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Conference Paper · May 2013


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2 authors:

Muhammad N.S. Hadi Thong M. Pham

University of Wollongong Curtin University


All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, Available from: Thong M. Pham
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Reinforcement, mechanical property




Thong Minh PHAM

PhD Candidate, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia

Muhammad N. S. HADI
Associate Professor, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia

This study evaluates different methods of strengthening existing square concrete columns under eccentric loading.
Twelve reinforced square concrete columns were cast. Four columns were kept square as reference, four columns
were modified with round corners and wrapped with three layers of CFRP, and four were circularised by circular
segments and wrapped with three layers of CFRP. Specimens from each group were tested under concentric,
eccentric (15 or 25 mm) and flexural bending. Results from the study showed that segmental circular concrete
covers considerably reduce stress concentration at the corners. FRP wrapped columns with circular segments
showed significant increase in load-carrying capacity compared to columns with only round corners.

Keywords: FRP, strengthening, eccentric loading, shape modification.

1. INTRODUCTION rounded corners) was compared to that of the modified

circular columns to prove the efficacy of the proposed
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) has been widely used retrofitting method. Interaction diagrams are also
as an effective material for retrofitting. It can be applied presented to illustrate the behavior of columns under
to structural members to increase their capacities, for concentric load, eccentric loads, and flexure.
instance, shear resistance of beams/columns, bending
moment of beams, and axial load of columns. In order 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
to strengthen an existing reinforced square concrete
column, FRP is usually wrapped horizontally around 2.1 Design of Experiments
the column to improve its strength and ductility [1-5]. A total of twelve reinforced square concrete columns,
The retrofitted columns in these studies usually have classified into three groups, were cast and tested at the
round corners to prevent premature damage of the FRP. High Bay laboratory of the University of Wollongong.
It is found that a FRP wrapped square column without The dimensions of the columns were 150 mm by 150
rounding the corners cause unexpected results [6]. mm in cross section and 800 mm in height. The first
Rochette and Labossiere [4] found that the strength and group (Group R) was considered as a reference group
ductility of FRP wrapped columns increase as the with no external confinement or any modification of the
radius of the column corners increase. It is evident that section. The second group (Group RF) was cast to have
a circular section is most effective in load carrying 20 mm round corners which were horizontally wrapped
capacity whereas a square section is the least effective. with three layers of CFRP (75 mm in width). The third
Therefore, in order to strengthen existing square group, Group CF, was bonded with four segmental
columns, changing the section of the columns from circular concrete covers to modify the shapes of the
square to circular prior to wrapping with FRP is a good cross sections from square to circular. Columns of
solution, which needs to be investigated and verified Group CF were horizontally wrapped with three layers
for practical applications. of CFRP. From each group the first column was
concentrically loaded, while the second and the third
Wrapping reinforced square concrete columns with columns were subjected to eccentric loading at 15 mm
FRP was observed to outperform other retrofitting and 25 mm, respectively. The fourth specimen was
methods. To further investigate a new method to tested under four-point loading as a beam to observe the
strengthen existing reinforced square columns, this flexural behavior.
study proposes a new technique that is a combination of
shape modification and confinement effects. The square The notation of the specimens consists of two parts: the
column was bonded with four segmental circular first part is “R-”, “RF-”, and “CF-” denoting the name
concrete covers to achieve the modified circular column. of the group to which the specimens belong to
The circular column was then wrapped with three (Reference, Round corners with FRP, and Circular with
layers of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). FRP, respectively). The second part indicates the
The confinement effect of square columns (with loading conditions. For instance, “0” means concentric

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load, “F” is flexural looading, “15” and “25” m mean addded to each rectangular seggment in orderr to create a
loading at 15 and 25 mm eccentriccity, respectivvely. molld for the con ncrete cover ((Fig. 2). Each
h segmental
Table 1 shoows the test maatrix of the ex
xperiments. circcular concrete cover had a chord of 150 0 mm (equal
to the
t side length h of the core column sectiion) and the
Table 1 Test matrix x heigght of the seg
gment was 31 mm. After 28 2 days, any
External foam m attached tot the concrrete surface covers was
Specimen Modificationn Eccentriccity rem
moved and th he surface grround to enssure smooth
R-0 0 conntact when bonnding with FRRP.
R-15 15
None None
R-25 25
R-F Flexuraal
RF-0 0
20 mm
RF-15 Three layerrs 15
RF-25 of CFRP 25
RF-F Flexuraal
CF-0 0
CF-15 Three layerrs 15
CF-25 of CFRP 25
CF-F Flexuraal g. 2 Formworrks: (a) Core columns, (b
Fig b) Concrete
The nominaal compressivve strength of concrete
c usedd was
For Group CF, each
e specimeen was bondeed with four
32 MPa. T The internal reinforcement of each off the
mental circular concrete ccovers using Microsphere
segm M
tested speciimens consistted of 4N12 (12
( mm deforrmed
nd, mixed tog gether with eppoxy resin with 2:1 ratio
bars with 500 MPa nominal tenssile strength)) as
g. 3). The epooxy resin had 54 MPa tenssile strength,
longitudinaal bars and R66 plain bars (6
( mm plain bars
2.8 GPa tensile modulus and 3.4% tensilee elongation.
with 250 MMPa nominal tensile
t strength) ties at 120 mm
Nexxt, the specim
mens were wraapped with thrree layers of
spacing. FFig. 1 showss the cross sections of the
CFRRP and left to dry for 7 ddays as specified by the

(a) (b)
g. 3 (a) Concrete covers, (b) Bonded specimens

Thee adhesive used was a mixxture of epox xy resin and

hard dener at 5:1 raatio. Before thhe first layer of
o CFRP was
attaached, the adh hesive was sppread onto the surface of
the column and th he CFRP wass attached onto o the surface.
Afteer the first ring, the adhessive was spreead onto the
Fig. 1 Cross secttions of the specimens
s surfface of the firrst layer of CFFRP and the second
s layer
(All units in mm) wass continuously y bonded. Thee third layer of o CFRP was
applied in a sim milar manner,, ensuring th hat 100 mm
2.2 Specimmen Fabricattion oveerlap was main ntained. The m main fiber orieentation was
Normal streength ready-m
mix concrete was
w supplied by a perp pendicular to the
t longitudinnal axis of the column.
local suppllier. Two forrmworks mad de from plywwood
were used to constructt the core sppecimens andd the 2.3 Preliminary Tests
segmental circular conccrete covers (Fig. 2). Forr the Commpression testts at 28 days showed that the average
segmental circular conncrete coverss, a box off 34 com
mpressive strength of the cconcrete was 27 MPa. To
rectangular segments haaving a dimeension of 51xx170 deteermine the maaterial propert
rties of CFRP
P, which was
mm2, weree built. Next, a section mold
m of foam was usedd as the conffining materiaal, the CFRP flat coupon

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tests were conducted acccording to ASTM

A D7565 [7]. macchine. In ordeer to measure the lateral deeflection for
The averagge width of thee test coupons was 28 mm m and the eccentrically loaded colum mns and the deeflection for
the averagee maximum teensile force per unit width was the flexural tests, a laser trianngulation sensor was used
1972 N/mm m. The strain at
a the average maximum tennsile andd connected to t the data llogger as weell. For the
force and the average elastic mod dulus were 00.024 coluumn tests, thhe laser trianngulation wass set up at
mm/mm annd 82 kN/mm,, respectively.. Three specim mens midd-height of thee column. Forr the beam tessts, the laser
of N12 defformed bars annd R6 plain bars
b with 250 mm trian
ngulation wass placed on a hole which is i located at
in length w
were prepared and tested in n accordance with middspan of the bottom loadinng plate. Thee tests were
AS 1391 [88]. The tests reevealed that th
he average tennsile connducted as deflection contrrolled with a rate of 0.3
strengths off N12 and R66 were 568 MPa
M and 478 M MPa, mm m/min to 0.5 mm/min.

2.4 Column Testing

For testing of specimens, a special loaading head sysstem
was used to apply thee required ecccentric load s as
illustrated in Hadi andd Widiarsa’s study [9]. The
loading heaad contained twot main partts: a 25 mm tthick
steel plate (see Fig. 4a) sitting on toop of the coluumn,
and a circuular roller loaading (see Fig g. 4b) weldedd on
another 25 mm thick steeel plate with a specific disttance
which equaals to the ecceentricity, offseet from the ceenter
line of the plate. A pairr of two plattes was placeed as
shown in Fig. 4c. Dettails of the eccentric loaading Fig. 5 Four-point looading system
system aree depicted inn Fig. 4d, which w shows the
configuratioon of the loadding plates. 3. EXPERIMEN

t specimenss was calculated as shown

Thee ductility of the
in Tables
T 2 and 3. It was caalculated as given
g in the
following formulla by Hadi [111]:

ߣൌ (1)

wheere 85 is the 85%

8 post-ultim d yield is the
imate load and
yielld load, which was dettermined bassed on the
defiinition by Pessiki and Pierooni [12].

3.1 Failure mod des

All the columns were tested tto fail. For co oncentrically
loadded columns, Specimen R-00 failed by concrete cover
spallling and buck kling of longiitudinal reinfo
orcement. In
Fig. 4 Lo
oading system otheer words, Sp pecimens RF--0 and CF-0 failed in a
diffferent manner, which can bbe observed by b rupturing
The Denisoon 5000 kN testing machine was usedd for of FRP
F at upper midheight
m of tthe column. The
T concrete
testing all oof the specimens. The colu umns were cappped wass completely crushed but w was held by the FRP as
with high sstrength plastter at both en nds to ensure full show wn in Fig. 6.
contact betw ween the loadding heads and d the column. The
first loadingg head was pllaced on the flat
f steel platee and
the colum mn was thenn seated verrtically uponn it.
Calibration was then performed
p to ensure that the
columns w were placed at the centeer of the tessting
machine. F For the flexuraal tests, two four-point
f loaading
systems weere used. Thhe “square” four-point
f loaading
frame by Hadi and Widiarsa [9]] was used for
Specimens R-F and RF-F whilee the “circuular”
four-point lloading framee by Yazici an nd Hadi [10] was
used for Sppecimen CF-F. Fig. 5 illustrrates details off the
four-point lloading systemm.

The axial ddeflection of thhe column waas monitored by a

Linear Vaariable Differrential Transsformer (LV VDT) (a) R-0 (b) RF-0 (cc) CF-0
attached to the lower mooving plate off the compresssing Fig. 6 Failure modes (concentric load)

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As can be seen in Fig. 8, all columns sho owed similar

behhavior during the first stagee where concrrete was not
crusshed. Howeveer, Specimen R R-0 showed a descending
bran nch at the seccond stage wwhile confined d Specimens
RF--0 and CF-0 showed
s an asscending brannch which is
achieved by the confinement eeffect of FRP P. Significant
incrrease in ultimaate load and dductility can be
b witnessed
for confined coluumns compareed to unconfin ned columns.
For the confined d columns, eaach sudden drop d of load
wass caused by thet rupture off one ring off CFRP, and
afteer three to four
f CFRP riings were ru uptured, the
coluumn failed. For
F Specimenn RF-0, the applieda load
wass gradually inccreased to 15442 kN, after which
w a loud
(a) RF-15 (b) CF-25
craccking sound could
c be heardd when one riing of CFRP
Fig. 7 Failure modes
m (eccen
ntric load)
rupttured, and the load immedia iately droppedd to 1194 kN.
Subbsequently, a small part off a CFRP rin ng ruptured,
For unconffined columnns, Specimenss R-15 and R R-25
whiich led to a sllow decrease of the comprressive load.
failed by concrete covver spalling and longituddinal
Thee load of Speccimen CF-0 dr dropped faster than that of
reinforcemeent buckling in the com mpression reggion.
Speecimen RF-0. That load waas witnessed by b a sudden
Some big ccracks could be b found in th he tensile zonne of
drop p from 2924 kN to 928 kN N (68%). At that time, a
these speciimens at the same time. Specimen RF F-15
very y loud soundd was heard ffrom two ring gs of CFRP
failed by crushing of concrete in the compresssion
ruptturing simultaaneously.
region. Craacking of the column in th he tension reegion
occurred onnly between twot rings of FRP
F at midheeight.
3.3 Columns un nder eccentriic loading
Specimen R RF-25 failed byb rupture of longitudinal
l stteels
Thee second and d third colum mns in each group were
in the tensioon region. Intterestingly, no
o FRP rupture was
subjject to 15 mmm and 25 mm eccentrric loading,
observed inn both cases. On the other hand, Specim mens
pectively. Tabble 3 depicts the results of eccentric
CF-15 and CF-25 failed by rupture of FRP at midheeight,
ding tests; Fig
gs. 9 and 10 sshow the load - deflection
and concrette crushed in the compresssion region. S Some
phs of the eccentrically loadded columns.
cracks weree found in the tension region. Fig. 7 shhows
the modes oof failure of ecccentrically lo
oaded columnns.
ble 3 Summa ary of tested ccolumns, e=15 mm and
e=25 mmm
3.2 Columns under con ncentric load ding
The first ccolumn of each
e group was
w tested uunder Specimen R-115 RF-15 CF-15
concentric loading untill failure. Resuults of the teested Yield Load (kN) 5633 635 1202
columns are given in Taable 2 and the load – deflecction Corrresponding
1.244 1.58 2.02
diagrams arre shown in Fiig. 8. Axiial Defl. (mm))
Ultiimate Load (kkN) 5799 686 1489
Table 2 Summaryy of tested co
olumns, e=0 Corrresponding
1.366 2.31 6.50
Specimen R-0 RF-0
R CF--0 Axiial Defl. (mm))
Yield Load (kN) 717 796 14778 Corrresponding
2.344 5.42 19.50
Correspondding Lateeral Defl. (mm
1.31 1.85 2.001 Ducctility 1.633 5.22 4.82
Axial Defl. (mm)
Ultimate Looad (kN) 717 1564
1 29007
Correspondding Specimen R-225 RF-25 CF-25
1.46 22.76
2 13.335 Yield Load (kN) 4144 515 1011
Axial Defl. (mm)
Ductility 1.41 13.42
1 6.998 Corrresponding
0.966 1.68 1.69
Axiial Defl. (mm))
Ultiimate Load (kkN) 4277 562 1170
1.088 2.91 6.12
Axiial Defl. (mm))
2.333 8.10 21.75
Lateeral Defl. (mm
Ducctility 1.333 4.73 5.11

Thee behavior of the specimenns under eccen ntric load is

diffferent from thaat under conccentric load affter the yield
loadds. After reaaching the yiield loads, th he confined
speccimens underr concentric lload kept rising towards
the ultimate loadds with other sslopes of the load – axial
Fig. 8 Load – deflection pllot, e=0 defllection diagraams which beelonged to th he ascending
bran nch. In otherr words, the confined sp pecimens of

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Group CF under eccenttric load soareed directly too the ecceentric loads of 15 mm and 225 mm in which the axial
ultimate loaads from the value of zero and then fa failed load
ds were recorrded from thee testing mach
hine and the
quickly by rupture of CFFRP. It can bee clearly seenn that ben
nding momentts were calcul ulated by Eq. 2 and (3) a
the confineed specimens showed the ascending braanch puree bending moment
m observved from thee four-point
under concentric load buut the descend
ding branch uunder load
ding test.
eccentric looad.
‫ ܯ‬ൌ ܲ௠௔௫ ሺ݁ ൅ ߜሻ (2)
As can be sseen in Figs. 9 and 10, the specimens
s witth an
identical section behavedd in a similar manner
m duringg the wheere Pmax is the ultimatee axial load d; e is the
first stage of the diaggram when concrete
c was not ecceentricity of loading; and δ iis the lateral deflection
d at
crushed. As a result, sppecimens in Groups
G R andd RF the ultimate load.
showed thee same slope of curve in the load – aaxial
deflection ddiagram.

Fig. 9 Load – deflection

d plo
ot, e=15 Fig. 11 Axial stress – sstrain diagram
ms for
conceentrically loadding columns

All the results of this study w were plotted in the same

axiaal load – bennding moment nt diagrams too clarify the
effeective confinem
ment of thesee methods as shown
s in Fig.
12. The confineement efficienncy is compared to the
corrresponding value
v of Grooup R. For Group CF
speccimens, the concrete
c of ccovers and co ore columns
worrked together until failure.. No debondiing between
coree square coluumns and seggmental circu ular concrete
covvers was observed.

g. 10 Load – deflection pllot, e=25

3.4 Confinement effectts

The nominnal average axial a stress ofo the specim mens
under conccentric load wasw calculated d by dividingg the
axial load bby the cross sectional area of the specim mens.
The axial sttress – strain curves
c are preesented in Figg. 11.
The slope oof the post-peeak curve of Specimen
S CF--0 is
higher thann that of Speciimen RF-0. Th hus, it can be seen
that the m most effectivve confinem ment occurredd in
Specimen C CF-0, followedd by Specimen n RF-0.
Fig. 12 Interraction diagra
rams of the columns
3.5 Interacction diagramms
An axial lload - bendinng moment (P-M) ( interacction 4. CONCLUSIO
diagram is a continuouss curve used to determinee the
axial load ((P) and bendiing moment (M M) of a givenn RC Bassed on the ressults of the exxperimental program,
p the
column crooss section annd material. Each
E point onn this following conclusion can be drrawn:
curve incluudes two compponents: the value
v of the aaxial (1) Strengthenning a columnn with segmental circular
loading andd the correspoonding bending moment. Inn this concrete covers
c and wrrapping with CFRP as in
study, an experimental interaction
i diaagram was drrawn Group CF C is successsful. The experiments
based on ffour points: (1) a pure axial
a load off the indicate th
hat the wholee section of th he specimen
column unnder a concenntric load, (2 2) two pointts of acts as a whole
w until faiilure (no debo
onding). The

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whole modified section was strengthened by the Loading. Journal of Composites for
confinement materials. Construction, 2001. 5(3): p. 146-152.
(2) All confined specimens showed higher 4. Rochette, P. and Labossière, P. Axial Testing of
load-carrying capacity compared to the Rectangular Column Models Confined with
unconfined specimens. Among the two groups Composites. Journal of Composites for
which were externally confined, Group CF Construction, 2000. 4(3): p. 129.
achieved the highest load-carrying capacity, 5. Shehata, I.A.E.M., Carneiro, L.A.V., and Shehata,
followed by Group RF. This enhancement is L.C.D. Strength of short concrete columns
mainly because the segmental circular concrete confined with CFRP sheets. Materials and
covers considerably increase the cross sectional Structures, 2002. 35(1): p. 50-58.
area of the specimens. 6. Al-Salloum, Y.A. Influence of edge sharpness on
(3) For CFRP confined specimens in Groups RF and the strength of square concrete columns confined
CF, the descending branch of the load – axial with FRP composite laminates. Composites Part
deflection diagrams after ultimate load can be B-Engineering, 2006. 38(5-6): p. 640-650.
witnessed for eccentric loading tests while the 7. ASTM. Determining Tensile Properties of Fiber
ascending branch was achieved from Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites Used for
concentrically loaded specimens. This Strengthening of Civil Structures,
phenomenon indicates that eccentricity D7565/D7565M – 10, 2010, United States.
decreases the confinement efficiency of CFRP. 8. Australian Standard (AS). Metallic Materials–
Tensile Testing at Ambient Temperature, AS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1391, 2007, Sydney.
9. Hadi, M.N.S. and Widiarsa, I.B.R. Axial and
The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution Flexural Performance of Square RC Columns
of Mr. Xu Lei who helped in conducting the Wrapped with CFRP under Eccentric Loading.
experiments. The contribution of Mr. Fernando Journal of Composites for Construction, 2012.
Escribano, the main technical officer of this study, is 16(6), 640-649.
appreciated. Finally, the first author would like to 10. Yazici, V. and Hadi, M.N.S. Axial Load-Bending
acknowledge the Vietnamese Government for the Moment Diagrams of Carbon FRP Wrapped
support of his full PhD scholarship. Hollow Core Reinforced Concrete Columns.
Journal of Composites for Construction, 2009.
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