels of absenteeism, restricted output quantity or quality or staff
indifference to the quality of their work.
According to Douglas Mcgregor (1960), he mentions in his theory Y assumption that the average person
does not inherently dislike work, as work can be a source of satisfaction. Therefore people can exercise
self direction and self control to achieve objectives to which they are committed. Team members should
therefore be encouraged, well empowered through facilitative managerial styles instead of using a carrot-
and-stick approach.

Implementation of corporate of functional strategies. This comprises of the overall strategy and direction
of the organization. It includes corporate objectives, strategies, plans from which business and functional

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objectives are created. The existence of a functional objective working to achieve the general business
objective will ensure that all staff and departments pull in the same direction and that staff understand
how their role contributes to the overall success of the organization. Implementing the strategy will
require that staff are trained in new processes and new behaviors learned.

Knowledge management. This is the ability of the organization to access and share the knowledge of its
staff. To do this effectively senior management of the organization must build on its existing knowledge
(organizational memory), share tacit knowledge such as personal experiences (knowledge sharing),
assimilate external knowledge within the existing, internal frame (knowledge absorption) and be
receptive to new knowledge (knowledge receptivity). Before implementation of the new marketing plan
old negative behavior or processes must be unlearned and new learning acquired. For instance, vehicle
tracking devices installed in all company official vehicles drew lot of negative reaction, criticism and
sabotage or tempering of the devices at G4s security services. Directed unlearning approach was used by
senior management by way of persuasions and enforcing new behaviors for the new ways to be accepted.
Some members unlearned their ways through road accidents or other shocks on the road.

Customer orientation and Satisfaction. The organizations needs to develop a clear policy on customer
orientation and satisfaction that should be well communicated to staff. Customer service duties are not
limited to only internal office staff or customer facing staff. It is the door man or security at the gate that
usually encounters the customer first. These gate keepers should be empowered to handle customer
concerns and complaints professionally or adequately equipped with basic politeness. The organization
should have avenues where customer can express grievances, report poor experience from employees or
defective product. Customer complaints should be monitored through avenues such as social media,
company websites and suggestion boxes. Customer grievances should be attended to immediately with
readily available solutions or alternative action. The organization must see the product offering or services
from a customer view point in order to have real feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction from the offering.

Reducing interdepartmental conflict. Whenever people are required to work together, conflict is likely
to arise. Regardless of how compatible members of a team might be, each individual brings along
distinct priorities and a unique personality. Heather Huhman (2014). The organization consists of
departments working in series. Conflict in any one department can dysfunction or completely halt other
processes. To reduce conflicts, G4s should consider Heather Huhman (2014) strategies for reducing
conflicts by Setting workplace conflict guidelines, Training managers as mediators, Eliminating Gender
bias, Clarify Priorities and Facilitating inter-departmental co-ordination. Dr. Scott Simmermans’s (1993)
“square wheel round wheel” paradox can be used by senior managers to foster co-ordination and enhance
departmental collaboration.

"Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, and working together is success." (Henry
Ford)

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3 (c): Measuring internal marketing plan. Suitable methods


3(c) 1: Methods include: Surveying staff attitudes, monitoring performance, risk and compliance.

A most suited measure of progress is to observe staff attitudes. Senior managers must establish whether
the account team and supporting departments are complying with rules. A suitable approach to
monitoring performance and customer service is to install surveillance cameras to give real time
audiovisual feed to managers. Front line employees should have their identity legibly displayed such that
customer can make complaints or praise particular persons. Employees having name tags will keep them
in check. Knowing that their names are known to customers will ensure proper attitude.
Risk that could be associated with the plan are unavailability of financial resources required to upgrade of
finance a new accounting system to facilitate electronic payments. There is also that dissonance that a
proposed accounting solution might not provide the required outcomes. To eliminate uncertainties
managers should use beta versions to ensure compliance before full commitments are made.

Any required or monitoring measure should be compliant to statutory regulation. Managers should be
mindful of money laundering through such systems. Debits should be according to standing orders as
specified by customers. In the use of surveillance systems to monitor employee behavior, managers must
be mindful of employee privacy violations. Installation of cameras can violate privacy rights of an
employee.

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