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RMSEO NIN1lf romoN

ATextbook of

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SJ. tts

Dr. :R.K. Bans t


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Published by _
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Author : Dr. R.K. Ban~ .. l


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Price : RI!. 495.00 Only . First Edition : Sept. 1983


Ninth Edition : 2005
Reprint , 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
Revised Nrnth Edition : 2010

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CONTENTS
Chapter Pages

Chapter L PrOllerties of Fluids 1-34


1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Properties of Fluids
1.2. 1. Density or Mass Density 1
1.2.2. Spedfic Weight or Weight Density 1
1.2.3. Spocific Volume 2
1.2.4. Spedfic Gravity 2
Solved Problems 1.1- 1.2 2
l.3. Viscosity 3
1.3. 1. Units of Viscosity 3
1.3 .2. Kinematic Viscosity 5
1.3.3. Newton's Law of Viscosity 5
1.3.4. Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 6
1.3.5. Types of Fluids 6
Solved Problems 1.3-1.19 6
104. Thermodynamic Properties 17
1.4. 1. Dimension of R 18
1.4.2. Isothermal Process 18
1.4.3. Adiabatic Process 18
1.4 .4. Universal Gas Constant 19
Solved Problems 1.20-1.22 19
1.5. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus 21
Solved Problems 1.23-1.24 22
1.6. Surface Tension and Capillarity 23
1.6. 1. Surface Tension on Liquid Droplet 23
1.6.2. Surface Tension on a H"llow Bubble
1.6.3. Surface Tension on a Liquid Jet
Solved Problems 1.25- 1.27
"2424
1.6.4. Capillarity 25
Solved Problems 1.2&--1.32 26
1.7. Vapour Pre~sure and Cavitation 29
Highlights 30
Exercise 30
Chapter 2. Pressure and Its Measurement 3....8
2 . 1. Fluid P ressure at a Point 35
2.2. Pascal"s Law 35
2.3. Pressure Vllristion in a Fluid at Rest 36
Solved Problems 2.1-2.7 37
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2.4. Absolute. Gauge, Atmospheric and Vacuum


Pressures 41
Solved Problem 2.8 42
2.5. Measurement of Pressure 42
2.5.1. Manomet<lrs 42
2.5.2. Me<:hanical Gauges 43
2.6. Simple Manometers 43
2.6.1. Piezomete r 43
2.6.2. U-tube Manometer 43
Solved Problems 2.9-2. 13 44
2.6.3. Single Column Manometer 48
Solved Problem 2.14 50
2.7. Differential Manometers 50
2.7. 1. U-tube Differential Manometer 50
Solved Problems 2.15- 2.17 51
2.7.2. Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer 53
Solved Problems 2.18-2.21 53
2 .8. Pressure at a Point in Compressible Fluid 56
2.8. 1. Isothermal Process 56
2.S.2. Adiabatic Process 56
2.S.3. Tl!mperat url! a t any Point in
Compressible Fluid 58
2.S.4. Temperature Lapse-Rate (L) 59
Solvt.od Problems 2.22-2.26 60
Highlights 64
Exercise 65
Chapter 3. H ydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 69-130
3.t. Introduction 69
3.2. Total Pressure and Cl!n tre of Pressure 69
3.3. Ve rtical Plane Surface Sub-merged in Liquid 69
Solved Problems 3.1-3.12 72
3.4. Horizontal Plane Surface Sub· merged in Liquid 85
Solved Problem 3.13 86
3.5. Inclined P lane Surface Sub·merged in Liquid 66
Solved Problems 3.14(a}-3.21 66
3.6. Curved Surface Sub-merged in Liquid 97
Solved P roblems 3.22-3.31 99
3.7. Total Pressure and Centre of Pressure on
Lock Gates 107
Solved Problems 3.32-3.33 109
3.8. Pressure Distribution in II Liquid Subjected to
Constant HorizontaVVertical Acceleration 112
3.S.1. Liquid Containers Subject to Constant
Horizontal Acceleration 112
Solved Problems 3.34-3.36 115
3.8.2. Liquid Containers Subjected to Constant
Vertical Acceleration 120
Solved Problems 3.37-3.38 122
Highlights 124
Exercise 125

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Ch a pte r 4 . BUOYlincy and Floatlltion 131 - 162


4. 1. Introduction 131
4.2. Buoyancy 131
4. 3. Centre of Buoyancy 131
Solved Problems 4.1-4.6 131
4 .4 . Meta-centre 136
4.5. Meta-cent ric Height 136
4.6. Analytical Method for Meta-Centre Height 137
Solved Problems 4.7-4,11 138
4.7. Conditions of Equilibrium of a Floating and
Sub-merged Bodies 143
4.7. 1. Stability of a Sub-merged Body 143
4.7.2. Stability of a Floating Body 143
Solved Problems 4.12-4.18 144
4.8. Experimental Method of Determination of
Me ta-centric Height
Solved Problems 4.19-4.20
1"
155
4.9. Oscillation (Rolling) of a Floating Body 156
Solved Problems 4.21-4.22 158
Highlights 159
Exercise 160
Chapte r 5 . Kinematic .. of Flow and Ideal Flow 163- 258
A. KINEMATI CS OF FLOW
5. 1. Introduction 163
5.2. Methods of Describing Fluid Motion 163
5.3. Types of Fluid Flow 163
5.3.1. Steady and Unsteady Flows 163
5.3.2. Uniform and Non·uniform Flows 164
5.3.3.
5.3.4.
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Com pressible and Incompressi ble Flows
1"
164
5.3.5. Rotational and lrrotational Flows 165
5.3.6. One, two and Three-Dimensional Flows 165
5.4. Rate of Flow or Discharge (Q ) 165
5.5. Continuity Equation 165
Solved Problems 5.1-5.5 166
5.6. Continuity Equation in Three-Dimensions 170
5.6.1. Continuity Equation in Cylindrical
Polar Co-ordinates 171
Solved Problems 5.5A 173
5.7. Velocity and Acceleration 174
5.7. 1. Local Acceleration and Convective
Acceleration 175
Solved Problems 5.6-5.9 175
5.S. Velocity Potential Function and Stream Function 181
5.8. 1. Velocity Potential Function 181
5.8.2. Stream Function 182
5.8.3. Equipotential Line 183
5.8.4. Line of Constant Stream Function 183

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5.8.5. Fl ow Net 184


5.8.6. Relation between Stream Function and
Velocity Potential Function 18.
Solved Problems 5.10---5.17 184
5.9. Types of Motion 191
5.9.1. Linear Translation 191
5.9.2. Linear Deformation 191
5.9.3. Angular Deformation
or Shear Deformation 192
5.9.4. Rotation 192
5.9.5. Vorticity 192
Solved Problems 5. 1S----5. 19 192
5. 10. Vortex Flow 193
5.10.1. Forced Vortex Flow 193
5.10.2. Fre<! Vo rtex Flow 194
5.10.3. Equation of Motion for Vortex Flow 195
5.10.4. Equation of Forced Vortex Flow 196
Solved Problems 5.20---5.25 197
5.10.5. Closed Cylindrical Vessels 202
Solved Problems 5.26-5.31 202
5.10.6. Equation of Free Vortex Flow 209
Solved Problem 5.32 210
(B) lOU!. . ' LOW (POTENTIAL FLOW)
5. 1 1. Introduction 210
5. 12. Important Cases of Potential Flow 211
5 .13. U n iform F low 211
5.13.1. Uniform Flow Parallel tox·Axis 211
5.13.2. Uniform Potential Flow P afaliel toy-Axis 213
5. 14. Sou rce Flow 21.
5.15. Sink Flow 216
Solved Problems 5.33- 5.35 216
5. 16. Free-Vortex Flow 219
5. 17. Supcr·!mposed Flow 221
5. 17.1. Source and Sink Pair 221
Solved Problems 5.36-5.37 225
5.17.2. Doublet 228
Solved Problem 5.38 231
5.17.3. A Plane Source in a Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Half-Body) 233
Solved Problems 5.39-5.41 237
5.17.4. A Source and Sink Pair in a Uniform F low
(Flow Past a Rankin e Oval Body) 241
Solved Problem 5.42 2..
5.17.5. A Doublet in a Uniform Flow
(Flow Past a Circular Cylinder) 246
Solved Problems 5.43- 5.44 250
Highlights 252
f.xercise 254

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Chapter 6. Dynam ics or Fluid Flow 259-316


6.1. Int rodu ction 259
6.2. Equ a tion s of Motion 259
6.3. Euler's Eq uation of Motion 260
6.4. Bernoulli's Equation from Euler's Equation 261
6.;'\. As s um ptions 261
Solved Problems 6. 1- 6.6 261
6.6. Bernoulli's Equation fo r Real Fluid 265
Solved Problems 6.7- 6.9 266
6.7. P ractica l Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 268
6.7.1. Vc nlurimctcr 268
Soh,('od Problems 6.10---6.21 270
6.7,2. Orifice Meter or Orifice Plate 261
Solved Problem s 6.22 - 6.23 283
6.7.3. Pilot-tube 285
Solved Problems 6,24---6,28 266
6.S. The Momentum Equation 288
Solved Problems 6.29- 6.35 289
6.9. Moment of Momen tum Equation 298
Solved Problems 6.36-6.37 298
6 .10. Free Liquid J ets 301
Solved Problems 6.38-641 303
Highlights 307
E"en;;ise 309
Chapter 7. Orifices and Mouthpi eces 317-3;'14
7.1. Int roduction 317
7.2. Classifications ofO rifiees 317
7.3. Flow Through an Orifice 317
704. Hydraulic Co-efficients 31'
7.4. 1. Co·efficient of Velocity (Col 318
7.4.2. Co·efficient of Contraction (Cel 319
7.4.3. Co-efficient of Di~charge (C d) 319
Solved Problems 7.1 - 7 .2 319
7.5. Experimental Dete rmination of Hydraulic
Co·efficients 320
7.5.1. Determination of Co-efficient or Discharge ( C d) ' 320
7.5.2. Determination of Co-efficient or Velocity (C.) 321
7.5.3. Determination of Co-efficient of
Contraction (C , ) 321
Solved Problems 7.3-7.10 32 1
7.6. Flow Through Large Orifices 327
7.6.1 . Discharge Through Large
Hectangula r Orifice 328
Solved Problems 7. 11- 7.13 328
7.7. Discharge Through Fully Sub·merged Orifice 330
Solved Problems 7.1 4-7. 15 331
7.8. Discharge Through Partially Sub-merged Orifice 331
Solved Problem 7. ]6 332

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7.9 . Time of Emptying a Tllnk Through an Orifice


at its Bottom 332
Solved Problems 7.17- 7.18 333
7. 10 . Tim e of Emptying a Hemispherica l Tank 335
&JIved Probl<)ffis 7.19---7.21 336
7.11. Time of Emptying a Circular Horizontal Tank 338
Solved Problems 7.22- 7.23 339
7.12. Classification of Mouthpieces 341
7.13. Flow Through an External Cylindrical Mouthpiece 341
Solved Problems 7.24-7.25 342
7.14. Flow Th rough a Convergent-Divergent Mouthpiece 344
Solved Problems 7.26-7.28 345
7.15. Flow Through Internsl or Re-entrant on
&>rda's l\fouthpiere 347
Solved Problem 7.29 349
Highlights 350
Exercise 352
Ch a p ler 8. Notches an d We ir s 355-386
8.1. l ntroduction 355
8.2. Cl a ssification of Notches and Weirs 355
8.3 . Discharge Over a Rectangular Notch or Weir 356
Solved Problems 8.1-8.3 356
8.4. Discharge Over II T riangula r Notch or Weir 358
Solved problems 8.4-8.6 359
8.5. Advantages of Triangular Notch or
Weir over Rectangular Notch or Weir 361
8.6. Discharge Over a Trapezoidal Notch or Weir 361
Solved Problem 8.7 362
8.7. Discharge Over a Stepped Notch 362
Solved Problem 8.8 363
8.8. Effed on Discharge Over a Notch or Weir
Due to Error in the Measurement of Head 364
8.8.1. For Rectangular Weir Or Notch 364
8.8.2. For Triangular Weir or Notch 364
Solved Problems 8.9-8.11 365
8.9. (a) Time Required to Empty a Rese rvoir or a
Tank with II Reetan!,"Ular Weir or Notch 366
(b) Time Required to Empty a Reservoir or a
Tank with a Triangular Weir or Notch 367
Solved Problems 8.12-8.1 4 368
8.10. Velocity of Approach 370
Solved Problems 8.15-8.19 370
8.1 1. Empirical Formulae for Discharge Over
Rectangular Weir 374
Solved Problems 8.20---8.22 374
8.12. Cipolletti Weir or Notch 376
Solved Problems 8.23-8.24 377
8.13. Discharge Over a Broad-C rested Weir 378

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8. 14. Discharge Over a Narrow·Crested Weir 379


8.15. Discharge Over an Ogee Weir 379
8. 16 . Discha rge Over Sub-merged or Drowned Wei r 379
Solved Problems 8.25-827 380
Highlights 381
Ex ercise 383
Chapter 9. Viscous Flow 387-432
9.1. Introduction 387
9.2. Flow of Viscous Fluid Through Circular Pipe 387
Solved Problems 9.1- 9.6 391
9.3. Flow of Viscous Fluid between Two Parallel Plates 397
Solved Problems 9.7-9.12 400
9.4 . Kinetic Energy Corn)dion and Mom!)ntum
Correction Factors 404
Solved Problem 9.13 404
9.5. Power Absorbed in Viscous Flow 407
9.5.1. Viscous Resis tance of Journal Bearings 407
Solved Problems 9.14-9.18 408
9.5.2. Viscous Resistance of Foot-step Bearing 411
Solved Problems 9.19--9.20 412
9.5.3. Viscous Resistance of Collar Bearing 412
Solved Problems 9.2 1- 9.22 413
9.6. Loss of Head Due to Friction in Vi scous Flow 414
Solved Problems 9.23---9.24 415
9.7. Movement of Piston in Dash·pot 417
Solved Problem 9.25 418
9.8. M(lthods of Dt)t..,rmination of Co-t)fficit)nt of Viscosity 419
9.8 , l. Capillary Tube Method 419
9.8.2. Falling Sph..,re Resistance Method 420
9.8.3. Rotating Cylinder Method 421
9.8.4. Oriflce TyPtJ Vi scometer 422
Solved Problems 9.26---9.32 423
Highlights 427
Exercise 429
Chapter 10. Turbulent Flow 433-464
10.1. Introduction 433
10.2. Reynold s Experiment 433
10.3. Frictional Loss in Pipe Flow 434
10.3.l. Express ion for Loss of Head Due
to Friction in Pipes 434
10.3.2. Expression for Co-effici..,nt of Friction
in Terms of Shear Stress 436
10.4. Sh..,ar Stress in Turbulent Flow 437
10.4 .1. Reynold s Expression for Tu rbulent
Shear Stress 437
10.4 .2. Prandtl Mixing Length Theory for
Turhulen t Shear Stress 438

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10.5 . Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow in Pipes 438


10.5.1. Hydrodynamically Smooth and Rough
Boundaries 440
10.5.2. Velocity Diijtribution for Turbulent Flow
in Smooth P ipes 441
10.5.3. Velocity Dis tribution for Turbulent Flow
in Rough Pipes 442
Solved Problems 10.1- 10.4 442
10.5.4. Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow
in Te rms of Average Velocity 446
Solved Problems 10.5-10.6 448
10.5.5. Velocity Dis(.ributi()n for Turbul ent Flow
in Smooth Pipes by Power Law 450
10.6 . Res istance of Smooth and Rough Pipes 450
Solved Problems 10.7- 10.13 453
Highligh ts 461
Exerc ise 462
Chapter 11. Flow Through Pipell 465-558
11.1. Introduction 465
11 .2. Loss of Energy in Pipes 465
11 .3. Loss of Energy (or head ) Due to Friction 465
Solved Problems 11.1- 11.7 467
11 .4. Minor Energy (H ead) Losses 471
11.4.1 . Loss of Head Due to Sudden Enlargement 471
11.4.2. Loss of Head Due to Sudden Contraction 473
Solved Problems 11.8--11.14 474
11.4.3. Loss of Head at the Entrance of a Pipe 482
11.4.4. Loss of Head at the Exit of Pipe 482
11.4.5. Loss of Head Due to an Obstruction
in a Pipe 482
11.4.6. Loss of Head Du e to Bend in P ipe 483
11.4.7. Loss of Head in Various Pipe Fittings 483
Solved Problems 11. 15-11.2 1 483
11 .5. Hydraulic Gradient and Total Energy Line 491
11.5.1. Hydraulic Gradi en t Lin e 491
11.5.2. Total Energy Line 491
Solv<..>d Problems 11.22-11.26 491
11 .6. Flow Through Syphon 498
Solved Problems 11.27- 11.29 498
11 .7. Flow Through Pipes in Series or Flow Through
Compound P ipes 502
Solved Problems 11.30- 11.30A 503
11 .8. Equivalent Pipe 507
Solved Problem 11.31 508
11 .9 . Flow Through Parallel Pipes 508
Solved Problems 11.32- 11.41 509
11 . 10. Flow Through Branched Pipes 524
Solved Problems 11.42-11.44 525

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11 . 11 . Power Transmission Through Pipes 530


11.11. 1. Condition for Maximum
Transmission of Power 531
11.11.2. Muximum Efficiency of Transmission
of Power 531
Solved Problems 11.45-11.47 531
11.12. Flow Through Nozzles 535
11.12.1. Power Transmitted Through Nozzle 537
11.12.2. Condition for Maximum Power
Transmitted Through Nozzle 537
11.12.3. Diameter of Nozzle for Maximum
Transmission of Pow..,r Through Npzzle 538
Solved Problems 11.48---11.51 539
1l.13. Water Hammer in Pipes 541
11.13.1. Gradual Closure of Valve 542
11.13.2. Sudden Closure or Valve and Pipe is Rigid 542
11.13.3. Sudden Closure of Valve and P ipe is Elastic 543
11.13.4. Time Taken by Pressure Wave to Travel
from the Valve to the Tank and from
Tank to the Valve 545
Solved Problems 11.52-11.55 545
11.14. Pipe Network 547
11.14.1. Hardy Cross Method 548
Solved Problem 11 .56 549
Highlights 552
Exercise 554
Chapte r 12. Dime n s ional and Mo d e l Ana lysis 559-610
12.1. Introduction 559
12.2. Secondary or Derived Quantities 559
Solved Problem 12.1 560
12.3. Dimensio nal Homogeneity 561
12. 4 . Methods of Dimensional Analys is 561
12.4.1. Rayleigh's Method 561
Solved Problems 12.2-12.7 562
12.4.2. Buckingham's 1!-Theorem 565
12.4.3. Method of Selecting Repeating Variables 566
12.4.4. Procedure for oolving Problems by
Buckingham's 1!-Theorem 566
Solved Problems 12.8- 12.14 568
12.5. Model Analysis 578
12 .6. Similitude-Types of Similarities 579
12.7. Types of Fort.'Cs Acting in Moving ~'luid 580
12.8. Dimensionless Numbers 581
12.8.1. Reynold's Number (R .) 581
12.8.2. Froude's Number (F, ) 582
12.8.3. Euler's Number (E ") 582
12.8.4. Weber's Number (IV, ) 582
12.8.5. JI.!ach's Number ( M ) 582

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12.9. Model Laws or Similarity Laws 583


12.9.1. Reynold's Model Law 583
Solved Problems 12.15-12.18 58.
12.9.2. "roude Model Law 587
Solved Problems 12.19-12.27 590
12.9.3. Eu ler's Model Law 595
12.9.4. Weber Model Law 596
12.9.5. Mach Model Law 596
Solved Problem 12.28 597
12.10. Model Testing of Partially Sub-me rged Bodies 598
Solved Problems 12.29-12.32 600
12.11 . Classification of Model s 60.
12.11.1 . Undistorl.ed Model s 6"
12.11.2. Distorted Mod els 605
12.11.3. Scale Ratios for Distorted Models 605
Solved Problem 12.33 606
Highlights 606
Exercise 607
Chapter 13. Boundary Layer Flow 611-656
13.1. Introduction 611
13.2. Definitions 612
13.2.1. La minar Boundary Layer 612
13.2.2. Turbulent Boundary Layer 613
13.2.3. Laminar Sub· layer 613
13.2.4 . Boundary Laye r Thicknes~ (0) 613
13.2.5. Displacement Thickness (0· ) 613
13.2.6. Mome ntu m T hickness (9) 615
13.2.7. Energy Thickness (lin) 615
Solved P roblems 13. 1- 13.2 616
lS.3. Drag Force on a Flat Plate Due to Boundary Layer 619
13.3.1. Local Co·efficient of Drag [C v -1 622
13.3.2. Average Co·efficient of Drag [C v 1 622
13.3.3. Boundary Cond itions for the
Veloci ty Profiles 622
Solved Problems 13.3- 13.12 622
13.4 . Turbulent Boundary Layer on II Flat Plate 638
Solved P roblem 13.13 638
lS.5. Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layer 641
lS.6. Total Drag on a Flat Plate Due to Laminar and
Turbulent Boundary Layer 641
Solved Problems 13. 14-13.17 642
lS.7. Separation of Boundary Layer 646
13.7.1. Effect of Pressu re Gradient on
Boundary Layer Separation 648
13.7.2. Location of Sepa ration Point 649
Solved Problem 13.18 650

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13.7.3. Methods of Preventing the Separation


of Boundary Laye r 651
Highlights 651
Exercise 653
Chapter 14. Forces on Sub-merged Bodies 657-692
14.1. Introduction 657
14.2. Force Exerted by II Flowing Fluid on
II Stationary Body 657
14.2.1. Drag 658
14.2.2. Lift 658
14.3. Expression for Drag and Li ft 658
14.3.1. Dimensional Analysis of Drag and Lift 659
Solved Problems 14. 1- 14.15 660
14. 3.2. Pressure Drag and Friction Drag 670
14.3.3. Stream-lined Body 671
14.3.4. Bluff Body 671
14.4. Drag on II Sphere 671
Solved Problem 14.16 672
14.5 . Terminal Velocity of II Body 673
Solved Problems 14. 17- 14.20 673
14.6. Drag on II Cylinder 677
14.7. Development of Lift on II Circular Cylinder 677
14.7.1. Flow of Ideal Fluid Over Stationary
Cyl inder 678
14.7.2. Flow Pattern Around the Cylinder
when II Constant Circulation r is
Imparted to the Cylinder 678
14.7.3. Expression for Lift Force Acting on
Rotating Cylinder 680
14.7.4. Drag Fonce Acting on a Rotating Cylinde r 682
14.7.5. ElI"pression fo r Lift Co·efficient for
Rotating Cylinder 682
14.7.6. Location of Stagnation Points for a
Rotating Cyli nde r in a Uniform Flow_field 683
14.7.7. Magnus E ffect 683
Solved Problems 14.21- 14.23 683
14.8. Development of Lift on an Airfoil 686
14.8.1. Steady-state of a Flying Object 687
Solved Problems 14.24-14.25 687
Highlights 689
Exencise 690
Chapter 15. Compressible Flow 693- 736
15.1. Introduction 693
15.2 . Thermodynamic Relation s 693
15.2.1. Equation of Sta te 893
15.2.2. ElI"pansion and Compression of Perfect Gas 69.

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15.3. Basic Equations of Compressible Flow 695
15.3.1. Continuity Equation 695
15.3.2. Bernoulli's Equation 695
Solved Problems 15.1- 15.3 697
15.3.3. Momentum Equations 702
15.4. Velocity of Sound or Pressure Wave in II Fluid 702
15.4.1. Expression for Velocity of Sound
Wave in II Fluid 702
15.4.2. Veloeity of Sound in Terms of
Bulk Modulus 704
15.4.3. Velocity of Sound for Isothe rmal Process 705
15.4.4. Vdoci ty of Sound fo r Adiabatic Process 705
15.5. Mach Number 705
Solved Problems 15.4-15.7 706
15.6 . Propagation of Pressure Waves (or Disturbances)
in II Compressible Fluid 708
15.6.1. Mach Angle 709
15.6.2. Zone of Action 710
15.6.3. Zone or Silence 710
Solved Problems 15.8- 15.10 710
15.7. Stagnation Properties 711
15.7.1. Expression for Stagnation Pressure (p.) 711
15.7.2. Expression for Stagnation Density (p, ) 715
15.7.3. Expression for Stagnati.m Temperature ( T ,) 715
Solved Problems 15.11- 15.12 716
15.8. Area Velocity Relation ship for Compressible Flow 718
15.9. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Orifices and
Noz~les Fitted to a Large Tank 719
15.9.1. Value of II or !!l. for Maximum Value
p,
of Mass Rate of Flow 721
15.9.2. Value of V 2 for Maximum Rate of Flow
of Fluid 721
15.9.3. Maximum Rate of Flow of Fl uid Through
No~zle 722
15.9.4. Variation of Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible

Fluid with Pressure ratio (~ ) 723


15.9.5. Velocity at Outlet of Nozzle for Maximum
Rate of Flow is Equal w Sonic Velocity 723
Solved Problems 15. 13- 15. 15 724
15. 10. Ma ss Rate of Flow of Compressible Fluid Through
Venturimeter 727
Solved Problem 15. 16 728
IS.H . Piwt·Static Tube in a Compressible Flow 730
Solved P roblem 15.17 731
Highlights 731
Exercise 734

I I Ii
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(xxil

Chapter 16. Flow in Open ChRnnel~ 737-802


16.1. Introduction 737
16.2. Classification Qf flow in Channels 737
16.2.1. Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow 737
16.2.2. Unifonn Flow and Non-uniform Flow 737
\6.2.3. Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow 738
\6.2.4. Sub-critical, Critica l and Super-Critical
~'low 738
16.3. Disc harge Through Open Channel by Chezy's
Formula 739
Solved Problems 16.1- 16.7 740
\6.4. Empirical Formulae for the Value ofChczy's
Constan t 744
Solved Problems 16.8-16. 12 745
16.5. Most Economi cal Section of Channels 749
16.5.1. Most EronomiClii Roctangular Channel
Solved Problems 16.13- 16.15
7"
750
16.5.2. Most Economical Trapezoidal Channel 752
Solved Problems 16.16- 16.22 754
16.5.3. B(lst Side Slope for Most Economical
Trapezoida l Se<;tion 762
Solved Problems 16.23- \6.24 763
16.5.4. Flow Through Circular Channel 766
Solved Problems 16.25-16.29 766
16.5.5. Most Economical Circular Section 771
Solved Problems 16.30- 16.32 775
16.6. Non-Uniform Flow through Open Channels 777
16.7. Specific Energy and Specific Energy Curve 777
16. 7.1. Cri t ical Depth (he ) 779
16.7.2. Critical Velocity (Ve ) 779
16.7.3. Minimum Specific E nergy in Terms of
Critical Depth 780
Solved Problems 16.33-16.35 780
16.7.4. Critical Flow 781
16.7.5. Streaming ,"'low or Sub-c ri tical Flow or
Tranquil Flow 782
16.7.6. Super-Critical Flow or Shooting Flow or
Torrentia l Flow 782
16.7.7. Alternate Depths 782
16.7.8. Condition for Maximum Discharge for a
Given Value of Specific Energy 782
Solved Problems 16.36-16.37 782
16.8. Hydraulic Jump or Standing Wave 783
16.8.1. Exprf'ssion for Depth of Hydraulic Jump 784
16.8.2. Expression for Loss of Energy Due to
Hydraulic Jump 786
16.8.3. Exprf'ssion fo r Depth of Hydraulic Jump
in Te rms or Upstream Froude Number 787

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(xxii)

16.8.4. Length of Hydraulic Jump 787


Solved Problems 16.38- 16.42 787
16.9. Gradually Varied Flow (G.V.F.) 790
16.9. L Equation of Gradually Varied Flow 790
Solved Problems 16.43- 16.44 792
16.9.2. Back Water Curve and Affux 793
16.9.3. Expression for the Length of Back
Waler Curve 794
Solved Problem 16.45 795
Highlights 796
Exerc ise 799
Chapter 17. Impact of Jets a nd Jet Pro)Ju\s ion B03-&;2
17.1. Introduction 803
17.2. Force Exerted by the J et on II Stationary
Vertical Plate 803
17.2.1. Force Exerted by II Jet on Stationary
Inclined Flat Plate 804
17.2.2. Force Exerted by II Jet on Stationary
Curved Plate 805
Solved Problems 17.1- 17.6 807
17.3. Force Exerted by II Jet on II Hinged Plate 809
Solved Problems 17.7- 17.10 (a) 810
17.4. Force Exerted by II Jet on Moving Plates 814
17.4.1. Force on Flat Vertical Plate Moving
in the Direction of J et 815
17.4.2. Force on the Inclined Plate Moving in
the Direction of the Jet 815
Solved Problems 17.ll- 17.13 816
17.4.3. Force on the Curved Plate when the
Plate is Moving in the Direction of Jet 818
Solved Problems 17. 14-17.17 819
17.4.4. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on an
Unsymmetrical Moving Curved Plate when
Jet Strikes Tangentially at one of the Tips 823
Solved Problems 17.18- 17.23 826
17.4.5. Force Exerted by a Jet of Water on a
Series ..,fVanes 833
17.4.6. Force Exerted on a Series of
Rad ial Curved Vanes 834
Solv(.od Problems 17.24-17.26 837
17.5 . Jet Propulsion 840
17.5.1. Jet Propulsion ofa Tank with an Orifice 841
Solved Problems 17.27- 17.28 843
17.5.2. Jet Propulsion of Ships 843
Solved P roblems 17.29-17.33 844
Highlights 849
Exercise 850

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(r:ciii)

C hapter 18 . Hy d r a u li c Mlic hin es--Turbines 853-944


18.1. Introduction 853
18 .2. Turbines 853
18.3. General Layout of a Hydroe lectric Power Plant 853
18.4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of a Turbine 853
18.5. Classification of Hydraulic T urbines 856
18.6 . Pelton Wheel (or Turbine) 857
18.6.1. Velocity Triangles and Work Don", for
Pelton Wheel 859
18.6.2. Points to be Remembered for Pel ton Wheel 861
Solved Problems 18. 1- 18.10 862
16.6.3. O<)sigrl ofPeilon Wh eel 873
Solved Problems 18.1 1- 18. 13 87.
18.7. Radial Flow Reaction Turbines 877
18.7.1. Ma in Parts of a Radial Flow
Reaction Turbine 877
IS.7.2. Inward Radial Flow Turbine 878
IS.7.3. Degree of Reaction 880
IS.7.4. Definitions 884
Solved Problems 18. 14- 18.20 88'
18.7.5. Outward Radia l Flow Reaction Turbine 892
Solved Problems 18.21- \8.22 893
18.8. Francis Tu rbine 895
18.8.1. Important Relations for Francis Turbines 896
Solved Problems 18.23- 18.26 896
18.9 . Axial Fl()w Readion Tu rbine 903
18.9.1. Some Important Point for Propeller
(Kaplan Turbine) 905
Solved Problems IS.27- 1S.33 905
l S. 10. Draft-Tube 915
IS.1O.1. Types of Draft Tubes 915
18. 10.2. Draft-Tube Theory 916
IS.10.3. Efficiency ()f Draft-Tube 916
&lIved Problems IS.33 (0 l-- I S.35 917
18. 0 . Specific Speed 920
IS. 11. 1, Derivati()n of the Specific Speed 920
IS.II.2. Significance of Specific Speed 921
Solved Problems IS.36- 1S.41 921
18. 12. Unit Quantities 927
18.12.1. Uni t Speed 927
18.12.2. Unit Discharge 927
IS.12.3. Unit Powe r 928
18.12.4. Use of Unit Quantities (N . , Q., Po) 928
Sol\·(,..1 Problems IS.41 (0 )- 18.45 929
IS. 13. Characteristic Curves of Hydraulic Turb ines 933
18.13. 1. Main Characwristic Curves or
Constant Head Curves 933
18.13.2. Ope rating Characteris tic Curves or
Constant Speed Curves 93.

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(xxiv)

18.13.3. Constant Efficiency Curves or Musche!


Curves or Iso-Efficiency Curves 935
18.14. Governing ofl'urbines 936
Highlights 937
Exercise 939
Chapler 19. Centrifugal Pumps 945-992
19.1. Introduction 945
19.2. Main Parts ofa Centrifugal P ump 945
19.3. Work Done by the Centrifugal Pump
(or by Impnler) on Waler 947
19.4. Definitions of Heads and Efficiencies of 1\
Centrifugal Pump 948
Solved Problems \9. 1- 19.12 951
19.5. Minimum Speed for Starting a Centrifugal Pump 965
Solved Problems 19. 13- 19. 15 966
19.6. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps 966
19.6.1. Multistage Centrifugal Pumps
for High Heads 966
19.6.2. r.Iultistage Centrifugal Pumps for
High Discharge 969
Solved Problems 19.16---19.17 969
19.7. Specific Speed of a Centrifugal Pump (N, ) 971
19.7.1. fo:xprossion for Specific Speed for a Pump 971
19.8. Model Testing of Centrifugal Pumps 972
Solved Problems 19. 18- 19.22 973
19.9. Priming of a Centrifugal Pump 976
19.10. Characteri~tic Curve~ of Centrifugal Pumps 978
19.10.1. Main Characteristic Curves 978
19.10.2. Operating Characteristic Curves 979
19.10.3. Constant Efficiency Curves 979
19. 11 . Cavitation 960
19.11 . 1. Precaution Against Cavitati(1n 960
\9.11.2. Effects of Cavitation 961
19.11.3. Hydraulic Machines Subjected to Cavitation 981
19.11.4. Cavitation in Turbines 981
19.11.5. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps 961
Solv<.od Problem 19.23 982
19.12. Maximum Suction Lift (o r Suction Height) 983
19.13. Net Positive Suction Head (NPS H) 985
19.14. Cavitation in Centrifugal Pump 965
Solved Problem 19.24 966
Highlights 987
Exerc ise 989
Chapter 20. Recil,rocating Pumps 993-1040
20.1. Introduction 993
20.2. Main Parts of a Reciprocating Pump 993
20.3. Working of a Reciprocating Pump 994

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20.3.1. Discharge Through a Reciprocating Pump 99<


20.3.2. Work Done by Redprocating Pump 995
20.3.3. Discharge, Work Done and Power
Required to Drive a Doubl e-acting Pum p 995
20.4. Slip of Reciprocating Pump 996
20.4.1. Negative Slip of the Reciprocating Pump 997
20.5. Classification of Reciprocating Pumps 997
Solved Problems 20.1- 20.2 997
20.6. Variation of Velocity and Acceleration
in the Suction and De livery Pipes Due to
Acceleration of the Piswn 998
20.7. Effect of Variation of Vel ocity on " riction
in the Suction lind Delivery Pipes 1001
Solved Problem 20.3 1001
20 .8. Indicator Diagram 1003
20.8.1. ldcal l ndica.lor Diagram 1003
20.8.2. EtTect of Acceleration in Suction and
Delivery Pipes on Indicator Diagram 1004
Solved Problems 20.4-20.9 1004
20.8.3. Effect of I'riction in Suction and Delivery
Pipes on Indi cator Diagram 1012
20.8.4. ElTect of Acceleration and Friction in
Suction and Delivery P ipes on Indicator
Diagram 1013
Solved Problems 20. 10-20.12 lOIS
20.8.5. Maximum Speed ofa Reciproca ting Pump 1019
Solved Problem 20.13 1020
20.9 . Air Vessels 1021
Solved Problems 20. 14-20. 18 1030
20.10. Comparison between Centrifugal Pumps and
Reciprocating Pumps 1037
Highlight.'< 1037
Exercise 1038
Chapter 21. F l uid System 104 1- 1070
21.1. Introduction 1041
21.2. The Hydraulic Press 1041
21.2.1. Mechanical Advantage 1042
21.2.2. Leverage of the Hydraulic Press 1042
21.2.3. Actual Heavy Hydraulic Press 1042
Solv(.od Problems 21.1 - 21.5 1043
21.3 . The Hydraulic Accumulator 1045
21.3.1. Capacity of Hydraulic Accumulator 1046
Solved Problems 21.6-2 1. 11 1047
21.3.2. Differential Hydraulic Accumulator 1051
21.4. The Hydraulic intensifier 1051
Solved Problems 21. 12-21. 13 1053
2 1.5. The Hydrauli c Ram 1053
Solved Problems 2 1.14-21.15 1055

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(xxui)

21 .6. The Hydraulic Lift 1056


21.6.1. Direct Acting Hydraulic Lift 1057
21.6.2. Suspended Hydraulic Lift 1057
Solved Problems 21.16- 21.17 1058
21.7. The Hydraulic Crane 1061)
Solved Proble ms 21.18-21.20 1061)
21.8. The Fluid or Hydraulic Coupling 1063
21.9. The Hyd raulic Torque Converter 10'"
21.10. The Air Lift Pump 1065
21.11. The Gear-Wheel Pump IOEm
Highlights 1067
Exercise 1068
Objective Type Questions 1071- 1094
Appendix 1095-1000
Subject Indel< 1097_1102

I I Ii
to 1. 1 INTRODUCTION

Fluid mechanics is that branch of sc ience which deals with the behav iour o f the fluids (liquids or
gases) at rest as well as in motion. Thus this branch of scienl'C deals WiTh the stat ic. kinematics and
dy namic aspecTs of fluids. The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. The study of fluids in
Illotion. where pressure forces are not considered. is c all ed tluid kinematics and if the pressure forees
are also considered for the flu ids in motion. that branch of science is callt>d fluid dynamics.

to 1.2 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS


1.2. 1 Density or Mass Density. DensiTy or mass densi ty of a fluid is defincd as the ratio of the
mass of a fluid TO its volume. Th us mass per unit vo lum e of a Iluid is called density. It is denoted by the
symbol p (rho). The unit of mass density in SI urlit is kg per cubic metre. i.p .• kg/m 3. The density of
liquids ma y be cOrlsidercd as COrlSlant while that of gases changes with th e variation o f pressure and
temperature.
Mathematically. Illass de nsity is wr ill en as

p=

The value of density of water is I gm/crn l or I()()(} kg/m 3.

1.2.2 Specific Weight or Weight Dens ity. Specific weig ht or weight density of a fluid is the
ratio between the weight of a fluid to its volume. Thus weight per unit volume of a fluid is called
weight density and it is denoted by the symbo l w.

Thus mathematically. IV = Weight o f fluid '" ,(,Mc"",co,fcnc'o;cd~);X'i-AC'C"'C""'O"C;OC"7'd"c,c,cQ"g~,c'c'c",-Y


Volumc of fluid Vo lumc of fluid

Mass of fluid )
=p><g =p
Volu me o f flu id

..• IV= pg ...( 1.1 )

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~ I IL

12 Fluid MC(;hanics
The va lue of specific weight or weig h! density (w) for water is 9.81 x WOO Newlon/II]"' in Sl units.
1.2.3 Specific Volume. Specific volu ille of a fluid is defi ned as the volume of a fluid occupied
by a unit mass or volum e per unit mass of a fluid is callcd specific vo lu11Ie. Mathemat ically. il i~
expressed as
Vo lume of fl uid
Specific volume =
M ass of fl uid ~M,!","",,,o"r~n~""d;r; '" p
Volume of flu id
Thus specific vol um e is the rec iprocal of mass density. It is c.'pressed as m' fk g. It is commonly
applied 10 gases.
1.2.4 Specific C;uvity. Specific gravity is defined as the rali o of th e weight densit y (or de nsity)
of a fluid to the weight de nsit y (o r den sity) uf a standard fluid. For liquids. the standard fluid is Taken
water and for gases, th e standard fluid is taken air. Specific gravity is nlso called relntivc dens it y. h is
dimension less quantit y and is de noted by tlie symbol S.

Mathem aticall y, S(for liquids) = -;,w",'cig~hc'cd;'e"c'7h~YC(CdC'""e·'ChlYC)Oo"r"tioq~""id"


We igh t de nsi ty (de ns ity) of water

S(for gases) = -;_W


:;;:'"igehc'CdC'C·"C'Ch"YC(~dO'C"C'Ch"YC)OOcf~gc~
o
We ight de nsity (de nsi ty) of air
Thu s wrig ht density of n liqui d = S x Wei ght dt' nsit y of water
=Sx lOOOx9.81 N/m J
The densi ty of a liquid =Sx Density of water
=Sx 1000 kg/ml . .. .(\.]A )
If tlie specific gra vity of a fluid is known. then the density of the fluid will be equal to specific
grav ity of fluid multiplied by tli e density of water. For exa mple. tlie specific gravity o f mercury is 13.6.
hence density of mercury = 13.6 x 1000 = 1]600 kg/ml.

Problem 1.1 Co/m/ill" tl/<' sfH'ciflc weigili. delisiTy om/ spnific gral'ily of 0111' lifr" of (/ liquid
... IIid, II'pigll,' 7 N.

Solution. Given:
I , . I ;
Volume = I litre = - - m IIlTe = 1000 m or I li tre
llJOO
Weight = 7 N

(i) Spedfk weight (w)


7CN
= Weig ht = T.c. c-_ = 7000 N/llr'. AilS.
Volum e (1~) Illl
w7000 1 ,
(ii) Density (p) = - = - - kg /m = 71.\.5 k g/Ill ' . Ans .
g 9.81

'" Densi ty of liqu id '" 7 135


(iii) Specific grav ity I .: De ns ity of water = 1000 kglm11
Density of water 1000
'" 0 .7 1.\5. AilS.

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Properties of Fluids 31
Problem 1.2 Ca/culale tile dellsity. specific weigh! and weight of one lilre of Pe/rot of sped/it
gra..!ty '" 0.7

Solution. Gi ven: Volume: [Iitre = x lOOOem 3 = I~ rn 3 =0.00 1 rn 3


10
Sp. gravil y 5 = 0.7
(il D"'I~'ily (p)
Using cq uJlion (I. IA),
Dellsif), (p) = S x 1000 kg/ml '" 0.7 x 1000 == 700 kg/hi ), Am.
(ii) Specific ...eight (w)
Using equation (1.1), w = p x g = 700 x 9.81 Nlrnl = 6867 Ntm J , Ans.
(iii) IVeigl1l ( IV)

We know [hal sp"cific weig h!


,,,,,;,,:hC
= .-w '
Volume
IV \I'
... = - - or6867 = - -
0.00 1 O.OO[
IV ", 6867 x 0.00 1 = 6.867 N. An s.

.. 1,3 VISCOSITY

Vis<:osi ly is d efi ned as the property of a fluid whi<:h offers rcsiswnce tu the movement of o ne layer
of fluid over imolhcr adj ace nt layer of ihe fluid. When twO laye rs of a fluid. a dislanl'C 'dy' aparL move
one over the other at different velocities, say u a nd u + du as show n in Fig. 1.1. Ihe viSC(}~ity togclher
wi th relative velocity cause~ a shear stre~s acting between Ihe nuid laye rs.
Th e lOp layer eauses a shear Slress on the
adjace nt lower layer while the lowe r layer causes
a shear stress on th~ adjacent top layer. This shear
stress is propo rtional to the rate of c han ge of ve-
locit y with respec t to y. It is denoted by symbol "
VELOC ITY PROFILE
t (Tau).
d,
Mathe maticall y. ,~ -

dy
Fig. 1.1 Velocity variation near a mlid boundary.
t~)J
dy "
- ... (1.2)

where )J (calk'd mu) is the (.unstant of proportionality and is known as the (.u-cfficient of dynamic viS«)sity
d,
oronl y viM-usity. - represents the rate of she<lr sirain or f:ltc of sheardcfomtatioo or velocity gradient.
dy

From equa tion ( 1.2), we hn ve ].I = -,(


d,
1 .. .( 1.3 )

If)"
Th us viscosity is a lso defin ed as th e she ar stress required to produce unit rate of shear strain.
1.3.1 Unit$ of Vi$co$ity. Th e uni ts of viscosity is obtained by putt ing the dimcnsions o f the
quantities in cq uation (1.3)

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14 Fluid MC(;hanics

Shear st ress r orce! Area


". ~~~~~.~~~~-
Change o f velocity 1 (Lengeh )
Change o f distance Time x Leng th
'" r"'Ofcc/(l.c ngth)' = Force x T ime
1
TI me
In MKS system. force is represented by k.gf and length by InClre (m). in eGS system. force is
represented by dyne and length by em and in SI system force is represented by NewlOn (N) and length
by metre (m).
= kgf -scc
M KS unit of viscosity
m1
= dyne-sec
eGS unit o f viscosity l
cm
In the aho"c expression Nlm l is also known as Pascal which is represe nted by Pa. Hence N/rn2 = Va
= Pasca l
SI unit of viscosity = Ns/m 2 = Pa s.
Newton sec Ns
SI unit of viscosity

The uni t of viscusity in eGS is ~ISQ called Poise which is eq u al 10 "'dyne


' 'em!
C;:=-
-sec

The nume rical conversion oflhc unit ofviscosi l y from MKS unit to eGS unit is given beluw:
9.8 1 N-sec
I': I kgf=9.8 1 New ton)

BUl one Newton = one kg (mass) x one -m-


, ) (acceleration)
( ~'

(1 000 g m) x ( 100 c m) gm-cm


= l = 1000 x 100 l
scc sec

= 1000 x 100 dy ne dyne = gm x -c m-, )


='
one kgf -sec =9.81 x 100000 dyne-sec
nI l e l11
2 = 9.81 x 100000 ====--,
dyne-sec
100 x IOOxem 2

• 98 . 1 dyne-sec
, = 98. 1 poisc ,d"y,"",~,:c'=-c = 1.: POiSC)
c m' em ' 1
Th us for solving numerical prob lems. if viscosity is given in poise. it must be divided by 9&.1 10 get
ils equivalent numerical value in MKS.

8m
ml
=+,"
one kg f -scc • 9.8 1 Ns
Ill "
= 98.1 poise

one Ns 9&.1 1 N,
• - - poise = 10 poisc One poise =
~ 9.81 10 ml

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Properties of Fluids 51
. dyncxs ( l gm X I Cm ) ,
Alt rrnllil' Mdhod . One po lS<: '" l '" l X- -
,
em s el11
[ em
But dyn e gill X - ,-

"
I k
O ne poise
I gm lOiXIg
'" ;;::;; '" I
' -- m
100
I
= IOpoisc.
1000 "'
1"'otr . (i) In $[ un;l< second i. represented by's" and nOl by 'sec',
(iil If \'iscosity i. gi,'cn in poi,." it mus, be divided by 10 to gel its equivalent numerical ..alue in SJ unil",
Somclimcs a unit of v;"''OSily as centipoise is used where
. , I , 1
I ccntlpo,,,, '" - POIse or ICP. - P rtf' '" Centipoise. P '" Poise 1
100 100
The visco,ily of water at 20~C is D.OJ poise or 1.0 centipoise.

1.3 .2 I(in e m~ti c Viscos ity . h is deFined as the ratio between Ihe dynamic viscosity and density
of fluid. 11 is de uoted by lhe Greek symbol (v) c a lled 'no . Thus, ma thematica ll y.
Vi scos ily jJ
\I '" '" - ...( 1.4)
De nsi ty p
The units of kinematic viscosity is oblai llcd as
,. URilS of P
UnitsufjJ Force x Time
--'=~~ =
Force x T ime
M ass
(Le ngth) ' x Mass J
(Length ) Length

r
Length
Mass x , x T ime Force"" M ass x Ace. )
(Time)"
= --7-':';"'--;--
M,,,
( Length 1 .
= M ass )(
Leng th
Time
l

(Le ngth )!
= S="-
Tim e
In MKS and SI. the unit of kinematic viscosity is metre'!scc or m'/sec while in CGS unilS it is
written as (;111'/s. In CGS units. killcm~lic viscosity is also known as stoke.

Thus, olle sloke =clI1 '/5= c~or 4


O1'/S= 1O- 01'/s

1
Cen tistoke means = sloke.
100
1.3 . 3 Newton ' s Law of Visco s ity. It SImes that1h" she ar sIres.-; (l) on a fluid clemcnt layer is
dircClly proportional to the ral c of shear strain. The 1:01151:1111 of proportionality is called the co-
cfficielll of viscosi ty. Mathematically, ;1 is c~prcssed as givell by equation (1.2) or as
till
t = !-I - .
(/ )'

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~ I IL

16 Fluid MC(;hanics
Fluids which obey the above relation arc known as NewtonL'l1i fluids and the fluids which do not
obey tlie above relation arc callcd No n-Newto nia n fluids.
1. 3.4 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature . Temperature affects the viscosity. The
viscosity of liquids dcneasc s with Ihe increase of tcmpcrmurc while Ihe viscosity of gases inncascs
with the increase of tempermure. This is duc to reason that Ihe viscous forces in a fluid arc duc to
cohesive forces and molecular momentum lransfcr. In liquids. the cOhesive forces predominates
the Illolccular 1110111cn lurn lraJlskr, duc 10 closely packed Illolcculcs and with Ih e increase in
temperature. Ihe cohesive forces decreases wilh the resuh o f decreasing viscosity. Bul in case of
gas.cs the cohesive forces arc small and molecular momentum transfer predominaks. With the
increase in tempera ture, molecular fllom<"nturn transfer increases and h<"nce vis.cosily increases. The
relation between viscosity and temperatu re for liquid.~ and g ases are:

(I) Fo r liquid s, (.I = (.10 ( I


I +O:I+llr
,l ... ( l.olA)

whe re (.I = Viscosity of liquid at rc, in poiSt:


1-10 = Viscosity of liquid at O°C . in poise
0:.. P " Constants for the liquid
ror water. (.10 = 1.79 x 10 J pois.c. (I = 0.03368 and P= 0.000221.
Equation (1.4A) shows that wilh the increas.c of tcmperature. the viscosity dcr rcases.
(ii) For a gas , J.I" (.10 + o:r _ PI 2 ... ( I.4B )
9
where for air J.lo " 0.000017. 0:= 0.000000056. P'" 0 .1189 X 10- .
Equation (I.4B) shows that with the increase o f temperature. the viscosity increases.
1.3 . S Types of Fluids. The fluids may be classified into the following five types:
I. Ideal nuid. 1. Real fluid.
3. Newtonian fluid. 4. Non -New tonian fluid. and
5. Ideal plastic fluid.
I. Id"al Fluid. A fluid, whic h is ;ncorll pr<"ssiblc and is
having no I'is.cosily. is known as an ideal fluid. Id~al fluid is
only an imaginary nuid as all the nuids. which exis!. ha ve
some viscosity.
2. R"nl Fluid. A fluid. whic h possesses viscos il y. is
known as real nuid. All lhe nuids. in aClual practice, are real
fluids.
3. Ne wtonlun )<' Iuld . A real fluid. in which lhe shear
stress is direc tly proportional to the rate of shear strain (or
1 IDEAL FLUtD

velocity gradient). is know n as a Newtonian nuid.


- VELOCITY GRADIENT (~~)
4. Non -Newtonian Fluid . A real fluid. in whic h the
Fig . 1.2 Typt$ of flm·d$ .
shear stress is not proportional tu the r:lte of shear strain (or
velocity gradient), known as a Non-Newtonian nuid.
5. Ideal Plastic Fluid . A fluid. in which she ar st ress is more than the yield value and shear
stress is propor1ional to the rate of shear strain (or velocity gmdient), is known as ideal plastic fluid.
,
Problem 1.3 If IIII' re/ociry dislribuliOlr O)'e ~ (I pialI' is girol by u = .:. y -l in "'hieil U is lire
J
relocily ill mefre per seCOIrd aI (I disfmrce )" melre ab()re lilt! plme. de/amilre Ille .~lIe(lr J·lres.! {If

y " 0 alld y = 0./5 111. Take dYllamic I'iscosify offtllid (IS 8.63 poises.

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Properties of Fluids 71
2 , till ,
Solution. Giwn : II= -Y-Y '" ..:. - 2y
3 dy 3

(~:.)~ y_O 01(;:;),.0'"


2 2
- - 2(0)= - =0.667
3 3

("")
-
,/ Y - ",,_0."
"' ("") d Y ,_ 0' 5
2
= - -2x.15=.667-.30=0.367
3

Value of).l = 8.63 roisc = 8.63 51 units = 0.863 N s/m 2


10
(/11
Now shear stress is given by equat ion (1.2) as t =).l
,/ )'
(I) Shear stress Jt y = 0 is given by

t o = I-l (~)
(Iy y. Q
'" 0.863 x 0.667 '" 0.5756 N/m~. Am.

(ii) Shear strcs.~ at y = 0.15 III is given by

(l:)y . O_l~ '" Il (;;1y') '" 0.863 x 0.367 '" 03 167 N/m l, AilS.
y_ O l ~
Problem 1.4 A plm/' 0.025 """ (/i.<I"''' from 1I fi-.nl philP, /IIm'n {I/ (,() ("111/,' tII,,1 rl'ff"ir.... " fora "f
2 N pprllll;1 (lrra i.r., 2 Nlm z 10 ",(lima;" 'iii.• sJ'l'rd. f)"'('nl1i,,,, /1", flllid viuos;r), brl»,"'-" 111(' plalt'3.
Solution. Given:
f
Distance bel ween pl ates. dy = .025 nlln
= .025 x 10-] m
Velocity of upper pl:u~. 1/ = 60 em/s = 0.6 m/s T "'i"''''''''''''
N FIXED PLATE
('orce on upper plate. F= 2.0 2 ,
m Fig. 1.3
This is lhe value of shear Slr~ss i.t', ••
lei the fiuid vi.'>Cosily between the plales is~.

Using lhe equalion (1.2). we ha,,~ t == ~ -d" .


<ly
whe re Ii" = Change of velocily = II - 0 = II '" 0.60 IIl/s
dy '" Change of distaJicc '" .025 x IO- J III
N
t '" Force per unil area'" 2.0
IIll

2.0==~ -;:;~0~.6~0
c '" 2.0 x .025 X lO-l == 8.33 x 10 .s Ns
.025 x 10 0.60 111 2
5
'" 8.33 x 10- X 10 poise '" tl..~ .~ x 1O -~ IlOi~(' . Ans.
Problem 1.5 A jlal pimp of <ifNI 1.5 x J(/' 111m2 is p"l/n! wilb a sllt'rtf of 0.4 mls ",Ialil'p 10
wJOllwr pl<llrloHllrd (1/ 1I dis/(//ICI' of 0.15 111m from il. Fillillile fora mill po ....'" rf</lIirrd 10 IIwill/aill
Illis spud, if Ilw jlllitl srpllrmillg ' '('11/
is /wl'illg l'iscosiIYa5 J poise.

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Is Fluid MC(;hanics
Solution. Given:
Area uf the plate.
Speed of plate relative 10 anOlhcr plale. "" '" 0.4 tn/s
Distance ~Iwccn [he plales.liy = 0.15 mill = 0.15 x 10- J III
I N,
Viscosity )..1= I poise: - - ,.
10 Ill '

x -:~~O~
.4='
d" I
Using eq uation (1.2) we have '!: " )..l ) = _66.66 2N
dy 10 .l5xlO III

(r):. Shear force, F = ! X area = 266.66 x 1.5 = 400 N. AilS.


(ii) Powcr~ required to move the pialI' at thc speed 0.4 mlsec
== Fx II =400x0.4 = 160 W . AilS.
Problem 1.6 De/ermilll' Ilu' il//(,lls;l), of shnlr of {III oil/r{/\'illg I'iscosily '" I poiSt'. 'I'llI' oil is used
for illbricwillg Ih(' c/I'lIrlW('I' bl'l"'''1'11 {/ shaft of(liallieler /0 rill {l1II/ its jOllnwl bl'arillg. '/'1,1' c/nlr<lHCl'
is 1.5 111111 amI IIII' slwft rotall'S (1/ 150 r.{!.I11.
I Ns
Solullon. Giv"l1 : I poise = - -,
10 Ill '

Dia. of shaft. D= IOcm=O.1 III

Distance be tween shaft and journal bearing.


dy = 1.5 nun = J.S x to 1 III

Speed of shaft. N = 150 r.p.m.


Tangell1ial speed of shaft is given by
II = It DN == It x 0. 1 x 150 == 0.785 mls
60 60
Using equation ( 1.2).

where (III '" change of ve locity betwee n s haft and bearing'" II - 0 '" II

I 0.785 .. !
==-x J =.2 ..BNfm. AIIs.
10 l.5 xlO
Problem 1 .7 ,a/rllia/(' II", (Iy"m"ic I·iscmily of w, oil ....hid, is uSNI for lubricatioll bNW"CII a
J'IU"rt' 1,Iatp of sic,' O.S III x O.S III amI (III i"diflNI philiP wilh allgl/' of ifldi""titm .woflJ sho",,, ill
Fig. lA. The w..ighl of the S'lllfl'.. plat .. is 300 N (Illd il slilln (IOwlIl{,r illclill~d plmlf Wilh" IIl1iform
I'elocil), ofO.J /Ills. 'fI", thicJ.:III'ss of oil fillll is J.5 111111.
Solution. Given:
Area of plate, A = 0.8 x 0.8 = 0.64 111 2
Angle of plane. e = 30"
Weight of plme. IV= 300 N
Velocity of p late. II == 0.3 111/s

Fig. 1.4
* Power=l'x"Nmls=FxulV ( '.· NmJs=Wal1 j

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Properties of Fluids 91
Thick.ness of oil film. I" lly" 1.5 111 III " 1.5 x 10 3 III
leI the ViSl:os ity of nuid between plate and inclined plane i s~.
Component of weight IV, along the plane" IV cos 60~ '" 300 oos 60° '" 150 N
Thus the she ar force. F • on the bunum su rface of the plate'" 150 N

<= - - " 150 Nfm~


F
and shear stress.
Area 0.64
Now us in g eq uation ( 1.2). we have
rill
T =).I -
dy
where tlu = change of ve locily = 11 - 0 = " = 0.3 mfs
dy'" [ = 1.5 X IO-J 1ll
150 0.3
O.64 =).I I.5xIO J

3
150 15 10-
"= "''''';';'::-;;c;--
x
0.64 x 0.3
x
'" 1.17 N 2
s/m '" 1.17 x 10 " 11.7 Jlois('. Ans.

Problem 1.8 Two IlOri~ollllll l'/mf'S (Iff' plll("'f(1 1.25 em (l1'MI. I/W 51'11("(' bnwulI IIII'm bf'illg jillnf
wi,II oil ('I \'i5,.OS;'Y
/ 4 l>oi5"5. CII/ru/ml' 110(' S/WlI' 5/ rl'55 ill oil if UPP'" phil" ; .5 mm'~d wilh fI \-<'10";1)'
0[2.5 ",Is.
Solullon. Giv<,)11 :
Dista nce between plates. dy = 1.25 em = 0.0 125 III

Viscosity. Il" 14 poise == .!.i N sJIll 2


10
Ve loc ity of up pe r plate. 1/ " 2.5 Ill/seC.
(I I!
Shear stress is given by equ ati on (1.2) as, t " Il
dy
where til!" Chan ge of ve locit y be twee n p lmes" I! - 0" "" 2.5 Ill/seC.
dy=0.0 125 m.
14 25 z
T" 10 x .0125 ,, 2MO N/m . Ans.
Problem 1.9 '11", sP""" bn",rr/l IWo s'I"''''' JIm IJamU,,1 plain is fillt'd \\,;111 (Iii. Eacll shit' of II,,,
plait' ;s 6V UII. 1'11" Illidllt'ss of IIIr oil film is 12.5 111m. n,,, IIPP"f pllllr, ",!ticll I/W ..<'S <1/ 2.5 mt'lfr pr f
,'re r('</"irt's (/ fOfa of 98. J N 10 II/lliW(lill lilt' SfH'(,<!. Dnrflllill" "
(i ) Ihl' dyl/lIIllil' "ismsil), of If,I' oil ill poiSi'. Will
(ii) 1/11' /':illl'lI/(l/il' "is('Osil), of IIII' oil ill slOkr s if 111,. sprl'ific gral'il)' of lIlt' oil is 0.95.

Solution. Given:
Eac h s id e of a square pla te ,,60 elll '" 0.60 1ll
:. Area. A " 0.6 x 0.6 " 0.36 m
1
Th ic kn ess of oil film. d y " 12.5 mm '" [2.5 x 10- 3 1ll
Ve loc ity of upper plate. 11" 2.5 mIse"

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110 Fluid Me<hani cs

Ctmllgc of veloc it y between plm es. <III '" 2.5 mlsec


Force required on upper pl~lc. F ~ 9 8. 1 N
Force F 98.1 N
She ar st ress. ,. - - = - = ,
Area A 0.36 m-
(i) LeI )l '" Dynamic viscosity o f oil
II" 98.1 25
Usin g eq uatio n (1.2). t =).l -,,-
, 0' -0.3-6 "')l)( CI2~'~X";;'O'"

)l '" 98.1 )( 12.5)( 10-


0.36 2.5
1

rn '
'" 1.3635 N~ Cln~lS '" to poise )
'" 1.3(35)( 10", I.t6.\5 puist'o Ans.
( ii) Sp. gr. of oil. S '" 0.95
leI v'" kine m 3lic viscosity o f o il
Usi ng equation ( 1.IA).
Mass de ns it y of oi l. p'" S x 1000 '" 0.95 x 1000 '" 950 kg/Ill}
1.3635 ( N~l
Using the relatio rl . v = 1:. we ge l v = III - =.00 1435 m 2/sec = .()() 1435 x 104 C111 2/S
P 950
= 14 ..'5 s lok~s. Ans. (": cm 2/s '" sIDke)
j
Problem 1.10 Filll/,11l' killfl/Uuir visrosily of 1111 oil/w\'illg (/l'1!5ily 98/ kgllll , TIll' S/W(If 5Iri'.' S (1/
"PO;/ll in oil j" 0.2452 NI",l ' Illd ",,'/oril), grad;f'JIl lU I/U" p"ill/ is 0.2 pn .w("(md.
Solutio n. Gi ven:
Ma ss densit y. p" 98 1 kg/lll '
Shear stress. 1: = 0.245 2 N/m!

Velocity grad ien t. ~ =0.2 s


"y
(I "
Usi ng Ihe equation ( 1.2), t =j.l - orO.2452"j.l x O.2
,/ y

j.l " 0.2452 " 1.226 Nslm!


0.200
Kincmatic viS\:osil y v is given by

v= 1:." 1.226 =. 125x 10- 2 m !/scc


p 98 1
" 0. 125 x 10- 2 X 104 I:m 2 /s" 0. 125 x 10 2 cm'/s
= 12.5 en/Is" 12.5 stokl'. Ans. (: cm1/s" stoke)
Problem 1. 11 Dnnmill" Iii" S{J"c ijic gr(l\'ily of" JI"hllllll'ing .. i.l("(uil), 0.05 /1Oi.I" mill kin"",atic
,·iu(}.lity 0.0.'15 stok~ •.

Solution. Givcn :

V'Is.cOSI' 1y. j.l =.


005' W
POISC = 0.05 N sJm 2

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Prope rties of Fluids 11 1


Kinematic viscosity. v:: 0.035 sto kes
:: 0.035 cm1ls
:: 0.035 X 10- 4 m 1/s

I.l _4 0.05 I
Usi ng thc relation v:: - .wcgclO.035xIO = -- x -
P 10 p

0.05
X ~~'--C4" = 14 28.5 kg/m3
10 0.0]5 x [0
Density of liquid 14285
Sp. gL of liljuid :: :: - - :: 1.4285 ::: 1.4.\. AilS.
Density of wate r 1000
Problem 1.12 /Jell'rmilll' IIIl' I'iscosily of (/ hlfllid havillg til/i'lI/lUil' \-;Seosil)' 6 s/okn 1111<1 specific
gm.-it)' 1.9.
Solution. Given:
Kinematic viscosi ty v:: 6 stokes = 6 cl11'/s:: 6 X 1O- 4 11//S
Sp. gL of liquid :: 1.9
LeI the v iscosity of liq uid .p
D<:nsity of lh ~ liquid
Now sp. gr. of a liquid
Density of water

1.9 :: c"'
='c"="c'Yso~rcn,q=':::
;d
1000
kg
Ik nsi ly of liquid = 1000 x 1.9 = 1900 - ,
m

.. Usi ng th e relation v:: 1:., we get


p
4
6x 10- = - " -
1900
J.I=6x 10- 4 X 1900= 1.14 Ns/m 1
:: 1.14 x 10:: 11.40 Il oise. Ans.

Problem 1.13 Tilt' l'e/oeiIY distriblliiou for jlow OI'e r " JIM p/lIlr is gil'l'lI by " = -1- )' -l ill which
II ;5 IIII' \'e/oeil)' ;111111'1'1' IN" secQlul (1/ a (/;5/(IIICI' y 1111'1'" abore IIII' 11/(1/1'. DrlulII;nr IIII' silell' SI'I'SS
aJ)' = 0. 15 Ill . Takl' (/),II(11l1ic \'is("o,lily ofjluid ( 1.1 8.6 poiSl'.
Solution. G iven: 11= ~ 1' _ 1,2
4 ' .
(I u 3
- = - - 2)'
If)' 4
(Iu 3
At .1'=0. 15. - = - - 2xO. 15=0.75 - 0.30=0.45
If .I' 4

Viscosity. 1-1 = 85 poisc = 8.5 N ~


[0 m-
N~ l
( .: 10 poisc = 1 m

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112 Fluid Me<hani cs

till 85 N N
Using eq uatio n ( 1.2). r = '" - ~ - x 0.45 - : = 0.,\1'1 25 - : . AilS.
If )' 10 In m
Problem 1.14 11/1' (/pwlllic viscosity of WI oil. lISt'll for II/brim/ioll bnwrl'u (I SIUlfi 01111 5/1'1'1'(' is
61"';u, TI", .,'mp i., of di"'"N(,T 0.4 III "",I roW/P.' 1lI 190 T.p.m. Cuk ulmr 1111' I}{)""P T /0.'/ ill IIii' brllrill8
fo r ti slnl'(' /""8,11 oJ90m",. TIIr lilickllrH of/lie oil film is 1.5 "''''.
Solution. Gi ve n : 1.5 mm
Viscos ity j.I=6poi se

~
6 Ns
10 m l
= 0.6 - ,
Ns
m-
d y o_~ m
Dia. o f sha ft.
Speed o f shaft.
f) = 0.4
N= 190r.p. m
III
,C': ';::J lKAFT
SLEEVE
Sleeve k ng1h. L = 90 mm = 90 x 10- ) III

Thic kn ess of oil fi lm, I'" 1.5 111m '" 15 x 10- .1 m Fig. 1.5
'(tDN IT x 0.4 x 190
Tangc llti al vel oc ity of shaft . /I = ~= 60 = 3.98 IIl!S
tlu
Using the re lation t=l-I -
dy
where '/11 = Change of veloc ity = II - 0 = /I '" 3.98 m!s
Ify = Change of d istance = I = 1.5)( 10- 3 1ll

--:-3~.9~8;,. '" 1592N/m'


.=lOx -;-
l.5x lO J
This is shear st res.~ On shaft
Shc ar for(;c o n thc s haft. F '" Shcar stress x Area
'" 1592x1tDxL", 1592x1tx.4x90x lO -3 = 180.0SN
D 0 0.4
Torquc on th e sha ft , T= Forcc x - '" 18 .05 x - '" 36.0 1 Nm
2 2
_ 21tNT _2 1tX I90 X36.oJ - 7164SW .
- 60 - 60 - . . "'n~ .
Problem 1. 15 If lilt' r('/ocily profil~ of {/ jlllid Ol't'f {/ (,((l/r is p<lf<lbofic wiliJ IlIr I·ent'.\' 20 01/ frolll
IIII' p(<I/(', ...lIerr I(,r " ..(ocily is 120 i'1II/sri'. CO/CII(O/(' Iflr \'('/ocily gradinlls 011.1 ~lIro r SlrfSS('S (1/ II
dislOlI(,(, ofO. 10 olld 20 i'1II frolll Iflr I,ttllf. if IIIl' viscosil)' of liJr jluid is 8.5"oiSf.
Solution. Givcn : y
Dista nce of \'c n ex from pl ate = 20 cm
Ve loci ty at vertex. II = 120 (; m/sc(; u • , 2(l em/Sf!(:

Viscosity . 11 '" 85 poise = 8.5 N ~ '" 0.85.


lO m '

211'N 2 11' NT Fig. 1.6


• Power in S.1. unit_ T· OJ _ T)( - - Wan _ - - - Wall
60 '"

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Prope rties of Fluids 131


The ve locity profile is g ive n parabolic and eq uation o f ve locity profile is
II = <Ii + by + c ... (1)
where lI, b nlld (" arc constal11s. T heir va lues are dctc nnincd from boundary cond ition s as:
«(I) aly=O.,,=O
(h) 31),=20;;10,11= 110cm/.'i<'c
,/u
(c) illy=20cm.-=O.
"y
Substitutin g boundary conditi on (ll) in equation (,) . we gd
c = 0.
Boundary cond iti on (b) o n sub stituti o n in (i) gives
2
J 20 = a(201 + b(20) = 400" + 20b ... (ii)
Boundary co ndition (c) 0 11 substi tution in equ ati on (il gi ves
,II. =l,,)' +b
- ...(iii)
dy -
0= 2 XII X 20 + b = 4{M + b
Solving L'ijua ti ons (ii) and (iii) for a and b
From eq uation (iii), b = - 40<1
Substitutin g this va lu e in equati on (ii) , we get
120 = 400<1 + 20 x (- 40a) = 400(/ - 800<1 : - 40011
120 3
tI= - - = - - = - 0.3
- 400 10
b= - 40)« - 0.3)", [2.0
Subslilulin g the va lu es of a. band (' in equat io n (i),
II" - 0.3/ + 12y.

Vrlodty Gradient

-(/ " = - 0.3 )( 2y + 12=-0.6y + 12


Ify

"' Y (""]
= O. Veloc ity grad ient. -
(/ y 1*°
= - 0.6 )( 0 + 12 = Ills. Ans.

at y '" 10c m.
(""]
-
(f y
1 - 10
= - 0.6)( 10+1 2= - 6+ 12: 6/s. AD S.

at y : 20 c m.
( ~".]) y _ 20
= - 0.6 )( 20 +1 2: - 12+12= 0. Ans.

Shear Str('sses
till
Shear stress is g iven by. t : fl
(/ )'

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114 Fluid Me<hani cs

(i) Shear stress at y = O. - [d"d )


t - lJ
y ~.o
_.o5x l '0-
-0" _._l,~Nfrn.
0' '

(ii) Shear s[rc ....~ at y = 10. t=J.l[:;"] y 1 - 10


=O.85x6.0=5.1 N/m
2

(iii) Shear stress at y '" 20. t=)J


[d"]
-
Ii)' ,-.
=O.85xO= O. Ans.

Problem 1 .16 A New/ollillll Jill;" is fill ..,} ill IIII' c/CII'<IIICf' bl'lw/>/'/1 {( shaft IIml" collCl'IIlrir sIN'I'e.
Till' s/,,{'\,I' IIIll1illS {/ sP('('(/ of 50 ollis, W/1l'1I II lorn" of 40 N is IIPIJ/inf 10 the S/I'I'I'I' parallel 10 IIII' slmfl.
/){'/('flllillf IIIl' SpUI/ if {/ jora of 200 N is (If'l'lin/.

Solu t ion. Gi ven: Speed of sleeve, fit = 50 em/s


when force. FI =: 40 N.
Let speed of sleeve is "2 when force. F2 = 200 N.
till
Using relation t = I.l
dy

rorce F
where t = Shear stress'" - - •
Are a A
<ill '" Change of ve loc ity = /I - 0="
Ily'" Clearance'" )'

-F =1.1 -"
A Y
A jJ u
F=--." I. A. j.l JIlO yare constanT}
Y
F f~
...l= ....:.
",
200
Substituting val ues. we gel 40 ==
50
50x 200
'" 50 x 5 == 250 cml.~. Ans.
40
Problem 1.17 A 15 nil diol/w/f r "erlirol c)'lil/der rotales COI/C<'III rical/)' illsitit' ((lIatller cylilllirr oJ
!lilli/WIer 15.10 nil. 80111 cylindt'rs ort' 25 rill lIigli. Til<' SP((C<' bnw<'<'n III<' c)'lilUlers is jillnl willi 0
liquid whost' I'ismsil), is unknowll. If " torqut' of J2.0 Nm is r..quired 10 rOUlt .. II, .. illll'" cylillll'" lit
100 r,p.III .• dr/erll/illt' Iht' viscosity of lilt' fluid.
Solution. Given:
Diameler of cyli nder == 15cm==O.15m
Dia. o f oUler cylinder == 15.10 cm == 0. 151 111
Lenglh of cy li nders, L == 25 cm == 0.25 111

Torque. r == 12.0 N1II

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Prope rties of Fluids 151


Speed, N", 100 T.p.m.
Let th e viscusit y
. . . nDN ""
Tan genllal ve loc ity of cyl inder." '" - - '"
IlxQ.15x100
'" 0.7854 mfs
60 60
Surface area of cy linder. A = nD x L = It x 0.15 x 0.25 = .1178 rn 2
till
Now usin g relation l: :p. -
dy
where ,/" = 1/ - 0 = " = .7854 rnls

dy = -"0.,,
15,,',,--,,0,,-
.' "'
eo: III = .0005 m
2
I-l x .1854
.0005
).1x .7854
Sheaf force. F = Shear stress x Area = x . 11 78
.0005
lJ
Torque. T= Fx -
2
12.0",
I-l x .7854
X. 11 78 x
.15
.0005 2
12.0 x .0005 x 2
= 0.864 N shn!
.7854x .11 78 )(.l 5
'" 0.864 x 10 = 1i.64]loisc. An s.

Problem 1 . 18 Two Illrgt' phll/P sIIr/tln's (I'f' 2.4 rill apart. Thl' Spllcr b(,/I<'I'I'II ,h" slIr/act's is filln!
willi giY("f'rilll'. II'lul/ fora 13 rrq"irnllo drag /I 1't"Y Ihill plllll' of sur/act' (If('ll 0.5 squarr /lleI,."
b"I»'''''''I",. /\1'd largl' plm,,' sII ,fa,.. s til II sprn/ of O. 6 m/s, if:
(i ) lill' 1i1ill [,/alr is ill lh" middll' oflhl' 11>'0 p!t11l1' surfllCl's. mul
fii) IIII' Illill 1'1(1/(' is at rl disliIllCl' of 0.81'111 frO/II 011(' of Ille plllll<' sIOrfll(,('3 ? Take IIII' dYliamic
"ism sil), ofgl),urill(, '" 8.10 x uri N .!1m?
Solution. Given:
Distan ce Iwtw", ... n two large ~urfac es '" 2.4 em
Ar~a of th in plate. A = 0.5 [11 ! 1.2 em
Velocity of thin plate.
Viscosity of g lyce rine.
/I = 0.6 mf.~
!-! = 8.10 X 10- 1 N shn l
2.4 em .,
1.2 em
C:tw I. Wh en the thin plate is in the middle of the tw o plane
surfaces 1Re fer to Fig. 1.7 (n)1
FI '" Shear force on the upper s id e o f the th in plate Fig . 1.7 (a)
""2 = S h~ar forc~ On th~ low~ r s id~ o rth e th in pl~te
"" = Total force required to drag Ih~ plate
Then F",F1+F1
The , hear S1r~ss (t l ) on th e upper side o f the thin plate is give n by equation,

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116 Fluid Me<hanics

tl '" ~C~:~),
where 1111 '" Relative ve locit y between thin p late and upper large plane surface
'" 0.6 mlsec
d y '" Distance between thin plale and upper large plane surface
'" [.2 em '" 0.012 III (p late is a thin one and he nce thickness of plate is neglected)

0·')=40.5Nllll1
11=8.IOx 10 x(.012 I

Now shear force. FI '" Shear stress x Are a


= t l xll=40.5xO.5= 20.25 N
Similarly sllear st ress (t 2) on the lower si de of the 1hin plate is given by

12 =1.1 (~)
dy !
= 8.IOx 10 I x (~)
0.012
=40.5 N/ml

Sliear force. Fl '" t 2 )( A '" 40.5 x 0.5 '" 20.25 N


Total force. F = FI + F1 = 20.25 + 20.25 = 40.5 N. Ans .
CaSt' II. When the thin plalc is at 11 distanceofQ.8cm from onco r
the plane surfaces [Refer to Fig. 1.7 (b)]. I
Lei Ihe lltil1 plate is al a distance 0.8 em from Ih e low er pia""
surface. Ulem
2.4 em
Th<"n disl~nec of thc plalc from lh e upper
:2.4 -0.8: 1.6"m=.016m
pl~nc sun~c<"
I
.,
0.8 em
(Negltt ting thkkllcss of the plate) •
Thc sh~ar forc~ 011 th~ upper side of lhe thin plate,

FI = Shear stress x Area: I I X II


Fig. 1.7 (b)

"" - [(Iy"") I
xll:S.IOxIO ,x (0.'
- -) xO.5:15. ISN
0.016
The shear force 011 the lowe r s ide of the thill plme.

:IUOx 10 I X ( 0.6 ) xO.5= 30.36 N


0.81100
Tot al fo rce required = PI + P z : 15. 18 + 30.36 '" 45,54 N. AilS.
Problem 1 .19 II "p nil'al gal' 2.2 rm ",id~ of infinile "X/rill ""lIIaills a fluid of \·is.'osiIY 2.0 N JIm!
aud sp('djir gr<ll'ily 0.9. IIIIIPwllic plal(' 1.2111 X 1.2 m xO.2 elll is 10 be liji('d uI' wilh (/ "OIISlmll
w'locily I)fO.15 mist'<", Ihrough Ihe gap. if Ih(' plm(' is ill Ih(' middle of Ih(' gap, jim! tllP fo ra rI'ql.ir('(l.
'/7", '''''igl'' of //", pia'" i .• 40 N.
Solu t ion, Givcll :
Width of gap " 2.2 em. viscosity, Jl" 2.0 N s1m 2
Sq. gr. of nu id " 0.9

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Prope rties of Fluids 171


Weight density of fluid
,
= 0.9 x 1000 '" 900 kgflm J '" 900 x 9.81 N/m J
(.: I kgf=9.81 N)
I
Volume of plale = 1.2 III x 1.2 I1IxO.2 em
'" 1.2 x 1.2 x .(X)2 Ill) = .00288 Ill)
= 0.2 em
" '"
Thickness o f plate
Veloc it y of p late = 0.15 mf.'\Cc
"" ,. -
0.2cm
Weight of pla te = 40 N.
When plale is in the m iddle of the gap. the distance o f tlie plate
from vertical surface of the gap Fig. 1.8
= ( Width of gap- T; iCkn ess of Plate)

(2.2 - 0.2)
= =lcm= _Olm.
2
Now the shear force On the left side of tlie nw tallic plale.
FI '" Shear stress x Area

=" (:!:!.],
(f )' (O."J
xArca=2.0x - - xl.2xL.2N
.01
(.; Area = 1.2x 1.2m 2)
= 43.2 N.
Similarly, Ihe shear force on Ihe Tight side of the metallic plale,

• (0."]
F, = Shear stress x Area = 2.0 x - - x 1.2 x 1.2 = 43.2 N
.01
Total sheaf force = FI + F z = 43.2 + 43.2 = 86.4 N.
In this case lh~ weight o f plate (wh ich is acting verti cally dOwnward) and upward thrust is also to be
taken into account.
The upward thrust = Weight o f nuid displaced
= (Weigh t density of nuid) x Volume of nuid displaced
=9.81 x900x .00288 N
( .: Volume of nuid displaced = Volume of plat~ = .(0288)
= 25.43 N.
The net forc~ acting in the downward di rection duc to weight of the plate and upward thrust
= Weight ofplatc - Upw ard thrust = 40 - 25.43 = 14.57 N
Tot al force required to lift the plate up
= Total s hear force + 14.57 = 86.4 + 14.57'" 100.97 N. Ans.

... 1.4 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

Fluids consist of liquids or gas.:s. Bul gas.:s are compressible fluids and hence thermody namic
prope r1i es play an important role. With the cha ng e of pressure and I~mpcrature. the gases undergo

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118 Fluid Me<hani cs

large var iati on in de nsit y. T he rel ati onship be twee n press ure (absolut e), s pecific vo lum e and
temperatu re (absolute) of a g as is give n by the equatio n of state as

p,;/= RT or'£' = RT .. .( 1.5)


P
wh ere p = Ab so lu te pressure o f a gas in Nlm '
I
'<i = Spcdn e vo lum e =
p
R = Gas L'Olls tam
T= Abso lute temperatu re in oK
p = Densi ty of a g as.
1.4. 1 Dimension of R. The gas constant. R. depe nds upon th e pan icul a r gas. The d imension of R
is obtained fro m c qu~ti o n ( 1.5) as

R= ~
pT
kgf/ m 2 kgf -m
( 0 In MKS units R= ii5C'--
(~} K kgoK
(ii) In 5 1 un its, p is ex pressed in Ncw ton/m ' or N/m!,

R = N/ m' Nm louie
-- = -- lJ oule = Nm I
kg kg -K kg-K
~X K
J
=
kg- K

For air. R in MKS = 29.] kg f m


kg c K

R in SI = 29.3 x 9.81 ~ = 287 J


kg¢K kg- K

1.4.2 botherm~1 Procen. If Ihe c hange in de nsity occu rs a1 co nstanl temp erature. the n the
process is called iMlthe nnal and relatio nship be twee n pre.'i.~ ure (p ) and densit y ( p) is give n by

J.!... == Constant ...( 1.6)


p

1.4 . 3 Adiabatic Process. If the c hange in d~ n s ity occ urs with no heat exc han ge to and fro m the
gas. the process is c all ed adiabatic. And if no h<":at is ge nerated within th e gas due to fri ct ion. the
relatio nship be twttn press ure and densi ty is give n by

...!!.... == Constant ... (1 .7)


p'
where k == Rati o o f specific hea t of a g as at co nstant pressure and constan t volum e.
== 1.4 for air.

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Prope rties of Fluids 191


1.4.4 Universal Cias Constant
Le, 1/1" Mass of a gas in kg
V '" Volume of gas uf mass 1/1

J! == Absolute pressure
T= Absolute temperatu re
Then. we have /IV == mRT .. .( 1.8)
where R == Gas eonM:mL
Equation (1.8) can be made universal. i.I' .. applicable 10 all gases if it is expressed in moll'·bas is.
If == Number of moles in volul11e of a ga s
'T/ == Vo lume o f th e gas

M == "c'c"o'coof,;,,'ho'C""c'co"'oOol'«"'olc'c'
M ass of a hydrogc ll atom
1/1" Mas;; of a gas in kg
Then. we have II x M == III.
Substituting the val ue o f 1/1 in equation ( 1.8), we get
1''V=nxMxRT ...( \.'))
The produl'! M x R is called universal gas <:OIlStanl and is equal to 848 -=- _.k" ',"' ' '" cc in MKS units
kg -mo le o K
and 8314 l/kg -rnolc K in 51 units.
One kilogram mole is defined as the product of One kilogrlllll mass oflhe gas and its molecular weight.
Problem 1.20 A gns wl'iglis /6 NI",J lU 25°C Wid fII WI IIbsolu/f prl'SslIrt' of 0.25 NIl/III':. Dnfr-
111;111' Ille glls ("OIIS/(/1/I (l1II! dflls;ry of IIII' gas.

Solution. Given:
Weight den s ity. '" '" 16 N/m~
Temperature. I " 250C
T ", 273 + I"" 273 + 25 '" 2RROK
P" 0.25 Nlmm~ (a bs.) '" 0.25 x 106 N/m 1 '" 25 x 104 Nlm 1
(i) Using relation", "" pg. density is obtained as
w 16 ,
P = - '" - - '" J.(i .~ kg/m· . "ns.
g 9.8 1

(ii) Using equation ( 1.5). .!!.. = NT


P
p 25xlO" " Nm
N = -p-T = CI.6~3~XC2~8"'8 S.l~.SS - -.
kg"
AilS.

Problem 1.21 A ("y/ind", of 0.6 mJ ill "01111111' ("01l/a;1IS air a/50°C allil 0 J Nlmm! lIbsollllr
"rI'HI"I'. '1111' lIir is ("omprnsed 10 0.3 IIr'. Find (i) prl'.,wrl' in~· idl' till' ("yli"dl'r ".'.IlImi"8 i.IlII/lI'rlt!(1I
pro'·I'.'.' (11"/ ( ii) prnsllrp ",,,lll'Inpnfllllrf' ('.,3,,,,,in8 ",li"ba/i' ·I,,"'·n.<. T"k" k = 104.
Solution. Give n
Initial vo lum~.

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120 Fluid Me<hanics

Temperatu re I,:SO°C
1', '" 213 + 50 '" 323°K
Pressure P, == 0.3 N/rnm 2 '" 0.3 x 106 Nlm 2 '" 30 x 104 N/m 2
Final voluille 'If 2 == 0.3 m}
k= 1.4
(i) Isolhe r lllJj[ Ilroccss :

Using equation (1.6), ~ '" Constant or p'V '" Constant.


p

1','<1, "'1'/</:
1','rI j 30 X 10" x 0.6
1': = - - = '" 0.6 X 106 Nlm l '" 0.6 N/mml. AilS.
'\f 2 0.3
(ii) Adiabatic Ilroccs_~ :

Using equation ( 1.7), -I'. '" Constant or I' V• '" Constant


p
I' I '\f~ "" 1'1'\f~.

f'2:1":~ =30XI04x(~~r' :30x104x21.4


:0.791 x lOb N/m l ", 0.791 N/ mm !. Ans.
For temperature. using equ.uiull (1.5), we gel
plt;j '" 81' and also f' Vi '" Constant

NT NT
P '" -;;;- and -;;- x '<t* '" Constant
RTv. I '" Constant
r '\fl ~ 1 '" Constant (. R is also tonstanll
T 'It i _ I _ T '\tk- I
I I -
1 2 2

T2=T,(;:r-
I: '" 426.2 - 273 '" IS.l.rc. AilS.
Problem 1 .22 (',,!cu/wi' tile pr('ssllfI' (,Xf'rI~d by 5 I.:g ofllilrogell gas 11/ (l1l'IIIPl'''III''l' of 100e if
Ihe \'0111111(, i5 0.4 III "'. Molnll/(lr "·e iglll of uilrogl'u is 28. A ssuml'. irinll 8"5 III\\'5 (lrl' "I'P/ iC(lblt'.
Solu t ion. Given:
Mass of nitrogen '" Skg
Temperature_ 1= lQoe
T=273+ 10=2S3°K
Volume of ni trogen. 'V = 0.4 m l
Molecular weighl = 28
Using equat ion (1.9). we have p'V '" tJ X M x RT

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Prope rties of Fluids 21 1


Nm
where M x R" Universal gas cOnstan'" 83 14 ,----''-'''-c"C"
kg-mole 0 K
and one kg-mole = (kg -ma·,s) x Molecul ar weight" (kg -mass) x 28
, 8314 Nm
R for nnrogcn = - - '" 296.9 - - -
28 kg " K
The gas laws for nitrogen isp'V = mRT, whe re R = Characteristic gas conSIant
or pxO.4 =5x296.9x283
5 x 296.9 x 283
(1= " 1050283.7 N/m 2 " LOS N/mml. Ans.
0.4

... I .S COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS

Compressibility is Ihe reciprocal of the bulk modulus uf v •


dasticily. K which is defined as Ih", ratio of compressive stress -- d'V' J-o
10 \'olurne\ric strain. PISTON
Consideracylindcr fi lled wi th a piston as shown in Fig. 1.9. ,
LeI 'V" Volume of a g as cnclo.\.Cd in the cy l inder
(J '" Pressure of gas when vo lume is V
LeI the pressure is increased to f! + d/!. the volu me o f gas CYLINDER
decreases frolll V to V - lil:l. Fig. 1.9
Then increase in pressure = dp kgflm 2
CkcreaSt! in volume = dV
dV
Vulumetric strain

- ve sign mea ns th e volume decreases with increase of pressu re.


Increase uf pn:ssure
Bulk modulus K ~ ~~~';"""C"
Vol umetri c !)Irain
_ dp _ - dp V
... ( I . I 0)
- - dV-dV
V
I
Compressibility ... ( 1.1 1)
K

Relationship between Bulk Modu lus (K) and Pressure (p) for a Gas

The relationship betwee n bulk modulus of elastici ty (K) and pressu re for a gas for two different
processes of compression arc as:
(,) For Iso thermal Proces!l. Equation (1.6) gives the relationship between pressure (1') and density
(M of a gas as
J!.. = Constant
p

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122 Fluid Me<hanics

1''1", Const:lII\

Diffcrc",i~ti n g this equation. we gel (I' and '1/ both arc vari~blcs)

pdV + 'ltdp '" 0 or l'd'v '" - \:tlfp

Substituting this value in equation ( LlO). we get


K= p ...( 1.12)
(ii) FUT Adillha til.: I'rcKt'SS. Usi ng equat ion (1.7) for adiabatic process

-li-
p
'" Constant or f' 'I;Il '" Constant

Differentiating, we gCl l'd(Vl) + 'cil(d!,) =0


or pxkxV·- I,/'<I+Vldp=O
or ph/V + ViiI' '" 0 ICanceliing \;It-! to both s id es ]
'It dl'
1'/;(1 '1", - ';ltlp or I'k=-
dV
Hence from equation (1.10), we have
K= pk ...( 1.13)
where K = Bulk modulus and k = Ratio of spc<:ific heats.
Problem 1 .23 Dnl' nnilll' IIIf' bllik moliulus of elasticity of a Iiquitl. if IIII' (",,!SUrf of lilt' liquid is
inf'rl'ased from 70 Nkm 2 /0 130 Nkn/. nit' "O/lIIlIe of ,II" liqllid durNlus by O. /5 I'er a/ll.
Solu llon. Given:
Initial pressure = 70 Nfcm!
Pina l press ure " 130 Nlc m 2
,/1' '" In crcasc in prcssure " 130 - 70 '" 60 Nlcm 2
Decreasc in vo lum e "O.IS'l>
,/ "i
O. IS
= + --
V 100
Bulk modulus. K is given by cqu31io n ( 1.1 0) as

K:~,,60N/cm2 ,,60x l00 "' 4xIOJN/cm2. ATl.~.


d "i .IS .15
V 100
Problem 1.24 IV/Ill I is I/U' bll//I; 1I/0(/lIlu5 of "/lI5/icitv of II /iqllid ",/lid, is ('olllprnsed ill (I (' }'/il/d,'r
frolll (/ \'olwIU' of 0.0125 111 3 (1/ 80 Nklll! prnSllrf 10 (/ \'011,1111' of 0.0124 1/1" (1/ 150 Nklll! I'rnSllrl' ?
Solution. Given:
Initial \·o lum e.
Final vol ume ,,0.0 124 m)
Decrcasc in vo lum e. ,/"i" .0 125 _ .0124 '" .0001 10 3

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Prope rties of Fluids 23 1


d'::l nOOl
=
';J .0125
Initial pressure = 80 Nlcrn l
Final pressu re = 150 Nlcrn'
Increase in pressure. dp = (150 - 80) = 70 N/cm 2
Bulk modulus is given by equation (1.10) as
lif! 70 2
K= ---;t;j= .0001 = 70 x 125 Nlcm

';J .0 125
,
= 8.75 x 10- N/cm '' . Ans .

... 1.6 SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARITY

Surface tension is defmed as the te nsile force acting on the su rface of a liquid in contact with a gas
or on the surfal:c between twO immis.:iblc liquids such that the contact surfa"c behaves like a
membrane unde r tension. The I1wgnitudc of this force per uni t icngth of Ih.: free surface will have the
same val ue as the surface energy per unil area. It is denoted by Greek Idlef 0 (calkd sigma). In M KS
units. it is cxprcs~d as kgflm while in SI uniLs as N/m.
The phenomenon of surface tension is explained by
Fig. 1.10. CO rl sider three mol~cules A, ll. C of a liquid in a
mass of liquid. The molec u le A is allmcled in all directions
~'{jually by the surrounding molecules of Ihe liquid. Th us the
resultant force actirlg on the molecule A is zero. But the
molecule IJ. which is situat~d ncar the free surface. is acted
upon by upward and downward forces which arc unbalanced.
Thus a net result.1r1t fo rce on molec u le II is acting in the
downward direction. The molecule C. situated on the free
-- - -- - ----------
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-

su rfa.:e of liquid. does experience a resultalll downward force.


Fig. 1.10 S"r/au unsion.
All the molecules on the free surface experience a downward
force. Thus the free surfa.:e of the liquid acts like a very thin film under tension of the surface of the
liquid act as though it is an elastic membrane under tension.
1.6. 1 Surfilce Tension on Liquid Droplet. Consider 11 small spherical droplet of a liquid of
radi us .,. On the enlire surface oflhe droplel, the tensi le force due 10 surface tension will be acting.
Let 17= Surface tension of the liquid
p " Pressure intensity inside the drople t (in excess o f the ou tside pressure intensi ty)
(/" Dia. of droplet.
Let the droplet is cut into two halves. The forces acting on one half (~y left half) will be
(J) (ensile force due to surface tension acting around the ci rcumference of th~ cut portion as shown
in Fig. 1.11 (b) and this is equal to
'" cr x Circumference
=crxTld

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124 Fluid Me<hanics

(ii) pressure force on Ihe area ~ll ! = l' x ~ ti! as shown ir>
4 4
Fig. Lli (e). Thc~ two forces will be equal and opposite
under equilibrium co nditions. I.P ..
(9) DROPLET (b) SURFACE TENSION

f'X ~ ,r=aXT(,!
4
(J x Ttll 40
...(1.14)
" (e) PRESSURE FORCES
Fig. 1.11 Foret's on dropln.

1.6 .2 Surface Te nsion on <II Hollow Bubble . A llOliow bubble like a soap bubble in air has 1WO
surfaces in co ntact wilh air . one illsidc and other outside. Thus two surfaces arc subjected to surface
lensioll. III suc h cao.c. we have

"x.::. rr=2x(crxrrd)
4
2 and Scr
p= - - - = - ... ( 1. 15)
.::. d! d
4
1.6.3 Surface Tension on <II Li quid Jet. COil sider a liquid jet of diameter "tf and lenglh 'L' as
shown in Fig. 1.12.
Lell' '" Pressure intensity inside the liquid jet aho ve the outside pressure
(J = Surface tension of the liquid. •
.I •

••
Consider the equilibrium of the semi jet. we have •

••
Force due 10 pressure = p x :Irea of semi jcl •• •
==pxLxd , • •

•••
••
Force due 10 surface tension == a x 2L. •
• ••
Equating the forces. we have •
•• ••
pxLxd==ax2L •• •
• •
f' ==
a x2 L
Lx"
... (1 . 16) •
I" I"
Fig. 1.12 Forcts 011 liquid jn
Pro blem 1 .25 1111' sHrfll("(' IntsiOIl of ""iliff ill ("011/(1("1 will! lIir (1/ 20°C is O . 0725 NIl/!. Till' prl'Ssllr<'
ilrshlr II drop/("/ of ""fila is /Q h" 0.02 Nkm 1 grNiI"r (//(III IIII' ouuid" pre Hllr". Ca/ru/(I/(" IIII' I/imll("/(" r
of IIII' l lw/,In of "·Il/ff.
Solut ion. Given:
Su rface tensioll. (J = 0.0725 Nlm
Pressure intensity. I' in exc ess of outside pressure is
, • N
p = 0.02 Nlcm '" 0.02 x 10 - ,
m-
1/ = dia. of the droplet

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Prope rties of Fluids 2s 1


Using equation (1.1 4), we gctp" 4cr or 0.02 X 104 ", 4 )(0.0725
If d
4 x 0.0725
d", " ,00145 III " ,00145 x 1000" 1.45 nUll. Ans.
0.02 X(lOt
Problem 1.26 Fim/lhr sllrfu("/' II'IIS;OIl ill a soap bllubl" of 401111/1 dilllll<'la wll"l1 lilt' imide
pnssurl" is 2.5 NIIII" abm'(' (!III/osp/wrie prnsllre.
Solution. Gil'en :
Dia. of bubble. (/=40111111=40 x IO- l m
Pressure in excess of outside./,,, 2.5 Nlm 2
['or 3 soap bubble. using equation (1. 15), we gel
80 8xo
p=
d 2.5= ~~"
40xlO 1
25)( 40 x 10- )
8 Nlrn '" 0 .0125 N/m . AJL~.
Problem 1.27 TlIi' I'rnSllrf VUlilid" IIii' dropli'/ O[wlII'" of diamfiPr 0.04 "'m is 10.32 Nlrl// ((1/.
mospltt'rjr prns"'.-). C(II,u/(l/p /Ilf p'l'SSlI re witilill II", tlrop/l'I if -<II'f(l("1' /1'11 _';01> i.! girt'1! (IS

0.0725 Nlm "j ....lIIPr.


Solution. Gil'i.:n :
Dia. of droplet. (f",0.04 mill '" .04 x 10- 1 111
Pressure outside the droplet ,,10.32 Nlcm l " 10.32)( 104 Nlm l.
Surface tension. (J " 0.0725 Nlm

The pressure inside the droplet. in excess of outside pressure is given by equation (I 14)
4 x 0.0725
4(1 ,
P" -
: J ,,7250Nlm-= 7250 N = 0.725 Nkml
,I .04 x 10 10' cm ~
Pressure inside the droplet = p + I'ressure outside the droplet
= 0.725 + 10.32 = 11.045 N/em !. A il S.
1.6 .4 Capillarity. Capillarity is defined as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a
small!U~ relative to the adjacent gcnerallevcl of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the liquid.
The rise of liquid surface is known as capi lla ry rise while the fall o f the liquid surface is known as
capillary depression. [t is ex presscd in Te rms of (;m or mm of liquid. Its
val ue depends upon the specific weight of the liquid. diameter of Ihe
" .. 9 1" ,
tube and surface tension o f til.: liquid.
E)(IJress ion fur Cljllillary Risc. Consider a glass lube of small
diameter 'd' opened at ooth ends and is inserted in a liquid . .~y water.
The liquid wi ll rise in the tube aoove the level of the liquid.
L<:t II" heig ht of the liquid in the lUbe. Under a state ofeq uilihrium.
: LIQUID
the weigh t of liquid of height II is balanced by the force at the surface of
The liquid in the tube. But the force at (he surface of the liquid in Ihe
tube is due to surface Tensioll . F ig. 1.13 Capjflary rilc.
Let (J = Surface tension of liquid
9" Ang le of contact betwee n liquid and glass tu be.
The we ight of liquid of heighT II in the tube" (Area of tube x III x p x g

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126 Fluid Mechanics

=~,PxlJxpxg .(1.1 7)
4
where p '" Density of liquid
Vertil:al \:ump<)llcm of the surf~cc tensile fuTl'C
'" (0 x Circumference) x cos 0
=crx/tdxcosO •..( 1. 1H)
For equi librium. equating (1.17) and (1.18), we get

It ,Pxllxpxg=axlf.I/xcosO
4
crXltl{XCOSi} 4 crL'OsO
II '" ";-"'''--'-'=-O .. (1. 19)
Il , pxgxd
4 d - xpxg

The value of 0 betwee n water and clean g lass tube is approximately equa l to zero and hence cos e is
equal to unity. Tlicn ri se of water is given by
40
II = ---''''--c ... ( 1.20)
pxgX('
EXll rcss ion for f:a llili llry Fall . Iflhe g lass lube is dipped in mercury. the level of mercury in Ihe lube
wi ll be lower than the general level of the olllsidc liquid as shown in Fig. 1.14.
U:i II '" Height of depression in tube.
Theil in equilibrium. twO forces arc a<:ling un the mercury inside the tuhc. First one is due to surf~ce
lension ~cting in Ihe downward direction ,md is eqn~1 to (I x 1((/ x cos a.
SCl"Ond force is due to hydrostatic fo rce acting upward and is equal 10 inlensity of pressure al a
deplh '11' x Area
1( , 1( ,
'" P X - IF '" pg )( h )( - d" 1 .. P '" pgll)
4 4
Equal ing the IWO. we gel

O"X1(dxcos9=pghx
• ,"
¥ ,"\'
Value of 9 for mercury and
II = -'4cO':"eOc'~'

gl 3 s~
pgd
lube is 128".
... ( 1.21)

"' \
MERCURY
Fig. 1.1 4
Problem 1 .26 C{I/m/III,. Ihl' copillllry riS/' ill (I glass /UbI' of 2.5111111 dimlll'lrr ",hell illllll,.rsed
\'f'rlicoll y itl (II) wllil'rlmd (b) mff("w, '. Take surfllce lellsiollS 0'" 0.0725 Nlm for II"O/,.r IIl1d 0 =- 0.52 Nlm
for ml'rmry ill ("011/(/("1 lI"illl lIir. Ti,e 51'''(" iji(" g "wiry for mnmry is gil"<'l1 1/5 13.6 mill IIl1g/e of ("011/1/("1
= 130".
Solution. Given:
Dia. of tu be. ,/ '" 2.5 mill '" 2.5)( 10- 3 111
Surface lension. 0" for water = 0.0725 N/Ill
0"fo r mercury = 0.52 N/m
Sp. gr. of me rcury =- 13.6

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Prope rties of Fluids 271
Density '" 13.6 x 1000 kglln ·1.
«(I) Capillary ris(' ror water (9 '" O ~)

Using equa1ion (1.20), we gd II =


40-
pXgxd
'" '"'=--'''''''''''''-___
x 0.0725
4
lOOOx9.8 1x 25xlO l
=,
'" .0 118 m = 1.18 em. Ans.
(b) For mereur}'
Angle of conlact between ulcrcury and glass lu be, 9 ", 130 Q

4a cos6 4 x0.52xcosI30"
Usmg equation ( I 2 1), we gel Ii '" = ,,-;-~",,"''''Ci-C':-';'''';-;;0
pxgxd 13.6xlOOOx9.Rlx2.Sx lO
= -.004 III = - 0.4 em. Ail S.
The negalive sign ind icmcs the capill:lry dcpn:ssion.

Problem 1.29 ill " glaH IlIbl' of 4 1111/1 ilialllf'/a, 1>'11('11


CalC/,/(I/(' III,. Cflpill<ll)' ''ifni ill mil/iII/Nfl'S
ill (i)
illlllll'r....d e
(ii) III"'CIO,)'. Till' /('IIIIN'wlI>rl' ofll,rlilfllill is 20 0 IIIU/Illt' I'll/III'S a/llw
lI'aln, (///(/
slIrf{/("(' (rllsioll Ofll"(l/fr I/m/ IIII'rCllry til 20"(" ill ('Oll/ac/ w;lh lIir (Iff 0.073575 NIIli (llIti 0.51 Nlm
rnpl'Cliw'/y. Tltf augl" of rOIl{(j(,/ for 1\'(1/'" is :I'rO 11/1(/1/1(1/ for mnTury i~ 130°. Tllia' drllsity of ....me r
m 20°C liS rqUIII to 998 kgll,,-'.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of tube. (1=4m m ",4x 10- 3 11\
The cap illary effect (i.e .• capillary rise or depressio n) is given by equation ( 1.20) as
11= 4(J oosa
pxgxd
where (J == surfucc tension in N/m
a"" anglc o f c()nt:lct. and p "" density
(i) ClI l)illary efTect for wattr
(J = 0.073575 Nlm. e '" 0 "
p '" 998 ~g/m '\ 31 20°C
I,,,, 4 x 0.073575 x cos 0° ==7.5 1 x 10 J m ",7.51 mm. Ans.
998 x 9.8 1 x 4 x 10- 3
(ii) atl)illary effect for mt'rcury
(J '" 0.51 Nlm. e", 130° and
p '" sp. gr. x 1000 '" 13.6 x 1000 '" 13600 kg/m 2
4x05lxcos130o 3
It '" C-;Oc;:'=;:';;;~C'=C"'"
13600x9.8lx4xIO
'" - 2.46 x 10- m '" - 2.46 mm. AilS.

The n~gative sign indica t~s the capi llary depression.


Problem 1 .30 T/u' rapilhlry riu in II", glass llIj,r i .• ,wi /() ".H·rN/ 0.2 mm "fwlUrr. DNrrm;'IP il~
milli",,,,,, si~". gil'''n that sIIrface 1""Si,," for wain ill umtart with air'" 0.0725 Nlm.
Solution. (j iven :
Capi lI ary rise. I,,,, 0.2 mm '" 0.2 x 103 III
Surface tension. (J '" 0.0725 Nlm

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128 Fluid Mechanics

Let dia. of tube " ,/


The angle e for water " 0"
Dt:nsily (1') for water " 1000 kg/Ill)
Using equatiun (1.20). we get
40
="=
I," p xg x ii or 0.2 x 10-) " :;;~4iXCOc·,0;.72C5
, ':-,
lOOO x9.81xd

(/= -;:",c
. 4"X,::°C·O~7~2C5c::",J ,,0.1 48111 == 14.S em. Ans.
IOOOx 9.8 1x.2 xl O
Th u ~ minimum diameter o f the lube shou ld be 14.8 em .
Problem 1.31 Filld U!/f II", minimu", S;:;I' of glllH /UbI' I/UII "'/II hi' U$nllO IIINuur" II'mn Il'wl if
IIlI' l:" l'illary riu iu 1/'" IIIlu' is W he rPslril'tt'd 10 2 111m, COl!sitll'y .lllr/ucr 11'11S;"" "iw{l/p r in ,'O/lUwl
wilh nir a~ O.U7J575 NIl/!.
Solution. Given:
Capi Ilary risco II = 2.0 lllm = 2.0 x 10-) 111
Surface tension. a = 0 .073575 Nfm
Lei dia. of tube =d
The angle e for wa ter == au
The densi ty for wakr, p = 1000 kg/m l
Using cqualioll ( 1.20), we get
40 4 x 0.073575
,,= .,-,,"'--;-
px g x d
or 2.0 x 10- 1 =
lOOO x 9.8 1 x d
4 x 0.073575
if= -;-~""':",'="-''c~ = 0.015 III = 1.5 em. AilS.
lOOOx 9.8 l x2xlO J
Thus minimum diameter of the l u~ shou ld ~ 1.5 ern.
Problem 1.32 All oil of l'is ("Osil), 5 l",i3l' is l.s<'(1 for IIIU,i",lioll Ul'lln'l'lI II slw/l wltl £1,,<'1'1'. Tilt'
diwlI"I'" of III<' $1111/1 i:l" 0.5 m lIml il 'Ol/lles m 2()() '.p.m. ClI/cH/mp IIII' po,,"'" losl ill oil for (/ sll'el'e
Ip1IgIII of I()() """. Tile IIIirk1l1'S.1 of oil jil'" is 1.0 "''''.
Solution. Given:
Vi~osi ty. ~ = 5 poise

= 2.
= 0.5 N s/rnl
10
Dia. of shan. D=O.5 rn
Speed o f shan. N = 200 r,p.m.
S I ~e\'c lengt h. /. = I{)() rnm: I{)() X IO- J III : 0.1 III
Thick ness of oil film . I : 1.0mrn: I X IO- J m
II x 05 x200
Tangc mi a l veloc ity of shan. I I : 11: DN : = 5.235 Ill/S
60 60

Using the re lation. t: ~ -


""
Ii,

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Properties of Fluids 29 1
wltcrc . ClilIngc of velocity = 11 - 0 = Il = 5.235 tnls
dll '"

dy'" Cllange of distance = I = 1 x 10-3 III

'" """""i~
05 5.235
x
x
1 10
= J
26175 N/m"

This is lhe sh~ar Slre.<i.~ on the shaFt


Shear forct;! o n [he shaft. F = Shear stress x Area = 2617.5 x nO x I. (": Area = nO xL)
= 2617.5 x It x 0.5 x 0.1 = 410.95 N
D 0.5
Torque on th e sitar!. T= FOl"<:c x - = 4 10.95 x - = 102.74 Nm
2 ,
2rr N
Power* lost'" T x ro Walts = T x w
60
, 2n x 200
= 10_.74 x 60 = 2 150 W == 2. IS kW. AilS •

.. 1.7 VAPOUR PRESSURE AND CAVITATION


A cbange from Ih e liquid slale to lhe gaseous Slale is know n as vaporiza tio n. The vaporization
(whkl! depends upon lhe prev ail ing pressure and temperature C{)udition) occurs because of continuous
escapinll of lhe molecules lh rough llie free liquid surfac".
Consider a liquid (say waler) whic h is confined in a c losed vesse l. Lellhe temperature of liquid is
20°C and pre.'\S urc i~ atmospheric. This liquid will "aporise at JOO°c. When vaporization lakes place.
Ihe molecules escapes from Ihe free surface of Ihe liquid. These vapour molecules ge t accumulated in
Ihe space between th e free liquid s urface and top of the vessel. These accumula ted vapou rs exen a
pressure on Ihe liquid su rface. This pressure is know n 3S vapo u r press u ~ of the liqu id or This is Ihe
pressure al wh ich Ihe li quid is convened into vapours.
Agai n \'onside r the same liqu id al 20°C at almosphe ric pressure in the c losed vessel. If the pressur"
above th e liquid surface is reduced by so me means. the boi ling Temperature will also reduce. If Ihe
pressure is reduced to such an exten t that it bccotnes equal to or less than the vapour pressure. Ihe
boil in g of the liqu id wi ll stan. Though th e temperature of the liquid is 20°e. Thus a liquid may boil
even at onlinary lcnlperature. if the pressure above the liquid surface is reduced ,' \0 as to h.: equal or
less than the vapou r pressur~ of the liquid m that tempe rature.
Now consid~r a flowing liquid in a syste m. If The pressure at any point in this flowing liqu id becomes
equal to or less Ihan the vapour pressu re, th~ vapori za tion of Ih e liquid starts. The bubbles of these
vapouT5 arc carr ied by the flowing liquid into th e region of high pressure where they collapse. giving
risc to high impact pressure. The pressure developed by the collapsing bubbles is so high that the
material from The adjoining boundaries geTS eroded and c aviTi es are formed on them. This phenomenon
is kno wn as ( " ,·lIalioll.
Hence the cav itat ion is the phenomenon of fornwtion of vapo ur bubbles of a flowing liquid in a
region where Ihe pressure of the liquid falls be low the vapour press ure and sudde n co llapsing of Ihese
vapour bubbles in ~ region o f higher pressure. When Ih e v;lpour bubbles collnpsc, n very high pressure
is created. The metallic surfaces. above which the liquid is flowing. is subjeCTed to these high pressures.
which c~usc pilling action on the surfnce. Thus cavi ti es arc fonned on th~ metallic surface ~nd hence
the name is cav itati on.
, 2rtNr 2rr.fff . 2nN
• Power in case of S.l. Unit ~ 1 X (0 or - - Watts or - - - kW. The angular wloclty (0 ~ -60 .
60 60.000

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130 Fluid Mechanics

HIGHLIGHTS

I . The weight density Or sp<.>eific weight of a fluid is equal [0 weight per unit volume. It is also cqualto,
w"'pxg.
2. Specific volume is the reciprocal of mass density.

,I, The shear stress is proponiOllal 10 the velocity gradient


""
4 . Kinematic viscosity V is giwn by V ~ ~ .
"'
P
5. Poise and sto~es are the unil .• of viscosity and kinematic viscosity respccti,-cly.
6. To convert the unil of viscosity from poise to MKS units. poise should be divided by 98.1 and 10 convert
poise i!l1o SI unils. the poise should be dividcU by 10.51 unit of "iscosity i< Nslm l or Pa s, where Nlm l
.. Pa '" Pascal.

7. For a perfect gas. the eq ualion of state is !!... = RT


P
. kg f-Ill
where R .. gas conSI:m! :md for aIr .. 29.3 - - - ., 287 Jlkg oK.
kgo K

8. For isolhcmlal process, J!.. '" Constant whereas for adiabatic process, .. constanl.
p
- lip
9. modulus of elasticity is given as K

(":r
Bul~ ~

10. Compressibility is the reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity or" ~.


II . Surface tension is c~presscd in N/m or dyne/em. The relation between surface tension (0 ) and difference
40
of prcssurc (p) betwcen the inside and outside of a liquid drop is givcn as p _

For a S(lap hubble.


80 "
p" ,/
20
For a liquid jet. P~d '

02. Capillary risc or fall of a liquid is given by /, m "'''''!-'


40eos9

""
The value of a for water is taken equal to zero and for mercury equal to 128°.

EXERCISE

(A) THEORETICAL PROBLEMS


I. Define the following fluid propenie, :
Density. weight density. specific volume and specific gravity of a fluid.
2. Differentiate between: (i) Liquids and gases . (ii ) Real fluids and ideal fluids. (iii) Specific weight and
specific volume of a fluid .
•1. What is the difference between dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity ? State their units of
mcasuremcnlS.

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Properties of Fluids 311
4 . Explain the len". : (i) Dynamic vi>cosily. and (ii) Kinema!ic viscosity. Give their dimensions.
5. State the Newton's law of viscosity and Kjve examples of its application.
6 . Enunciale Newton's law of ,·;""osi1y. Explain the importance of viscosity in n uid motion. W hat ;s the
effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air?
7. Define Newl<mian and Non-Newtonian nuids
8. Whal do you understand by tenns : (I) lsothennal process, (ii) Adiabalic process. and (iii) Universal-gas
constant

-
,
9. Define compressibility. I'ro,'c that compressibility for a perfect !las undergoing isothcnnal compression is

while for a perfect gas undergoing isenlropi<" compression is - .


p "V
Ill . Define surface tension . l>rovc thallhc reblionship between surface tension and pressure inside a droplet of
40
liquid in exee .. of outside pressure is given by p '" - .
"
II . EXplain the phenomenon of capillarity. Obtain an expression for capillary rise of a liquid.
12. (1/) Distinguish betwcen ideal fluids and real fluids. Explain thc importance of compressibility in fluid
flow.
(b) Define the t'nTIS , density. specific volume, specific gravity. va.uum p""sure, mmp""sible and
incompressible fluids. (R.G.P. Vishw(lI"i(/Y(l/a)"(I. IJlwp(l/ S 200Z)
13 . Deflne and explain Newton 's law of viscosity.
14. Conver! I kgls-m dynamic viscosity in poise.
15. Why does the viscosity of a gas increases with the increase in temperature while that of a liquid decreases
with increase in temperature ?
16. (a ) ~Iow doe, viscosity of a fluid "ary with temperature "
(b) Cite examples where surface tension effects playa prominent role. (J.N.TV.. Ifyilaahad S ZOOZ)
17 . (i) Develop the expression for the relation between gauge pressure P inside a droplet of liquid and the
surface tension.
(ii) Explai n the following:
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids . vapour pressure. and mmpressibility.
(R.G.P. V.. Bhopal S ZOOI)

(B) NUMERICAL PROBLEMS


1. One litre of crude oil weigh' 9.6 N. Calcu late ilS specific weight. den,ity and .<pccifi. gravity.
[Ans. 9600 N/ml. 978.6 kgltn l • 0.9781
3
2. The "elocity distribution for flow oVer a flat plate i. gi"en by II ~ '2 Y_111.
where u is the point
"elocity in metre per second :n a dislan'"" y metre ab<we the plate. Detennine the shear stress at y ~ ') em.
Assume dynamic viscosity as 8 poise. (No8pur Unil'ersity) [Ans. 0.839 N/m' l
3. A plate 0.025 mm distant from a fixed plate. mO"cS at 50 clllis and requires a force of 1.471 NIm'to
maintain this ~peed. Detennine the fluid viscosity between the plates in the poise. [Ans. 7.357 X 10' 1
4. Dctennine the intensity of shear of an oil having viseosity • 1.2 poise and is used for lubrication in the
clearance between a 10 em diameter shaft and its journal bearing. The cleamnec is 1.0 nun and shaft
rotates at 200 r.p.lll. IAns. 125.56 Nlm' l
5.. Two plates arc placed at a distance of 0 .15 mill apan. The lower plate is fixed while the upper plate having
surface area 1.0 Ill' is pulled at 0.3 m/s. Find the foree and power rC<:[uired to mai1l1ain this speed. if the
fluid >wpamting them is havin,!! visrosity 1.5 poise. [An s. 300 N. 89.8 W I
6. An oil film of thickness 1.5 nun is used for lubrication between a square plate of size 0.9 m x 0.9111 :md an
incli ned plane having an angle of indination 20~. The weight of thc square is 3'n.4 Nand it .• lides down
the plane with a unifonn velocity of 0.2 mi•. Find the dynamic viscosity of the oil . IAn .•. 12 .42 poisel

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132 Fluid Mechanics

7. In a stream of glycerine in 1I101ion. at a certain point the "ciocily gradient is 0.25 metre pcr sec pcr melre.
The mas~ density of fluid is 1268.4 kg pcr cubic melre UTl d kinematic viscosity is 6.30 x 10 • square metre
pcr St-><:ond, Calculate lhe shear StreSS al1he poin!. [An •• 0.2 NIm' 1
8 . Find the kinematic viscosity of an oil having density 980 kg/m' "hen al a certain point in Ihc oil. Ihe shear

stress is 0.25 Nfm' and velocity gradie1ll is 0.3/5.


[
Ans. O,IXlO849 rn' or 8.49 SlOkCS]
"'
'I. Determine the spttitic graYi1}, of a fluid h,wing viscosily 0,07 poise and kinematic viscosity 0.042 stokes.
IAns. 1.667[
10. DClcmlinc 1he viscosily of a liquid having kincmalic ";seosily 6 slokes and specific gravity 2.0.
[Ans. 11.99 poise]
II . If the velocity distribution of a fluid over a plate is gi,'en by u ~ (3/4) Y -;. where u is the velocity in melre
per scwnd al a dislance of )' melres above the plale. delennine Ihe shear slress at y • 0,15 metre. Take
dynall1ic "is:cosity of the fluid as 8.5 X 10 3 kg_sec/m Z, [A"".. 3.825 X 10--1 kgJlm' j
12 . An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication belween a shaft and slecve. The diametcr of shaft is
0.5 m and it rotates at 200 r.p.m. Calculale the power losl in Ihe oil for a sk'"CYe lenglh of 100 nnn, The
thickness of the oil fihn is 1.0 mm. jAn s.. 2, 15 kWI
,
U . The ,'elocity disuibulion over a plate is gi"en by u ~ ~ y - ; in Which u is the "elocily in mlsee at a

distance of y m above the plaTe. [kterminc the shear stress at y., 0, 0.1 and 0.2 m. Take ).l = 6 poise.
IAn s.. 0,4 .. 0.028 and 0, 159 N/ml j
14. In 'luestion 13.. find Ihe dislance in melres above Ihe plate .. al which Ihe shear stress is zero.
IAns .. 0.333 ml
15 .. The ,'elocily profile of a viscous fluid m'er a plate is parabolic wilh venex 20 cm from Ihe plate. where Ihe
velocity is 120 cm/s. Calculale the "clocity gradic111 and shear stress at distances of O. 5 and 15 cm from the
plate. given the viscosity of the fluid = 6 poise. IArrs. I2Is. 7.18 N/m': 9/s. 5.385 N/m ' : 3/., 1,7<)5 Nfm' j
16. The weight of a gas is given as 17.658 N/m l at 30°C and at an absolule pre>sure of 29.43 Niem', \)elcr-
. J. 8k S 539.55N ml
mine Ihe gas constant and also Ihe density of the gas, [ A ns' --;;;-r-' kgo K
17 . A cylinder of 0.9 Ill} in volume conlains air at O°C and 39,24 NI~rn l absolule pressure. The air is
cornpres.""d 10 0045 ml . Find (i) Ihe pressure inside the cylinder a~suming isothemwl process.
(ii) pre,sure and lempem ture assumins mJiabalic proce<s. Take k ~ I A for air.
(Ans. (i) 78.48 N/em ' • (ii) 103.5 Ntm!. 140~CI
18 . Calculate the pre>.~ure exe" ed by 4 kg lna>< of nitrogen gas at a lemperature of IYC if Ihe volume is 0.35 ml .
Molccular weight of nitrogen is 28. [Ans. 97.8 Nlem' j
19 . The pressure of a liquid is increa«ed from 60 Nlem' 10 100 Nlcm' and volume decreases hy 0.2 per cenL
Detennine the bulk modulus ofelasticily. IAns. 2 X 10" Nleml l
20. DCle"nine Ihe bulk modulus of elaslicity of a fluid which is compressed in a cylinder from a volume of
0.009 ml at 70 Nlcm l pressure to a volume of 0.0085 m l at 270 Nlcm l pre .. ure . [An s. 3.6 X 10' N/cm l l
2 1. The surface lension of watcr in contact with air at 20"C is gh'cn as 0.0716 N/m. The pressure inside a
droplet of waler is 10 be 0.0147 N/em l grealer than the outside pressure. calculate Ihe diameter of the
<lroplelof waler , IAns. ) ,94 mml
22 . Find Ihe surface Icnsion in a SD.1p bubble of 30 mm diameter wheTI the inside pressure is 1.962 N/n/ above
almosphere, IAns. 0.00735 N/ml
23. The surface tension of Waler in eont.1C1 with air is given as 0.0725 Ntm. The pressure oUlside the droplel of

water of diameter 0,02 mm is atmospheric [10,32 -!::,) ,


em"
Calcu lale the pressure "'ithin the droplct of

water. [An s. 11.77 Nlcm' l

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Prope rties of Fluids 33 1
24 . Calculate the capillary risc in:l glass tube of 3 .0 nlln diameter when hnll1cr>ed vcnically in (,,) waler. and
(1)) mercury. Take surface len.ions for mercury and water as 0.0725 N/m and 0.52 Nirn respectively in
contact with air. Spcdfic gravity for mercury is given as 13.6. IAn •. 0.966 em. 0.3275 eml
25. The ~apillary risc in the glass lube used for mc"suring waler level is not (0 exceed 0.5 min. Dctennin" ils
minimum size. given thaI surface lension for water in conlae! wilh air,. 0,07112 Nlm. [Ans. 5.8 em]
26 . (SI LTnits). One lilre of crude oil weighs 9 .6 N. Calculmc its specifIc weight. density and specific gravity.
[Ans. %00 Nlm'; 979.6 kg/ln ' : 0.971\61
27. (SI "nits). A piston 796 mill diameter and 200 nun IonS works in a cylinder of 800 mill diameter. If the
annular space i. filled with a lubricating oil of viscosity 5 cp (c.·nti -poi,.,), cakulate the speed of de>cem
of the piston in vertical po~jtion. The weight of the piston and 3 .• iaII03d are 9.1\1 N. [,\ns. 7.84 m/s[
2!1, (SI lTnit~). Find the capillary risc of water in a wtlc 0.03 em diameter. The surface tension of water is
0.0735 Nlm. [A tls. 9.99 eml
2', Calculate the specific weight. density and specific gravity of two litres of a liquid which weight 15 N.
[AilS, 7500 N/m l . 764 .5 kg/mI. 0.764 1
30. A I SO mm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter lSI mm.
Both the cylinders are of 250 mm height. The space between the cyl inders is filled with ~ liquid of viscos·
ity 10 poise. Detennine the torque required to rotate thc inner cylinder at 100 T.p.m. IAns. 13.S7 Nml
.~ 1 . A Shaft of diameter 120 nlln is rotating inside a journal bearing of diameter 122 mm at a speed of 360 r.p.m.
The ']XIce between the Shaft and the bearins is f,lIed with a lubricating oil of viscusity 6 poise. Find the
power absorbed in oil if the length of bearing is 100 mm. [Ans. 115.73 WI
.\2. A shaft of diameter 100 mm is rotating inside a journal bearing of diameter 102 mm at a space of J60
r,p ,m. The space between the shafl and bearing is filled with a lubricating oil of viscosity 5 poisc. The
length of the t1c:.ring is 200 mm. Find the power absortlcd in the lubricating oil. [Ans. 111.58 W[
.\,\ . Assumi ng that the bu lk modulus of elasticity of water is 2.07 x 106 kN/m l at standard atmospheric
conditions. detcnnine the increase of pressure necessary to produce I % reduction in volume at the same
tcmperature.
• , -dV 1
[l1int . K ~ 2.07 x 10 kNlm ;~ 0 - .0.01.
100

Increase in pressure (dl')" Kx ( - ~V) ~ 2.07 X10" x 0.01 = 2.07 x 10' kNhn 1.]
.\.4. A square plate of size 1 m x 1m and weighing 350 N slides down an inelined plall e with a unifonn velocily
of 1.5 mls. The inclined plane is laid on a slope of 5 venicalto 12 horizonlnl and has an oil film of 1 mm
thickness. Caiculutc the d)l11amic viscosity of oil . [J.tV. T.V., lIy,lembm/. S 2002[

'
[ Ihnl. 5 =Be
A= I x I ~ 1m l . W_3SON.u", 1.5m/s. tan 0 .. - - c
12 AB
Component o f weight along the plane = W x sin (I

where sin (I .,
3C _ _' [, .. AC"'JAB1+BC~
r.c:o-:,
1 A "
12 8
AC 13 .. JI2~+52 . 13 W E
350N

I' = W sin (I .. 350 x ~ '"' 134.615 Fig. 1.15


13
Now ,,"dy whcre du _ u_O = u = 1.5 mlsandd.v = 1 mm= I x 10
T=).I~. ' m

F dy 134.615 IxlO ' Ns


:. 1-1 = -x - = x '.";"i--= 0.0897 -:::T" 0.S97 poisei
A du 1.5 ttl

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.. 2 . 1 fLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT

Consider a sma ll area liA in large mass of fluid. If tile fluid is stationary. tllen tile force exerted by
the surrounding fluid on tile area IiA will always be P'Crpcndicular to the su rface (LA. Let ,IF is tile force
<IF
acting on the area dA in the normal direction. Tllen the ratio of - is known as the intensity of
dA
pressure or simply pressure and this ratio is reprcsented by p. Hence math~lllatically th~ pressure at a
point in a fl uid at rest is

p =
dA
If the forl"C (1-1 is uniformly distributed ove r the area (A). then pressure at any point is given by
F Force
p = -A =""'''-
Area
Force or pressure force. F = I' x A.
The unils of pressure ar~: (i) kgffm" and kgffclll 2 in MK5 units, (i,) N~wtonfrl1 lOr Nfm l and
Nfnl1n 2 in 51 units. Nfm 2 is known as Pascal and is represented by Pa. Other common ly used units of
pressure arc :
kilo pascal = 1000 Nfm ~
, '
100 kPa '" 10 Nflll-.

.. 2.2 PASCAL'S LAW


II states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point
in a .'\Iatic fluid is equal in all directions. This is proved as : P. · dy ., >0,
Tile flu id clement is of very small dimensions i.P .. l/X. tly •
andl/$. ,
Conside r an arbitrary fluid clement of wedge shaP'C in a
fluid mass al rest as show n in Fig. 2.1. Let the width of tile p) .L\)(.\
cle ment P'Crpendicular to the plane ofpaP'Cr is unity and p~. Fi g. 2. 1 ForcN on a flll id dement.

35

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136 Fluid Ml>chanics

f\. and fI: arc the pressufCs or inlcilsity o f pressure acting on Ihe face AB. AC and Be respectively. Let
LABe", a. 1'lIcll th e fo rces acting Oil the clc ln elll arc:
L Pressure forces nonnallo the surfaces. and
2. Weight of c lemen t in Ihe vcnical direction.
The forces 011 the faces arc:
Force on the face All '" fI, x Area offacc AlJ
""p" xdyX I
Simi larly force on Ihe face AC '" p,. x d.f X I
Force on the face UC '" fI , x ds x 1
Weighl of clement '" (M ass of element) x g

'" (Volume x p) xg '" (AB; AC x I) x px g.


where p '" density of fluid.
Resol ving Ihe forces in .r-direction. we lI ave
p, xdyx I - p(dsx I )si n (90 Q - 9) "0
0' p" xdyx l - f!: d~' X 1 cosO '" O.
BUl from Fig. 2. 1. ds cos e '" All "" lIy
p, xdyx l - p,- xdyx I "0
or P."'Pz ...(2.1 )
Similarly. resolving the forces in y-dircction. we get
p,Xdxx l-p, XtlJ'X I cos(900 _e) _~dc·'~'cdCY'xl XpXg=O
2
tI_(dy
P-, x dx - P, tis s in e - - , - x p x g = O.
But ds sin e = d.l :md also the elemem is very small and hence weight is negligible.
P/u--p , xdx=O
or P. =P, ..(2 _2)
From equ:uiOlls (2 I) alld (2.2). we have
p" = p" = P, ... (2.3)
The above equation s hows that the pressure aI any po int in x.)' and Z directions is equal.
Since the choice of fluid element was co mple tely arbitrary. wh ich means the pressure aI any poim is
the same in all direc tions.

~ 2 .3 PRESSURE VARIATION IN A FLU ID AT REST


The pressure at :1I1y poin! in a fluid at rest is obtained by the Hydro-
stntic Law which slates thnt the rate of increase of pressure in a ,"e n i-
cally dow ll ward direction must be ~-qu al to the SJXocifie weight of the
fluid at Ih at point. This is prt)l'ed as:
{ REE SURFACE OF FLU ID

------------
-- -- ---- J ---
:::::::::::::~
-- ---
' ~:(::::_
-_-_-_-_-_- A -
ri::::-
B .,--_-_-_-_-_-_-_-
Consider a small fl uid cleme n! as shown in Fig. 2.2
------- -----
_"_-_-_-_-_-_ ·tJZ ----
_-_-_-_-_-_-_
Let M= Cross-sectional area of element ------ ---------
~Z'" Height of fluid c lement :-:-:-:-:-:'
-----
? -ilp-£t:-:-
:-:-:-:-:-:
------ -
P '" rres~ure on face AS ----------.{ p+ tJZ)M.---------
-_-_-_-.-_" -:k ___-_-.-_-_-
Z", Distance of fluid elemellt from free surface.
Fig. 2.2 Forces on a fluid e!emeT/l.
The forces acting on tile fluid clement are:

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Pressure ilnd its Mea surement 37 1


L Pressure forc e on AB '" P x All. and acting perpendicu lar to face Ali in the downward dircClioli.

2. Pressure force on CD =(1' + ~~ llZ) x dA. actin g perpendicular 10 face CD. w rti cally upward
direction.
3 . Weight of fluid c lement = Density x g )( Vo lume = p)( g x (All. x AZ).
4. Pressure forces on surfaces IJC and AD arc equa l and opposite. For equilibriu m o f nuid
c le men!. we have

pM - (1'+ ~~IlZ) M + pxgx (M x~ =0

I'M - I'M - ~ 1l7..&1. +pxgxM xZ =0

-~~~+PXgX.MllZ=O
ap = p x II [cancelling MAZ on both
0' :~IlZ6A = p Xg xMIlZ or Jz
sid~sl

"I'
aZ =PXg=w (':pXg=w) ... (2 ...1 )

where w = Weigh! density of fluid.


Elj uati on (2.4) Slat es Ihal rate of im;rcasc of pressure in a vert ic al dir~'(; tjon is equa l to we ight
density of the fluid at that poin t. This is Hydrostatil: La w.
By integrating tile above equation (2.4) for liquids. we ge t
{dp={pgdZ
p = pgZ ...(2.5)
whe re II is the pressure iIOO\'e mmosphcrie pressure imd Z is the height uf the point frum free
surfaces.

From equation (2.5). we have Z'" _ 1_'- ..•(2 .6)


px,
Here Z is called ]Irl'ssurl' hl'ad .
Problem 2.1 A hydrmdie prt'ss lUIS /I W/II of 30 elll dilllnt'lrr mul a pillnger of 4.5 e/ll dillllll"lrr. Find
Ihe !>'t'ighl fijlt'd by lilt' h)'llftllllie prt'JJ ",ht'll Iht' foret' applinl (1/ lilt' plllllger is 500 N.
Solulion. Give n :
Dia. of ram. /) '" 30 em = 0.3m
Dia. of plunger. d", 4.5 em = 0.045 m
Force on plunger. "'",5OON
Find weight lifted "W
Area of ram.

Are a of plunger.

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138 Fluid Ml>chanics

Pressure il1! cnsity due to plun ge r


Force o n pl un ger F 500 2
'" = - = - - - N/m
A rea of plun ger (l .0 0 159 PLU NGER

Due to Pasc al's law . the inte ns it y o f pressu re will be


eq ua ll y trans mi u ed in a ll di rcl:1 io ns. He nce the pressure
inte ns it y at the ram

Fig. 2.3
500
::: 3 14465.4 Nfrn 1
.00 159

But pressure intensit y a! ram : -:-_W""";'~'hC'_ '" ~ '" _'_V_ N/m 1


Area of ram A .07068
w
.07068 = 3 14465.4
We ight = 3 [4465.4 x.07068 = 22222 N '" 22.222 kt'l. Ans .
Problem 2.2 A Il)'liralllir pre SJ bas (/ ralll of 20 011 ,Iimll" fPr (11111 (I pi IIl1ga of 3 Til! (liw/lFler. It is
usn i for liftillg (/ wi'iglll of 30 liN. Pilld lilt' fOITe rt' qllirn/ mille p/1I1I8e r.
Solution. Give n :
Di a. of ram. /) '" 20 em = 0.2 III

Area of ram. A '" ~ /)2 '" ~ ( . 2) 2 '" 0.03 14 111 2


4 4
Dia. of plunger ll=3cm =O.03 m
Area of plun ge r. "'" ~(.03) 2 = 7.068 X 10- 4 rn !
4
Weig lll lifted. W =30 kN = 30x IOOON =30000 N.
See Fig . 2.3.
Fo rce F
Pressure int ensi ty develo ped due 10 p lun ge r ", - - == - .
Area "
By Pasca l" s La w. th is pressure is tralls mi ltcd equa ll y in all d irect io ns
Hence press ure tran sm itted at th e ram == !...
Fo rce actin g o n ram " inte nsity X Area o f ram
= Pressure
F F x .03 14 N
= - x A ",
7.l168 x 10-4
But force al:tin g o n ram
"
= Weig ht li fK"d '" 30000 N
30000 : Fx .03 14
7.068 x 10-4
F: 30000 x 7.068 X 10-4
'" 675.2 N. Ans .
.03 14
Problem 2 .3 Ca/n'/(/((' f/If prnsllr(, (/II(' to a CO/UIIIII of0.3 of(n ) w(/(a. (b) (III oil ofSI'. ,~ r. 0.8. (II ld
(c) Ilwrcur )' of sp. gr. 13.6. Til/.;(' i/('Il$ify ofw(lfa. p '" /000 kg/IIIJ.
Solution. Give n :
Height o f liq uid co lumn. Z=O.3 m.

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 39 1


The press ure al an y point in a liquid is given by equation (2.5) as
p'" pgZ
«(I) For wal~r. p = 1000 kg/Ill)
I' = pgZ '" 1000 x 9.&1 x 0.3 '" 294) Nlm 2
-_ ['(j'T
294] Ntem !-_ O"94\NI
._ . ! A liS.
{fll. .

(b) For oil of sp. gr. 0.8.


From eq uation ( 1.IA). we know lhat Ihe densit y of a fluid is eq ual to specific grav ity of Iluid
multiplied hy density of water.
Density of oil. Po = Sp. gr. of oi l x Dens it y of wakr (Po= [k nsi ly of oil)
= 0.8 x P '" 0.8 x HXXl '" 800 I;g/m3
Now pressu re, 1'=PoxgxZ
= 800 x 9.8 1 x 0.3 = 2354.4 ~ = 23s:.4 ~.
Ill ' 10 em'

= 0.2.\54 ~. AilS.
,m
(c) For mercury. sp. gr. '" 13 .6
Fro m equa tion (l. IA) we know that tile den s ity of J fluid is eq ua l to specific g ravi ty of fluid
multiplied by densit y o f water
Densi1y of mercury. p. = Spcl:ific grav it y of mercury x Density of water
= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m l
P=P.xgxZ
N
'" 13600 x 9.81 x 0. ] " 40025 ~ ,
111 -
40025 N
~ - - , - " 4.002 --!' Ans.
10 em
Problem 2.4 Till'" prnSlln illlnlsily (1/ (I poim ill (lfluid is gil"nl 3.924 Nlnl/. Find Iltf ("orrnpolll/-
illg Iti'ighl offluid ...hi'llilti' fluid i~ ; ( II) W(I(Fr. lind (b) oil OfS!" gr. 0.9.
Solullon. Given:
N , N
Pressure imensity. 1''' ].924 - - , "].924 x 10 ~,.
cm - m-
The cU lTcsponding heigh1. Z. of 1hc fluid is givcn by eq ua1i u ll (2 .6) as

z== - " -
I'X ,
(u ) For watcr. p " 1000 kghn·l
3.924 x 104
z== ~" - 4 III uf wa ter. An s.
I'X, lOOOx 9 .81
(b) For uil. s p. gr. " 0.9
l
:. Density of oil Po" 0.9 x 1000 " 900 kg/m·
__ _ ,_, _ __ 3o~ 92~4~X~'~O~'
Z -:; == 4.44 11\ uf uil. Ans.
Po xg 900 x9.81

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140 Fluid Ml>chanics

Problem 2.5 All oil of sp. gr. 0.9 is ("OIlWillt'd ill (I "<'asd. AI <I poim 11Il' heig/II of oil is 40 tIl. Find
Ihe corrt'Sl'olUlillg ileighl ofwO/n at lil" porlll.
Solution. Given:
Sp. gr. of oil, So = 0.9
Hciglll of oil. Zo=40m
Density of oi l. Po = Sp. gL of oil x Dt:nsily of walcr = 0.9 )( 1000 = 900 kglm 3
N
lntcnsi ly of press ure. p = Po x g x 7-0 = 900 x 9.81 x 40 - ,

Corresponding liclght of water'" -;::c~_cIC' _ __


'"
De nsityo f water xg
9OO)(9.8 I x40
~ "",:C""',:,"
1000)(9.8 1
= 0.9 x 40 = .\6 10 of w ~tc r. Ans .
Problem 2.5 All 01'1'11 {(Ink romulus W(l/er IIpto (I df/NII of 2 III (md (lboI'<' il (III oil of SI'. gr. 0.9 for
d"plil of J m. Filut 1/,1' 1'("('8811'1' ill/fluiry ( jim /11i' inlf rfowl' "llIw ""0 liquills. llIui (ii) (If /Iw hOI/om
(I

of 'h" "IIlk.
Solution. Given:
Hciglll of water. ZI",2m
Height of oil. Z2'" 1m
Sp. gr. of oi l. So'" 0.9
Density of water. PI '" lOOO kg/m '
Density of oi l. Pl'" Sp. gr. of oil x Dens ity of water
'" 0.9 x 1000== 900 kg/m'
Pressure intensity at ~ny poim is given by
p =pxgxz' Fig. 2.4
(i) At interface. i.l' .. at A
P"'P2 x g X1 .O
",900x9.81 x 1.0
N 8829 •
'" 8829 - , ~ - ,- = 0.8829 Nfcm -. Ans.
III lO
(ii) At Ihe bottom. i." .• at B
l' '" P2 X gZ2 + PI X 8 X ZI = 900 x 9.81 )( 1.0 + [000 x 9.81 x 2.0
1 28449 , •
= 8829 + 19620 = 28449 N/1I1 = ~ Nkm' = 2.8449 Nfcm -. Ans.
Problem 2.7 TI", dilllllt'/prs of (I sm(ll/ pi.<lOII Imd II /flrgp piMO" of (I hydraulic j(lck {lfP 3 C/ll lII"l
10 cm rp,!ppclil'dy. AftJrf'P (Jf 80 N is flpplil'l{ "" II", SIII,,/l piSI"", Filll{ Ih .. 1(J(I(llijtl'l1 by II", [flrg"
pis",,, ".hpII :
( a ) Ilw piSIOllS afF ,,/ Ih .. SIIIII" In'pl .
( b) SI1I<1I1 piS/Oil is 40 elll IIbo\'(' Iltl' large l,is/OII.
The (1I'usil), of lit" liquid iu /lle jack is g;"1'1I 1M 1000 kglllr'.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of small pislOn. (1=3cm
1'1',2 11 , 1
Area of small pi~IOn, II'" - (, = - x (3)' = 7.068 e lll
4 4

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Pressure ilnd its Mea surement 41 1


Dia. of large piston. IJ= 10 em
Are a o f larger piston. A", P )( (1 0)2 '" 7&.54 cm 1
4
Force on small piston.
Ld the load lin~d = W.
Pc: 80 N
,
(a) When thl' Ilistons arc 31 thl' same It'HI

~W~~~;i'G'
~.-.-.-.-.-.-.
Prcs~urc in[cllsity on small piston s~,
P ISTON PISTON
F 80
II 7.068 ------.
.------
__ . _-.
-----_
This is Iransmincd equ all y on thc large piston. -. -. -. -. -. -.-
Pr".'\Sure intensity on Ih" large piston f i g. 2.5
= --
7.068
Force on the large piston '" Pressure )( Area
80
= - - )( 78.54 N '" 8tlX.'J6 N. AilS.
7.068
(b) Whl'n the small Ilision is 40 em abo ve th(' tar~(' I)iston
Pressure intens ity on Ihc small piston
F 80 ,
(I 7J168 I
Pressurc ill1cnsity at sectio n A-A
F
'" - + Pr~ssurc i ntensity due [0 height o f 40 ern of liquid.
"
But pressure intensity due to 40 cnl of liquid w
=pxgxh= IOClOx 9.8 1 xOANlm 2 ------"--_._---
1000 x9.8 1 x.40 --------
-------
-----------.---
10'
Nlt:m! = 0.1924 Nlcm! --------
-------
--------
Pressure int~nsity at sect ion A -A Fig. 2.6
80
= - - + 0.3924
7068
= 1l.J2 + 0.3924 == 11.71 Nlcm 1
Pressure intensity transmitted to the large pislOn = 11.71 Nkm 2
Force on the large pislOn = Pressure x Area of the large piston
=11.71 x A == 11.71 x 78.54 = 9 19.7 N .

.. 2 .4 ABSOLUTE, GAUGE , ATMOSPHERIC AND VACUUM PRESSURES

The pressure on a fluid is measured in twu different syste ms. In one system. it is measured above
the absolute zero or complete vacuum and it is called the absulute pressure and in other sys tem.
pressure is measured above the atmospheric pressure :md it is called gauge pressure. Thus:
I. AI.soluh' 1H"t'sS UH' is defined as the pressure which is measured with refe rence to absolute
va;:uu1t1 pressure.
2 . C,lIU/tC l.rCSSUrl' is defined as th e pressure whid is measured with the help uf a pressure mea-
suring instrument. in which the atmospheric pressure is wken as datum. The atmospheric pressure on
the s<:a le is marked as zero.

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142 Fluid Ml>chanics

.\ . Vacuum IIrl'ss un' is defin ed as the pres- III


sure be low the atmos phe ric pressure. • ,
~
- I ./ GAUGE PRESSURE / ~TMOSPHERIC
The re lati onship bctwcc ll lhc abso lut e ptcS1;urc.
g au~c pressu re and vac uum pressure arc shown in
f'"' /" PRESSURE

Fig. 2.7.
Mathe mati call y: ~r VACUUM PRESSURE
(i) Ahso lute pressure
1
ASSOlUTE
PRESSURE ..... ,
== Atmosph eric pressure + Gauge press orI'
II., = P.. ," + p~",V'
"' (ii) Vac uum pressure ABSOLUTE ZERO PRESSURE

Fig. 2.7 Relationship bl'llllUn pr/'S!IIrt'S.


== Atmosph eric press ure - Absol ute pressure.
Not e. (;) The atmospheric pressure at sea level al 15°C is 101.3 kNlml or 10.13 Nlcm 1 in 51 unit. In case of
M KS units. it is equal to 1,033 kgf/em 1,
(ii) The atmospheric pressure head is 760 mm of mcr<;ury or 10.33 m of water.
Problem 2.8 IV/WI (Iff liff gllUgf prrsslIrf lind {/bsollllf prrs5" ff (If II poi", 3 III bflow Ilw frt'f
511 rf ll('f (If II liquhllUl\'ill/l II dnl5i1y of J.5J x /lY k,~/1Il3 if IIw UllIl05p/wrir prrssurf i5 fqllil'lIlml 10
7501111/1 ofmnrllry? 17lf Silfrijir g fll l'i1y flfllwrrlln' i5 13,6 (II1t1 dfllsily of WUlff = lOOO kg/m 3.
Solution. Give n :
Dt: ptll of liq ui d. 2 , ,, J m
Dt:nsi ty of liquid. P," 1.53 X 10' kg/m'
At mosph eric pressure head . 20 " 750 mm of Hg
750
" WOO " 0.75 In o f Hg
Atm osph e ric pressure. P..on" Po x g x Zo
where Po" Densi ty of Hg " Sp. gr. o f me rc ury x Density o f water " 13.6 x 1000 kg/m'
mO Zo" Pressure Il ead in te nn s of merc ury.
/''''m'' (13.6 x 1(00) x 9.81 x 0.75 Nfm2 (.,' Zo" 0.75)
" 100062 Nfml
Pressure at a poin t. which is at a de pth of 3 m fro m th e free surface of the liquid is give n by.
p=plxgxZ,
,,(1.53 x 1(00) x 9.8 1 x 3" 45028 Nlm l
G au ge pressure. 11= 45028 N'm ~. AilS.
Now absol ute pressure " Gauge press ure + Atm osplle ric pressure
= 45028 + 100062 = 145090 N/m 2 . Ans .

... 2 .S MEASUREMENT Of PRESSURE


The pressure of a fluid is measured by [he fo ll ow in g dev ices:
I. Man o me[e rs 2. Mec han ic al Gau ges.
2.S. 1 Milnom~ten . Mano meters are defi ned as [he dev ices used for measuri ng th e pressure at
a point in a fluid by ba lancin g th e co lu mn of fl uid by tile sa me o r anothe r co lumn of the fl uid . T il ey are
d assified as :
(tl) Simpl e M:lllometers. ( b) Di ffe renti al Manomders.

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 431


2. S.2 Mechanical Gauges. Mechan ic al ga uges arc defmed as th e dev ices used for me as urin g
Ih e press ure by balanc in g llie nuid co lumn by Ih e spring or dead we ig ht. The commonly used mcc hani -
(;al pressure g aug es arc:
(a) Di:lphrag m pressure gauge. (b) Bourdol1 1Ubc pressure gauge,
(r) Dead-we ight press ure gauge , and (d) Bellows pressu re gauge.

to 2.6 SIMPLE MANOMETERS


A s im ple manometer cu nsiscs of a gl ass tube having one of its e nds connected 10 a poinT where
pressure is to be measured and mh er end re main s open to atm usphe re. Co mm on types of simple ma -
nometers arc:
I . PiczomclCr:
2. U· lubc Man ome ter. :mll
3. Single Column Man ometer.
2.6. 1 Piezometer. It is Ihe s implest form of mano meter used fOf
measurin g gauge pressures. One end of this mano meter is cu nn ected to
T
the point where pressure is to he measured and ot her end is open to the
atmusph erc as shown in Fig. 2.8. The ri se of liquid g ivcs th e pressure
head at that point. If at a point A. th e height of liquid say wate r is II in
piezometer tu he. the n pressure at A
N
=p x 8 xlI - , .
m-
Fig. 2.8 PinomfuT.
2. 6 .2 U-tube Manometer. It cons ists o f g lass tube bent in U-shape. one e nd uf which is
cunnected to a point at whi ch press ure is to be measured and other e nd re main s upe n to th e
atmosphere as shown in Fig. 2.9. T he tuhe gene rall y contains mercury u r any oth er liquid whose
specific gravity is grea te r than th e specific gravity uf the liquid whu se press ure is to he me asured.

T
1
(al For ga uge pressure (b) For vacuum p<8SSUf8

Fig. 2.9 U·tube Manometer.


(</) .' ur (;au!;c P!"('ss urc. Let B is the point at which pressure is to he m~asured. whose va lue is,).
The datum line is A-A.
ill == Height of li ght liquid above the datum line
11 2 '" He ight uf heavy liquid abo ve the datum lin e
.';1 == Sp. gr. uf li ght liquid
PI == De ns ity of li ght liquid == 1000 X.';I
.';2 == Sp. gr. uf hcavy liquid
P2 == De ns it y uf heavy liquid '" I(X)O X S2

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144 Fluid Ml>chanics

As th e pressure is th e same for the horizontal surface. Hence pressure above th e horizontal datum
line A -A in the Ieli co luilln and in the right co lumn of U-Iube manometer shou ld be same.
Pressure above A-A in tile left co lumn " P + PI X g X hi
Pressure above A-A in the right column " Pl x g x II,
Hence equating th e two prc!iSUrCS p + Pig/II'" p,-g l,!
P" (pUS/I, - P I X g x III)' .. .(2 .1 )
(b) ~-or V"cuum P ....SS UI'f'. For rn ~ asuri n g vacuum pressure. the k vc l of th e heavy liquid in the
mallomC lc r wi ll be as shown ill Fi g. 2.9 (b). T hen
Pressure above A-A in the left co lumn "P!8"2 + Plgh l + f!
Pressure h"ad in Ihe ri ght column arovc A-A " 0
P181!2 + Pig/II + II" 0
fI" - (P;oKiJ 1 + Plg" I)' ...(2.8)
Problem 2.9 Tile right limb of a ,~imple U-/Ilbe mOI/Olllet'" CQllfaillitlg mercury is ope,1 to Ille
almO.fpllere while Ihe left limb iI connected 10 a pipe in which a fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 i.f flowing. Tile
cenlre of IIII' pipe is J1 cm below IIII' lere! of mercury in IIII' riglll limb. Find IIII' pre.l.wre of fluid in
III<' pipe if IIII' difference of mercury lel'e! in Ihe two limbs is 10 cm.
Solution. G ivcn :
Sp. gr. of fluid, 5, = 0.9
Densi!y of fluid. p , =5, x 1000=0.9x 1000 = 900 kglm 3 r
Sr. gr. of me rcury, 5~ = 13.6
Densi ty of mercury. p~ = l3.6 x 1000 kgfmJ
"
j

Difference of mercury level, II~ = 20 c m '" 0.2 m


Heigh! o f fluid from A-A. h, = 20 - 12 = Scm = O.OS m ,
Let P = Pressure of fluid in pipe
Equating Ihe pressure above A-A. we gel
P + p ,Sh, = P ~gl' 2
Fig. 2. 10
P + 900 x 9.81 x 0.08 = 13.6 x 1000 x 9.81 x .2
"' P= 13.6x IOOOx 9.81 x.2-900x9.S1 xO.OS
= 26683 - 706 = 25977 Nfm2 '" 2.597 NIemI. ADS,
Problem 2.10 A simple lj·llIbe mOl/omeler cOilwiliing mercury is connected 10 a pipe in wllich 0
fluid of sp. gr. 0.8 lIlIIflnn·ing l'lICUUIII pressure is flowing. The OIher em f of lhe mllltollieler is open 10
almosphere. Find IIII' melwm pl"l'Hllre ill pipe, if the differellce of mercury 1{"I·el ill IIII' two limbs i.f
40 cm w,d the heighl of fluid in IIII' left frolll Ihe celllre of pipe iJ 15 cm below.
SolutIon. Givcn :
Sp. gr. of fluid. S, '" 0.8
Sp. gr. of mercury. Sl= 13.6 1
Density of fluid. PI '" SOO
,,=
T
Cknsity of mercury, P2 '" 13.6 x 1000
Difference of mercury kvel. hl = 40C1O = 0.4 nl. Height of liquid in Idl limb. I"
= 15 cm = 0. 15 m. Lei Ih e pressure in pipe = 1'. Equat ing pressure above datum
, "-'- ,
line A ·A . we ge l Fig . 2.11

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 45 1


Ii '" - I P28i'2 + Plg h ,]
= - 11 3.6 x 1000 x 9 .31 x 0.4 + 800 x 9.81 x 0 .1 5 ]
= - [53366.4 + 11 77.2 1 = - 54543.6 N/m2 '" _ 5.454 Nie m I, Ails.
Problem 2 .11 A U-Tube m(mum eler is used /0 measure Ihe preS~'''re oj ....aler in II pipe /ine, .... hiel!
is in <'... cess of IlIIrIOJ'pileric press" re. The righl lim" of tile mUllome/a COll la;ns mercury and iJ' open /0
almasp/wu:. The con/ac/ be/ween woler (lIId mercury is ill Ihe left limb. Delermine Ihe pressure of
,nUer in the main lille. if 111<' difference in leI'e! of mercury ill IiiI' limbs of V-Illbe is JO em Ulll/lhe
free surface of mercury is in Jerel willi Ihe eenlfe of rhe pipe. If Ihe preSSIIrI' of warer in pipe line is
redllced In 98 10 Nlml, cu/cu/(lie the 1Iell" difference i ll Ihe le,-e! of mercury. Sketch Ihe arrangements
ill bOlh ea.ies.
Solution. G ive n :
Diffe rence o f merc ury'" 10 em '" 0 .1 m
The ~rran ge men t is show n in Fig. 2. 11 (a )
1st I'art
u:t p). " (pressure o f wa te r in pipe line (i.e .. at po int A)
The poi nts B and C li e o n th e sam e ho ri zonta l line. Hence pressure ,11 B s hould be equ,lil o pressure
at C. Bu t pressure at B
'" PreSl;ure at A + Pressure d ue 10 10 c m (or 0. 1 m)
RIGHT LlMB _
of wate r
"'p~ + pxgxll
3
;~ER
where p '" 1000 kgl m and II '" 0. 1 m
'" 1'). + 1000 x 9.8 1 x 0.1
({T - - O

--
"/I). + 98 1 N/m
2 ...( i) 1
'T
Pressure at C", Pressure at D + I'reSl;ure due 10 10 em o f merc ury LEFT lIMB_

"'O+PoxgX/lo
where Po for mercury '" 13.6 x 1000 kg/Ill}
, C

and 110 '" 10 em '" 0. 1 111 MERCURY _


Press ure at C", 0 + ( 13 .6 x 1000) x 9 .&1 x 0. 1
= 1334 1.6 N ...(ii)
But pressure at B is equa l to pressure at C. Hence equat ing the equa-
ti ons (il and (ii). we ge t
1'.. + 9 8 1", 13341.6
fI).:: 13341.6 - 9 81
-
Fig . 2.11 (a)

N
= 12360.6 -2 . An s.
lin d Pa rt '"
Gi ve n. 1'.. = 9 8 10 N/m 1
Find ncw di ffe re nce of merc ury level. The arrangemcnt is shown in Fig. 2. 11 (b) . In this case the
pressure at A i5981 0 Nlm '"w hie h is Jess lhanlh e 12360.6 N/ml. He nce merc ury in Je fllimb will ri se.
The ri se o f merc ury i n Jeft lim b will be equ a l 10 l he fall o f mercury in righl lim b as lhe tOlal vo lu me of
merc ury re mai ns sam e.
Lel .1 '" Ri se of merc ury in left linlb in (;m
Then fall of mcr(;ury in rig ht limb ", x cm
Th e poi nts S , C and D show lhe initial cond itions wlwre as poi nts 8 *. C* and D* show lhe
fin al conditi ons.

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146 Fluid Ml>chanics

The pressure at 8* '" Press ure at C·


or Pressure at A + Pressu re duc to (10 - xl e m of WJ\cr
'" J>rcssure at J)* + Pressore due to
----
-----
' ~
(10 - 2x) ern of mercury -- -- - -
..--1+"-
1910 + 1000 x 9.8 1 x ("""'10-")
i'OO to em
J,j ,-r ( 10 _ 2.)
11,. __ ,,- _L
",0 + (13.6 x I OOO) x 9.8 1 x (10-2.,)
100
~B - -1:0,- -
Di vid illg by 9.81. we get
or 1000 + 100 - lOx = 1360 - 272x
or 272x - l0-,= 1360-1100
or 262x'" 260

,= --
2 6()
262
'" 0.992 em
Fig. 2.11 (b)
New diffcfCIlCC of mercury '" 10 - 2 l em =10 - 2 x 0.992
'" IWI6 em. Ans.
Problem 2.12 Fig. 2.12 .\110;"$ "colliC(IIl'l'Sse/ /I(I\'illg iu 011//1'1 til A /0 wllirh fI U-t""" mlUlOllli'll'r
i.1 rOlllll'("/I'l/. H", rNII/ill8 oflhl' /II"HomNer g;,'''" ill IIIl' figllre S/Wlt'" wlwllll", ""$.W'I is ('/"1'1)'. Filld 1/'"
rl'{I{lillg "1'/'" ""IIl"III('/l'r Wlt,," Ih" w ssd i. (""",[,Indy filled ,..ith .m/('T.
Solu tion. Vcssd is elllll' )'. Given:
Difference of mercury level
Le t ill "" He igh t of water abo ve X·X
Sr . gL of mercury, Sl = 13,6 ,M
Sr . gr. of watu. SI = 1.0 , I
Density of nU'rcury. P2 '" 13.6 x lOoo 1
Dcnsity o f wmc r. PI '" 1000
I "
Eq uatin g the pressure above datum line X-X. we have
P2 xgxil 2 ""Plxgxil l
1
or 13 .6x IOOOx9.8 1 x 0.2"" lOoox9.8 1 xiii
III "" 2.72 111 of water.
V~ssel is full uf wa te r. When ves.w l is full of water. the Fi g . 2. 12
pressure in the right limb will increase and mercury leve l in the rig ht limb will gu down. Let the
distance throu gh which mercury goes down in the right limb be . ), cm as shown in Fig. 2. 13. The
mercury wi ll rise in the left hy a d ist an ce of)' Clll. Now the datum line is Z-z. Equat ing the pressure
aoove th e datum line Z·z.
Pressure in left lim b"" Pressure in righ t limb
13.6 x WOO x 9.81 x (0.2 + 2)"1100)
'" lOOOx9.8 1 x(3+II I +yI I 00)

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 47 1


13.6 x (0.2 + 2y1lOO) '" (3 + 2.72 + yllOO) hi = 2.72 e rn )
2.72 + 27.2yf1OO '" 3 + 2.72 + )'/ 100
(27.2)' - y)l100 '" 3.0
-- -1
3m
26.21' = 3 x 100 = 300
300
1
y ~ - - = 11.45clIl
26.2 T
The d ifference of mc n; ury le\'e l in twO li mbs
= (20 + 2y) e m of men:ury
.J
1, 1- - - T
1x (2{l + 2y)cm
1",
= 20 + 2 x 11.45 = 20+22.90 i - -'-
F T'
= 42.90 em of mercury
Re ading of manometer'" 42.90 em. AilS. "',
Problem 2.13 A pressure gmlge cOll sis /s of ","0 c)'lilUlrim/ bulbs IJ /1111/ C r(/cl, of /0 sq. em cross-
seclio/l11/ oretl, which ""- cOIIIIl'Cled b y /I U-lUhl' Willi va/jell/limbs ('(wl, of 0.25 sq. em cross-sUliO/wl
/lrn l. A rnl/iqllid of sl'l'cifk gral'il), 0.9 is filled ill/a C 1/1111 c/('(l f Will'" is jilin/ imo B, IIII' S II'ftirF of
Jf'/Ulrtlliu/l bring ill Ihl' limb '1I/Ilci1n{ 10 C. Filii/II/(' ili SplaCf'1II1'I1I of 1/11' sur/art' of sepllrm ;011 will'll IIII'
pressure 011 lilt' sur[net' ill C i s gr,.fllu 1IIfIllilru i illlJ by wr WlIOIIIIII'qUlliio / olr Irpm/ o[II'/II,.r.
Solution. Give n :
Ar~ a o f eac h bulb Band C, 1\= IOc rn 1
Ar~ a of eac h v.:rtical li mb , (I = 0.25 ern 1
Sp. gr. of red liquid = 0.9 Its d~n si l y = 900 kg/m3
Lo< X·X = In ilial se parali on leve l
11(." = Heighl of red liquid above X-X
11[1 = He ighl of watc r abo l'c X-X
Press ure above X-X in lh~ Idllimb = 1000 x 9.81 X "B
Press ure above X-X in the ri g ht limb = 900 x 9.81 x Ire
Eq uatin g the lWO prcssure . we get
IOOO x 9 .81 xll ll ",900x9.81 Xll c
1111 = 0.9 II C .. ·(0
lJ40 lJ40

Wh en the pressure head o\'er lh e surface in C is


inc reased by I cm of wale r. let the separat ion leve l
falls by an amo unt equa l 10 Z. Th en Y- Y b<:co m ~s lh e
fi nal separat ion le l'''l.
Now fall in surfac" IeI'd of C mul tip lied by cross- ",
sec li o nal area o f bulb C mUSl be equ a l 10 the fall in
sc parallon level mullipli ed by cross-scclion al arc a o f INITIAL
SEPARATED
limb. FI NAL.

LEVEL
SEPARATION - , 1:1--- - LEVEL

Fa ll in surface lel'.:1 of C
= Fa ll in separalion kl"eJ x a
Fig . 2.14
A

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148 Fluid Ml>chanics


z X0.25 Z
A 10 40
Also fall ill surfncc level of C
'" Rise in surface level of H
Z
40
The pressure o f I Cln (or 0.0 I In) of water = pgh = 1000 x 9.81 x 0.0 I'" 98.1 N/m2
Consider final separation lev e l Y-Y

Pressure above Y- ¥ in Ihe Jeft limb '" [000 x 9.81 ( + "e + Z)


Z 40

Pressure ahove y. Y in the rig ht limb = 900 x 9 .81 ( Z + !)


Ire - + 98.1

Equating Ihe two pressure, we get

]000 x 9.81 (Z + 11 8 + ! )'" (2 + he - ~ ) 900 x 9.S! + 98.1


Dividing by9.81, we get

1000 (Z+h8 + ! ) '" 900 ( Z+hc - ! )+ 10

Dividing by 1000. we gel Z + lIy + ~ '" 0.9 ( 2 + he - ! )+ 0.01

Btu from cqu3lion (i), "N '" 0.9 he

Z+O. 9h c + Z '" 39Z x O.9+0.9h c + O.QI


40 40
4 !Z 39
--"-x.92+.01
40 40

"' Z(:~ - 394~·9) = .01 Of z(41~t·J) = .01


_ 40xO.OI
Z = = O.067H m = 6.78 ern. Ans.
5.9
2. 6 . J Single Column Manometer. Single colulnn manometer is a 1I1odificd form of a U- IUOC
manometer in wllich a r,,~ r voir. having a large cross·scctional area (about ]00 limes) as compared to
tile area of the tube is connl....:kd 10 one of tile limbs (say left limb) of the manometer a~ shown in Fig. 2. 15.
Due to Jarge cross-sectional are a o f the reservoir. for any va riation in pressure. tile change in tile liquid
level in the reservoir will be very s mall whicll may be neglected and hence tile pressure is given by thc
height of liquid in the other limb. The other limb ma y be vcnical or inclined. Thus thcre are two types
of single column manometer as:
I. Ven icaJ Sin,gle Column Manometer.
2. Inclined Single Column Manom eter.
I. Vertical Single Column Manometer
rig. 2. IS s hows tile vertical single column manometer. Lei X-X bc the datum line in the reservoir
,md in tile right limb of the manomete r. when it is not connected to the pipe. When the manom eter is

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 49 1


conn~ctcd to the pipe. due to high pressure at A. tile heavy liquid in the reservoir will be pushed
downward and will risc in the right limb.
Let 1'>11 '" Fall of heavy liquid in reservoir
I,! '" Rise of heavy liquid in right limb
h, = Heighl of centre of pipe above X-X

T
r
_,r!;~'::'~_:'1R~Yo~:_=~"'Qj
/I" = Pressure at A. w hich is \0 bll measured
A = Cross-section!11 area of the reservoir ",
(I '" Cross-sc(;t;onal area of Ihe right limb 1 y y
S, = Sp. gr. of liquid in pipe
T
$1 = Sp. gr. of heavy liquid in reservoir and right limb
'"
PI = Density of liquid in pipe Fig. 2.15 V"lical si'lgie coll/mn
malwmeur.
Pl = Density of liqu id in reservoir
Fall of heavy liquid in rc!,crvoir will c ause a rise of heavy liquid kvcl in lh", right limb.
A X ~, = (/ X hl

llh = (1)( 112 ... ( i)


A
Now consider the datum line Y-Y as shown in ri g. 2.[5. Then pressu re in the right limb above Y-Y.
Pz x g x (llh + /'2)
=
Pressure in lhe [eft limb above Y-Y = p, x g x (1'111 + Il,) + IJ"
Equaling these pressures. we ha ve
Pl xg x(l'1h + " 1) = p, Xg x {l'1h +/i,)+p"
1'" = P!8 (t'1I! + "0 - p,g(tlh + ",)
"'
= I'1h lPlg - p,g] + "ZPlg - ",p,g

But from eq uation (i), I'1h = a x "1


A

.. .(2 .9)

As the area A is very large as compared 10 fl. hence ratio!!... becomes very s mall and can be
A
neglecled.
Thcnp,,="lP!8 - ",P,g ... ( 2. 10)
From equation (2. 10), it is c lear lhal as ", is known
and hence by knowing /'1 or rise of heavy liq uid in the
right limb. lhe pressure at A call be ca lcu laled .
2. Inclined Single Column Manometer
Fig. 2.16 shows the incli l1ed sin gle (o lumn mal101l\-
e\Cr. This manometer is more sensitive. Due to in(lina-
tion th r dis\ance moved by the heavy liquid in the rig ht Fig. 2.16 Inclined single coll/mn
limb will be more. manometer.

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Iso Fluid Ml>chanics

Let L", Length o f licavy liquid moved in right limb from X -X


e = Inclination ofrighllirnh Wilh horizontal
11 2 '" Vertical rise of heavy liquid in ri gh t limb from X-X ", L x sin e
From equ ation (2.10), Ihe pressure at A is
II... = "~P2g - "IPlg·
Substituti ng the val ue of 11 2, we gCI
e
/I,., = sin x P28 - h lPlg· ... ( 2 . 1 I )
Problem 2.14 A single coluIIIn manometer is cOIlller/ed /0 (I pipe comaillins a liquid of sp. gr. 0.9
as slloll'n ill Fig. 2./7. Find lite pressure ill the pipe if the orea of Ihe reserl'Oir is 100 limes Ihe area
of lite rube for IIIe mmwme/er reading ShOIl"1I in Fig. 2.17. The specific grol'ity of mercury is 13.6.
Solution. Gi ve n:
Sp. gr . of liquid in pipe. St = 0.9
Density
Sp. gr. of heavy liqu id.
PI = 900 kglm )
S 2 = 13 .6
f
I"
Density. p, '" I1.6 x 1000
Area of reservoi r '" ~ '" 100
Area of right limb a
1
Hcigtlt of liquid. hi::: 20 ern '" 0.2 rn
Ri se of mercury in right limb. f".g . 2 .17
h Z =40un=0.4m
Let PA = Pressure in pipe
Using equation (2.9). we get

"
PA = -A IhlpzR
- - PIS! + hop,S
• - - "IPIS
1
: - X 0.4[13.6 x 1000 )( 9.81 - 900 x 9.81 J + 0.4 x [3.6 x 1000 )( 9.8 1 - 0.2 x 900 x 9.81
100
== 0.4 [1 3341 6 _ 8829 ) + 53366.4 _ 1765.8
100
= 533.664 + 53366,4 - 1765.8 Nlmz = 52 [34 Nlmz = 5.21 Niem I. A ilS •

.. 2 . 7 DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETERS

Diff.:rcmial manomcters arc th e d.:viees used for mcasuring th e differencc of pressures betwee n
two poims in a pipe or in two differelll pipes. A differential manometer l'Ons iSls of a U· lUbe. coma in·
in g a heavy liqu id. whose two ends are con nected to lhe poinls. whose difference of pressure is 10 be
measured . Most commonly types of differential manometers arc:
!. U·tube differential lIlano lll eter and
2. In ve n ed U·tu bc diffe rent ia l manometer.
2 . 7 . 1 U - tube Differential Manometer. Fig. 2.18 shuws the differential manumeters of
U·tubc type.

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 511

T
,
, T
t
1 t '1-- '
, -- J" ,
(a)Two rHpes at differenllevels (b) A aJ'ld B ale at the sa me Ieve1
Fig. 2.18 U-wbe difftr..nlial manomtll"l'$.
In Fig. 2.18 (ll). the tWO points A and 8 are at different level and also contai ns liquid s of different
sr. g r. These point~ are C{lonecled 10 the U -luhe differential manometer. Le t th e pressure al A "fld B
arc I'A and PB"
Le\ ,,= Difference of mercury level in the U -tune.
Y'" Distance o f th e cCl1m: o f B, from the mercury level in the right limh.
x'" Distall(;c of the l-emrc o f A. from thc mercury level in the right limb.
PI = Density of liquid at A.
P 2 = Density of liquid al B.
p & = Density of he avy liquid or m<:rcury.
Taking dmum lin e m X-X.
Pressure abo ve X-X in Ihe left limb '" Plg(1J + x) + 1',\
wherc p,\ '" pressure at A.
Pressure above X-X in the rigllt limb '" P~ x g X II + P~ X g X Y + 1'8
wllere 1'8 '" Pressure 3t 8.
Equ ating tile two pressure. we Ilave
Plg(1! + x) + I'll '" PJ X g x I! + P28Y + P/I
P.t - pB '" P, x g X II + P!G)' - Plg(1I + x)
'" It x g(P J - PI) + P2g), - Plgx ... (2. 12)
Difference of pressure at A and 8 '" I! x g(PJ - PI) + Pig)' - Plg.t·
In Fig. 2. 18 (b), the two points A and lJ are at the same le ve l and contains tile s.ame liquid of den sity
PI' Tlien
Pressure aboveX·Xin rigllt limb '" p.xg xl, + PI xg xX +PB
Pressure above X -X in le ft limb '" PI x g x (II + xl + p ...
Equati ng the two press ure
P, x g X II + Plgx + 1'/1 '" PI X g x (II + xl + JIll
I'" - JIB'" p. X g x I! + p ,gx - p,g(1I + x)
'" g x lI(p~ - PI)' ... ( 2 . 13)
Problem 2.15 A pip .. COIII{lillS (11/ oil of sp. gr. 0.9. A diff"'''l!Iia/ 1I/1II1<I1II .. I..r mllllfC/e(1 <1/ /11 .. IWO
poillls A (I//(I Jj SIIOWI <I diff~ '<'II("" ill lIIe ,nltJ' 1"1"1'/ {U 15 CIII. Filllllh .. diff~ '<'II("" of Jlr..ssl"" III lit .. /11'0
poims.

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152 Fluid Ml>chanics

Solution. Given:
Sp. gr. of oil. 3
Density. PI "" 0.9 x I()(K)" 900 kg/rn
Difference in rncn:ury level. I,: lSClll=O.ISm
Sp. gr. of rncffury. Ss = 13.6 Density, p~ = 13.6 x [000 kglm J
The diffcl\)ncc of pressure is given by equation (2. 13)
f',t - PB" g X h{P, - PI)
'" 9.8! x 0. 15 (13600 - 9(0) '" 186K!1 N/m!. Ans .
Problem 2.16 A difJrTl'1IIiai m"""",,,'l''' i .• (',,""N"/I'll (l/ flIP Iwo Iminl s A ",,,18 "f I ... " l'ipl's {I$
SilO,.." ill Fig. 2./9. Til .. p'iN' A . 'omaills a Ii'll/itf of 31" gr. = 1.5 ... /,i/" [}ip" lJ collwillS 1I liquid "I
w- gr. = 0.9, Til" prnmrn a/ II mnlH (If" I kgflrm ! IIlIff /,80 kgJ7m/ rl'.!prrlil"r/y. Fi"d I/U'
dijJrrf'IICf ill mereu,)' /","/'I ill Ih" (Iiffrrnllitd """!(Jllli'lrr. Sp . gr." ' .5
PA =1 kg/1mi'
SolutIon. Given:
Sp.gr.ofliquidatA, SI = I.S
Sp. gr. of liquid at /J. 52 "" 0.9
.. PI"" 1500
Pl"" 900 [ Sp, gr.=0.9

~
Pressure at A. PA = I kgflcm 1 = 1 x 10· I.:gffm 2
= 10"x9 ,81 Nfm!('; 1 I.: gf=9.81 N)
2.0m Pe = 1.8 kgflan'
1'8'" 1.8 ~gflcm 2
Pressure al 8,
= 1.8 x 104 kgffrn l
,
~

lknsity of mercury
=1.8xlD"x9.81 Nfm2 (": Ikgf = 9.81N) x
= 13.6 x 1000 kgfm J
r
Taking X-X as datum line.
Fig. 2.19
Pressure above X-X in the left limb
= 13.6 x lO00x9.8 1 xh+ 1500x9.8 1 x(2+3)+/J,\
'" 13.(; x 1000 x 9.8 1 x II + 7500 x 9.81 + 9.8 1 x 104
Pressure above X-X in the right limb '" 900 x 9.81 x (11 + 2) + Pfl
=900x9.8 1 x(h+ 2)+ 1.8 x 10"x9.81
Equ at ing the two pres.<;ure. we get
13.6 x 1000 x 9.81// + 7500 x 9.81 + 9.81 x 10·
'" 900 x 9.81 x (II + 2) + 1.8 x 10" x 9.81
Dividing by 1000 x 9.81. we gel
13.6/1 + 7.5 + 10 = (h + 2.0) x.9 + 18
13,6/1+ 17.5=0.911+ 1.8 + 18=0.9h+ 19.8
{l3.6 - 0.9)11 '" 19.8 - 17.5 or 12.711 '" 2.3
"' 23
,,= --
12.7
=0.181 III = 18.1 em . AIlS .

Problem 2 .17 A dijJfrl'mi(l/lIwlwllwli'r i~ ("",,,w("li'd (If IIU' 1"'0 Imims A (/Jut H (IS sho"'" ill
Fig. 2.20. AlII "ir prnsurl' ;,' 9.8/ NiemI ((11M). find Ihl' "b,<oll1/l' prl'S$llrf lI/ A.
Solution. Given:
Ai r pressure al II '" 9.8 1 N/cm l
1'8=9.81 x lO"N/m l
"'

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 53 1


IXnsity of oil '" 0.9 x 1000 '" 900 kg/m 3
Density of me rcury '" 13.6 x 1000 kg/fill
Let the pressure at A is P,1
T:lking datu m line ~t X·X
Pressure above X-X in the right limb
= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.6 + I'll
'" 5886 + 98100 = 103986 Oil OF
Pressure above x-x in Ihe Icfllimb Sp. gr. ~O . 9
'" 13.6x I OOOx9.81 xO.1 +900 ,
x9.81 xQ.2+PA
= 1334 1.6 + 1765.8 + I'"
Equating Ihe two pressure head s
103986 = 1334 1.6 + 1765.8 + PA
p,\ '" 103986 - 15107.4 '" 88876.8 Fig. 2.20
2
88876.8N N
p", '" 88876.8 N/rn = , = 8.887 -~,.
lOQOOc m " e ll) "
Absolute pressure at A = 8.887 Nf(m l , Ans.
2. 7.2 Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer. [[ consists of an inverted U-Wht:,
cont ainillg a light liquid. The two ends of lh~ tube arc connected to the points whose diffacncc of
pressure is to be measured. h is used for me asuring difference of low pressures. Fig. 2.21 shows an
invc n ed U-tube different ial manometer connected to thc two point!; A and 8. Lct the pressurc at A ,s
more than the pressure at 8.
Let II, = Height of liq uid in left limb below the datum line X·X ,
II! = Heigh t of liquid in right limb
- , ~

II == Differe nce of light liquid


p, == Density of liquid al A
P 2 = Densi ty of liquid al /J
P, == Densi ty of light liquid
p" '" Pressure at A
PB = Pressure at /J.
Taking X-X as dat um li ne. Then pressure in the left limh below X-X ,
==p,,- p,xgxiI,. Fig. 2.2 1
Pressure in the right limb be low X-X
"'PB - P2 xg X /1 2 - P.xg X II
Equating the two pressure
1'" - p, x 8 X II, == I'B- p! X 8 X /12 - P. X g X II
I',,-I'B = 1', xg X " I - P! xg x1l 2 - p. xg x II. . .. (2 . 14 )
"'
Problem 2.18
m(l1lOm~l~r Iwvillg '111 fJii fJfsp. gr. 0.8 is CO"'''''·I(>(/. Th~ p'f'.""'~ /"'(1(/ ill 1/'" pip~ A i .• 2 /11 of»"fIIf".
jim/I/lf' pressure ill Ilu' pip" II fo r Ih" ",UllfJmNl'r re(l(lillg.1 a.1 sllo»"11 ill Fig. 2.22.
Solulion. Given:
Pressule head at A == p" =2 III ofwal~r
pg
1',j==jJxgx2= IOOOx9.81 x2= 19620Nlm~
Fig. 2.22 shows the arrangement. Taking X-X as datum linc.
I>rcs;;urc below X-X in the left limb '" p" - PI X g X /' 1

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154 Fluid Ml>chanics

'" 19620 - 1000 x 9.81 x 0.3 '" 16677 N/m!. 6''''>o, OIL of
Sp. gr. 0.8
Pressure below x-x in the ri~hl limb -,
=PB - 1000x9.81 xO.I - 800x9.81 xO. 12
=PR - 98 1 - 941.76=PR - 1922.76
Equati ng Ih e t wO pressure. we gel
16677 =PR-1922.76
or I'll '" 16677 + 1922.76 ", 18599.76 Nfrnl WATER

or I'll '" I.KS\l9 NIcOl!, AilS. Fig . 2.22

Problem 2.19 III Fig. 2.23. (III im'fr/n/ (flffarmio/liumOIlJl'lfr i~ romlfclnJ IQ ''''0 pi"t'S A /IIullJ
",/lid, COIIW)' "'tUa. TIll' jlI,id ill IHmWlllflFr is oil ofsp_ gr. 0.8. Ff" 1/,(, IIWIWl/lnU rl'(IIIill85 showll ill
,II .. fig"'''. jiml IIU' l'rf $S/lrf difJrrl'lu'f' hp/wi'('11 It (111(/ B. OIL of
Solution. Given: Sp. g'. 0.8
,- -x
Sr. gr. of oit
Difference of oil in Ihe two li mbs
= 0.8
I:
Taking datum lin e 31 X-X
=(30+ 20) - 30 = 20cI11
H
Pressure in th e left limb tJ..,]ow X-X 11
=PIl - IOOOx9.81 xO Fig. 2.2.3
'" p" - 2943
Pressure in the ri ght limb be low X-X
"'p,, - IOOO x9.8 1 xO.J - 800x9.8 1 xO.2
"'I',, - 2943 - 1569.6"'p" - 45[2.6
Equating the twO pressure 1',,- - 2943 '" 1'" - 4512.6
p" - p,, '" 4512.6 - 2943 '" 1569.6 N/m ~. A"-~ .
Problem 2 .20 Fimf 011/ Ilw dijJl'rfllli(ll rnulillg 'iI' of 1111 im'erletl U-Iube 1I1lI1I01II<'11'r collwillillg oil of
sl",cijic grm-ity 0.7 <IS III<' m(l/lOmelric j/I,ili Wilfll COIIII<'clnl <lrrOS5 pipes A 111111 JJ (IS 5i1owII ill Fig. 2.24
below. cO/wfyillg liqllids ojW('("ijic grlll-itin 1.2 will 1.0 111111 immiscible wilh 1IU1/lOlIwlric j/llill. Pil><'5 A
IIIIIILJ lire lorflled III Ihe 5WI/<' lerel lIIul a55W"" Ihe 1'11'551111'5 (/I A (IIu/ B 10 be eqlla/.
Solution. Given: &"""' j'.".~.'
Fig. 2.24 shows th e arrangement. Taking X-X as datum [Inc.

Density of liquid in pipe A


p,,- '" Pressure at A
1'" '" Pressure at B
'" Sp. gr. x 1000
,
-r-"
,
gr·t .O

'" 1.2 x 1000


'" 1200 kglm
2 ~-
w=
Density of liquid if] pipe B '" I x [000 '" 1000 kg/m) ~-
Density of oi l '" 0.7 x 1000", 700 kgfm3
Fig. 2.24

II Ii
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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 55 1


Now pressure below X-X in the left limb
"p" - 1200 x 9.81 x 0.3 - 700 x 9.81 x"
rrc~urc below x-x in the right lilnb
=P8 - 1000 )(9.81 x (h + 0.3)
Equati ng the two pres,ure. we get
1'.-I-1200x9.81 xO.3-700)(9.81 Xh=Pn-1QO(}x9.81 (11+0.3)
But p", = 1'8 (given)
1200 x 9.81 )( 0.3 - 700 x 9.81)( II = - 1000 x 9.81 (II + 0.3)
Dividing by 1000)(9.8 1
- 1.2 xO.3 - 0.711 = - (II + 0.3)
0.3 x 1.2 + 0.711 = " + 0.3 or 0.36 - 0.3 = Ir - 0.7/1 = 0.311
"'
II = 0.)6 - 0.30 0.06
"--m
0.30 0.30
I
1l1=~X 100 = 20 em. Ans.
5
Problem 2.21 All illw'rll'd U-II/be 1/1(1/10111('/'" i~ colIIlN"/ed /0 /11'0 lror;:ollllli pipn A /lml IJ
Ihrollgh ...flich Wain is flowitlg. Thl' W'rrical (/iSlalln' bnwl'fll Ihl' (/.\"t'S of tllest' pipn is 30 ('III. II'hl'lI
WI oil ofspeciftr grm'il)' 0.8 is 1151'(/ (U (I glluge f/llitl, I/U' "l'rlicollwiglw ofwlI/a ro/mlllls ill I/W two
limbs of Ow ill"erln! m(IHOIllflU ( ""WI! /IINI.,urn/ from Ihl' rl'Sl'f("I;"(' {'('mr(' lillI'S of Ilw ,,'PI'S) lin'
fmll/(Ito hI' SlI/IIf (IIu/ I'(I,wl to 35 Oil. Dnrrmillf till' l/ijJfr('ll{,(, of prnSllrf hl'n"ffll till' pipl'S,

SolutJon. Given :
S..,.,cific gravity of measuring liq uid "" 0.8 . gr. =O.B

The arrallgelll<'nl is shown in Fig. 2.24 (ll).


leI PA = pressure at A
PI!" pressure at R.
The poilUs C and /) lie on th e same horizomal line.
Hence pressure at C should be equal to pressure at D.
But pressure at C ""fl,, - pgh
'" 1'" - 1000 x 9.81 x (0.35) WATER
And pressure at /) '" PB - p,gh, - P28 11 2
"" jiB - 1000 x 9.81 x (0.35) - 800 x 9.81 x 0.3
BUI pressu re at C", pres;;urc at D
B
JiA - 1000 x 9.&1 x .35 Fig . 2.2~ fa)
"'p/i - lOOOx9.81 xO.35 - 8oox9.81 x 0.3
or 8OOx9.&1 X 0.3 "'PB - PA
N
JiE - PA'" 800 x 9.81 x 0.3 == 2J54.4 -I. Ans.
"' on

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156 Fluid Ml>chanics

.. 2.8 PRESSURE AT A POINT IN COMPRESSIBLE FLUID

For compress ible fiu ids . densit y (p) changes wilh tlie c han ge of pressure and te mperature . Such
pro blems arc e nco un te red in aeronautic s. ocean og raph y and meteoro logy where we arc con ce rn ed
with atm os ph eric * air where dens it y. press ure and temperature changes with e le vati o n. Thu s for fluid s
wilh varia bl e densi ty. equatio n (2.4) canno t be integ rated. unless th e relatio nship betwee n p and p is
kn ow n. Fo r g ~ scs th e equatio n of state is

1!.. '" NT ... (2. 15)


P
- p
p - NT
dp P
No w equat io n (2 .4) is - =w=pg = - Xg
ilZ NT
"I' = ...1...,/Z ... (2.1 6)
P RT
In equat ion (2.4 ). Z is meas ure d ve rticall y dow n ward . But if Z is me asured ve rti call y up , th en
d[1
- "" - pg and hence e quation (2. 16) beco mes
"l
= .=L tlZ
tip ... (2. 17)
I' RT
2 .S. 1 Isothermal Process. CotSI' I. [f temperature T is constant which is true for isot hC'rmalllroc-
tOSS. equ ati o n (2 .1 7) ca n be ill1cgral~ d as

I
p
til' '" _jZL(fz= _L JZd:
P. f' 1" RT RT Z.

I' -g
log - ~ - IZ - 2;. 1
Po
NT
whcrepo is th e pressure where he ight is Zo. Ir the d atum lin e is Hlke n at Zo. th en Zo = 0 and 1'0 bo:co mcs
th", pressure at d:llulil linc.

log L = ::.!. z
Po NT

L = ('- ..11FT
p,
or pressure at a hciglit Z is give n by I' = PrI'- S7/KT' • • •( 2.18)

2 . B. 2 Adiabat ic Process. If tc m pc ralllrc T is not constant bu t the process follows adiabatic


law th en the relati on be twee n pressure and density is g i ve n by
I'
-t = Conslanl = C ...(il
P

• The standard atmospheric pressure. temperawre and dcnsily referred 10 STP at {he sea-level are :
Pressure .. 101.325 k.N/m l; Temperature", 15°C and ();:,nsily = 1.225 I;:glm J.

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 57 1


where k is ratio of specific constant.

". . .. ( i i)

Then equation (2.4) for Z measured vert ically up becomes.

til' =_pg= _(,,)II. g


III C
tip _ III til' _
Ilk =-gdZur e ~I~ =-8'/Z

(~l pc
Inlcgrating. we gel ) " em I' III: ill' = j Z_glfZ
" '"

". [C is 3 constant. can be laken inside I

But from eq uation (;),

Substituting this va lue of e llt above. we gel

[ -""'
p
-~
]'
'"
, ,.
p
p 1
- - +1
lZ - Z-o J
= - g-

or
[ p~l'• = - g[Z - ZoJor [-'~ !C1P
l
P •
!
/.:-1 P
~
= - g[2 - 201

". ' [£,_PO] =-gIZ-ZoI


k-l P Po
If datum line is taken :Il 4" when: prcs.<;ure. temperature and density arc Po. To :md Po. then 4 = O.

_'~ [.f.._PO] = _ gZ or l!.. _ ES!..= _ gZ(k-l)


k-IPP o PPo k

or l!..=PO_gZ(k-l)",ft [ l _k-l gZfu]


P Po k po k po

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Iss Fluid Ml>chanics

0. i!.. xPn
P Po
=[1+/::- 1gZfu]
Po
k
... (iii)

But from equ at ion (il,


?p~
l' '" Po or [&.)k
P
'" ElLporP
Po " ( "'-)'"
I'
Substituting th e va lu e o f £.£. in equation (iii). we gel
P
P
I'a x (P )'" [
Po
] /::- 1 - Po
" 1- - , - gZ 1'0

-
Po
p
[ )-'" [
, -
l'o
P ] /:: - 1
,, 1- - - gZ.....2..
k
P
Po

0. (Ll'-i"[L)';' =[, _'-:c',z&.]


Po l'o k po
,
Po
.l!...."
k
[1_/::-1 gZPo]N
Po
Press ure at a he ight Z from ground leve l is g iven by
,
p '" Po[1 - I fu]G
k
gZ
k-
Po
... (2 . 19)

In equat io n ( 2.19), P o '" pressure al gro und leve l. where 1 0 '" 0


Po '" densiTy of air at ground leve l

Equation of Slale is Po : R1 0 0r££.: - ' -


Po Po RIo
Substitutin g the va lu es o f Po in eq uatio n (2. 19), we ge l
Po
,
2
[ '-k-' -RTo
1'=1'0 1- - 8- ]'-' ... (2.20)

2. B. 3 Temper<lture at any Point in Compressible Fluid. For the adiab at ic process. the
lemperature al any height ill air is \' alc ulm cd as :
Equ ati o n of stale at gro und leve l and al:t heig ht Z from grou nd levd is wri llc n as

Po -- Ri'0
- 3n dJ!... -
- Ri'
Po P
Dividing thcse cqualio ll s. we get

" O)+J!...=RTo = l n or -Po x -P =-To


( Po PRTT Po I' T

". !..- =&. x J!...=..E.... x Po .. .(i)


IQ po P Po P

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 591


But L from ~qualion (2.20) is given by
P.

L== [l_lr.- l /1Z ]i-=i
Po k RTo

Also for adiabatic process 4 = p~


P Po
or (!2]t
P
== ['0
J!

0' P; . [I;:]'. [:J'


. [1-' - 1,2](: ,].( ;) . [1-' - 1,z]
k RTo k R ro

L £..2.. in cqu<ltion

·
Substituting the values of :md (I). we get
Po P
,
~ =[1_ /.: - 1gZ ]t-i X[1_ k-1 /lZ ]-t:1
1'0 k RIo

' [l _~gZ ]i=I-i-=i = [J_k-J


k Kin
·, k RTo

k
/lZ ]
K/0

T= "' "o [ I- '-;-!To


k 1 2] ...(2.21)
2. 8 .4 T~mperiiture Lapse-Rate ( L) . [\ is defined as the rate at which the te mperature
changes with elevation. To obtain an expression for Ihe tcmpc ralllrc lapsc-ralc, Ihe IC lll pcrJllIrC given
by cqumioll (2.21) is diffcrcmimcd with respect to Z as

:~: ,;~ [To (l_k;J :~J]


==

where To_ K, II and R arc constant

;~~ = _ k;IXR~o X70= -:(";1)


The t<!mpcraturc lapse-rate is denoted by L and hence

I. = -tiT . - -1I (k-l) -- ... (2. 22)


. dZ /{ (JT
k
In cquation (2.22). if (i) k '" I whIch mcans isothermal process. - '" 0, which means temperature
is constant with height. dZ
(ii) If k > 1. the lapse· rate is negative which mca[lS temperature decreases with the increase in
heigh!.
In atmosphere. the value of k varies with height and hence the valu~ ofte11lpcrJlure I<lpse·rate also varies.
From the sea·level upw an elevation of aboul 11000 III (or II km), the teillperalure of air dec~a>cs
unifonnly at the ratc of 0.0065"Chll. from 11000 1\1 10 32CXJO Ill, the telllp"rature rellla ins ronst3nt
at - 56.5°C and hence in this range lapse·rate is :tero. Temperature rises again after 320Cl0 10 in air.

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160 Fluid Ml>chanics

Problem 2 .22 (SI Units) if rhe a/1II()Jpilere pres,~ure (1/ .~ea /el'e/ is 10. 143 Nkm ! , derami/Ie Ihe
pressure m a ''''igM of 2500 III aS$lwling Ille pressure mriarirm follows (i) Hydros/a1ie lim', and
J
(ii) isolhermal law. The density of oir is gil'en as 1.208 1r.g1m •
Solution. Given :
Press ure at se a-level. Po = 10.1 4 3 N/c1111 = 10. 14 3 x I O~ N/rn l
Height. 2 =2500 111
1
!knsi ty of air. Po = 1.208 kg/nr
(I) Press u re by hyd rostatic h, w. For hyd ro static law. p is assumed constallt and hence p is g ive n
. dp
by equalloll - = - pg
dZ

In teg ratin g . we get


fPdp '" f - pg dz= - pg f .Zd Z
Po 70
0' P - Po= - pg IZ - Zol
For da\tJlll lin c at sea- le ve l. Zo = 0
P - Po =- pgZ or P=Po - pgZ
= 10.143 x Itr - I.208x9.81 x 2500 [ ": P=Po= 1.208]
N 7 ]804
'" 10 1430 - 29626 = 71 804 ---y or __,_ N/c m 2
m 10
= 7. 18 Ni em I. Am .
( ii) I'rcss ur e by Iso therm a l Law. Pressure at an y h ~ i g ht Z by isoth cnnal Inw is give n by equ ation
(2. 18) as

-~
= 10. 143 x 1 0~ e r.

-~
= 10. 143 X 10 4 e I'l>
= 10 . 143 x I 0 4 e (_ lloOO . ) ,1(IB x 9,8) JllO.)43. )If'

= IOl4 30xe .291 = 10 1430x - ' - = 7574 3 Nlm2


1.339 1
75743 1 , Z
=~ Nlc l11 = 7.574 N/cm • An s.
Problem 2 .23 The barOlllelric p,,·s,m re ar .fea lel'e/ ;,5 7601111/1 of lIIercury ..... hile Ihm on a 1II00WIlIin
J
lOp i.f 735 111111. If lite d<'fu;ry of air is a.f.fljllled COl/SWill m 1.2 kg/III , ..... har ;s Ihe eiel'arion of Ihe
IIIOll1l1ain lOp?
Solution. Gi ve n :
Pressure· at s.c a , Po = 760 111111 of Hg

= 760 x 13.6 x 1000 x 9.8 1 N/m2 = 10 1396 N/ml


'000
• Here pressure head (Z) is given as 760 mm of Hg Hence (pfpg) .. 760 mm of Hg. The density (p) for mercury

'" 1J.6 x 1000 ~glmJ. Hence prcssure (p ) will Dc cqual to p x g X Z i.f .. 13.6 x 1000 x 9.81 x : : NI1111.

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Pressure ilnd its Mea surement 61 1


Pressure al mount ain. p '" 735 11lI1i of Hg
735 ,
= - - x 13.6 x Hloo x 9.81 = 98060 N/m-
lOoo
Iknsity of ai r . p = 1.2 kg/ml
Let ,,= Height of the mountain from sea-level.
We know Ihm as the elevation above the sea-level increases. the atmospheric pressure dc.::rcascs.
He re the density of air is given conSlallt. hence the pressure 31 any heighl .". above the sea-Icvel is
given by the equation.
1'=Po- pXgxh
It = Po - II", 101396 -98060 = 21B ..B m . ADS.
pXg 1.2x9.8 1
Problem 2.24 Ca/r"/ll/(' Ih" prnsllrt' at {/ 11I'iglll of 7500 II! nbol'f 51'(1 Inri if IIIf' 111lI1osplwric-
press",.. is JO.14.i Nkm~ lind IfillpUaillre is 15°C (1/ IIlI' se a ·/{'\·e/. (lsslImillg (;) tli, is illcompn'Mib/(',
(ji) pnSSllrl" WIr;m;OIl follows iso/hal/wi /m>l. mllf (iii) f"fS5Jf 1"1" \'(,,;111;011 /01/0,,"5 (II/;lIb(l/;(' low, T nkf'
Ihe tlnlsit)' of <lir (1/ III(' snI -lr\'e/ (IS r"l/ollo 1.285 kg/llr'. Nrglrcl \'Orilllioll of g wilh Illlilll<"'.
Solution. Given:
Height aoove sea-level. Z", 7500 III
Pressure at sc a- lel'el. 4 2
1'0" 10. 143 N/cml" 10.143 )( 10 N/m
Temperature at sca-level. 10 '" 15°C
To" 273 + IS" 288°K
Density of air, P = Po = 1.285 kg/ml
(I) Prn.wn ,../1f/! (lir is i,u'OIll/'U'Hibll':

"p
,'Z = - pg
f Pdp = - f ZpgdZ or I' - ['0 = - pg[Z - lol
'0 4
1'''l'o-pgZ [.: lo"datumline"O)
= 10.143)( 104 - 1.285)( 9.81 )( 7500
= 101430 - 94543 = 6887 N/rn l " O.6~~~ , Ans,
em "
(ii) f'nsslITl' l"(lrimioH follows iSOlIiI'rIll(lI/ow:
Using equation (2.18), we have /, = PrI' Jl/II.T

= f'o e ,lPn'po {-: ~: = R T :. ~: = ;A


= 101430 ,,- Jl.(>rjPo = 101430,,-7500~ 12'!5~9811101~.\(I
= 101430 ('- .9.120 = 101 4 30 x .39376
= .W9.W N/m~ or .t99 .~ N/em! . Ans.
(iii) Prl'.f$Urp mrim;,m fl,lI",,"s ",/i,,/wli(" I"",,: [k = 1.41

'I
Using equation (2. 19), we have , where Po = 1.285 kg/m
l

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162 Fluid Ml>chanics

,.
p = I 0 1430 1- (1.4 - 1.0) x9.81)( -,( 7"5"00,,X 5) J' .
.:,',.,2:::8," _1.0
[ 1.4 101430
'" 10 1430 II - .2662 1' ''''· == 10 1430 X (.7337) 3.5
, N
'" .\4.'10 Nfm - or .'.431 - -, . AIl~ .
,m'
Problem 2.25 Ca/ndllll' lilt' prnsllre (//1(/ dn/sit)' Of air (1/ II Iwight of 4000 III from 5I'1I-/PI'l'lwl!frt'
prf ss,,,/' (I/UI {('III/N' ralllrf' of /111' (lir (/rl' 10. 143 Nkm- (jill! J5°(.' rnpaliw/),. TIll' Il'lIIpff(llllrl' 1111'S('
raIl' is g;1'I'1I as OJXJ65°CIIII. Take <I""5il), of oir <1/ Ull-/(,I'ei (''1IIl1/IO 1.285 kglllri.
Solution. Given :
~lc ig h l. Z=4000 m
, , N
Pressure 31 sea-level. 1'0= 10. 143 Nlcm-= 10. 143x 10 = 10 1430 - ,
m
Tc mpc rmu rc at sea-leve l. 10= 15°C
To'" 273 + IS == 288° K
tiT
Te mperat ure lapse- rate. L= - = - O.0065° Kfm
dZ
Po::: 1.285 kg/ml

Using cq u ~t ioll (2.22). we h ~l VC L= tiT


dZ
=_1.(' -')
R k

_ OJI065= _ 9.81 ( k - ' ).WhcrcR= ~ = 10 1430 =274.09


R k PaTo L185x 288
- 0.(1065: -9.81
274.09 k
x(k-')
k - ] = 0.0065 x 274.09 =0. 181 5
k 9,8]
kl]- . 18 15]: I

k= - ' - '" 1.222


.1815 .8 184
This means that the va lue o r powe r ind ex k'" 1.222.
(il I'r~ss ur~ at 4000 m he igh t i ~ givcn by cq uation (2. 19) as

k- '
P"'l'o I - - - ,Z - o
[
pJ," ,w herck= 1.222 and Po'" 1.285
k 1'0
un
'" 10 1430 [ , _ ( 1.222 - 1.0 ) x 9.&1 x 4000 x 1.285 ]1.222 - [.0
P 1.222 101430
'" 1 0 1 430 [I - O.0915.~ ", I0 1430x.595
, N
'" 60350 Nfm '" (j.O.~5 - - • . Ans.
cm -

I I Ii
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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 63 1


(ii) I)" nsil y. Us in g eq uation of s tate. we get

,
.e = RT
where f' == Pressure at 4000 111 heigh t
P == Density al 4000 III height
T", Te mperatu re at 4000 III lic igh t
Now T is calc ulated from temperatu re la pse-ralc as
<IT
lat4000m = 10 +x 4000 = 15-,(1065 x 4000 = 15-26=-II °C
-
<12
T=273+1=273 - 11 = 262QK
P 60350 3 3
Densi ty is given by P == RT = 274 .09 x 262 kglll1 '" O.K4 k glm . AilS.

Problem 2.26 All II1'rUpillllt' is flyillg III WI {,I/;Im'" of 5000 III. C,lIn,/ale IIlI' prf'SSIIrf' tlrol/llI/liI"
Ql'rop/mw, g;\'1'1I liIl' IlIpSI'-rll/(' ill IIIl' atlllosphrrl' liS OlXJ65° Kim. N('gll'c/ "'tria/ioll of g wilh III/iIUdl'.
TakF puss/lfe 11m! umprr(l/ilre (1/ grol/lld lewl (IS 10.143 Nlclll~ (///(I 15°C (llid dellsity of air (IS
1.285 kg/ow'.
Solution. Given:
Height. Z=5000m
,rr
Lapse-rate. 1. == - = - .0065 KJm Q

dZ
Pressure at ground leve l. 1'0 = 10.143 x IO~ N/ml
'0= 15°C
To = 273 + 15 = 288" K
Density. Po = 1.285 kglm)

Te mperature at 5000 m hright " To + af x Height" 288 - .0065 x 5000


elZ
,,288 - 32.5" 255.5°K
First find the va lu e or power indcx k as

From equat ion (2.22). wc have __ .If =_ _ 1.. (k- l )


1_ _
(rz H. k

or _.0065 =_ 9!I ( k ~ l )

where H. ",...EE.....", 10 1430 ,,274.(]9


Po To 1.285 x 288

_ .0065=_~(k-l)
274.09 k
k", 1.222
The pressure is giv~n by equation (2.19) as

"=1'0[ 1--- gZ~


k-I , ]1.',)
k 1'0

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164 Fluid Ml>chanics

l,ll2

== 10 [430 [I_( 1.222 - 1.0 ) x 9.8 1 x 5000 x 1.285] '-:12- '-0


1.222 10 1430
l.lll

'" 101430 [ 1- .222 x9.81 X 5000 X 1.28S j ,222


1.222 10 1430
S
'" 101430 [I - Q.112S81 ,S<J '" 101430 x 0.5175 '" 52490 Nlm 3
= 5.249 N/cm !. AIlS.

HIGHLIGHTS

I . The press ure at any point in a fluid is defined as the force per unit area ,
2. The Pascal's law ,tates that intensity ()f prc.. ure for a fluid .11 rest is equal in all direction •.
~ . l>ressure variation at a point in a fluid at reSt is given by the hydrostatic law which siate, thai the rate of
incre:''''' of pres,ure in the vertically downward direction is equal 10 the specific weight of the fluid.

tip _w*pxg.
dl
4. The pressure at any point in a incompressible fluid (liquid) is equal to the produ(,! of density of fluid at
Ihm point. :lcccleralion duc to grnvity and verlical heigh! from free surface of nuid.
p .. pXgxZ.
S. Absolute pressure is the pressure in which absolute vacuum pressure is taken as datum while gauge
pl'C'ssure is the pressure in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum.
p_ = p _ + 1'_1<
6. Manomeler is a device used for measuring pressure at a point in a nuid.
7. Manomelers arc classified as (n) Simple manometers and (b) Differentia l manometers.
8. Simple manometers all' used for measuring PIl'SSUIl' al a point while differentialmanomelers all' used for
measuring the difference of pressures belween the IWO poims in a pipe. or two different pipes.
9. A ~ingle column manomeler (or micromeler ) is used for measuring small pressures, where accuracy is
required.
10. The pressure al" poim in SIalic compressible fluid is oblained by combining Iwo equ~lions. i.e .. equal ion
of Slale for a gas and equ~lion given by hydroslalic law .
I L The pressure at a height Z in a stalic compressible fluid (gas) under going isolhennal compression

p " Po c rZlRT
where I'~ " Absolute pressure at sea-Iewl or al ground le\'el
Z .. Height from sea or ground le"el
R .. Gas conSlam
T ~ Absolute lemperalure.
12. The pressure and lempcmlurc al a heighl Z in a SIalic compressible fluid (gas) undergoing adiabalic
compression (plpi = consl. )
, ,
[ k-I . P"j" [k-I gZ ]I,'i
I'=Po l - - , - gZ 1'0 = /'oI- - '-RT
o

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 65 1


and temperature, T ~ To
[1- -Hk- -RTo
'Z-l
"here Po. To are pressure and tcmpcmture at sea-level k" 1.4 for air.
13. The ratc at which the tcmrcr~ture changes with elevation is known as Tempermure Lapse-Ratc. It is
given by

-'R ('-')
L .- --
,
if (i) k E I. temperature is Zero.
(ii) k > 1. lcmpemturc decreases with the increase of height.

EXERCISE

(A) THEORETICAL PROBLEMS


I . Define pressure. Ohtain an expression for the pressure intensity at a point in a fluid.
2. Slate and pro"c Ihe Pascal's law.
J. What do you understand by Hydrostalic Law ?
4. D ifferentiate between: (r) Absolute and gauge pressure. (;/) Simple manometer and differential nmnom -
c!cr. and (iii) Piezometer and pressure ga uges.
5. What do you mean by vacuum pressure ?
6. Whm is a manometer ? How arc they dassified ?
7. What do you mean by single colum n manomClers ? Ilow are they u>ed for the mea,urement of pressure ?
8. What is the differencc between U·tube differential manometers and inverted U-lUbe differential
manometers? Where arc they used ?
9. Distinguish between manometcrs and mechanical gauges. What are tlie different types of mc.:hanical
pressure gaugcs ?
10. 1)erive an expres.<ion for the pressure m a height Z fmm sea -Ie,·el for a static air when the eompre."ion of
the air is a.smned isothennal. The pressure and temperature at sea-Ie,·els arc Po and To respectively.
II . Prove that the pressure and tem perature for an adiabatic process m a height Z from sea-level for a static air
are :

I'U ~PO [I_k-1 gZrlland T",TO[I_k-1 gZl


* [(fo RTo*
whcre 1'0 and To are the pressure and temperature at sea-level.
12 . What do you understand by the tcnn. ·Temperature L1pse -Rate ? Obtain an expression for the
temperature Lapse-Rat" .
13. What is hydrostatic pressure distribution ? Give one example where pressure distribution is
non -hydrostatic.
14 . Explain hriefly the working principle of Bourdon Pressure Gauge with a neat sketch.
(J.N.1:U. , Hyderabad. S lool)

(B) NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

J. A hydraulic press has a ram of 30 em diameter and a plunger of 5 em di:unet,·r.l'ind the weightlificd by
the h)·draulic press when the force applied althe plunger is 400 N. [Ans. 14.4 kNI
2. /I hydraulic press has a r~m of 20 em diameter and a plunger of 4 em di~lI1eter. It is used for lifting ~
weight of 20 kN. find the foree required al the plunger. [Ans. SOONI

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166 Fluid Ml>chanics

.\ . Cakul~tc th~ pressure due to a col umn of 0.4 In of (u) wuter. (b) an oil of >1>. gr. 0.9, and (coJ mercul)' of!>p. gr.

"
13.6. Ta~e density 0( .....:l1cr. p _ 1000- 3 ,
m
jAns. (a) 0.3924 Nlcm', (b) 0.353 NiemI, (el 5.33 Nlemll
,
-" The pressure imensily at a point in a fluid i.< g;,-en 4,<) Nlcm', Find the corresponding height of fluid when il
is ,(n) water. and (I,) an oil o f sp. gr. OX I AI~~. (n):; m o f waler. (b) 6 .25 In of oill
S. An oil of sp. gr. 0.8 is contained in a vess.cl. At a point the height of oil is 20 m. Find the correspondi,,)!
height of ....:!tcr at that point. jAilS. 16 ml
6. An open I,mk contains waler UplO a depth of 1.5 m and above it an oil of sp. gr. 0.8 for a depth o f 2 m. FioJ
the pressure intensity: (il at the interface of the two li'luids. and (ii) al Ihc bonum of the (a"k.
IAn_,. (il 1.57 Niem I. (ii) 3.04 Nleml j
7. The diameter> of a ...mal l pislon and a largc pi'ton of a hydraulic jacl are 2 em and 10 cm respectively. A
fo("(;e of60 N is applied On the small piston . Find the lo.1d lifted by the large piston. when: (tI) the pistons me
at Ihc salHe level. and (I,) slllal] pislon is 20 Cllt above Ihe large pislon. The density of Ihe liquid in the jack is

given as 1000~. jAns. (,,) 1.500 N. (v) 1520.5 NI


m
II . Oclcnn;ne the gauge and absol ute pre"ure at a point which i'i 2.0 III below lite free -,urface of walcr. Take
almo. . pheric pressure as 10.1043 Nlem'. IAns. 1.962 Nlcm l (g.1uge). IU)66 N"-1nl (abs .) I
':I . A simple manometer is used 10 measure Ihe pressure of oil (51'. gr. '" 0 .8) flowing in a pipe line. lis righl
limb is open to the atmo'iphere and lefll imb;s connecled to Ihe pipe. The centre of the pipe is 9 cm be low
the le'·cl of mercury (sp. gr. 13.6) in the right limb. Jfthe differcnce of mercury level in Ihe two limbs is 15
~m. dclcnnine the absolute pressurc of the oil in the pipe in N/em". IAns. 12.058 Nlem'l
10. A simple manomet.:. (U·wbe) ~ontaining mercury is connected to a pipe in which an oil of sp. gr. 0.8 is
flowing. The pressure in the pipe is vacuum . The other end of the manometer is open to the atmosphere.
Find the vaCUUIII. preS'iure in pipe. if the difference of IIIcrcur)' le,·el in the Iwo limbs is 20 cm and he ight
of oi l in tbe left limb from the cenlre of the pipe is 15 em below. I,\IIS. _ 27.86 Nlcm1 j
II . A single column vertical manometer (i.e .. micrometer) is conn«ted 10 a pipe containing oil of sp. gr. 0.9.
The area of Ihe reservoir is 80 times the area of Ihe manometer lube. The reservoir C()Iltains lIIercury of
51'. gr. 13 .6. The level of mercury in the reservoir is at a height of 30 em below the centre of the pipe and
difference of mercury levels in the reservoir and right limh ;s 50 CIII. Find the pressure in the pipe.
IAlls. 6.474 Nlcm1 1
12. A pipe contains an oil of sp. gr. O.g. A differenlial manometer connected al tbe two points A and B of tbe
pipe shows a differcnce in mercury level '15 20 cm . Find the difference of pressure at lhe lWO points.
IAlls. 25113.6 Nlml ]
1.1 . A V·lube di fferential manometcr connects 11>'0 pressure pipes A and E. Pipe A contains cmbon
tetrachloride baving 3 specific gmvity 1.594 under a pressure of 11 .772 Nlcm 1 and pipe R contains oil of
'1'. gr. 0.8 undcr a pressure of I ].772 Nkm". The pipe A lies 2.5 m abo"e pipe 8 . Find the difference of
pressure measured by merc"ry as fluid filling U·tubc. IAlls. 3 1.36 cm of mercury1
". A diffcrcmi al manometer is conn«tcd at the two point.' A and R a., shown in I' ig. 2.25. Al fJ air pre"ure

.
is 7.848 Nkml (abs .j. fi nd the absol ute pressure at A. IAns. 6.91 Nlcm1 j

, -'"
,';-1 OIL Sp . '
OIL Sp. gr. ~O.8
""
T
"'= T ~i-
,~

i
,,~
1
-M ERCURY
"''' =
~
I
~=
1.

WATER
~ ~Ei

Sp. g'.En.6
Fi g . 2.25 Fig . 2.26

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Pressure ilnd its Measurement 67 1


15. An in"crled differential manomcl~r containing an oil of sp. gr. 0 .9 is connected to find the diffuence of
pressures at twO poinB of a pipe comaining waler. If the manometer rcading is 40 em, find the difference
of prc«urcs. IAn_s, 392.4 N/m'l
16. In above ''is' 2.26 shows an in\'ened differential rna""mc!e, connected 10 lwo pipes A and B containing
water. The fluid in manometer is nil of sp. gr. O.H. For the manometer readings shown in the figure. find the
di fference of pressure head octween A and B. [,\US. 0 .2 6 m of waterl
17. If the atmospheric pressure at sea · lc"cI is 10.143 Nlcm l , dClcnninc the pressure at a height of 2000 m
assl!ming that (he pressun: variation fol lows: (i) Hydrostatic law, and (U) lsothennallaw. The density of
air is given as 1.208 k8/mJ. [,\ns. (i) 7.77 Niem I. (ii) 8.03 Nlem Jj
III, Calculate the pressure at a height of 8CXXl m abo,·c sea-level if the atmospheric pressure is 101 .3 kN/ml
and tempemlUre is 15°C at the sea-level assuming (i) air is incompressible. (ii) pressure variation follows
~diabatic law. and (iii ) pressure vari"tion follows i>othermailaw. Take the dcn.ity of air at the sea -Ic,'el a.
equal to 1.285 kg/m). Neglect "ariation of K with altitude.
jAilS. (i) 607.5 Nlml. (ii) 31.5 kNlm l (iii) 37.45 kNlml ]
19. Calculate the pressure and density of air at a hcight of 3000 m above sea-leve l where pressure and tem-
perature of the air are 10.143 Niem I and IS oC res""clively. The lemperalUre lapse-rate is given as O.()(I6S"
KIm. Take dCl1Sily of air at sea-level equal to 1285 kg/111 ). jAl1 S_ 6.896 Nfcml . 0.937 kg/1n J I
20. An aeroplane is flying at an altitude of 4000 m. Calculate the pressure around the aeroplane. given the
lapse-rate in the atmosphere as 0.0065°KJm. Neglect varimioll of 1/ with altitude. Take pressure and
temperature at ground Ie"el as 10.143 Nlcm l and 15°C resp«tivcly. The density of air at ground level is
gi"en as 1.285 kglnl '. [,\ ns. 6.038 NiemI]
2 1. The atmospheric pressure at the sea"level is 101.3 kN/ml and the temperature is 15°C. Calcul"te the
pressure 8CXXlm abo.'c sea-Iewi. aSSum ing Ii) air is incompressible. (ii) isothcnnal .·"riation of pressure
and density. and (iii ) adiabatic variation of pressure and density. A,sume den,it y of air at sea-level a,
1.2!\5 kg/1n J . Ncgl""t varialion of '8' with ~Ititude.
]Ans. (i) 501.3 Nlm ' , (ii ) 37.45 kN/m '.liii) 31.5 kN111l1]
U. An oil of sp. gr, is 0.8 under a pressure of 137.2 kN/ml
(i) What is the pressure head cxpressed in melre of water ?
(ii) What is the pressure head cxpressed in metre of oil? [AtlS. (i) 14 m. (ii) 17.5 m]
2.1. The atmospheric pressure at the sea-level is 101.3 kN/m l and tC11l""ralUrC is I soc. Calculate the pressure
8000 m above sea-level. assumi ng (i) isolhennal variatio!1 of pressure and dcnsity. and (ii) adiabatic
variation of pressure and density. Assume density of air at sea-level as 1.285 kg/m J . Neglect variation of
'g' with altitude .
Derive the fonnula that you may use. IAII". U) 37.45 kNI11l'. (ii) 31.5 kN111l'1
24 . What are the gauge pres.,ure and absolute pre.",ure at a point 4 m below the frec surface of a liquid of
specific gravity 1.53_ if atmospheric pre.<>ure is equivalent 10 750 mm of mereury.
[,\Ils. 60037 Nfm ' and 160099 N/m ' ]
ZS . Find the gauge pressure and absolute pressure in Nltn ' at a point 4 In below the free surface of a liquid of
sp. gr. 1.2. if the almospheric prcssure is equivalent to 7~ mm of tnCrcury
[Ans. 47088 NI11l '; 147150 NI11l ' j
Z6_ II tank contains a liquid of specific gravity 0.8 Find the absolute pressure and gauge prcssure at a point.
which is 2 m below the free surface of lhe liquid. The atmospheric pressure head is equivalent 10 7(1) mm
oi" mercury. [Ans. 11 7092 Nf11l' ; 15696 Nfml j

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I I Ii
... 3. 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter de~ls with the fluids (i.e .. liqu ids ~nd gases) <l1 rest. This mea ns thm there will be no
relative motion between ndjilcent or ne ighbou rin g fluid Inyers. The velocity gudient. which is eq ual to
Ih e change of velocity between two adjacent fluid layers div ided by the di~tnnce between the layers.

will be zero Of dll '" O. The shearstrcss which is equal to IJ all wil l also be Zero. Then the forces actin g
d)" a)"
on the flu id particles wi ll be :
I. due to pressure of fluid normal to the surface.
2. due to gravity (or sclf~weigh t of fluid particles) .

... 1.2 TOTAL PRESSURE AND CENTRE OF PRESSURE


Total pressure is defined as Ihe force exerted by a sta ti c fluid on a surface either plalle or curved
when the fluid comes in contact with the surfaces. This force always acts nonnal to th~ surface.
Ce nt re o r pressu re is defined as the point of application o f the total pressure on the surf~ce. There
are four ,",~ses of su bmerged surfaces on which the total pressure force and ,",entre of pressure is to be
dctemlined. The submerged surfa,",es m,ty be :
I. Venical plane surface.
2. Horizontal plane surface.
3. Inclined plane surface, and
4. CUfved surface .

... 1.1 VERTICAL PLANE SURFACE SUBMERGED IN LIQUID


Consider a plane venical surface of arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid as show ll in Fig. 3.1.
Let A", Total area of the surface
II '" DiMaiKe of C.G. of the area from free surface of liquid
G '" Centre of gravity of plalle surface
P '" Centre of pressure
h· '" Diswnce of centre of pressure from free surface of liquid.
69

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170 Fluid Mechanics

(a) Tot a l P ress u ~ (1') . The total pressure 011 tlie surface FREE SURFACE OF lIaUID
may be determined by dividing the emire surface into II numbe r
"'T""'" ,-,',',',','"'"''1''1' '
b _
of small parallel strips. The force 011 small strip is then calcu-
lated and the tOlal pressure force on the whole area is calculated , A

by illtcgrating Ihe force on smnll Slrip. 1/ '\


Consider a strip of thickness til! and width /J al II depth of II "L "
from free surface of liquid as shown in Fig. 3.1
Pressure intensity On Ihe strip. I' == pgll
! ,. G. J,
,
(See e quation 2.S)
Area of the slrip. dA",bxdl! Fig. 3.1

Total pressure force on Sirip. dF=pxArca


=pghxbxdh
Total pressure force on lite whole surface.

F= f dF= jpghXbXdh==pg j bXhXdh

J bX/,Xdh '" J hXdA


""'
'" Moment of surface area about the free surface of liquid
= Arc~ of sorfa<:e x Distan<:e of e.G. from free surfa<:e
=Axll

F", pgAh ... (3 . 1)


For wmcr th e value of p = 1000 kglm 3 alld g '" 9.81 mfsl. The force will be ill Newtoll.
(b) C CIl I rt' of P ress u re (h t ). Centre of pressure is cal<:ulntcd by using the "Principk of Moments",
which states thatlhe mOlllent of the resultant force about an axis is equal 10 the sum of mom en IS of the
components about the same axis.
The resultan t force F is acting at P. at a distance h· from free surface of the liquid as shown in
Fig. 3.1. Hence moment of the force'" about free surface o f the liquid'" F X /1* ...(3.2)
Moment of force dF. acting on a strip about free surface of liquid
'" dF x II I ': dF=pghxbxdh!
"'pghxbxdllx/i
Sum of mom e nts of all such forces about free surface of liquid

'" f pgllXbXdllXII=pg f bxhxlldh

",pg f bh~dh = pg f h ~dA (.: bdh",dA)

B", fll ldA '" f billdh

'" Moment of Inertia orthe s urface about free surface of liquid

Sum of moments about fn"C surface


'" '0
= pglo ...(3 .3)

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 711


Equatin g (3. 2) and 0 .3), we get
F x /!*=pg ' o
B", F = pgAl1

pgAl1 X h* = pg fa

0' 1,·:= pg'?.. =~ ...( 3 .4 )


pgAh All
By Ihe th eorem o f parallel ax is. We have

I O= IG + Ax h 2
where I e "M omc rll of ln cnia of ar(! 3 about an axis pass ing through the C G . of Ihe are a and parallel
\0 th e fre e s urface of liquid.
Substitutin g 10 in equat ion (3.4), we get

h* =
•'o +~A~I<_' ~ + -II
,',-,: ,_ ... ( 3 .5 )
AI< AI<
In equat ion (3.5), h is the di stan ce o f c.G. o f the area o f Ih e ve nica l surface from fre e surface of
Ih e liqu id. He nce frolll equati on (3.5), it is c lear that :
(i) Cent re of pressure (i.e .• 11*) lies be low the centre of gra vit y of th e ve rti cal surface.
(il) The di stance of ce ntre of pressure from free s urface of liquid is independe nt of th e de ns it y of Ihe
liquid .

Tab le 3 .1 The m o ments o r in.orlia a nd olile r g~'tIm etric propcrliC5 or so m e im port an t p la ne surfaC<.'!l

Moment of inerTia Moment of


abowl ott axis passing inenia aboUi
Plime ,"utfOi'e CG. frum lilt Arto through CG. (mil hal'/' (101
,=, parallel to hme (ld

I Rectangle
I

T
--- -, I
r >d' >d'
G d

i 1
x ~ - bd -- --
2
" J

1--' ----0<
,. Triangle

,/1\i . ~
x~ •
-
3
-bh , bh'
--
36
bh'
-
"
COllld ..

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172 Fluid Mechanics

Momem of i"alia /IIu"",,,,1 of


Plull/' sur/au c.G. from lhe I Area I'lbouIIITI axis lUlSS;IIK i,jfrtiu aboul
1M", rhrough C G. lInil base (lu)
puralleilO b" se (/01

3 Circle

)/
, Gj 1
~
.1'=-
d
2
.w'
--
4
.w'
--
64
-
j"
4. Trapezium

fzL~IG~ x_(2l1+b)~
IHb 3
(u +b )
---d
2
1 1
(u +4ab +b )Xh1
36(o+b)
-
I " If

Pro blem 3 .1 A ,ec/(lIIg/liar plane .mrface is 2 III wide ami 3 In deep. II lie.! in I'errical plane in
W<lIer. Dererln;/I!' rile 100al pre.!.lure and position of celllre of pressure 0/1 II,e plane surface lI'ile/l its
upper edge is horizollIal and (a) coillcides ",ill, waler surface. (b) 2.5 m below II,e f ree water surface.
Solution. Given :
Width of plane surface. b=2 01
[)cplll of plane surface. d=) 111
(a) Uppu edg e coincides with water s urfa ce (Fig. 3.2). Tot:,1 pressure is ~ i\'c n by equati on (3.1 )

f" = pgAI.
J FREE WATE R SURFACE
wh ere P == 1000 kg/m , 11 == 9. 81 I11 /S1
,-
A ", 3 x 2 = 6 111 •h "' "2I (3) '" 15 m.

F = lOOOx9.81 x 6 x 1.5
'" 88290 N. A ns .
Depth of l'C rme of pressure is give n by eq uati on (3. 5) as
I"
11· =~ + ll
-
AI<
where 'G= 1'.1 .0.1. about e.G. o f the area of surface Fig. 3.2
J J
bd 2x3 4
" - " --=4.5m
12 12

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 73 1


4.5
h· == - - - + 1.5 == 0.5 + 1.5 == 2.0 m. " ns.
6 x 1.5
(b) Uppe r l..t g e is 2.5 III bel ow water s urface ( Fig. 3.3). T01aJ prcssur~ (F) is given by (3. 1)

F == pgAh WATER SURFACE


--- -.=- --
wliere ii == Distance of CG. from free surface of wate r
11 °'-0'-'-- 1 ..

== 2.5 + '23 =4.0 III


F = IOOOx9.8 1 x6x 4.0
= 235440 N. Ans.
.-, i
2.5m

Centre of pressure is given by 11·==-4r+1l


I - L:J=0G 3.0m

~O'--:-i J
Ah
whe re IG == 4.5. A == 6.0, Ii == 4.0
f--2 m------l
--;;4~.5';-;, +4.0
11·= -;- Fig. 3.3
6.0x 4.0

== 0.1875 + 4.0 == 4.[875 == 4.1H7S m. Ao s.


Problem 3 .2 Determine the 10101 pressure on (l circu/(lr p/ale of di(lmelu /.5 m which is pluced
reTfieally ill wuler in sitch II way lillI/ Ihe cenlre of 111/: plale is J In hdow I/ll! free ~'urface of ,.."Ier. Find
the pUJ'ilion of en,lre of pressure (I/SO.
Solution. Given: Dia. of plate, II == 1.5 m
rU umuum
------ -- - j
FREE SURFACE

----
---------
Area.

It = 3.0 III
Total pressure is give n by eq uati on (3. J).
.- 3.0 m

F = pgAh
GO- + <-
= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.767 x 3.0 N L\r - - o ,
= 52002.11 1 N. Ans .
Position of centre of pressure (11·) is g iven by equation (3.5).
1----1.5 m --..j
h·=~ + h
I" - Fig. 3.4
Ah
4 4
rtd It X 1.5
whe re IG =--
64
= 64
= 0.2485 Ul~

0.2485
+ 3.0 = 0.0468 + 3.0
1. 767 x ].0
'" 3.04611 m . ADS.

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174 Fluid Mechanics

Problem 3.3 A reC/lwgl/lar .fluice gme is silUllleil QII lite I'u/ieal \\'01/ of a lock. Til<' I'errical side
oJfhe sluice is 'd ' metres ill lellglh ami deplh ofcel1lroid of tile area is 'p' III below Iile W<lIer surface.

Pro"e Ilwl Ille depth of pre:>5j,re is eq"ai /0


(
p + -d -
/2p
' . 1 FREE SURFACE

11
t--- b P h'
Solution. Gi ve n :

i Ll=
~ r ij
[kplli of vc n kal gale = lI m
lei (h e w idth of gate ",b m
Are a. A=b x d m 2
Fig . 3.5
[krill of e.G. fro m free surface
h =p lll .
Le i 11* is the depth o f ce ntre of pressure from free surface. whic h is give n by equati on n.5) as
I _ bd l
I,· '" ~ + h . where I e '" - '2
AI>

[bd'/ 1+ P= - - +' d'


11·= - /J x,/ xl' d' p + - - . Ail s.
12 12p 12,
Problem 3 .4 A circular opening , J //I diameter. in (/ ref/rcal side of a lan k is closed b.y a disc of
J //I diameler y,·/tich cem fo/ule about (I 1I0ri2O"I(,' diameter. Calculale :
(i) Ihe fOTn~ UI! Ihe disc. alld
(ii) Ihe IOrque required 10 maiMail! Ihe disc il! equilibrillm ill Ihe "erlie,,1 POSilioll whell the head
of"''''er abol'e Ihe IwriWIII(II diameter is -I m.
Solution. Given :
Dia. of openin g. d=3m

Are a.
4
"
A = - x3 = 7.0685 m-'

Depth. of e.G.. 1I = 4m
(i) ['orce on (he di sc is given by eq uation (J .I) as

f' = pgAh = 1000 x 9.8 1 x 7.(l685 x 4.0


= 277368 N = 277.368 kN. Ans.
(il) To find th e torqu e requ ired to ma inta in th e di se in equilibrium , first c alculate th e poi nt o f
appli cati on o f force ac ting on th e di sc. i.e" ce ntre of press ure of th e force F. Th e depth o f cent re of
pressure (//. ) is give n by equatio n 0 .5) as

.!!.- d"
I"
h·= ~ + ll = -;;
- c<64",
· __
+ 4.0
All : d l )(4.0

d' J~
: ~'--o,,+ 4.0= ~'--o" + 4.0 = 0.14+ 4.0 = 4. 14 m
16x4,0 16 )(4.0

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 75 1

----------'1- TT
----------
----------
------ - --
-------
-0_::-- 'm
-

10 , U
B
".-
3m -' - ,
,- 1..

fig. 3.6

The for(;c F is ad;"g at a distance of 4. 14 m from free surface. Momcll1 uf this fOKe about
horizontal diam eter X-X
'" F x (h ·-ii) " 277368 (4. 14 - 4.0) '" 3HIBI Nm. A IlS.
Hence a torque of )883 1 Nm mu st be applied o n the di sc in Ihe c loc kwise di rect ion.
Problem 3 .5 A pipe line II'lIic/1 is <I m in diameter conraillJ a gille roll'c. The pressure at rhe celllre
of 'he pipe is 19.6 Nkm!, If rhe pipe is filled wilh oil of sp. gr. 0.S7. find I/Ie force exerted by the oil
"PO" rhe gme alld POSilioli of c.'lIlre of pressurt!.
Solullon. Given:
Dia. of pipe. "=4 rn

19.6

Fig . 3.7
OJ
Area, A=~x 42 =4 1ln1 2
4
Sr . gr. of oil. S = 0.87
Density o f oiL Po = 0.87 x 1000 = 870 kg/m "'
Weight dcnsily of oil. "'o"Po xg,,870x9.8 1 Nfm 3
Pressure at Ih~ ct;! ntre of pipe. P " 19.6 Nfcm 2 " 19.6 x 104 Nfm2

p 19.6 x I0·
Pressure head al Ih e cenlr~ =-: '" 22.988 m
11'0 870 x 9.8 1
The heig ht of equiva lent free oi l surface from the ce ntre of pipe" 22.988 Ill.
The depth o f e.G. of Ih e gate va lve from free oi l surface II = 22.988 nl.
(i) Now Ihe force exef(",d by Ihe oil on Ih e gate is given by

F = pgAh
where p = densily of oil = 870 kg/m 3
F = 870 x 9.8 1 X 4n x 22.988 = 2465500 N " 2.465 r.I N. Ails.
(ii) Posi li on of !;enlre of pressure (".) is given by (3.5) as

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176 Fluid Mechanics

'" 0.043 + 22.988 '" 23.031 m. Ans .


Or celltre o f pressure is be low the ce lllTC o f Ih e pipe by a di st anc e of OJl43 1ll. AilS.
Problem 3 .6 Determine tile lowl pressure atld celllre of pre.uure all WI i,I'osedes Irilmgular plale
afbase" In and allilude -I In wllell il is immu.ied I'erlically ill WI oil of 5p. gr. 0.9. Tire base of Ille plme
coincides ",ill, Ihe free .m rface of oil.
Solution. Given: ,
FREE OIL t-- 4 m-------i

Base o f plale. b=4m


Height of pl~IC, 11=4111

Area. A: bxh '" 4)( 4 =8.0 m2


2 2 ~
Sp. gr. of oi L s= 0.9 Fig. 3.8
l
DenS it y of oil. P '" 900 kg/m ,
The dis tance o f e.G. from free surface of oil.
- I I
II = -xh=~)( 4 '" 1.33m.
3 3
Total pressure (F) is give n by F = pgAT.
'" 900 x 9.8 1 )( 8.0 x 1.33 N '" 9597.6. N. AilS.
Ccmrc of pressure (11* ) from free surface o f oi l is given by

II+= 'G..+h
AI<
where fc = M.0.1. of triangular section about its e.G.

bI/ 4 x4 l
= - - = - - - =7. 11 m4
36 36
II. = 7.1 1 + 1.33 = 0.6667 + 1.33 = 1.99 m . AilS.
8.0 X 1.33
Problem 3 .7 A "ulical sluice gale is used IQ CQ l'er an opl'liilig in a dam. The opnlillg is 1 m wide
and 1.1 m /Iigll. 011 111l' IIp_lIream ofl/l e gale. I/Ie liquid of sp. gr. 1.45. 1il'.1 "1110 {/ Iwig/II of 1.5 m
abO"e I/Ie lOp of I/Ie gate. "'/Ierea.lon I/Ie dO"'II_lIream .fide Ihe waler is ami/able IIplO {/ heiglll 101lch·
illg Ihe lap of Ihe gate. Filld Ihe resulumr force acring on Ille gate alld pQ.lirioll of celi lre of pressure.
Find also Ihe force aCling horizolltally at rhe fOp of Ihe gale .... hich is capable af opening ir. Assume
Ilwl rile gille is hinged all/U' bOl/om.
Solullon. Given:
Width of gale. b = 2 III
[kplll of gate. d=1.2 m
Area. A =b xd= 2 x 1.2= 2.4m 1
Sr . gr. of liquid = 1.45

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 77 1


De ns it y of liqui d . PI = 1.45 x 1000:: 1450 ~ gJllI '
FI = Poree exerted by the fl uid of sp. gr. 1.45 un ga te
F~ = POfce cxen cd by wa ter on the gate.
The force P, is g ive n by F(:: Plg)( A x h,
where PI'" 1.45 x 1000 '" 1450 kgl m2
h , '" D epth of e.G. of gate f rom free surface o f liqui d

:: 1.5 + 21. 2 :: 2. 1 m.
FREE SURFACE OF LIQUID

UQUIOOF
Sp . gr.=1.45 FREE SURFACE
F OF WATER
UPSTREAM

DOWN STREAM
HINGE

Fig. 3.9
F,= 1450 x9.8 1 )(2.4 x2. 1 =7 169 1 N
Similarly. F2 :: p~ . A;;l
l
where p! '" 1.000 kglm
/,!:: Depth oren . of gmc fro m free surface uf watcr
",.!.xl.2=O.6 m
2
F 1 :: 1000 x 9.81 x 2.4 x 0.6:: 141 26 N
( i) Rl."sultanl fo r ce un th e gule '" F, - F2 = 7 169 1 - 14 126 = 57565 N. A ns.
(ii) Pos ition of ce ntre of pl't'ssure of ...,s uUan! fo rce. Th e fo rce PI will be acting al a de plh of
11, * from free surface of liqu id. g iven by the rel ati o n
I, -
hl* = ~ +h ,
Alii

where

hl*= .288 +2. 1 =0.057 1 +2.1=2.157 1m


2. 4 x 2.1
Di sta nce of FI from hinge
= ( 15 + 1.2) - h 1* '" 2.7 - 2. 1571 = 0.5429 m
The force F2 will be actin g at a dep th of 11 2- f ro m free surface of wate r and is given by

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178 Fluid Mechanics

4 - 2
where IG = 0.288 rn , /'1 = 0.6 JIl. A = 2.4 10 •

0,288
II!- '" + 0.6 = 0.2 + 0.6 = 0.8 III
2.4 xO.6
Distance of F1 from hinge '" 1.2 - 0.8 = 0.4 III
The r~sul ta nt force 57565 N will be acting at a distance given by

= ,7,1069clcXc.o54~2,9~-ci-l4cl,206cXcO",.4
57565
3392 1- 5650.4
= m above hi nge
57565
= 0.578 m abo ....~ the hin ge. An s.
(iii) Force at th e 1011 of gale ",hich is capa ble of o pe nin g the ga le. Let F is tile force required
on Ihe lOp of the gmc to open ;1 as shown in Fig. 3.9. Taking the moments of F. 1', and F1 about Ihe
hin ge. we get
Fx [. 2 + 1'2)(0.4 =F, )(.5429
f; x .5429 - ,.~ x 0.4
or F= -
12
7169 1 x .5429 - 141 26 x 0.4 38921 - 5650.4
=
1.2 1.2
= 27725.5 N. Ail S.
Problem 3.8 A caisson [or closing tile elllrance 10 Ii dry dock iJ' oflrapezoidalform 16 III wide a/ Ille
rop wId 10 III wide a/ lire bOl/om and 6 III deep. Filltlille lotal pre~'SlIre allli celltre of pres.~I1'" Otl Ille
caissoli if IIII' water 011 IIII' o"lsidf' is j"~'1 /ne/ ...ill> IIII' lop and tlock is emply.
Solution. Given:
Width al top
Width al bottom
= 16 m
WATER SURFACE
,..._ _ _ t 6m
=:\
' 1
=lO m
Depth. tI=6 m
A , '0
Are a of tr apezoidal ALJCD.
A = ,I~
B C,-;;+~A~D") x If
2

Fig. 3.10

180 + 36
" 78 = 2.769 m from water surface.

(i) Total P....,ss ure (F). Totill pressure. F is given by

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 79 1


,.. '" pgA h '" 1000 x 9.8 1 x 78 x 2.769 N
'" 2118783 N '" 2. 11 87113 MN. A ns .
(ii) Cen trt' of ]'ressurt' (ht). CcmTe of pressure is ~iven by cq u ~lion (3.5) as
I -
II~ '" c:.. + II
AI,
where fG = M.O .I. oftra[X:zoidal ABeD about its c.G.
'c;, '" M.O. I. of rectangle FBeE about its c.G.
IG, '" M.O.1. of t wO tos ABF iHld ECD ~bout its CG.

bd J IOx6
J
~
Then 'r;, '" [2= 12 = 180 In

1<;, is the M. O.1. of the recltmgle about the axis passing through G,.
M.O. I. o f the rectangk atJ.oul the axis passing th rough the e.G. oflh.e trape zoida l 1(;, + Area of
I1'c[ang le x .f,l
where .r , is distance between the CG. of rectang le and e.G. of trapezoidal
'" (3.0 - 2.769) '" 0.231 III
M .0.1. of FIJCE passing through CG . of trapezoi dal
'" 180 + 10)(6)«0.231 )2 ", 180+3.20= 183.20m4
bd'
Now IG, = M.O.1. of MBD in Fig. 3. 11 about G~ = J6
(16 - 10) X6 3 ~
= =36 m
3b
The distance between the e.G. of triangle and e.G. of trapeZOidal
'" (2.769 - 2.0)" 0.769
M.O. I. of the two ~~ about an axi s passing through C.G. of trape zoi dal
== la, + Area of triangles x (.769)2 A F. E 0

= 36.0 + - - x (.769)
6 x6 I ;---T----;~
2

== 36.0 + = 46.64 10~64 G.,.----- ____L


Ie = M.O.1. of trap.:widal about its e.G. I
= M.O.1. of rectangle about the CG. of trapezoidal

=
+ M.O.1. of triang les about the e.G. of the trapezoidal
183.20 + 46.64 = 229.84 m
4
j
6m

I , - "C
II" == -4. + II
Ah Fig. 3.11
where A == 78. Ii == 2.769

h* " + 2.769" 1.064 + 2.769" 3.833 m . Ans .


78x2769
Alter nate Met hod
The diSlance of th e C.G. of the trapezoidal channel from surface AD is given by (re fer to Table 3.1
on page 7 1)

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Iso Fluid Mechanics

(2(1 + /1) II
x= x-
(a + b) 3
(2xlO + !6) 6
= )( - (.: a= IO,/>= 16andlr=6)
(10 +1 6) 3

'" 36 x2=2.769In
26
This is also equal ro th e di stance of III" CG. o f the trapezoidal from rn:" surface of water.
Ii '" 2.769 m
Total pressu re. F = pgAiI (": A = 7S)
'" 1{lOO x 9.81 x 78 x 2.769 N '" 211H783 N. AilS.

CCIHrc o f Pressu re.

Now Ie; fro m Tab le 3 .1 is g ive n by.

(a 1 + 4ab + b 1) } (10 1 +4 )(IO XI 6 + 16 1) l


IG", 36(a + b) xii '" 36 (10+ 16) x6

(100 + 640 + 256)


'" 36x26 x216=229.846m ~

1/. '"229.846 + 2.769


78 x 2769
'" 3.1B3 m. AilS.
Problem 3 .9 A lrapezoidol channel 2 III wide at Ille borrom (lnt! I m deep lla.! side slopes I : I.
De/ermine:
(i) Ihe lOW/ pressure. and
(ii) the cenlre of pressure 011 the renieal gme closing rhe chalille! whell il is fil II o/water.
Solution. Gi ve n :
Width al bonom =2 m
!kplh. d= lm t - -- . m - -<
Side s lopes '" I : I A WATER SUR FACE ,
.. Tupwidlh. AD==2 + 1+1==4m
Arcil uf rectangle FBEe, AI'" 2 x l '" 2 m!
(4 - 2) ,
Area of TWO Trian g les ABF and ECD. A, '" - - - x I '" I 111-
. 2
.. Area uf Trapezo idal ABeD , A == A, + A1 == 2 + I == J m 1
DepTh uf e.G. of rl'CT angl e FBEe from waTer surface , Fig. 3.12
- I
/1 1 "' "2 ", 0.5 m

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 811


IXplh o f CG. of two triangles AUf' and ECD from water surface.
- I I
II I " "3 x I '" "3
III
Depth of CG. of trapezoidal ABeD from free s urface of wmcr
- -
- A,xh , +A , x/1l 2 x 0.5+ I x 033333
II == • " .44444
(AL +A!) (2 + I)
(i) Totu! Press ure (Fl. TOlal pressure F is given hy

F == pgA h
= IOOOx9.81 x3.0 x 0.44444 = 13079.9N. Ans.
(ii) Cenl ..., of Pressure ( h*). M.O .I. of rectangle FB eE aboul its CG.,

bd J 2x] J I
fo = -- = -- = - Ill~
I 12 12 6
M .0 .1. of FBeE abou t an axis passi ng through the e.G. of trapezoidal
'c,· 'c,
== + AI x [DiSlancc he tween CG. of rec tangl e and CG.
of lra p.:zoidalf

I ,
'" - + 2 x 10.5 - .4444 1- " .1666 + .006 182" 0. 1727
6
1'.1.0.1. orl he twO triang les ABF am.! ECD about th eir C.G .•

M.O.I. of the IWO triangle s aboul1hc CG. o f trapezoidal.


I e: == I e, + A2 x [Distan ce bet wee n CG. of triang les and e.G.
of lrapczo idall l

'" 1~+ IX [h-h2r "'~+IX [.4444 -*r


'" l~ + (.1 111 )1",0.0555+ (. 111l)1

'" .0555 + 0.01234 '" 0.06789 m 4


M .a.]. of lite lrape zoi dal aboul il~ e.G.
4
' o '" 10, . + 10 , • '" . 1727 + .06789 '" 0.24059 m
Tlten centrc of pressu re (h*) on lltc vcrtica llrapczoidal.

11* '" "'- + Ii '" 0.24059 + .4444 '" 0.18()4{, + .4444 '" 0.6248
Air 3x.4444
'" 0.625 m. AilS.

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182 Fluid Mechanics

Altt'rnate M eth od
The diswncc oflhe C.G. oflhe trapezoidal channel frum su rfa ce AD is given by (refer to Tab le 3.1
on page 7 1).
(2a + b) II (2)<2+ 4) I
x= x -= x- ( .; a=2,b=4andh= I )
«(I +b) 3 (2+4) 3
== 0.444 m
h =X= 0.444 III
Total pressure. F=pgAh= 1000><9.81 >< 3.0 x.444 (": A = 3.0)
= 13079 N. Ans .

Cemre of pressu re. -


h*=-b+I,
AI,
'"
where 1(1 from Tab le 3 is given by

(a l + 4I1b + b'-) 3 (Zl + 4xZX4+4 l) 3 52 4


Ie;'" xII = x l = - - - =01407111
36(II+b) 36(2+ 4 ) 36x6

0.2 407
+ .444 '" 0.625 m. Am .
3.0 x.444
Problem 3.10 A sqlwre oper7llre in the rerrical side of a ((III/.: Iws Dill' diagonal I'errical and is
camp/cleiy col'ered by a p/alle plate Ilil/ged a/ollg olle of Ihe upper sides ollhe aperlllre. The diagonals
of Ihe oper/ure (Iff! 2 III /ollg and II,e Ilmk COll10illS Ii liquid of specific gral'ily 1./5. Th e cerllre of
aperture is /.5 /II heloK' r/,,,, f ree surface. Co!c,,/rlle the thrusl exerled Oil Ille p/ale by 1111: liql/it! (lnt!
posililm of ib aI/Ire of pressu re.
Solution. G ive n : Diagonals of aperture. AC", lJD", 2 m
Area of square aperture. A = Area of ~ClJ + Area o f 6ACD
ACxlJO ACxOD
2 + 2
Sp. gr. of liqu id = 1.15
Density of liqu id. p: 1.15x 1000= 1150kgfm 3
Depth of centre of aperture from free surface.
Ii '" 1.5 Ill.

- ., ' . '. ' . '_ .. -" ' . ' , '


, SQUARE
.6.PERTURE
1.5m
Sp . !/f.,1.15

Fig. l.U

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 83 1


(i) The thrust on th e plate is give n by
F", pgAh = 1150x9.8 1 x 2 x 1.5 = 33844.5. Am.
(ii) Centre o f pressure (/1·) is given by
Ie -
I,· '" ---4"
AI<
+ II
where 'G= M.O.I. of ABeD about diagonal AC
= M .O.l . of triangle ABC about AC + M.O.! . of triangle ACD about AC

=
ACxOB l
="",,'-+
12 ="""'-
ACxOOJ
12
(.: M.a .l.of a tria ngle aooulits base '" b/;J)

2 X 13 2 x] J I 1 I ~
= --+--=- + - = - III
12 12 6 6 3

h· '" - '- + 1.5 '" + 1.5", 1.6 11 m. An s.


2x l.5 3x2xl.5
Problem 3.11 A /allk cO/lwills waler lipta a heighl 0[0.5 m obare fh e base. All immiscible liquid of
sp. gr. 0,8 is filled an ,lie lop a/ willer "plo I m height. C(l/cuhlle ;
(i) lollli presJ'ure Oil Olll' ~'ide ofille Illllk,
(ii) the pOSilioli of C,,"lre of prcn'ure for 011t' 'iide vf Ihe /,mll., which is 2 In wide.
Solution. Gi ven:
[krIll of wate r '" 0.5 m
De pll! of liqu id ", 1m
Sp. gr. of liquid '" 0.8
[kosity of liqu id, P I '" 0.8 x 1000 '" 800 kg/m l
[kosity of water. 1
P2 '" 1000 kg/m
Width of tank ",2 m
(i) Tota l press ure on on e side is ca lculaK'd by drawing pressure diagram. wh ic h is shown in Fig. 3.1 4.
Intensity o f pressure 00 tOp. P.. '" 0
Intensity of pressu re on D (or DE). PD'" Pl g.h l
", 800x9.81 x 1,0=7848 N/n/
,

Fig. 3.14
Intensity of pressure 00 hasc (or no.po '" PlgiJ l + P2E x 0.5
'" 7848 + 1000 x 9 .8 1 x 0.5", 7848 + 4905 '" 12753 N/m 2
Now force F t '" Area of MDE x Width of tank
I I
'" - x AD x DE x 2.0 = - x 1 x 7848 x 2.0 '" 7848 N
2 2

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184 Fluid Mechanics

Force F 2 = Area of rectangle DI1fT x Width of lank


=O.5x 7848 x 2 = 7848 N
F J = Area of !:.EFe x Width of lank

'" "2I )( EF x Fe)( 2.0 '" "2I x 0.5 x 4905 x 2.0 '" 24525 N
:. Total pressure. F = F, + F, + F}
'" 7848 + 7848 + 2452.5 '" 18148.5 N. AilS.
(ii) Cen tre of Pressu re (h. ). Ta kin g the Illoments of all force abou t A, we get

Fx ,,* '" F, x ~3 AD + F,- (AD + ~2 80)+ F,[AO+


"
~ 8D1
3

18148.5 X /1* = 7848 x ~ x 1 + 7848 (1.0+ O~5 ) + 24525 ( LO + ~X.5)


= 5232 + 9810 + 3270 = 18312

183[ 2
II = == 1.009 m from top. Ail S.
18148.5
Problem 3.12 A cubicol /(Ilik l/as sides of 1.5 III, II coll/oins '\"(Iter for Ihe lower 0.6 In depllt. The
upper remaining pori is filled wilh ai/ of specific gT(I\';I), 0.9. Cu/cr/Ii'/e Jor aile rerticol side of I/Ie lallk:
(u) tolill pT(!SSrtre, Ulld
(h) /l05;lioli 0/ c<,,, lre of preSJ'" reo
Solutio n. Given:
Cubi<.;al wnk of sides 1.5 In means the dimensions of the tank :Ire 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 tn.
I:kpth of wa ter =O.6m
I:kpth of liquid = 1.5-0.6 =0.9 m
Sp. gr. of liquid = 0.9
I:knsity of liqu id . PI = 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kglm J
I:knsity of water. Il l '" 1000 kg/m>
(a) 1'01,11 pressure on one veni cal side is ca lcu lated by drawing pressu re diagram. which is shown
in Fig. 3. 15.
A

OIL OF SP. GR . ~O . 9
-- . ,
- - - -..
, --- - ---- - ~- .
,
I' I:
,_
7946.1 IF 5686
1383i .t
I
:,

Fig. 3.15

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 85 1


hucnsity of press ure a1 A. p~ = 0
Intensity of pressure ~t D,PD = P ig X II '" 900 x 9.81 x 0.9 '" 7946.1 N/m 2
Intensit y of pressure al 8, Po = P igill + P2gill '" 900 x 9.8 1 x 0.9 + 1000 x 9.81 x 0.6
= 7946. 1 + 5886 = 13332. 1 Nlm l
Hence in pressure diagram:
DE: 7946.1 Nlml . BC = 13332. 1 Nlml, FC= 5886 Nlm l
The press ure diag ram is split into Iriangle AD£. rectangle BDEF and trian g le EFe. The total pres·
sure force consists of (he following components:
(i) Force FI = Area of lrian glc ADE x Width o f tank
= (t XADx DE) x 1.5 (,: Width ", 1.5 m)

== (t x 0.9)( 7946.1) x 1.5 N = 5363.6 N

,
This for<:e will be acting at the CG. of tile triangle ADE. i.e .. al a di>!ancc of ~ xO.9 = 0.6 m below A

(ii) Force Fl = Area of rectangl e BDEF x Wilhh of tank


= (BD x DE »( 1.5 = (0.6 x 7946. I) x 1.5 ", 7151.5
Th is force will be acting at the CG. of th e rectangle RDEF i.e .. at a di s tance of 0.9 + 0.6 '" 1.2 m
2
oclow A .
( iii) Force F3 ", Area of triangle EFC x Width of tank
'" (t x EFx FC) x 1.5 '" (t xO.6x58&6) x 1.5 '" 2648. 7 N
This force will be acting at the CG. of th~ triangle EFC, i.e .. at a di stance of 0.9 + "32 x 0.6 '" 1.30 m
below A.
Total pressure force on one ve ni caJ face of the tank.
F", F, + f'2 + FJ
'" 5363.6 + 7 151.5 + 2648.7 '" 15 163.H N. Ans.
(b) I'os ition of ce ntre of pressure
Let the lOtal force F is acting at a depth of 11* from th e free surface of liquid. i.e .. from A.
Taking the mom ent s of all forces :Ioout A. we gd
Fxh* = FI xO.6 + F!x 1.2 + F3X 1.3
FI x(t6+ F: x 1.2+ fj x 1.3
0' 11* '"
F
5363.6)( 0.6 + 7 151.5 x 1.2 + 264& 7 x 1.3
=
15163.8
'" 1.005 III from A. An s .

.. 3.4 HORIZONTAL PLANE SURFACE SUBMERGED IN LIQUID

Consider a plane hori7.ontal surface immersed in a stalic nuid. As every point of the surface is at the
same depth from the free s urface o f the liquid. the pressure intensity will he equal on the e ntire s urface
and equal 10. {J '" pgll, where II is depth of surface.

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186 Fluid Mechanics


A", Total area of surface FREE SURFACE

Then total force. F. on the surface '-'F'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-'-,-,-,-,-'F


h 1\'
"'pxArc3= pgx/! xA '" pgAh
where II '" Deplh orCG. from fr~c surface of liquid == /,
also I,' '"
Depth of centre of pressure from free surface", II.
Problem 3.13 fig. 3.17 5//011'5 a /(lIIkfull a/water. Find:
(i) Towl pressure on rhe bOI7OI11 of tank. Fig. 3.16
(il) Weight oj lrlljer ill the I(I/Ik.
(iii) Hydros/alie parado;r be/wee" 1/11' THlllls of (i) (md (i;). lVidlil of /(mk is 2 III.
Solution. Given: OAm
[Rplll of Wala on bonom of tan~

h,,, 3 + 0.6 '" 3.6m -- •I


Width of lank '" 2 m -- 'm
Length of tank at bottom '" 4 rn -
Area 31thc bonom. A : 4)(2" 8m 1 --
-
I 1
(i) Total pressure F, on the boltOlli is
F:pgAI!" (000)(9.81 x8x3.6 I· 'm
= 282528 N. An s. Fig . 3. 17
(ii) Weight of water in tank", pg x Volume of tank
'" 1000 )(9.81 x P x 0.4 )( 2 + 4 x.6 x2]
= 1000 x 9.&1 12.4 + 4.&1 '" 70632 N. Ans .
(iii) Fro m the results of (i) and (ii). it is observed tlial the total we ight of water in tlie tan~ is much
less than the toml pressure at the bottom of the tank. Tliis is known as Hydrostatic paradox .

... l .S INCLINED PLANE SURFACE SUBMERGED IN LIQUID

Consider a plane surface of arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid in sucli a way that the plane of the
su rface mak es an angle 9 witli the free surface of the liq uid as sliown in Fig. 3.1 &.
FREE LIQU ID SURFACE

Fig. 3.18 Indined immersed ~urface.


Let A '" Total area of inclined surface
" '" Dcptli ofCG. of inc lin ed area from free surface
". '" Dist ance of centre o f pressure from free surface of liquid
9 '" Angle made by the plane of the surface with free liquid surface.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 87 1


Let th e plane of the surface. if prod uced meet the frce liquid surface a1 O. Then 0-0 is the axi s
perpendicular to the pl3n c of the s urface .
y = distance of the e.G. of Ihe inclined surface from 0-0
y. = distance of th e centre of pressure from 0-0.
Consider a s mall strip of area dA at a depth 'II' from fret: surface and at a distance y from tlie axi s
0 -0 as shown in Fig. 3.18.
Pr~ssure ill1cnsil y 011 th e strip_ p = pgh
Press ure force. dF, on the strip. dF = p x Area o f slrip = pglt x dA
Total pressure force o n the who le area, F", J J
tlF = pghdA

But from Fig. 3.18, ~ = ~=~ :sine


)' y y.
h=ysin 9

F = j pgx yxSin9xdA : pgsin9 f Yi/A

B" jFM=AY
whae)' = Distance orCG. fro m axi s 0 -0
F = pgsin9 yxA
= pgA l1 (.; h= y sin 9) . .0 .6)
Cenl .... of Press ure (h·)
Pressure force o n lhe strip.dF = pglldA
= pgy sin dA e III = y sin e]
Moment of the force. IIF. ahout axis 0·0
= IIF x Y = pgy si n e dA x y = pg sin e lilA
Sum of mom e nts of all such forces about 0-0

J
= pg ~i n e yl dA = pg sin eJi dA

B" J/ dA = M .O.1. o f th e surfac.: about 0-0 = 10


Sum of moments of all forces about 0-0 = pg sin e 10 ..•(3.7)
Mom.:nt of th.: total force. F. aoou t 0 -0 is a lso given by
= Fx y* ... (3.8)
where y. = Distance of centre of pressure from 0-0.
Equati ng the two va lues give n by equatio ns (3.7) and (3.8)
Fx y"= pgs in9,o

= 'P~'c'c;'~'cBc ,.
f
y* ...(3.9)
F

Now
sin 9
".
y. = - - . F= pgAI!-

and ' 0 by th e theorem of parallel axis = IG + A~, l .

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188 Fluid Mechanics

Substituting llicsc va lu es in eq uatio n (3.9), we get


~ -_ PKSine[1<) + A.>C'j
sin e pgAII
si n ~ e -,
I,· = --_-
AI,
[Ie + Ay - ]

I< I,
B", ==si n9
y
or y= - -
si n e
I,· '" ""'o[
~
AI<
IG + Ax - .-h',-
Sm e1
• Ic si n ' S -
II = + 11 ... (3 . 10)
"' AI<
If e '" 90 °, equatio n (3.10) hecomes same as eq uation (3.5) which. is app licab le to vert ic all y plane
submerged surfaces.
In equation (3.10), Ie '" M.O.1. of inc lined surfaces about an ax is passing th rough G ami parallel to 0 -0 .
Problem 3.14 (a) A fec/ung,,{ar pit", .. J"ur!"ce 1 m wide and 3 m d"ep!ies in ,mler iii J'uc/! tI w"Y
tiull il$ plmle makes ' m (lIIgle of 3~ " Will, tile free SlIr/llce of waler. Determine Ihe total preSSlue and
1'0,\';1;011 of [enlre of pre.ISllfe when lile Ilflper edge is /.5 III below IIIl' free water surface.
Solu t ion. G iven: FREE WATER SURFACE
o
Width of plJne su rface. b = 2 m
Depth. 11= 3m
Angle, e
= 30"
".
Di~tance of upper edge from free wa la surface = 1.5 m
(,) Total pre._~ ure fo rce is gil'en by equa li o n (3.6) as
F= pgAIi
where p = 1000 kglm 3
z
A=bxd=3x2=6m
Ii = Depth of c.G. fmm free wate r surface
'" 1.5+ 1.5 sin 30° Fig. 3.19

'" 1.5+ 1.5xt",2.25m


F '" 1000 x 9.81 x 6 x 2.25 '" 132435 N. Ans.
(ii) Centl't' or press ure (h·)

Using eq umion (3. 10). we ha ve


bil l 2X]3
where I e = - - " - -.- = 4.5 m4
12 12
1
4.5x 4
/r*= -,40.5C'C'O'C
" C',,30,-' +.5=
22 + 2.25
6x2.25 6 x 2.25
= 0.OS33 + 2.25 = 2.3333 m. An s.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 89 1


Problem 3.14 (b) A rec/angI4/ar pia/ie surface J III wide alld 4 III deep lies ill water ill sudl a way
(lwl ils plalle makes atl ollgle of 30" willi Ille free SlIrface a/water. Determine rhe lotal pressure force
and position of cenlre of pressure. when the upper edge is 2 III below II,e free surface.
Solution. Gi ve n : Free sufface of water
b", 3 m . d == 4 Ill. e" 30°
Dist an ce of uppe r edge from rrce surface of wa ter == 2 III ---:".-.
(i) Tolal press u re fon:e is give n by eq uati o n (3.6) as

F= pgAh
J V_ """""I
where p = 1000 kglm , to plate
A :bxd = 3x 4 = [2 m 2

and h '" Depth of e.G. of platc fro m


rrce wate r s urface
=2 + 3 1:::2 + Il Csi n 0

=2 + 2 ~in 30o= 2 +2x ~ = 3 m


2 Fig. 3. 19 (a)
F", 1000 x 9.8 1 x 12 x 3 '" 353167 N" 353. 167 kN . An s.

Using equat ion (3. 10). we have h· = """"7'""_',,-9 + II


A"
bd ' 3 x41 ~
where 'e=
,
- - = - - - = 16 m
12 12

• 16xsin 2300 16x 4


II = "''C;=-''''~ + 3: - 36 + 3: 3.111 rn. An s.
12 x 3
Problem 3.15 (a) A circ14/af plate 3.0 m diameter is immersed in Il'IIter ill such a Imy ,Iwt its
gre(llesl and lea~'1 deplh be/ow Ihe free ~'urface are 4 m alJd 1.5 m fHpecli)'ely. lJelt'rm;IIe '''e loMI
prHSIlre 011 0111' fat'e of Ihe pla/e (lilt! pOS;/;Oll of the celilre of pressu re.
Solution. Giv" n : FREE WATER SURFACE
Dia. of plale. <I:3.0 m E 0
,
Area. A : i d2 : ~ (3.0)l: 7.0685 m l
1,5 m

Distance DC= 1.5 m.BE= 4m


Dist an ce ofeG. from free s urface

: h :CD +GCsin9 : 1.5+ 1.5sin9


AB BE - AE 4.0 - DC 4.0 - 1.5
Om s in 9 = -8-C= ""-iB~C""- = 3.0
=
3.0
'" 2.5 '" 0.8333
3.0
;; '" 1.5 + 1.5 x .8333 '" 1.5 + 1.249", 2.749 m Fig. 3.20

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190 Fluid Mechanics


(i) 1'01,,1 pNss ure (F)

F", pgA/'
'" 1000 x 9.81 x 7.0685 x 2.749 '" 190621 N. Am.
(ii) Ct' litre of press urt' (h *)

Using eq uation (3.10). we Ita ve 11· '"

It /( 4 4
where l G '" 64 (t '" 64 0) '" 3.976 III

I, . '" 3.976 x (.8333) x.8333


+ 2.749 '" 0.1420 + 2. 749
7.0685 x 2.749
= 2.89 ] m. AilS.
Problem 3.15 (b) If in the (lbol'l! problem. Iile gi)'en circu lar plale is hu\'ing a COIla'II/ric circular
hole of diameter /.5 m, Ihen calculi"e Ihe lOla/ pressu'e , md positioll of Ihe CClil r /! of pressu'e OIl Oll l!
face of the /llare.
Solution. Gi ven: IRefer to Fig. 3.20 «(1 )1
Dia. of plate. d=3.0rn
. 1( , 1t , , View normal
Area of solid plale '" - d- = - (3)" = 7.0685 Ill- 10 plate
4 4
Dia. of hole in th e plate. do'" 1.5 III

Area of ho le

Area of the g ive n plate. A '" Area of solid plate - Area of


'" 7.0685 - 1.767 1 = 5.30 14 rn 1
Distance CD '" 1.5. BE ", 4 rn
Distance ofCG. frorn tile fr~e surface. Fig. 3.20 (a)

/'",CD+GCsine
= 1.5+ 1.5sin e

Bm sine = AB",BE - AE = 4 - 1.5=2.5


BCBC 33
- 25
h:I.5+1.5X 3" = 1.5+ 1.25= 2.75 rn

(i) Total press u N fOITt' (F)

F: pgA h
'" 1000 x 9.8 1 x 5.3014 x 2.75
'" 143018 N '" 143.018 kN. An s.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 91 1


( ii) Pos ition o f centre of press ure (h*)
Usin g equation (3 .1 0 ). we ha ve
fc si n2e _
/'
I '" + 11
Ah
tr ~4 1t 444
where I c= 64 [d - d o l = 64 [3 - 1.5 [m

A- ' [d'
- - - d'
0 ' [3'
[ -- - - 15'[
. !l1 ,
4 4
sin a ", 2~5 and h = 2.75

+ 2.75

+ 2.75 '" I x 11.25 x 6.25 + 2.75


16x 2.75x9
= 0.]77 + 2 .75 = 2.927 m. An s.
Problem 3.16 A circular pll11e 3 metre diameter is submerged ill WaferaJ shown ill Fig. 3.21. Its
wealeH and leasl deplhs are be/ow Ihe surfaces being 2 metre and I metre respeClil'eiy. Find: (i) Ihe
lolal pressu re 011 f rom face o/rhe plole, amI (ii) Ille position of cemre of pressure.
Solution. Gi ve n : Water surtace
Dia. o f plate. d=3.0 m I ,
<-Jit
t
Are a. "
A = - (3.0)" '" 7 J)6R5
4
III , ,
- f-- --',' m
Distance. DC= 1 m.llE=2 m
All IJE - AE BE - DC 2.0 - 1.0
]nMBe, sin9 = - = =
AC Be Be 3.0 3
The ce ntre o f gra l'i ty of the plate is at the middle of BC. i.<1 .• at a di stance 1.5 m from C.
The d istance o f ce rlt re of gra vit y fro m th e free surface o f th e wat er is give n by
- I
" : CD + CG sin e : 1.0 + 1.5 x 3 (":s in O:!)
'" 1.5 Ill.
(i) Tota l pressure o n the front face o f the plate is give n by
F: pgA"ii
: 1000 x 9.81 x 7.0685 x 1.5" 10401 3 N. An s.
( ii) Let the di stance of th e cerltre of press ure from th e free surface of th e wmc r be II·. T hen usin g
equ ation (3. 10). we have

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Fluid Mechanics

It tt It j
where IG '" 64
4
'" 64 OJ . A", '4It d-,, -
II '" 1.5 III
.
and Sill e '" _

Substituting the values. we get

, d , x (')'
-
64
-
1 d~
, , 3 + ! 5= -16x -9xl.5
- - + 1.5
-4 "" x 1.5

3'
= ~--"~~+ 1.5 ", J1416 + 1.5", 1.5416 m. Ails .
16x 9x l 5
Problem 3.17 A rec/alls"lar 8m .. 5 In xl m is /I;nged at its bll$e "IIlI indi/led ar 60" 10 IIIe horizon -
(a/lIS shown i" Fig. 3.22. To keep Ihe 8<1(e in "Mable position. a coulller II'ciglll of 5000 kgfis a ((ached
aT Il,e upper elld of II,,.
8a /e as sholt'/I il/jigll re. Find Ille depll! ofwa rer {I/ which Ihe gllle begins 10 fall.
Neglect Ihe weight of the gtlle and /ricliOIl at rhe Ilinge and /mlley.
Solution. Given:
Lenglh o f g ~le
Widlh of gale
= 511\
=2 m """. , ,
9", 60 0 --~~ - "
Weight. IV", 5000 kgf ,-
'" 5000 x 9.81 N
= 49050 (': I kgf = 9.8 1 N)
N
" A_
-
C
60
As the pulle y is fric ti on less. Ihe force actin g at H= 49050 N. First
HINGE
find th e 100ai force F actin g o n Ihe g ate All for a give n de plh o f
wate r. Fig. 3.2.2.
AE II 5 211
From figure,
AD", sine '" sin 60o"'""J3i2=T3
211 411 2
Area of gate imme rsed in water. A = AD)( Widt h x ""7:' x 2 == ""7:' m
..;3 ..;3

Also deplh of the e.G. o f th e immcrs.::d area'" -h '" - '" 0.5 h


2
"
. . - 411 II 19620 ,
Tot al force F IS gIven by F = pgA" == 1000 x 9.81 x ""7:' )( ""7:' = ----r.:-- II-N
..;3 ,,2 ,,3
The centre o f pressure of the immersed surface. h· is give n by
1
lG sin 9 +ii
AI,
where IG'" M.O.1. of Ihe immersed area

=
bx(AD'J
12
2 (2" y
12)( .J3)

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 93 1

~ 4h l[J3)' 2 II 3h l II II II h+3/1 211


II '" --- x + - =- - + - = - + - =- - " -
9x13 ~x~ 2 18Ir 2 2 6 2 6 3
J3 2
2/,
Now in the !J.CHD. CH= ,,- '" - 3 . LCDH= 60°

CH '" sin 600


CD
CD=.....0:!...-=~= 211
sin 60° si n 60° 3 x .fj
2
211 411
2h 61! - 4h
AC= AD- CD '" ---"'7ii" - - '"
./3 3./3 J../3 3./3
Taking the moment s aoou l hinge. we gel
19620 1 2h
49050)( 5,0 = F x AC = ~ II x-:::-;;:
,,3 3,,3

0'
.245250 = 39240 Itl
3x3

III = 9 x 245250 = 56.25


39240
II = (56.25) 1/3 = 3.S3 m. Ail S.

Problem 3 .18 A" inclilled re"/{1II8,,/ar J/uice gme All, 1.2 111 by 5 III size as sho wn in f"ig. 3.23 is
iustal/ed 10 cOlll'Olllle di.{Clwrge o/wmer. The end A is/lillged. Determitll' Ille force norma/to lite gMf!
" f'piied ul 8 Iv open il.
Solution. Gi ve n :
A = Area o f ga le = 1.2 x 5.0 '" 6.0 111 2
Dt:plli of e.G . of the gale from free surface of the wate r = h
= DC '" 8C _ BE FREE WATER SURFACE 0 C 0
= 5.0 _ BG si n 45 0
I
== 5.0 - 0.6 x Ji == 4.576 m

The IOtal pressure furce (1) acting on the gate.


F=pgAII
== l000x9.81 x6.0x4.576
== 269343 N
This force is actin g at H. where the depth of If from Fig. 3.23
free surface is g iven by

,,* = "'O'-';';'i"_'~. + "-


AI,

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194 Fluid Mechanics


1
where I G" M.O.!. of gate", _bd
_ '" 5.0 X 1.2 ) ,,0.72 III
12 12
l
0.72 x sin 45°
Depth of centre of pressure 11*" "'''''''0:::",'''-
6x4.576
+ 4.576 " .013 + 4.5 76 '" 4.589 m

n Ul from Fig. 3.23 (a),


",
__ = s in 45 0
OH
11* 4.589
Oi~t3nce. OH= - - ' -1 - " 4.589 x.fi" 6.489 In
sin 45°
T2
Distance. 80 = - '- = 5)(.fi" 7.071 III
sin 45°
Dista nce. 8H = 80 - OH = 7.071 - 6.489 = 0.582 III

Distance AH = AD - BH = 1.2 - 0.582 = 0.618 111

Taking the moments about the hinge A


P xA8= F x (AH)
where P is the force norma l to the gate applied a1 B
p x 1.2 = 269343 x 0.618

p= 269343)(0.6 18" 1J8708 N. An s.


L2
Problem 3 .19 A gale .\"upporring Waler i.~ JlloWII ill Fig. 3.2-1. Find the fleig/II II afille \Va/a so I/WI
the gall' lips abolll Ihe hinge. Take Ille ..... idtl! of fhe gale as unit)'.
Solution. Given: e = 60°
Distance. AC = __" _,, 211
sin 60° J3
where II = Depth of water.
The ga te wi ll start tippi ng ahout hinge 8 if the resul tant pressure force acts at B. If the resultant
pr.:ssure force passes through a point which is ly ing from /J to C anywhere on th.: gat.:. the gat.: will tip
ov.:r the hinge. Hence limi tin g case is when th.: resultant force passes through B. But the resultant force
passes through the centre of pressure. Hence for th.: given position. point IJ becomes th e centre of
pressure. Hence depth of centre of pressure.
I,· '" (II - 3) m fREE WATER SURfACE

But h· is also given hy


Taking wid th of gat.: unity. Th~n

211 - II
Area. A=ACxl=~xl:II= -
"1/3 2
2/, )3 Fig.3.24
Ix ( "0/;'
"3 gil ' 211 ,
12 "'12x3xlf,"'9xJJ

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 95 1

Equa ti ng the two v al ues of 1/*,

2h 2/,
11 - 3= - or 11 - =3 or ~3 '" .3
3 3
h=3x3=9m
Height of water for tipping the gate = 9 m . An s.
Problem 3 .20 A reCllmglflar sluice gale An. 1 In wide Wid 3 m 10llg is hinged at A as ,~lIo\\'n ill
"-ig. 3.25. II is kepI closed by a weiglllfl.I"<,J 10 Ille gare. 11w IOwl weighl ofrlw gale {/tulwl'igll1jixed 10
Ihe gmt' is 3-13350 N. Find Ihe height of tile water 'II' wlliell .... ill jlw eOfue 1111" gale to open. Ti,e anlre
olgral'il}, ofrhe ...eight and gale is a/ G.
Solution. Given:
Width of g,nc. b '" 2 m: Length or gate L= 3 III
1
Area. A=2)(3=6m
Weight of gate ami W.:: 343350 N
Angle of j"clination. e '"
45°
Let /, is the required height of wale r.

Depth of e.G. of the gate and weight = II


From Fig. 3.25 (a).

h '" h - ED '" II - (AD - AE)

'" II - (AB sin e - EG Ian 9) AE :. AE =


{ ... I,m& = EG EG I~n&l
= II - (3 sin 45° - 0.6 Ian 45° )
::/! - (2.121-0.6)::(IJ-1.521)m
The 10lal pressure force. F is given by
F:: pgAii :: 1000 x 9.81 x 6 x (II - 1.521)
:58860(h - 1.52 1)N.
The IOlal force F is <I<:ling allhe cen u c of pressu re as shown in Fig. 3.25 (b) al H. The d cp lh of H
from fR..., surface is given by It' which is eq ual 10

I,· :: ic;, All


sin ~ & -, bd )
12
2x)) 54 4
+1.w hcrci c = - -= - - = - =.5m
12 12
'

C'
I, ' = ~4 ' cX":::"'c'c4",'o + (II -
C 1.521) = --; cO,.3c7'o'~ + (II - <0 I) m
1..,_
6x(1t 1.52 1) (h 1.521)

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196 Fluid Mechanics

FREE WATER SURFACE}

--.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.--


1,
~
'". - " t--
e '" 45"
, "
-_ -_ -. K-. --
:: F~ - e
(b) (a)
Fig. J .ZS
Now laking rn om,," \s about hin ge A. We gel
343350xEG",FxAH
AK
343350 X 0.6 '" F x - -
sin 450

[
rro m AAKH. Fig. 3.25 (b) AK '" AU sin ij ", AH sin 45~ ,', AH '" ~l
sin 450

58860 (Il - 1.521) x AK


=

343350 x 0.6 x sin 45" 03535 x 7


AK= '" ... ( i)
58860 (" 1521) (II 1.52 1)

Bw A K = h· - AC = ~c3"7c5= + (II _ 1.52 1) - AC ... ( ii)


(1i - 1.52 1)
Bw AC = CD - AD", II - AS si n 45° '" II - 3 X sin 4:;0= 1,- 2. 12 1
Substitut in g th is value in (;,). we get

AK: -:-~J"-7,,,
5 C" +(h - 1.52 1) - (1I - 2.12 1)
11-1.521

375 375
= -:-'7CC:
Ii 1.521
+ 2. 11 1 - 152 J '" -:-'7CC:
II 1.521
+ 0.6 .. ,(i ii)

Equating the two va lu es of AK from (i) and (iii)

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 971


03535 x 7 0375
+ 0.6
11 1.521 "1.52 1
01 0.3S35 x 7" 0.375 + 0.6 (II - 1.521 )" 0.375 + 0.6 II - 0.6 x 1.521
0.611 '" 2.4745 - .375 + 0.6 x 1.521 == 2.0995 + 0.9 126 " 3.0121
5.3.0 12
I,= - -1 :
. 2m. Ans.
0.6
Pro blem 3.21 Find Ihe 1010/ pressure and position of celilfe of pressure 0/1 a Irhmgular plale of
base 2 m and heiglll J m which is immersed in Waler in SUcil (I way rlta/IIle plane' ofrhe plale makes an
angle 0[60" wilh the free su rface of Ihe water. The b{/~'e oftlw plate is parallel to water surface and m
{/ depOt of 2.5 III from Wafer surface. FREE WATER SURFACE
Solution. Given : - "=--:;.~t - '1 '60~j
Base o f plate. b '" 2 III I
h 25:
]'Ieiglll of plate, II '" 3 III h' L~
Ar~a. A:bx"=2x3=3m2 (J-1 <'Ill..,..
2 2
Incl ination.
Dcptll of ce ntre of gravity from free surface of water.
h=2.5+AGsin60° Fig . .1.26

=2.5+
1
x3xT
fi {-: AG '" ±Of hdg ht of triangle }
3
'" 2.5 + .866 m = 3.366 m
(i) T o ta l p ress ure for~ (1-')
F = pgA/' '" 1000 x 9.8 1 x 3 x 3.366 '" 9906 1.38 N. Am.
(ii) Ce nt re o r p ress ure (h "'). Dept h of ce ntre of pres.wrc from free surface of water is gil·en hy

1,· = Icsin
, -
All
le -
+ II

bill 2x 3J 3 4
where Ic = - = - - = - = 1.5m
36 36 2
l
n f:iJ'
I,· " 1.53 xX si3.366 + 3.366" 0.111 + 3.366" 3 .477 m . AIlS.

to- 3.6 CURVED SURFACE SUB -MERGED IN LIQU ID

Consider a curved surface AB, sub-merged in a s tatic nuid as shown in Fig. 3.27. Let dA is the area
of a small strip at a depth of II from water surface.
Thcn pressure intensity on the area dA is "pgil
and pressure forcc. Iff"" P X Area" pgll X dA ... (3 . 11)
This force dF acts nomlalto the surface.
Hcnce IOlal pressure force on the cu rved surface should be

F= f pghdA ... {3. 12)

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198 Fluid Mechanics

WATER
SURFACE C
,

E4~
--------- .....-----
- --::::=::~:: dF,::-
--:.,::-- -,
dA cos {I

AREAdA
(')
(.)
FIg . 3.27
Bul here as Ihe direction of Ihe forces on tbe small areas arc 110t in the same direction. but varies
from point 10 ()Oint. Hence in1egralion of equation (3.1 1) for curved surface is irnpos~ible. The problem
can. however. be solved by rc!\Olving the force dF in two components dF, and <IF,. in the x and )'
directions respectively. The total force in the .r and y direct ions. i.e., F$ and F" arc obtained hy
inlcgraling dF, and lIF,. T hen 100al force on tile curved surface is
2
F=JF, +F' , · .. 0 ·13)

F
;md inclin~tiol1 of rcsuitanl wilh horizonwl is tan 4' == -2:. ... (3.14 )
F,
Resolving the force dF given by equation (3.1 1) in x and)' directions:
dF, = rlF sin e = pgildA sin €I I': dF=pghdAI
and <iF" '" dF cos 8:: pglldA cos 8
TotJI forces in 'he of Jnd }' dirediun ~re :

F , :: J dFA '" J p.!:luiA sin 8 '" pg J II/fA sin 0 ... (3. 15)

and F, = J dF, '" J pgllllA cos 8 "" pg J IIlJA cos 8 ...(3. 16)
Fig. 3.27 (b) shows the cnlarged area dA. From this figure. i. e .• n.EFG.
EF=dA
FG::dAsin8
EG=dAcos9
Thus in equation (3.15). dA sin 8= FG = Vcrtical projec ti on of the ~rea dA and h~nce the expression
pg JIldA sin e repr~scnts the total pressure force 011 the projected area of the curved surface on Ihe
vertical plane. Thus
Fx :: Tutal pressure force on the projected area of the curvcd surface on vertical plane. . .. (3. 17)
e
Also dA l'OS = EG = hurilOntal projecliun of dA and hence /IdA cos is the voluUle o f the liquid e
contained in the elementary arca dA UplO free surface of the liquid. Thus J /ldA cos e is Ihe total
volume contained between the curved surface e~tended upto free surface.
Hence pg J I1dA cos e is the 10lal weighl suppo l1ed by the curved surface. Thus
F. "'pg JhdAcosO
'" weight uf liquid su pported by the curved surface UplO free surface of liquid. . .. (3. 1&)

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 99 1


In Fig. 3.28. the curved s urface AD is not support in g an y !luid. In
sucll cases, F, is eq ual to th e weigh t of th e imag inary liquid ~upponcd WATER SURFACE
0 ;- - - .. . .. ______ _
by AB UplO free su rface of liquid. The direction of F), will be taken in ------------
-------------
------ -_._--
upward dircdion. -------- ---
------------
Problem 3.22 Comp"te 1/11' lroriZO/llal m,,! ('ertical components A _ _ • __ _
of the lolal force aCling on a CU')'ed SIlr/llce AB. "'hieh is i'l IiiI' form
of l! 'I"ail"m( of a circle a/ radills 2 III 115 sho",,, ill Fig. 3.29. Take IiiI'
wiilll, of II!I' gate as IlIIil),.
">,,,;;;-;;,,;-
---~ -- --;;,,;
--";,."",,-
Solution. Give n : Fig. 3.28
Widlh of gale = 1.0 In
Radius of the gale = 2.0 III
Di stan<:c AO = OB = 2 rn
Horizomal force. Fx cxcT1cd by waler on g ale is given by l
o FREE SUR FACE OF WATER
1.5 m
_ C -- -- --
equa tio n (3. 17) as
F , = Total pressure force on the projccted area of curved
surface AB on vcnica l planc
== Total pressure force on OU
{projected area of curve d surface on vertical plane = OB x I}
,
Fig. 3.29

== pgAh

== 1000 x 9.8 1 x 2 x I x ( 1.5 + f)


{ .: Areaof08==A=ROxl==lxl=1.
Ii = Depth o f e.G. of 08 from free surface = 1.5 + .,. }
F, == 9.81 x 2000 x 1.5 = 49050 N. An s.
I -
The point of application of F, is g il'en by Jr . = ~ + 11
Ah
bd
l
lx2 l 2 4
where Ie == M.O.I. of 08 about its e.G. == - - = - - == - 111
12 12 3
2
1,. == __3_ + 2.5 = - '- + 25 III
2x2.5 7.5
== 0.1333 + 2.5 = 2.633 m from free surface.
Venical forcc, F y • cxerted by wa ter is given by cquation (3.18)
Fy " Weight of wate r s upponed by AB upto free surface
= Weight of portion DABOe
'" Weight of DAOe + Wei gh t of water AOB
'" pg [Volume of DAOe + Volume of AOB]

== I OOO x 9.8 1 [ ADXAO XI +;(AOfxl ]

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1100 Fluid Mechani cs

= 1000 x 9.81 [L5X2.0 Xl+~X 21 XI]


== 1000 x 9.81 [3.0 + nlN = 60249.1 N. An s.
Problem 3 .23 "-ig. 3.30 .lhows II gme I1m'ing II qlladroll/ shape of wdilIJ 2 111. "-ind Ihe re.mltal1l
fo rce dlle 10 \l'ater per metre lellg lll of Ihe gme. Find also Ihe lingle ar ....hieh Ihe IOtal fo rce \\'ill ae/.
Solution. Given:
R,I<Jiu s of g~w =2 m
Width of ga le = Im
Hori"ttln tal For~
F, = Force o n the projected area o f Ihe
curved surfa,!' on vertical plane
== Fo rce on no = pgAI! Fi g. 3.30
,- I
where A =ArcaofB O=2x 1 =2 m , 11= - x 2= 1m:
2
P, = 1000 x9.8 1 )( 2)( 1 == 19620 N

This wi ll 3CI al a depth o f ~ )( 2 = ~ 111 froln free surface o f liq uid.


3 3
Vertica l Force , " ..
F ,":= Weight of water (imagi ned) supported by AB
=pgxArea of A OU x 1.0

"lOOOx9.Rl)( !: (2)4 )( 1.0 = )08 19 N


4

This will act a1 a disi:l11cC of 4H = 4 x 2.0 = 0.848 m from OB.


3rt 311
Res ultant force. F is given by

F = JCFo,:-+-::F,'-'
= .j19620+30819 .j384944400 + 949810761
= 36534.4 N. Ans.
The ang le made by the resultant with horizontal is give n by
Fy 30819
Ian 9= - = - - " 1.5708
F. 19620
e " Ian 1.5708 = 57' 3 1'. Ans.
Problem 3 .24 Find tile magnitude and direclion of II,e re.illitwlI force due 10 water acting on (I
roller gale of cylindrical form of 4.0 m diameter. wl,ell the gate is placed all tile dam ill such a way that
,,·Clter is just goillg to spill. Toke Ihe lenglh of the gClte os 8 III.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of gale =4 (11
Rad ius. R =2 rn
Len gth of gal~. 1= 8 rn

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 101 1


lI o rizont;oI ror~, F, acting on the gate is
F, = pgA!J = Force on projected area of curved surface
,,
ACB on vertical plane
'" Force on vertica l area AOB ;0 T
4 .0m
where A = Area of AOB = 4 .0 x R.O = 32.0 Ill l
h = Depth of e.G. of AOB = 412 = 2.0 III
1
F,'" 1000x9.81 )(32.0x2.0
= 627840 N. Fig. 3.3 1
Vertical fo ...,e, Fy is given by
F ," '" Weight of water enc losed or supponcd (actually or ima ginary) by
the curved surface ACB
'" pg x Volume of portion AC/J
= pg xArcaofAC8x/
IT , IT 2
'" l ()()()x9.8 1 x-(R )" x8.0=9810x-(2) x 8.0=493 104 N
2 2
[t will be acting in the upward direction.

Rcsulwrn force, F= JF,~ + F.} - J62784fJ+ 493104 '" 798328 N. AilS.


o • ,

Dm:clIon ofrcsultarn force ISgIVC" by tan 9=


f:F, '" 627840


493 104
0.7853

e = 3 1" 8', An s.
Problem 3.25 F illd the /wriZOlilul and I'f!r/ica/ campanelli of W(ller pressu re (lc/i' ,g all lite face of II
rainIer ga/eo/90° ~'eClorofrlldi"s 4 m (l~' si,o ,,,,, in Fig. 3.32. Take widlll ofgllte ullily.
SolutIon. Given:
Radius of g~te, R",4rn
Horizontal cornponenl of force acting on the gale is
Fx'" Porce on area of gate
projected o n I'enica l plane
'" Force on area ADlJ
= pgA l1
whe re A", A8 x Width of gate
",2xADxl (": AlJ =: 2AD) Fi g . 3.32
=: 2 x 4 x sin 45° =: 8 )( .707 =: 5.656 rn ! [':AD=4sin4·n
-h _
_ _An __ 5,656 _ 2 828 m
~~ _ .

2 2
F, = 1000x9.81 x 5.656 x 2.828 N = 156',)11 N. Ans.
Vertica l co mpone n'

Fy = Weight o f Winer suproncd or endosed by the curved surface


'" Weight of water in ronion ACHDA
'" pg x Area of ACBDA x Width of gate
'" 1000 x 9.81 x [Area of sector ACBOA - Area of Il.ABO[ x

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1102 Fluid Mechani cs

I ': dAOE is;\ right angled]

'" 98 10 x ['::' 42 _ 4 x 4 ] '" 44796 N. An s.


4 2
Problem 3.26 Ca/cu/rue Iile IlOriZOn/u/ lind "n/icil/ components of Ihe W{lter pressure exerted on II

r(lilller gale of radius 8 II! (IS shown ill Fig. 3.33. Take ,..idlh of gale "IIily.
Solution. Th e hori7.0nlal compone nt of water pressure is gil-e n by
F , '" pgA /, '" Fo rce on th e area proj ected on ve ni ca l plane
"" Force on the vertical area o f BD WATER SURFACE c
whe re A", IJD x W idth o f gate", 4 .0 x I '" 4.0 III
- I
'.Lm
h=-x4=2m
2
F, = lOOOx9.8 1 x 4 .0x2 .0= 78480N. An s. Fig . l,lJ
Vertical rompone nl of Ih e wale r pressu re is give n by
F, '" Weight of Wale r su prmncd or enclosed (imagi nary) by c urved
surface en
'" Weight of water in the portion eBDC
'" pg x [Area of portion CBD C ] x Wid t h of gale
'" pg x (Area of sector eBO - Area of the trian g le BODI x 1

= 1000 x9 .81 x [~x 7tH! ~ BDx DO ]


360 2

= 9810 X [ -.!... 7t x 8l ~ ~
4.~
O ~X~8~.8~OO='=3~O_O]
12 2
1': DO" 80 cos 30° = 8 x cos 30° 1
'" 9810 x 116.755 ~ 13.856] = 28439 N. An s.
Problem 3.27 A cylindriClIl gllle of 4 m diameler 2 m long has ...lIIer on ils bolll sides as sllo ...n in
Fig. 3.3 4. Delermine Ihe magnilllde. 10culioll wId direClion of Ihe resuillml force e.wrted b)' Ihe ...lIler
on Ihe gille. Fillli aiso Ihe /easl "'eiglll of Ille cylinder so Ihlll il may 1101 be lifted 11 ... (1)' f rom Ihe floor.
Solution. Given: WATER SURFACE A
Dia. of g ale =4m
Radius ,,2 In WATER
(i) The forces acting on th e left Sidc of the cy linder aTe _ _ _ _ ~Q ___ _ D SURFACE
The ho ri zontal co mpone nt. F. ,
where f"", "
F 4m
B
x,__~_ ~--
Force of wate r on area projected on ve rtlcal -=-_:_::::::~=~ ~~ _:__ FY, : Fy,
i :t -:_
c::~~~::::::
'm
p l an e ._:_:_:_:._:_-=-_ :._:._-=-_:._. 'C Fx
= Force o n ,uea AOC
Fig. 3.34
" pgA h where A"ACxW idth ,, 4 x2
1
" looox9.8 1 x8x2 "" 8 m

" 156960 N

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 103 1


F)", '" weight of water e nc losed by AlleOA

'" 1000 x 9.81 x [~Rl ] x 2.0 = 9810 x %x 22 X 2.0 = 1232.76 N.


Ri ghi S id". of Ihe Cy linder

F" = pgA2'1l = Force on vcni ca l area CO

'" l000x9.81 x2x2x~J A,= COXI=2XI=2m l.l;l=~= 1.0)


2\ - 2
= 39240 N
F11 = Weight of water enclosed by DOeD

=pgX[~ R l] xWidlhof ga te
= 1000 x9.8 1 x ~ x2 1 x2 = 6 1638 N
4
Resulta nt force in tile direction o f x.
Fx = F" - F" = 156960 - 39240 = 11 7720 N
Resultant force in the direction o f y.
F ., =F,• I +F,, = 123276+6 1638= 1S49 14 N
(i) Res ulhmt fore", F is give n 3S

F = ~CFC,"+C-;F,~2 _ J(1 17720)l + (1849 14)2 = 2 19206 N. An s.


(ii) IJiredlon of res ultant force is given by
F . 184914
tan e = --.L = = 1.5707
Fx 11 7720
e = 57° 3 1'. An s.
(iii) Location o f Ih e r ..sultan! force

rorcc. F" acts OIl a distance of 2; 4 = 2.67 m from the tOp su rface of water o n left side. while F.,

ac ts at a distance of t x 2 = 1.:\3 III from free surfa<:e on the right side o f the <:y linder. The rcsu lWnt
force F, in the d irection of.r wi ll act at a distance of y fro m the bonom as
F, x)' == F" [4 - 2.67 1- F" [2 - 1.33[
117720 x)' = 156960 x 1.33 - 39240 x .67 == 208756.8 - 26290.8 == 182466
182466
Y= = 1.55 m from the bonom.
117720

Force F a<:ts at a disl<Ince 4R fro m AGe Of at a distance 4 x 2.0 == 0.8488 m from AGe IOwanls
JI 31t 31t
left of AOe.

Also F), aets at a distance 4R == 0.8488 m from AGe towards the right of AGe. The resu ltant force
, 3,
FJ will act at a distance x from AGe which is give ll by

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1104 Fluid Mechani cs

Py )( x = FYI x .8488 - Fy, x .8488


184914 x x == 123276 x .8488 - 61638 x .8488 = .8488 [123276 - 61638 1 = 52318.4
"' 523 18.4
0.2829 m from AOC.
18491 4
(i,-) uasl weight of ,,'Iinder. The resultant force in Ihe up ward direction is
Fy = 184914 N
Thus the weight of 91indtr should not be less lh:1I1 the upward force F),. Hcnl"t: least weight of
cylinder should be at leas!.
= 184914 N. A ilS.
Problem 3.28 Fig. 3.35 il'llow:; the crU!iJ"J'eCliu n of" /lllikfull of ",,,Ier ""der pre5I>''''''. The /eng/h
of lire 'a"k is :I m. Ali emply cylinder lies along the lenglh of Ille [(",k on 01!e of ils corner {IS S"O"'".
Find the horiWIl/a/ fwd renic,,/ comflom:nlS of Ihe force oc/i"g Oil 11u: cun'ed iJ'urface ABC of the
cylinder.
Solutio n. Radius. R==lm
Length of lank . 1==2 m
Pressu re . p '" 0.2 kgf/cm 2 '" 0.2 x 9.8 1 Nkm 2 ------
-------
------
2
'" 1.962 Nlcm = 1.962 x 10 Nlm ~
4 - --- - --
------
4
Pressure head. 11= L= 1.962xl0 =2m
pg IOOOx9.8 1
Free surface of water will be at a height uf 2 III from ----- ------- -
-------------
-------------
-------------
the lOp of the lank. ----- ----- ---
-------------
Fig. 3.36 shuws the equi va lent free su rface of water. --- --- --- --- -
Fig . 3.35

:::::::::;f~'"
(i) lIurl lo ntnl C umpunent uf Fure..
:0T
= 1.5 x 2.0 = 3.0 1l1 ~
F, =pgA/'
where A == Area projected on vc.rtical plane ~~~IM~~~~~~
, ' , ' , ' , ' , ' f--G ,- _ ,
: 2.5 m
'\
-
"=2+
15
=2.75 ::::::::-:t-:a ~ _Ol..; __
2 _:_:_:_:1~5 ~ .: H ,0
F~ = l000x9.81 x3.0x2.75 :::::}:r:::~
= 80932.5 N. An s . ,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:::~
(ii) Vt'rtical CO llll)Ollent of Forcc -------------
-------------
F, '" Weigh! of water enclosed or supported
------------
a(;lually or imaginary by (;urvcd surface ABC
== Weight of water in the portion CODE ABC
= Weight of water ill COOFflC - Weight of water in A£FB
But weight of water in CODFBC
== Weight of wata in [COB + ODFBO[

= pg [It:" + BOXOD] x 2 '" 1000 x9.81

== 64458.5 N
Weight of water in AEFB '" pg [Area of AEFB[ x 2.0

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 105 1


'" 1000 x 9.81 [Area of (AEFG + AGBII - A ll/I)] x 2.0
AI{ 0.5
In MHO. sinO ", - =- =0.5
AO 1.0
EH", 80- HO = LO- AD cos e = 1.0 - J x cos 30°", 0. 134
Area. ABH == Ar;)3 ABO - Area AHO

= rtR1x 30 _ AHXHO nRl _ 0.5 x .866 = 0.0453


360 2.0 12 2
Weigh! of WOller in AEF8
= 98 10 x [AE x AG + AG x AI/ - 0.0453[ x 2.0
= 9810 x 12.0 x . 134 + . 134 x.5 - J14 53 1 x2.0
== 98 10 x [.268 + .067 - .04531 x 2.0 = 5684 N
Fy '" 64458.5 - 5684 '" 58774.5 N. An s.
Problem 3.29 Find file magnitude and direction of the resu/wlil water pressure (Ictillg 011 a CllrI'ed
,
face of (I dam which is shaped uccordili g /0 Ihe f e/Mioll Y = ~ as silow" ill Fig . 3.37. Th e heighT of the
9
"'mer retained by III<' dam is 10 m. Consider 1/11' widlll of the dom (IS Imit)'.
Solut ion. Eq uat ion of curve AB is ,
.( 1 ,
y= - or x' ",9y
9
.I '" J9Y '" 3JY
Hcig tll of waler. 11= 10m
Width. b=l m
The hori zonta l compone nt , f'~ is g ive n by
Fx '" Pressure due to water on the c urved area ' '''J'''''" o n vertical plane
'" Pressu re on area BC
'" pgAIi
whe re A : BCx I: lOx I m 2.1i:! x 10:5 m
F,: l ooox9.8 1 x IOx5= 490500N
Vertical component, F,. is given by
Fy = Weight o f water su pported by the c urve AB
'" We ig ht of water in th e portion ABC
'" pg lArea of ABC ) x Width of dam

'" pg [J~~t X dY ] x 1.0 {Area of strip '" .ldy

: 1000 x 9.81 x 0 3JY dy


1'"
=29430
[)~/~'" l" =29430x f[/'2 1~O =19620(I0Jl2(
0

: 19620 x 31.622 '" 620439 N

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1106 Fluid Mechani cs

RcsuJtam water prCS5ur~ on dam

F'" JF/ + F/ '" J (490500)2 + (620439)2


'" 790907 N '" 790.907 kN . An s.
Directio n of the resultant is given by
F1 620439
tan9= - = '" 1.265
F, 490500
9 ", 51 ° 40', An s.

Problem 3 .30 A dam has" p"rabolic shapl! y '" Yo (c<..)2 a~' shown ill Fig. 3.38 below IUn'illg xQ '" 6 m
.',
{lnd Yo '" 9 m. The fluid is water with density '" /000 kg/m.!, Compule the "ori2Omal. !'Imical alld Ihe
resu/Ullil thrust exerted by ",mer per melre lellglh of the dam.
Solullon. Given:
Equalion of Ihe curve OA is

P)'o
2
(;:r =9(~r =9 x ;: '" x:
1
.t '" 4)'
"'
of '" .J4Y '"
2ylr.'
Width of dam. b: lnl.
(i) lIorizontnllhrus t t'xerled by w:ller
F, '" Force c"cned by wate r on venica l surface
OB, i.e.. the surfa(;c obtained by projc(;ling
the curved s urface 011 vertical plane
Fig . 3.38
"' pgA;;
'" 1000x9.81 x(9x I) Xl9 == 397305 N. Ans.

(ii) Vertical thru st exerted by water


F1 == Weight or water sup()Orl cd by curved surfa!;e OA upto free surface of
water
== Weight of water in th~ portion ABO
== pg x Area of OAR x Width o f dam

== 1000 x 9.81 x [ f rx dY]x 1.0


== lOOOx9.81 X[I: 2/12 XilY]x 1.0

=19620 x [(~:i~ ) =I ,
19620 x ~ [9.\12 1

= 19620 x 3"2 x 27 == 353HiO N. AilS.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 107 1


(iii) Res ult a nt th rus t exe rt ed b~' wa te r

F" JF} + F} - .J397305 + 353160 = 53 1574 N. Ans.


Direction of resultant is given by

tan e= F, = 353 160 = 0.888


F, 397305
9 = (an -I 0.888 = 41.6 3°. An s.
Problem 3 .31 A cylinder 3 m ill diameter (lnd., III 10llg retaitl.l Imler 011 one ,I'id,'. Ti,e c)'litlder is
supported as sllo .....tl ill Fig. 3.39. Determine lilt' horizolltal reaclioll III A and rhe I'erlical reaction ar B.
The cylinder weighs 196.2 kN. Ignore friction.
Solution. Given :
Dia.ofcyli[l(lcr
lA:ngth of cylinder
= 3 11)
= 4 In
WATER SURFACE

--~-~ ~- ~-~-~-~-~-=
_~_~_~ _~_~_~_:_:
--- ----
~
C

:,
'0
L
Weight of cy linder. IV= 196.2 k.N = 196200N 3m F. 0" --- + ~ --A
HoriwnwJ fOT..,c exerted by water l tFy
F , = Force on vcnical area SOC ,
: pgAh f ig. 3.39
, ~ I
whe re A =BOCx/= 3x4= 12m-.iI = - x3= 1.5m
2
F,= l000 x9 _81 x 12x L5= 176580N
The ve ni cal force e~ened by water
F, = Weight of wate r enclosed in BDC08

=pg>< (~R l) ></= 1000><9.8 1 ><~ X(1.5)lX4= 138684N

Force F, is acting in th e upward direction.


For the equilihrium of cy lind e r
Hnri7.onta l reactio n at A = Fx = 176580 N
Vertical reac tion at B '" Weight o f cyl inder - F,.
:: 196200 - 1386M::S75 16 N. Ans.

... 3.7 TOTAL PRESSURE AND CENTRE OF PRESSURE ON LOCK GATES

Lock gates arc the devices 1I',ed for changing the water level in a cana l or a rive r for na viga ti on.
Fig. 3.40 shows plan and elev ati on of a pair o f lock gates. Let All and IlC he the two lock ga tes. Each
gate is supponed Orl twO hinges Ii~ed on their top arid ool1om at the ends A and C. In the c losed
position. th e gat~s meet at 8.
Let F = Resulta nt force due to water on the gate All or IlC acting arc right angles to the gate
R = Reaction at the lower and upper hin ge
P = Reaction at the oommon oontact surface of the two gates and acti ng perpendic ular to the
con tact surface.
Let the force P and F meet at O. Then the reactio n R must pass through 0 as the gate All is in the
equilib rium under the adion of three forces. Let e is the inclination o f the lock gate with the normal to
the side of the lock.

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1108 Fluid Mechani cs

In LAllO. LOAD", LAlJO '" a.


Resolving all forces along the gale All and puning cquallU zero. we get
R cos a~ Peose '" Oor R '" I' ... (3. 19)
...- HINGE
~"'~ WATER SURFACE

ELEVATION

DOWNSTREAM
SIDE

'CAN
Fig. 3.40

Resolving forces nonnailO the gale All


Rsin9+Psin9 - F=O
F", R sin €I + P sin e '"
21' sin e 1":R=P)
"' p. _ F_ ... 0.20)
2 si n e
T o .,alcul"l ~ P .. nd R
In equ at ion (3.20), I' can be calculated if F and e arc I;nown. The value of 9 is calculated fro m Ihe
angle between the lock gales. The angle between the two lock gate is equa l to IRO" - 29. Hence 9 ca n
be calculated. The value of F is calculated as :
II I '" He igh! o f water on Ihe upstream side
11 2 '" Hc igh.t o f water u n tllc downstream side
F j '" Water pressure on the gate on upstream side
F1 '" Water pressure on the gate on dowlIslream side of the gate
J '" Width of gate
Now F\ '" pgA\h\
H
",pgXH\XJX - '
2
H'
'" pgJ - '
2
_ H , pgJH '
Similarl y, F1 "'pgA 1 h, = pgX(HlxJ)X 2"'~

F = F\ _ F _ pgIH\' _ pglHi
Resu ltant force 2- 2 2
Substituting the val ue o f ij and F in equation (3.20). the value of P and R e~n be c~kulated.
Reaction s .. t th e tol' li nd bott om hin ges
Let R, '" Reaction o f the top hi nge

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 109 1


Rb ", Reaction of Ih.e bonum hinge
Then R=R,+R b
The rcsuitam water pressure Fads norillal 10 the g ale. Half of the value of F is resisted by Ihe
hi nges of one lock gates and other half will be resisted by the hinges of01h.c r lock gate. Also FI acts at

a distance of ~
3
from bollOOl while F, acts at a di stance o f
-
H~3 from bonoill.

Taking moments about Ihe lower tJingc

R
.
X Sln
Fi HI F, H ,
&x H = - x - - - - x -- .• ,(1)
I 2 3 2 3
where H = DiMallcc between twO hinges
Resol ving force s horiZOntally
. . fj F,
R,sme + Rb slne= - - .....:... ...(ii)
2 2
From equations (0 and (ii). we can find R, and Rho
Problem 3.32 Each gare of a lock i,y 6 In high Wilt is supported by two hillges placcd ()II IIIe lap
alld bOl/om of lile gille. W/lell Iile gale.! (lfe c/o.!ei/. 111e)' make GIl angle of 110°. The widlll of lack is
5 m. Ifrlie ",/rer (e"e!s lIr,' -I m lind 2 III Oil 1101' upsrream and dOll'lIsrr.-am sides reSl'eC(iI'ely. derermine
rlie Imlg,lirl,,!e of rile forces 011 rlie liillges dill' ro lI'arer pressllre.
Solution. Given:
Heig tu of loc k:
Width of lock
:: 6m
:: 5m
r -:-;:;?;-:-
HINGE

1'm -
Width of each lock gate =A B
~
"' 10
AD
cos 30°
0
2.5
cos 30°
't I ,~~'
'''' '"
ELEVATIQ INGE R R
:: 2.887 m C

''''.oT- L
Angle belwee ll gales :: 120°
180·- 120' ~~~ ~
eo
Height of wa ter on upslream side
2
"'fm DOWN$TRE

HI = 4m PLAN A 30"

and Hl=2 m Fig . lA I


TOlal wa1~r press ure on upstream side
f") = pgA1ii , . wh~re AI = II I x! '" 4.0 x 2 .887 m ~

= 1000 x 9 .81 x 4 x 2. 887 x 2 .0 (-


iii, H 4
=-t=2'= 2.0m
I
= 22657 1 N
fl 4
F'orce F I will be acting at a distance of _ I= - :: 1.33 m fro ln boltom.
3 3
Similarly. to tal wal~r pressure on th e downstrea m side
-
Fl = pgA~IIl. whe re A~ = Hl X I = 2 x 2.887 III
,
= l000x9.81 x2x2.887x 1.0 "l = .:..:.l.=
- II
2
2
_ = 1.0m
2

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1110 Fluid Mechani cs

'" 56643 N

F, will act a1 a distance of H, = ~ = 0.67 III from bonom .


3 3
Resultant water pressure on each gale
F == FI - F, '" 226571 - 56643 '" 169928 N.
Le t .r is heig ht of F from the bottom. then taking moments of Fl' F 2 and F about the bollom. we hal'c
Fxx= FI X 1.33 - F 2 x 0.67
or 169928 xx: 226571 x 1.33 - 56643 x 0.67
22657 1 x 1.33 - 56643 x 0.67 301339 - 37950
.r = = 1.55111
169928 169928

From equation (3.20). P ~ _ F_ = 169928 = 169928 N.


2sin e 2 ... i030
prom equation (3.19). R = P == 169928 N.
If R T ~ n d R8 arc the rCJ"Iions at the lOp <lnd bonom hinges. then NT + R8 = R = 169928 N.
Taking movemen ts of hinge rcac tiolls RT • He and R aboullhc 0011010 hinges. we have
RTx6.0+RexO=Rx 1.55

RT = [69928 x 1.55 '" 43898 N


60
RIJ=R - R r = 169928 - 43898= 126030 N. Ans.
Problem 3.33 Ti,e end gilles ABC of <l lock are 9 In IIigil and when closed include an angle of
120°, The width of the lock is /0 m. Each gate is supporled by hro hinges located at I m and 6 m
"bol'e lite bottom of Ihe lock. Ti,e depths ofwaler all Ihe two sides (Ire 8 m (!"d.$ m re~peclirely. Find:
(i) Resuillml "'("er force on each 8011'.
(ii) ReaClio" helwee" Ihe galeS AB amlBC. and
(iii) Force Oil eadl !ringe, co"sidering Ihe rellClion of Ihe gMe ac/ing ill Ihe same Ilorizon/lli plane
as resullat,l WIlier pressure.
Solution. Given:
Hdglll of gale
Inclination of gate
180°- 1200 Q
'" 30
2
A

,-~-~-~-~--- L- HINGES
,
'm
, •
(3) PlAN (b) ELEVATION

Fig.J.42

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 111 1


W id th of loc I.: : 10m
5
Width of e ach lock " cos 30° or l= S.773 m
0':1'111 of water o n upstre am side. U I " 8 III
Depth of wate r o n dow nstream side. 112 " 4 III
(i) Wa ter pressure on upstrea m s id e
F I '" pgA,ii,
- H 8
w here A I '" I X H I " 5.773 x 8 " 46. 184 Ill. ' 11 '" _I = - = 4.0 III
2 ,
F I = 1000 x 9.81 x 46.1 84 x 4.0" 181 2260 N = 18 12.26 k N
Wate r pressure o n dow nstream sid e.
1'1 = pgA1'1!
-
where A l = I X tl2 = 5.773 x 4 = 23.092 111. ";! ="24 = 2.0
FI = 1000 x 9.81 x 23.092 x 2.0 = 453065 N = 453.065 kN
Resulta nt water pressure
= " I - F2 = 181 2.26 - 453.065 = 1359. 195 kN
( ti) Reaction be tween the gales All a nd He. The re acti on (P) betwee n th e gmes All and Be is
give n by cqumi o n (3.20) as
F
F: -. ,•
~In
0, 1359.195
X Sm
.3no = 1359.195kN, An s.
v
( iii) Force o n each hin ge. If NT and Nil arc the reactio ns at th e top and bono m hinges th en
Rr + Rs"' R
But fro m equation (3.1 9), R = P = 1359.1 95
Rr+ R s '" ])59. 195
, . HI 8 H, 4
The fu rl'c FI IS aetmg at - '" - '" 2.67 III from bonu m and F, at -" '" ~ = 1.33 m fro m bonum .
3 3 - 3 3
The resuhant fo rce F will act a1 a di stance.r from bo tlo m is give n by
Fxx= F I X 2.67 - F z x!.33

0'
.r = c'c."X"'."67c-,c-F'LX
" ,,
1.3,,,
3 lS I2. 26x2.67 - 453.065x 1.33
F 1359.195
4838.734 - 602.576 3 3
'" '" .1I6= . . lI m
1359.195
Hence R is a lso aC iillg ai a d istance 3, 11 m from bol1om.
Tak ing mo ment s o f Rr and R aboll1 the bo no ll1 hinge
RTx 16.0 - 1.01= R x (x - 1.0)
RX(I' - I.O) 1359.195x2.11
RT = = 573.58 N
5.0 5.0
Rs"' R - RT'" 1359.195-573.58
'" 785.6\5 kN. A ilS .

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1112 Fluid Mechani cs


.. J.8 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A LIQUID SUBJECTED TO CONSTANT
HORIZONTA LNERTICAL ACCELERATION

In c hapl ers 2 and 3 . the containers which co ntains liquids. arc assumed to be at resl. Hence the
liquids are also at res!. They arc in st:uic cquilibri ulll wilh respecI to con lainas. Bul if Ih e container
containing a liq uid is mad e (0 move Wilh a COn S[an l acceleration. the liquid panicles initi all y will mOVe
relmive 10 each o lh er and after some tim e. there will nO! be an y relative motion between the liquid
part icles and bound ari es o f Ihe conta in er . The liquid w ill tak.e up a new position under th e effect of
acceleration imparted to ils con tainer. T he liqu id will come \0 rest in this neW position rda tive 10 \ll<)
container. Th e en li re nu id ma ss moves as a si ng le unit. Since the liqu id aFter anainin g a new position
is in sta tic condi tion relative to the cOlllainer. the laws o f hydrostatic can be applied to determine the
liquid pressure. As there is no re lat ive motion between the liquid panicles. hence the shear stresses and
shear forces be tween liquid panicles will be zero. T he pressure will be normal to th e surface in co ntact
with the liqu id.
The following are the important c ases under consideration:
(i) Liquid (.'Ontainers subject to constant horizontal accele ration.
(i,) Liquid cont ain ers subjl'ct to ronstant vertical acceleration.
) .8. I Liquid Containers Subject to Constant Horizonta l Acceleration. Fig. 3.43 (<<)
shows a tank conta inin g a liqui d upto a certain depth. The ta nk is s tationary and free surface of liqu id
is horizontal. Let this tank is moving with a ronstant accelerat ion 'n' in the horizo nta l direction towards
right as shown in Fig. 3.43 (b). The initia l free su rface of liqu id which was horizontal, now takes the
"hape as shown in Fig. 3.43 (b). Now AB represcn ts the new free surface of th e liquid. Thus the free
surface of liqu id due to horizo ntal acceleration wi ll become a downward slopi ng inclined plan". with
the liquid ri sing at the back end. the liqu id fallin g at the front end . The equation for the free liqu id
surface c an be derived by considering the equilibrium of a fluid elcmelll C lying on the free su rface.
The forces acting o n the clement Care:
Free surface of
l;quOd
, Originat liquid
sorlsCfl

Moving horizontat
c Tank
- - - -- e C mX8

""Rear
or
,",
end

lW) • • • (0'

(., (0'
Fig. 3.43

(i) the pressure force P exerted by the s urround ing fluid on the cle melll C. This force is normal to
the free surface.
(it) the weig ht of the fluid cle melll i.e .. m x g acting vertically downward.
(iii) accelerating force i.e .. Nt x n aC ling in horizontal direc tion.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 113 1


Resolving th e forces horizontally, we get
Psi n 6+m)(a=O
or Psin8= - mll ... (r)
Resolving Ihe forces vertically. we get
Pcos6 - mg=O
or Pcos8=mxg . ..(ii)
Dividing (I) by (ii), we gel

tan e" - ~ ( or ; NumeriCallY ) ... O .20A )


The above cqUillion, gives the slope of the free surface of the liquid which is contained in a lank
e
which is subjec ted 10 horizon tal CO nsta nt acceleration. The [cn n «(jIg) is 11 constalll and hence ta n will
be constant. The -ve s ign shows that the free surface of liquid is sloping downw ards. He",:e the free
surface is a straighT pla ne indilled down al:1n angle e along the directio n of :Iu;clcrmioll.
Now let us fi nd the ex pression for the pressure al any point D in the liq u id mass SUbjected to
hori zon tal ac.::clcralion. LeI the point D is at a depth of '''' from the free surface, COl1 sider all
e lementary prism DE of height 'Il' and cross·scctional area dA as show n in Fig. 3.44.

, ,
/'JI:=:;,. LInes 01 constant
pressure

"
' ~M::l:
f -pgh,
Fi g, 3.44
Consider the equilibrium of the eleme nta ry prism DE.
The forces acting on this pri~m DE in the ve nil:al direl:tion arc:
(i) the atmospheric pressure force (Po x riA) althe top end of the prism ac ting downwards,
(ii) tile weigh t of th e clemen t (p x g x" x dA) at the e.G. o f Ihe c le ment acting in Ih e downward
d irection. and
(iii) tile pressure force (p x <fA) althc bottom end of thc prism acting upwards.
Sincc there is no venka l acccleration givcn to the tanl.:. he nce net force acting verticall y should be
zero.
P x <fA - Po x riA - pgll riA =0
p - Po- pgll=O or P=Po +pgll
"'
or P - Po =pg/r
or gauge pressure at point D is given by
P = pglr
or pressure head at point D. - I' =/1.
PS

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1114 Fluid Mechani cs


From th e above cqual io n, it is c lea r thai press ure head al an y poim in a liqu id subjected to a
consta nt llOri zo ntal acce lerat io n is eq ua l (0 th e he ight of th e liqu id co lum n above lli at point. Therefore
the pressure distribu tio n in a liquid su bjected to a constant ho rizontal accclc rmi on is sa me as
hydrostat ic pressure di stributi on. T he pl a nes of co nst ant pressure arc therefore. para ll e l 10 th e indincd
surface as s hown in Fig. 3.44. T hi s fig ure also shows the vari al ioll of pressure o n th e rear and f ront
end of Ihe la nk .
If II( = Depth of li qu id at Ihe rear end o f Ih e ta nk
II~ = De pth o f liquid at the fro nl end of I h~ tank

F I = Total pressure force exerted by liq uid 011 the rear sid e of th e tank
F z = T ot al pressu re force exert ed by liq uid o n th e fronl s id ~ of th ~ lank .
th" n FI = (A rea of tri ang le AM L) x W idth
I I ~. b.h ~
= ( -rxLM X AM Xb)=-rxpglllxIlIXb= 2

an d F2 = (A rea o f tri a ngle DNO) x Widt h


I I pg .b .hi
= ( .....• x BN x NO) = .....• x It, x pgh, x b
• - = 2
where b = Widt h of tank perpend ic ular to the plane of th e pa per.

T-.--------------- 1
T he valu es o f FI and F2 can al so he o btained as
[R efer to F ig. 3 .44 (a )l
------
------
Itl
=-2I "I",
", ;[[[g{;~[,,-
md
=P Xg x(hl x b) x

~pXgx(",xb) x ......:..
-
_
2

I"~
2
A,
pg. b.

= h,
-
xh and h,
I"~
=-=-
- 2 1 t
-..... .
:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:
- ,~~~::~~~:::~:
F.-·:·:~'..
••••••••- •• -:. --.-.---••--•••
~ h

I , Fig. 3.44(a)
= "2 pg.bxI12-·
It ca n also he prove d that th e diffe re nce of th ese two forces (i.e .. FI - FJJ is eq ual to the force
r~ qui redto acce lerate the lIla~s o f the liq uid co ntained in th e ta nk i.e ..
f'1 - F 2= M xa
whe re M = T o ta l m ass o f the liqu id con tained in the tank
II = Horizon tal co nstant acceleratio n .
Note : (I) If a tank completely filled with liquid and open at the top is subjected to a COIIstam horirontal
acceleration . then some of the liquid will spill out from the tank snd new free surf""e wit h il< slope given by
equation tan 9 = _!!. will be de'·eloped.
g
(ii ) If a tanK par1ly filled with liquid and open at the top is subjected to a constant horizontal acce leration.
spilling of the liquid may taKe plae<.: depending upon the magn itude of the acceleration.
(iii) If a lan k complelely filled wilh liquid and closed althe top is subjecled 10 a con,tam horizontal accelera -
tion.lhen the liquid wo uld not spill oul from the tan k all d also there wil l be no adjustment in Ihe surface cle"alion

oflhe liquid. Bullhc eq uation tan e = - - "g i< applicable for Ihi' case also.

(i" ) The example for a tan~ with liquid .<ubjected 10 a constam horizontal acceleration. i, a fuel tank on an
ail1'l~n" during t~ke off.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 115 1


Problem 3 .34 A reC/angular /ank i.1 mOI'iIlS IlOrizOIl/(lI/), III lilt! directiOIl of ils '<'ngrll Willi U
CQIIS/atll acceleratio/l of 2.4 m/i. The length. ",idth and deptll of Ille /(IlIk are 6 III. 2.51/1 and 2 In
respecril'l'iy. If the deplh of !l'mer in III,> /(Ink is I In and {(lilt is open a/ the lOp then calcu/are :
(I) tile Iwgle of the \l'ater $Iu jace /0 the IlOrizonial.
(ij) Ihe max im/WI and lIIinilllum flres.lure in/ensilie,1 (j{ Ille bo l/om.
(iii) Ihe /0/(1/ forc e due 10 ...tller (lelillg 0/1 eaeil end of flu! tank.
Solution. Gi ve n F..... surface t'
Constant ;!(;ce lcrmion. a = 2.4 mls l,
Le ngth" 6 III : Width = 2.5 m and depth '" 2 Ill. 2
Dc ptll o f Wa!U in tank . II = I m
(I) The a ngle or the ... aler s urface tn the
h o rb;onlul
~ 0.2662 m
Let 9 ", tile an g le of wa ter surface to th e hori zontal
Usi ng equ ation (3.20 ). we get
" 2.4 Fig. 3.45
tan • " - - ,, - - - " - 0 .2446
g 9.81
(Ihe - ve sign shows that Ihe free surface o f waler is s lo pin g dow nward as sho wn in Fig . 3.45)
Jan e" 0.2 446 (slope downw~rd)
fJ " lan- I 0 .2446" 13.7446" or 13° 44.6'. An s .
( if) Th e maximum and minimum press llrt' intens ities a t the bottom of th e tank
From th e Fi g. 3.45.
Depth o f water at th e front e nd,
irl" 1- 3 t3n fJ " 1- 3 x O.2446" O. 2662 m
Depth of wate r at th c re ar e nd.
it1 " I + 3 tan fJ " I + 3 x 0 .2446 " 1.7338 111
The pressure inte nsity will be IllJ ximum at the oouo m. where depth o f wat er is max imulll .
Now the maximum pressure inte ns ity m the OOuo m will be at point A and it is g iven by.
fI ....," p xgxl,!
" 1000 x 9 .8 1 x 1.7338 N/m 1 " 17008.5 N/m 2 • An s.
The minimum pressure intensity at th e OOllo m will be a t point B a nd it is g iven by
Pmin" p xg x l'l
,, 1000 x9 .8 1 x O. 266l" 2611.4N/ m 2. Ans.
(iii) Thl."" 101,,1 for.:I."" dul."" 10 wull.""r "cling on eu.:h I.""nd of Ihe lunk
Let F I "to tal force actin g On the fmnt side (i.e .• on face BlJ )
F 1 " tota l fo ree acting on the rear side (i.e .. on face A C)
Th en F I " pgAl h l, where AI " BD x width of lank ""I x 2.5,,0.2662 xl.5

rnd ,-11 __ BD_ _!!L _


_ 0.2662 __ 0 . 133 1 m
2 2 2
" 1000 x 9.8 1 x (0.2662 x 2.5) x 0. 133 1
" M8.95 N. Ans.

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1116 Fluid Mechanics


and F 2 ", p.g.A 2.hl. w herc A2 '" AB x width o f mnk '" 112 X 2.5 '" 1.7338 x 2.5

'ii, '" AB '" III = 1.7338 '" 0.8669 m


• 2 2 2
= 1000 x 9.81 x (1.7 338 x 2.5) x 0.8669
= 3686 1.8 N. An s.
Rcsul! ant force'" F, - "'2
= 36861 .8 N - 868.95 c liquid (water)
= 35992.88 N
Not .... The difference of the for~cs acting on the lWO ends
of the lan k is equal 10 the force necessary 10 acccicraic the
liq u id maS,. This can be provc<i as shown below, F2 __ . '. '••••••••••••••• '••• ".
Consider the '"Oolrol volume of the liq uid i ..... control vol· ----'-- ,:::::~:::::::::::::::::::::: ~:: -:-. .
ume is ACDHA as shown in I'ig. 3.46. The nel force acting on --------------------
----------------------
---------- ------------ D

, "
-----------------------
----------------------
-----------------------
the cont rol volume in the horizontal di recti on must be equal 10
the pl'<)duct of ma.% of the liquid in CQntml vol um" and accel - ,
eration of the liquid. ~I.-------"m ------~'
(F, - f',) 5!>1 XlI F ig. 3.46
= (p X volumc of cont rol vol umc) x II

.. (1000 X Area of tl BDC£x width) x 2.4

5
[lOOO x ( AC"D)
2 . 1x2.4
xA8xwldth

[-: Area of trapezium = ( AC; IJI))x tlB]


.. '000 x (1.7 338 +0.2662
2 ~5 x •~ .4
) x 6 x_.

= 36000 N

(": AC = h, " 1.7338 Ill. SO = h, = 0.2662 tll. and tlB = 6 Ill. width," 2.5 m)
Th e abovc force is "early the same as thc difference of the forces acting on thc two ends of the tank. (i.e,.
35992,88 :< 36000)
Problem 3.35 Tile reClang"lar lallk of lite abOl'" probl"m contaill S ...aler 10 a deplll of 1.5 III. Fin d
Ille I,orizon/{,l acceleralion wllicll m"y be im(!llfled 10 lite IlI/lk ilt lite direCliOIl of ilJ' lengllt J"O Ilwl
(i) Ihe spillillg of ..."ter f rom Ihe 1'lIIk is jllst 011 Ihe !"erge of latill g pl(!ce.
(il) Ihe f r0l11 bo/lom co mer of Ihe ,,,"k iJ' j ll S! e_.posed.
(iii) lite bOl/om of I/Il' /(IIIk is eXpOJ'ed upla ils mid·poinl.
AI,w c,dClllate Ihe tolal force.! exerted by II,e ...mer on each end of lite lank ilt eaclt caJ'e. A 1$0 pro!"e
Illat IIII' di/fer('/tce belweelt Ilte,le forces is elflw l to lite fo rce "eCeJsa ,)" 10 accelerale lite mass of ...ater
wllk.
Solution. Given:
Dimensions of the tank from pre vio us problem.
L '" 6 Ill. width (b ) '" 2.5 m and depth '" 2 III

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 117 1


IXplh of water in tan k. /,=
Horizo ntal """elcrnlion Imparted 10 the lank
l .5m

(0 (iI) IV/len Ille splllwg of'Huer from Ihe tonk IS


C
I ~:::...
HA u_. _ _ 3",
---
000aco>

JUII 0/111/1'
"
,age oftak./Ilg place
d' I
..xl a '" reqUiTe ..omo nla aeee cral10n
I T__ -, -,,-. ". 8
":. 3.. ::._ "-:.::"j,":
:_:::_:::':::':::_:':~_:::_: _. _: ._:
When the sp lllm g of water from thc lank IS JUS1 o n th e 15m . ~::: :_:'~. ~:.~: ~:_~~~:- ~:::_
\ ergc of lakmg pi ace. tlie water wou Id rise u PIO the rear ' .' : -,::, .:_ . _ . _.: _' - .:_.:::.:__
tOp corne r of the tank as sliown 111 FIg. 3.47 (a) E,"- - - - .-,-•. , .-, •. , - ,-,-- - - ,. F

I · ---' m --~
~ ' I
Ian 9= AC '" (2- 1.5) '" 0.5 =0. 1667
AO 3 3 Fig. 3.47 (J) Spilling of 'IlNlur is just on
tht tJerge of taking place.
But frolll equation (3.20) Ian a = -"g (Numerica ll y)

(l = g x tan e = 9.8 1 x 0.1667 = 1.635 m/s 2 • Ans.


(b ) TOIIlI forces e.u:rled by water on each end of IIII' tallk
The furce exerted by water un the end CE uf the tank is

FI = pgA ,/',. where A, = CE x width of the tan~ = 2 x 2.5


- CE 2
/11 = - = - = 1111
2 2
= 1000 x9.81 x(2 x 2.5) x I
= 49050 N. Ans.
The force exerted by wa ter un the end PD of the tank is

F1 = pgA 1 x /'1. where A1 = FD x width = 1 x 2.5


(.: AC= BD=0.5 111. FD=Bf' - BD = 1.5 - 0.5= I )
- FD I
= l ooox9.81 x(J x2.5)xO.5 I" = - - = - =0.5 III
, 2 2
= 12262.5 N. An s.
(c ) DijJere1> ce of IIII' forces is eqlla/to the force 1>eCeSI(lry 10 (lcce/emle IIII' mllSS ofw(lier in Ille /(lllk
Difference o f the forces = FI - Fl
= 49050 - 12262.5 = 36787.5 N
Volume of water in the tank before acceleration is imparted to it '" L x b x dcpth of water
=6x2 .5x 1.5 =22.5m 3.
The force neces-"llry to accelerate the mass of watrr in th e tank
= Mass of water in lank x Acceleration
= (p x volu me o f watrr) x 1.635
= 1000 x 22.5 x 1.635 [Thcre is no spi llin g o f water a nd volu me of
wate r = 22.5 mO[
= 36787.5 N

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1118 Fl uid Mechan ics


Hence Ihe difference between the forces on the 1WO ends of the tank is equal to the force necessary
\0 acccierate tlie mass of water in the tank.

Volume of water in Ihe !>mk elll1 also be calculmcd as volume = ( CC+


2 FD ) x EFx Width. [Refer to

Fig. 3.47 (a) 1 F"I'8$urtaoe Original l"",

(22+1 ) x6x2.5=22.5m.,
aHer ~e<.1ioo sunace
=
(Ii) (iI) Horizontal acceieral;on ... I,en tile frolll
bOl/om cortler of Ihe Iallk i,~ just e.rpoud
Refe r 10 Fig. 3.47 (b). In this c ase the free su r-
face of water in the tank will be along CD. •
leI 1I '" required hori zontal acceleration.
CE 2 I
In th is <:ase, 1309 = - = - = -
ED 6 3 , ,
BUI from equatioll (J.l7), I .---- 'm ------~
" .I
Fig. 3.47 (b)
tan e = ~ (Numerically)
g

a=gxtan8=9.81 xi =3.17m1s!. Ans.

(b) Tolal jorces exerted by waler 011 eaell end of Ihe l(llik
The force exerted by water on the end CE of the tank is

F, "'pg xA , x h'
whe re A,=CExw idth= 2x2.S",'; m"
CE 2
h, = - : - = lm = 1{lOOx9.81 x5x 1
2 2
= 49050 N. Ans.
The force exerted by Waler on the end BD of the tank is zero as there is no water against the face BD
Fl =0
Difference of forces = 49050 - 0 = 49050 N
(e) Difference offorces is eqlw/IO rhe force neeeHary 10 accelerate rhe lIIass ofwarer ill rhe /(llik.

Volume o f water in the tank = Area of CEO x Width of tank


CEXED) ( ... Width of tank =2.5 m)
= ( 2 x 2.5

= 2;6 x2.5= 15 m3
Force necessary to accele rate the mass of water in th e tank
= Mass of water in tank x Ac(;e lcratiun
= (1000 x Volume of water) x 3.27
= 1000 x 15 x3.27 =4,)050 N
Difference of two forces is also = 490S0 N

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 119 1


Hence d ifference be twee n Ihe forces on the two e nds Free >urf""" Original I, ..
olle, accew.ralion If

i ....... 7. '
of the ta n~ is eq ual \0 the force necessary to accelerate
the mass of wate r in th e tank.
(iii) (a) Horizon/al (lac/era/ioll wllell the bOl/om of
till' lallk is eXJlosed lip/a its mid-poiru
Refer 10 Fig. 3.47 (e). hi thi s casc the free surface of •

r
W31cr in the tank w ill be a lo ng CD'. where D * is the
mid -po int of ED. :-:-:-:-:':':':-:-.
Let (/ '" required horizontal acce lerat io n from
Fig. 3.47 (e), it is clear that
C£ 2
lane= -- ~ ­
ED' 3
But from cquiltion (3.20 ) numerically

1ane=~
, , ,
a=gxlan 6=9.81 x - =6.54 mls. Ail S.
3
(b) Tolal forces exerted by ,m/er on cod, end of Ihe lank
The force cxcrwd by water on the end C£ of the tant is
F I=pxgxAlx/IJ
where A 1 =CExWidlh=2x2.S=Sm!
CE 2
1,,= - = - : lm
, 2
"lOOOx9.81 x5x 1
'" 49050 N. AilS.
The force exen cd by waler on lhe end 8D is zero as lh ere is no waler againsllhe face BD.
Fl '" 0
Differe nce o f lhe forces'" FI - Fl = 49050 - 0 = 49050 N
(c) Difference of rhe 1»"0 force.! is equtl/ fa rile force neces.lary fa aealerare rile Intls.f of lI"aler
reI/wining ill Ihe Iallk
Volume o f waler in lhe lank:: Area CED* x Widlh o f tank
C£xED* 2x3
2 X2.5" - , - X2.5=7.5 m)
Force necessary 10 accele rate th e mass of water in the tank
" Mass of water x Acce leration
= p x Volume of water x 6.54
= 1000 x 7.5 x 6.54
=49050 N
This is th e same force JS the difference of the lWO forces on the lWO ends of the wnk.
Problem 3.36 A reclallgular wnk of lellglll 6 m. widlll 2.5 m (md lleighl 2 In is completely filled lI"ilh
K·(ller when al resl. The tUIlk. 6· opell 01 Ihe lop. The 1(JIlk is subjected 10 0 hor;zoll/o/ COlis/mi l {illear
accelemlioll of 2..1 mli ill Ihe directiOl1 of ils /ellglh. Find Ihe ,·olume of ,,"ala spilled from 1111;0 lallk.

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1120 Fluid Mechani cs

So lution. Given:
L "" 6 Ill . b " 2.5 111 and height, H", 2 m
Horizontal acceleration. 1I '" 2.4 rnls ,
2
The slope of Ihe free surface of water after the lank is subjected to linear comaa,,1 acceleration is
given by equation (3 .20) as

Ian e = -" (Nullwrlcally)


.
g

'" 2.4 '" 0.2446


9.& 1
From Fig. 3.48,

tan6= -
8e
AB
BC=ABxtan8
=6)(0.2446 I' 8m '1
(": AB '" Length = 6 III ; Ian e = 0.2446) Fig . 3.48
= 1.4676 III
Volume of water spilled = Area of ABC x Width of tank
=(+XABxBC) x 2.5 (': Width = 2.5 10)
=+)(6)(1.4676)(2.5 (,: IJC= 1.4676111)
'" i 1.007 nrl, Ail S.
3.8.2 Liquid Container Subjected to Constant Vertical Acceleration . Fig. 3.49 sliows
a tank containi ng a liquid and the tank is moving vertically upward wilh a constant 3(;ccicrmion. The
liquid in the tank will be su bjected to the same ve nic al accckration. To obtain Ihe expression for the
pressure at any point in the liqu id Illass subjec ted to venical upward accele ration. consider a vertical
elementary prism of liquid CDFE.
Free surface

I 1

1--01- ""-1
f- pgh(1 · t ) - 1

Fig. 3.49
LeI dA '" Cross-sectional area of prism
I,,,, Hdghl of prism
/10 " Atmospheric pre5.';u re acting on Ihe face CE
p " Pn:ssure at a depth II acting on the fat"'! DF

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 121 1


The forces acting on tile clcmcnlary prism arc:
(0 Pressu re fOrl:c equa l 10 PI;) x dA acting on the face CE vcnically downward
(ii) Pressu re fOrl:c equal !O p x dA acting on the face OF vertically upward
(iii) Weight of the prism eq llal to p x g )( dA )( II acting through C.G. of the clement vcnicalJy
downward.
According to Newton"s second law of motion. the nel force acting on Ih" clement must be eq ual 10
mass multiplied by accekration in (tIC same di rection.
Net force in \'cnically upward di rection'" Mass x accelerat ion
p x ciA - Po x <fA - pgdA . 11 '" (p)( dA x 11) x a (": Mass'" p x dA x 11)
or p - Po - pgil '" ph x a (Cancelli ng dA from bolh sides)
or P-Po=pgll + plw

= pglt [I +~] ... (3.11)

But (p - Po) is the g~uge pressure. l'len<:(; gauge pressure OIl any point in the liquid m~ ss subjec ted to
,1 constam vertical upward ~lcceleration , is given by

P~ ==pgh[I+;] ... (3.22)

== pgh + plw ... (3 .22A)


where P, == P - 1'0 == gauge pressure
In equation (3.22) p. g and a are constant. Hence variation of gu~ge pressure is linear. Also when
h == 0.1'8 == O. This means P - Po == 0 or I' = Po' Hence when II == O. the pressure is equa l to atmospheric
pressure. Hence free surface of liquid subject~d to constant venical acceleration wi ll be horizon tal.
From equation (3.22A) it is also c lear that the pressu re at any poi nt in the liquid mass is greater than
the hydrostatic pressure (hydrostatic pressure is = pgil) by an amount of p x II x a.
rig. 3.49 shows the variation o f pressure for the liquid mass subjected to a constant vertical upward
acceleration.
If the tank containing liquid is mo ving vertica ll y downward with a constant acceleration. then the
gauge pressure at any point in the liquid at a depth of II from the free surface will be given by

(P-Po)=pgh[ I-~] =pgh-Pha ... (3.23) ,fo

The above equation shows that the pressure at any


point in the liquid mass is less than the hydrostatic pres-
sure by an ~mount of plla. Fig. 3.50 shows the variation
of pressure for the liquid mass subjected to a constant
vertical dow nward acceleration.
If the wnk cunt aini ng liquid is moving downw ard with
a constant ac(;c!eration equal to g (i.e., when a == g). then
-I'"' I N"~-~) I
equation reduces to P - Po == 0 or P = Po' This means the
pressure at an y point in the liquid is equal to surrounding
atmospheric pressure. There will be no force o n the
r- pgn
9 ·1
Fig. 3.50
walls or on the base of the tank,
Note. If a lank containing a liquid is 'Ubjectl'{/ to a constant acceleration in the inclined direction. then the
acceleration may be resolved ~long the horiront~l direction aTTd ,"ertkal direclion. Then each of these cases
may be separately analysed in accordance with the aoo"e procedure.

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1122 Fluid Mechani cs


Problem 3.37 A limk cOlllailling ,water upla a dep/II of 500 mm is moring I'erlically upward WillI
a conSWlI1 acceleralion of 1.45 mh-, Find IiiI' force exert,'d by Waler 011 Ihe side of II,e wnk. Also
mlcu/are II,e force on Ihe side of Ihe /allk wh"11 the wid/II of tank i.! 1 111 and
(i) {(1IIi: is mOI·ing I'erlically downward wilh II conSlalit accelermion of 2.45 m/I, and
(ii) Ihe limk is IW( moving oj all.
Solution. Given:
[krIll of waler, /, = 500 n11n = 0.5 III

Vcnil:al acce leration.


Width of tank.
a = 2.45 fills!

b= 2m
To find the force exerted by wate r 011 the side
of the tank when moving vertically upward. Ie! us
"
I
first tlnd the pressure al the honom o f th e tank.
The gauge pressure at the bonolll (i.e .. at point B)
for this case is give R by equation as
Fig. 1.51

JIB == pgl! (I+~)


= IOOOx9.8 1 xO.5 2.45)
- - ==6 131.25Nfm ,
(1+9> '
This pressure is re prcscl11cd by line Be.
Now the force on the ~idc AB = Area of triangle ABC x Width of tank

==(txA8X8C) Xb

= (t x O.5x6131.25) x2 (.: BC=6131.25 and/!= 2 m)


== 3065.6 N. AilS.
(r) Fo rce On the s ide or th., honk, wh.,n honk Is m ovi ng nrlio:u ll y do wn ward.
The pressure variation is shown in Fig. 3.52. For this easc. th" pressure m th" bottom of the tank
(i.e., at point 8) is given by equmion (3.23) as
,
PB== pgli (1 -~)
==1000x9.8IxO.51- - - 2.45)
( ,., "

== 3678.75 Nfn/
This pressure is represented by line Be.
Now th" force on the side AB == Area of triangle ABC x Width

==(tXAJJxIJC)X b Fig. 3.52


= (t X 0.5 x 3678.75) x 2 ('c Be. "78.75. b. 2)
== 1839.37 N. Am .

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 123 1


(ii)~'o rc" 0 11 th e s id e or Iht' lank, ... ht'li tunk Is st..lionary.
The pressure at point B is given by.
fl8'"pgh = lO00x9.81 x05 = 4905 Nlrn 2
This pressure is represented by line BD in Fig. 3.52
Force on the side An :: Area of triangle ABD x Width

=(t XA B xBD)X b
= (i-xO.5x 4905)x2 (': ED :: 4905)
= 2452.5 N. AilS.
For this case. the force on An can also be obtained as

"AIl= pgA.;;
wllerc A:: AB x Widlll = 0.5 x 2 = 1 m 2
- AS 0 .5
It:: - : - =0.25111 = 1000 x9.81 x 1 xO.25
2 2
= 2452.5 N. AilS.
Problem 3.38 A umk coll/oins »'a/er "plo (j depth of 1.5 m, The leng/II amI wid/I, of /lIe lank (lrl!
-I m (lIld :z m respec/indy. Th e wnk is mo\'ing lip "" jllc/ined p/(Jlle with (I cons/,w/ (lccderu/iol! of
-I ",Ii. The inc/inaliOll of Ihe p/mw will, the /u)riZOJ1la/ is 30° as 11110 ...11 in Fig. 3.53. Find.
(i) Ihe ''''gle made hy Ihefree J'u rf"ce ofll'lIler will! Ihe horiWII{(,/.
(ii) Ihe pressure III Ihe hOI/om of I/le lallt (1/ Ihe fro n/ ami rear ellds.
Solution. Given:
'm
Dcptli of water. 11 == 1.5 10 : Lengt li. L == 4 III and
Width. b == 2 Ul
Constant acceleration along th e inclined plane.
1
II '" 4 Ill /5
Inclination of plaoe. 0: == 3D"
a
Let == Angle mad~ by the free surfac", of w~ter
after tlie acceleration is imparted to the tank
p~ == Pressure ,lithe bo1l0111 of the tank :It the from ",nd
and Pv == Pressure at the bottom of the taJlk at the reaT
end. Fig. 3.53
This proble m can be donr by resolving the give n acceleration along thc horizontal direction and
vertical d irection. The n eac h of these c ases Ill ay be separately anal ysed according to the sct procedure.
Horizontal and vertical eomponcnts of the acceleration arc:
a" '" II cos Cl " 4 cos 30° '" 3.464 lll/s
2

,
{/ == a sin Cl == 4 sin 30° == 2 m/s 2
When th~ tnnk is station~ry on the inclined plane, free s urfac", o f liquid will be along EF ~s shown
in Fig, 3.53, But when til", tank is moving upward alo ng the indi Jled plane th e fr"'e surface of liquid
will be along ne. When the tank containing a liquid is moving up an inclined plane with a constant
accderation. thc angl e madc by the frce surface of thc liquid with thc horizontal is g iven by

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1124 Fl uid Mechan ics


_ "_,_ 3.464
tan , '" "" 0.293)
1I., +g 2+9.8 1
{I = tan - I 0.2933 '" 16 .346 G
Ans.
"'
Now lei us first find the depth of liquid at the front and rear end of the tank.
IXrlll of liquid at front end", II I '" AB
[krill of liquid at Tear ~nd '" 11 2 '" CD

From Fig. 3.53, in triangle eOE, tan a = ~~


CE = EO tan e = 2 x 0.2933 (,: EO", 2 m. tan e = 0.2933)
"' = 0.5866 III
CD = 112 = ED + CE = 1.5 + 0.5866 '" 2.0&66 m
Similarly hl=AB=AF-BF
= 1.5 - 0.5866 (": AF = 1.5. BF = CE = 0.5866)
'" 0.9134 m
The pressure at the bouom of tank 3l Ihe fear end is g iven by.

PD= pghl (I + ';)

= 1000 x9.81 x Ul866 ( , + _ 2_) '" 24642.7 N/m z. Ans.


9$ '
The pressure at the boU01n of lank at the front e nd is given by

Pit '" pgh t ( I + (:')

'" 1000 x9.81 xO.9134 ( , + -'-) '" 10787.2 Ntml, Ans..


9>,
HIGHLIGHTS
1. When the nuid is at rest. Ihe shear stress i. zero.
2. The force exerted by ~ Sl:J.tic fluid on a vertical. horitontal Or an inclined plane immersed surface.
/' '" pgAh
where p • Density of the liquid.
A • Area of the immersed surface. and
ii .. Depth of the centre of gravity of the immersed .urface from free .urface of the liq uid.
J. Centre of pressure is defined as the point of application of the resultant pressure.
4. The depth of centre of pre,sure of an immersed surface from free surface of the liquid.

for vertically inlinCrsc<i surface_

for inclined immcr>ed surface.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 125 1

S. The centre of pressure for a plane ,'crtical surface III's al a depth of two-third the height of the
immersed surface.

6. The t01a1 force on a curved surface is given by F.

where f~ ", Hnriwntal force on cun"cd surface and is equal to total pressure force on the projected area
of Ihe curved surface on the ,-"nieal plane.
K pgAh
and F, '" Vertical force on sub-merged curvcd surface and is equal 10 Ihc weight of liquid actually
or imaginary supported by the curved surface.
F
7. The inclinalion of Ihc result,ml force on curved surface with horizontal. tan e = .2....
F,
8. The resultant for • .:: on a sluice gate. F = FI - Fl
where F, = Pressure force On (he upstream side o f (he sluice !laIc and
F : '" Pressure force on the downstream side of the sluice gate.
9. Po. a lock gate. the reaction ""'tween the two gates i. equal to the r~action at the hing~" R" I'.

Also the reaction between the two gate •• p .. __ F_


2 sin {I
where F .. Resultant water pressure on the lod gate .. F, - F2
and {I = Indination of the gale with the nonnal to the side of the lock.

EXERCISE

(A) THEORETICAL PROBLEMS


I . What do you understand by 'Totall'Tessure' and "Centre of Pressure" ?
2. Derive an expres,ion for the force exerted on a sub·merged vertical plane surface by the static liquid
and locate the position of centre of pressure.
J . Prove that the centre of press ure of a completely sub·merged plane surface is always ""' low the centre
of gravity of the sub·merged surface or at most coincklc with the centre of gravity when the plane
surface is horirontal.
4. Prove th~tthe tOl~1 pressure Herted by a static liquid on an inclined plane sub·merged surface is lhe
""me a< the foree exerted on a vertical plane surface as long as the depth of the centre of gravity of the
,urface is unal!ered.
5. Deri~e an expression for thc deplh of centre of pressure from free surface of liquid of an inclined plane
surface sub·merged in the liquid.
6. (u) How would you detcnnine the horiwntal and wrtical components of the re,uUant pres,ure on a sub·
merged curved surface?
(h) Explain the procedure of finding hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces.
(f)elhi Un;\·er.<ity. Hec. 2002)
7. l: xplain how you would find the resultant pressure on 3 curved surface inllHersed in 3 liquid _
S. Why the resultant pressure on a curved sub·merged surface is dctcnnincd by first findin~ horizontal
and ycrtical forces on the curved surface? Why is the same method not adopted for a plane inclined
surface sub·merged in a liquid?

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1126 Fluid Mechani cs


!I. De .. ribe briefly with sketches the various methods used fo r measuring pressure excncd by fluid s.
10 . Prove that the "cr1ical component of the resu ltant pressure On a sub-merge<J curved surface is equal to
the weight of the liquid supponcd by the curved surface.
I I . What is the difference between sluice gale atld lock gate?

u. Derive an expression for the reaction between the gates as I' '" _ __
,.
11. Prove 1ha1 the reaction between the gates of a lock is equal to the reaction at the hinge.

2 sin e
where"" Resultant water pressure on lock gale, (I '" inclination of the gate with nonnal to the side oflhe lock.
1-1 . When will centfe of pressure and centre of gmvity of an immersed plane surface coincide?
IS. Find an expression for the force cxened and ccnlre of pressure for a complclely SUb-merged inclined pi:me
surf~ce. Can Ihe same melhod be applied for finding Ihe resull~nl for.:e On a curved surface innners..'<l in
Ihe liljuid ? If nOI. why?
16. Whal do yo u undersland by Ihe hydroslalic equal ion ? Wilh Ihe help oflhis equalion derive Ihe expressions
for lhe IOlal Ihrusl on a sub·merged plane area and Ihe buoyam force aCling on a sub·merged body.

(B) NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

I . DClcnninc Ihe 10lal press ure and dcplh of cenlre of pressure on a plane re<:I:,ngulur surface of 1 111 wide
and 3 111 deep when ils upper edge is horizonlal and (al coincides wilh Waler surface (b) 2 111 below Ihe
free waler surface. [Ans. (a) 44 145 N. 2.0m. (b) 103005 N. 3.71 4 ml
2. Dctennine the IOlal pressure on a cir.:ular plale of diamcler 1.5 m which is placed verlkally in walcr in
such a way Ihal ceTllrc of plale is 2 m below Ihe free surface of waler Find Ihe posilion of cenlre of
pressure also. IAn< . 34668.54N.2.07rnl
3. A re<;langular sluice gale is situaled on the ,·crlkal wall of a lock. The verlkal side of the sluice is 6 m
in lenglh and depth of centroid of area is 8 m below the Water surface. Prove Ihat Ihe depth of cemre of
pressure is given by 8.475 m.
4. A circular opening. 3 m diamelcr. in a vertkal side of a tank is closro by a disc of 3 m diameter Which can
rotate about a horizontal diameter. Calculate (i) the force on the disc. and (iI) the torque required 10
maintain the di", in equilibrium in the .. ertical position when the head of water abo,·e the hori,ontal
diameter is 6 m. IAns. (i)416.05 kN . ( ii) 39005 Nml
5. The pressure at the centre of a pipe of diatneter 3 m is 29.43 Nkml. The pire contains oi l of sp. gr. 0.87
and is filled wilh a gate valve . Find thc force cxene<:l by the oi! on the gate and posilion of centre of
pressure. IAns.l.OIl MN ..016 m below cenlre of pipe]
6. Determine the tota l pre.<>ure and ccntre of prc<Sute on an isosceles triangular piate of ba,e 5 m and
allilude 5 m when Ihc plale is immersed verlically in an oil of sp. gL 0.11. The base of the plale is I m
below the free surface of waleL [An •• 261927 N. 3.19 ml
7. The opening in a dam is 3 m wide and 2 III high. A ycnical sluice gale is used to cover the opening. On
the up,lream of Ihe gale. the liquid of sp. gr. 1.5. lie, uplo a heighl of 2.0 m above the lop of Ihe gale.
whereas on the downSlrcalll ,ide. Ihe waler is available uplO a height of the top of Ihe g~le. Find the
rcsuUanl force aCling on Ihe gale and posilion of centre of pr~ss~re. Assume Ihal Ihe gale is higher al
Ihe bononl. [Ans. 206010 N. 0 .964 '" above Ihe hingel

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 127 1


K. A cOlis>')" for closing thc enlrance [0 a dry dock is of Impel0idal form 16 In wide at the lOp and 12 m
wide at the bonolll ,md 8 111 deep. Find Ihc 10lai pressure and cenlre of pressure on Ihc caisson if the
water on the outside is 1 m below the lOp le"cl of thc caisson and dod is empty.
[Ans. 3.164 MN. 4.56 m below water surface I
'I. A .Iiding gale 2 III wide and 1.5 In high lie, in a venical plane and has a co-effocicnt of friction of 0.2
between itself and guides. If Inc gate weighs one tonne. find the vertical force required to raise thc gate if
its upper edge is at a depth of 4 m from free surface of wmer. IAns. )7768.5 NI
10 . A lank conuin, WOller upto a height o f 1 In above the ha"", An imm;",,;ble liquid of _'po gr. 0.8 is (,lied on
the lOp of waler UplD 1.5 m height . Calculale , (il total pre«ure on One side of the lank. (iiI Ihe position of
cenlre of pressure for one side of the tank. which is 3 In wide. IAn •. 76518 N. 1686 In from lopl
II . A reclangular tank 4 m long. 1.5 m wide cont";,,s water Uplo ~I height of 2 m. Calculale Ihe force duc 10
waler pressure on Ihe base of Ihe lank. Find also Ihe deplh of cenlre of pres,ure from frcc surface.
IAns. 117720 N. 2 m from free surface I
I Z. A reclangular plane surface I m wi<k and 3 In deep lies;n water;n such a way Ihal;t,; pl:!n" makes an angle
of 30" wilh (he free surf"ee of water. Dele"";ne lhe (Olal pressure and pos;(;on of eenlre of pressure when
lhe upper edge of (he plale ;s 2 m below Ihe free waler surface. IAns. 80932.5 N. 2.318 Illi
13. A circular pla1c 3.0 In diameter is immersed in water in sllch a way lha( 1he plane of lhe plale makes an
angle of 60° wi1h (he free surface of waler. Dete""ine the (otal pressure and posilion of centre of pressure
when lhe u!'per edge of the plale is 2 m below the free water surface.
IA lls. 22l!.69 kN, 3427 m from free surface I
14. A rectangular gale 6 m)( 2 m is hinged at its base and inclined at 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. 3.54.
To kee!, (he gale in a stable position. a COUnler weighl of 29430 N is a!1ached at (he upper end of lhe gate.
fi nd the depth of wmer at which the gate begins (0 fall. Neglect (he weight of the gale and also friction a1
Ihe hinge and pulley. IAns. 3.43 ml
WATER SURFACE

Fig..H4 Fig.3.SS
15 . An inclined rcct:lngular gale of width 5 m and depth .5 m is installed to comrol the discharge of waler as
shown in Fig. 3.55. The end A is hinged. Dcle""inc Ihe force nonnal to Ihe gale applied al H to open it.
{An s. 97435.8NI

16. A gale supporting wa(er is shown in Fig. 3.56. F;nd lhe heigh(
'h' of (he wa1er so tha( lhe ga(c begins to (ip aooul 1he hinge.
Take the widlh of lhe gale as unilY. IAns. 3)(./3 "'I
17. Find the tOlal pres,u re and depth of cen1re of pressure on a
Iriangular plate of base 3 m and heighl 3 III which is immersed in
waler in such a way lhal plane of lhe pla1e makes an angle of 60" Fig. 3.56
wilh the free surface. The ba<e of Ihe plale is parallel 10 waler surface and at a deplh of 2 III from water
surface. [Ans. 126.52 IN. 2.996ml

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1128 Fluid Mechani cs


Ill . Find the horizontal and vertical components of lhe 101al force acting on a curved surface AB. which is
in lhe fonn of a quadrant of a ,-irde of radius 2 m as shown in Fig. 3.57. Take lhe width of Ihe gale 2 111.
IAns. F, = 117.72 kN. F, = 140.114tNI

WATER SURFACE
-------------

,
Fig. 3.S7 Fig. 3.58
19 . fig. 3.58 shows a gale having a quadrant shape of radius of 3 Ill. rind Ihe resultant force due to waler pcr
metre length of the gale. rind also the angle at which the total force wil l acl. [Ans. 82.201 kN, 0 = 57° 31 ' I
20 . A roller gate is shown in I:ig . ).59. It is cylindrical fonn of 6.0 In diameter. It is placed on lhe dam. I'ind
lhe magnitude and direction of lhe reSUllan! force d ue 10 waler aCling On the gale when the waler is just
going 10 spilL The I 1 of [he gal" is gi"en 10m. ( Ans. 2.245 M N.e~3l!" g·1

Fig. 3.59 Fig. 3.60


21. Find Ihe horizontal and vertical components of Ihe water pressure exerted on a tainter gate of radius
4 rn as shown in Fig. 3.60. Consider widlh of thc gate unity. (Ans. F, _1962 kN. F, _ 7102.44 N I
22. Find thc magnitude and dirtttion of thc resu ltant water
WATER SURFACE
pressure act illg on a cun'cd face of a dam which is shaped

according to Ihe relalion y '" - ", as shown in I' ig. 3.61. The

height of water retained by the dalll is 12 Ill , Take the width


of dalll as un ily IAns. 970 ,74 kN. e ..
43 " 19']
23 . Each gale of a lock is 5 III high and is supporled by two Fig. 3.61
hinges placed on Ihe lOp and bollom of Ihe gale. When Ihe
gales are closed. Ihcy make an angle of 120". Tn e widTh of The lock is 4 Ill. [f The depths of water on the IWO
sides of the gates are 4 m and 3 m respectively. o;ietem,inc , (I) the magnitude of resultant pressure on cach
gate. and (ii) magnitude of the hinge reactions. IAns.(i) 79,279 kN. (ii) Rr • 27.924 kN. R~. 51.355 kN]
24 . The end gates ARC of a lock arc 8 m high and when closed make an angle of 120°. The width of lock
is 10 m. Each gate is supJXlrlcd by IWO hinge s located at 1 III and 5 m above the bollOIll of the loc\;, The
depth of Waler on the upslream ami downstream side, of the lock are 6 m :md 4 HI respccti~ely . Find :
(I) Rcsulta1l1 water foree on each gate.

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Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces 129 1


(ii) R""c(ion between the gates AB and BC, and
(iii) f orce on each hinge, considering the reaclion of the gate acting in Ihe same horizomal plane 3S
re sultant water pressure. [A ns. 566.33 i:N. (iiI 566.33 kN. and (iii) R, _ ! 73.64 kN. R8 _ 392.69 kNI
25. A hollow circ ular pl~IC of 2 m external and I 111 internal diameter is immer>ed ""l1i'31Iy in waler such thm
the cenlre of plate is 4 111 deep from water surface. Find the to(al pressure and depth of centre of pressure.
[Ans. 92 .508 kN. 4.078 ml
26 . A rec~~ngular opening 2 111 wide and I 111 deq, in the vertical side of a tanl; is closed by a sluice gate of the same
size. The gUll: can turn abom the horirontai ~en\rOidal axis. Dclcrminc : (.) !he lotl! prc,;surc on the slu;"" gale
and (il) the torque on the ~Iuice gatc. 11Ie head of wale, alxwe the upper edge of the gale is 1.5 111.
IAns. (il 39.24 IN. (il) 1635 Nml

the plate shown in Fig. 3.62 immersed in a liquid of specific gravity 0.9.
IAn • . 62. 4 kN. 3.04 ml
,
27 . Octennine the total force and kx:ation of .'entre of pressure on one face of FREE SURFACE OF L1aU ID

28 . A circular opening. 3 m diameter. in the "er1kal side of water tank: is cloSC<l


by a disc of 3 m diameter which can rolate about a horizontal diameter?
Calculate: (i) the force on the disc. and (ii) the torque re«uired 10 maintain
the disc in equilibrium in thc "cnical position whcn the head of waler
above Ihe horizontal diameter is 4 m. IAn •. (I) 270 kN. and (ii) 38 kN till
29 . A penstock made up by a pipe of 2 m diameler contains a circular disc of
Same di:nneter 10 act as a ,·al,·c which controls Ihe discharge passing
through it. It can rotate aoout a horiwnlal diameter. If the head of watcr
above ilS cefilre is 20 111. find thc lotal force acting 011 Ihe disc and the Fig. 3.62
IOrque r'-"quireJ 10 maint'lin it in Ihe "cr1ic,tI posilion.
30 . A circular drum 1.8 m diameter and 1.2 111 height is submerged with its axi, vertical and il< upper end at
a depth of 1.11 m below water lewl. Detennine :
(i) tOlal pressure on top. bonom and cU"'ed surfaces of Ihe drum.
(ii) rcsuhall1 pressure on Ihe whole surface. and
(iii) depth of centre of pres,ure on curved -,urface.
31 . A circular plate of diameter 3 m is imme=d in watcr in such a way that ils least and greatest dcpth from
the free surfacc of walcr arc 1 m and 3 m re .• pectivc ly. For the front side of the plate. find (i) tolal force
exerted by walcr and (ii) the POSilion of ccntre of pressure. IAns. (i) 1386S4 N : (ii) 2.1 25 ml
3 2. A tank contains watcr upto a hei ght o f 10 111. One of the sidc< of the tank is inclined. The anglc between
free surface of water and inclined side is 60". The widlh of the tank i. 5111. Find: (i ) the force exerted by
waler On inclined side and (ii) position of centre of pressure. IAns. (,)283.1901 IN. (if) 6.67 ml
33. /I circular platc of 3 m diameter is undcr " 'ater wilh ils plane making an angle of 30" wilh the water
surface. If Ihc lOp edge of the plate is I m below the waler surface. find the force 011 one side of the plate
and ils loculion. (J.N.T. U.. !fyi/em/mt! S 20(2) ".30·
IlIl nt. i/. 3 111.9.30". heighl of top edge. I 111. h • I + 1.5 X sin 30"
'" 1.75

-
F=pgAh '" l000x9.81 X "4 x3 " (' ,] X 1.75", 121.J5kN.
h' • + 1.75 .. 0.08 + 1.75 .. 1.83 m.1

Fig. 3.63

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I I Ii
CHAPTER

.. 4. 1 INTRODUCTION
In th i~ c hapte r. the equ ilibrium Ml he Oo alin g and sub-me rged bodies will be co nsidered . Thu s Ihe
c hapter will inc lude: I. Buoya ncy. 2. Ce ntre of buoy ancy. 3. Mclace ntre. 4. Metace ntri c hf.> ight.
5. Ana lytica l method fo r deta minin g mdacentric heig ht. 6. Condition s of equilibrium o f a fl oatin g
and sub -merged bod y. and 7. Expe rim ental met hod fo r metacc ntri c he ight.

.. 4.2 BUOYANCY

Whe n a bod y is imm ersed in a fluid_ an up ward force is exe n cd by the fluid o n the bod y. Th i~
upw ard forec is e qual to the we ight o f the fluid displaced by the body and is c al k d th e force of
buoy an cy or s impl y bu oy ancy .

.. 4.3 CENTRE OF BUOYANCY

It is de fin ed as the poi nt. th rough whi ch th e force of buoy ancy is supposed to ac t. As tlw force of
buoyancy is a ve rtica l force and is equal to th e we ight of th e Ou id d isplaced by th e body. the centre of
b uoy ancy wi ll be thc ce ntre o f grav it y of th e fluid di splaced.
Proble m 4.1 Fittd lite I'Olume of Ille lI'aler displaced alld pwiliOlt of cenlre of buoyancy for a
lI'oodell block of wid III 2.5 m and of depth 1.5 m. whell il floals horizollwl/y in Waler. The densilY of
woodell block i.f 650 kg/III ) {Illd ils lenglli 6.0 m.
Solution . Gi vc n :
Width " 2.5 10
Ikplh " 1.5 111
Le ngth " 6.0 111
G
jw
Vol ume of Ihe bl oc k = 2.5 x 1.5 x 6.0 = 22.50 ln 3
Iknsi ty of wood. p = 650 kgfm}
Wf.> ig ht of bloc k = px g x Volum c 2.5 m
= 650 x 9 .81 x 22.50N= 14347 1 N Fig. 4.1

131

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1132 Fluid Mechani cs

For equilibrium Ihe wei gh l of water di sp la ced'" We igh.t of wooden block


= 14 347 1 N
Volum~ o f W31.-:r displaced
Weig ht of wa ter di sp laced 14347 1
~~"':'cc= 14.625 ml, AilS.
We ight de nsit y of water 1{)()() X 9.8 1
(': We ight density of wmcr '" 1000 x 9.81 N/ml)
Pos it io n uf Ce ntre of Uuoyancy. Vol ume of woode n b lock in water
'" Vo lume o f water d ispla(;cd
or 25 x II x 6.0 '" 14.625 m) , w here /, i s depth of wooden block in W3Ie r

II '" 14.625 '" 0 .975 III


2.5 X 6.0
0.975
Cent I"C of Buoyanc y '" - 2- '" 0.4875 m from base. Ail S.

Problem 4.2 A ...oodell fog 0/0.6 m diameter and 5 m lenglll is j7<w(illg ill ,;,"er waler. Pind Ille
depth of Ille ,,"OOdl'l! log ill \\'(l/er when lile !Ip. gf",-;Iy of flU! log i,y O. 7.
Solution . Given:
,
Dia. of log
Length.
=O.6m
L:5m
, ::

o
Sp. gr .. S '" 0.7
Dens ity of log'" 0.7 x 1000", 700 kgfm}
We igh! dcnsi!y of log . w = px g o
Fig. 4.2
=700x9.81 Nfm 3
Find depth of immersion ur II
W~igtl! of wooden log '" Weigh! densily x Volum e of log
,
=7 00x9.8 1 X 4 (DrXL
,

=700x 9 .81 X~(.6)2 X5N=989.6X9.81 N


Fur equi librium.
Weigh! of wooden log = Weigh! of wa!er displaced
= Weigh! densi!y of water X Volu ,nc o fwatcr di splaced
Vo lume u f wa!cr displaced '" 989.6 x 9.8 1 = 0.9896 m3
l000x9.81
(': We igh! densi!y o f wat~r '" 1000 x 9.81 Nfm3)
Let" is the dcpth o fi'nmc rs ion
Volume of log ins ide wa ter'" Area of ADCA x Len gth
= Area of ADCA x 5.0
But vo lum ~ of log inside water == Vo lum e of water displaced == 0.9896 m}

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 133 1


0.9896:: Area of A DCA x 5.0

:. Area of ADCA __ 0.9896 __0. 1979 III '


5.0
Bm area of ADCA :: Area o f cu rved su rface ADCOA + Are a of MOe

:: It? [3(j(360"
)·-"l + "21 r (;Os e x 2r si n e

:: It? [l - ~l
IS(r + , 2 OOS. 9 .sin 9

0. 1979 = It (.3)~ [ l- l ~.] + (.3)~cos 9sin e


0. 1979:: .2827 - .{1()157 e + 0.91:0s e si n e
or .00157 e- .09 cos e sin 9:: .2827 - . 1979 :: 0.0848

, - -.09 , .,
- - cos S10 :: - - -
.0848
.00157 .00 157
e - 57.32 cos e sin e:: 54.01.
or e - 57.32 ("(IS e si n e - 54.01 = 0
For 0:: 6(}0, 60 - 57.32 x 0.5 x .S()6 - 54.01'" 60 - 24.81 - 54.01:: - llUn
For e:: 70°, 70 - 57.32 x .342 x 0.9396 - 54.01 '" 70 - 18.4 - 54.01 :: - 2.41
For e:: 72°, 72 - 57.32 x.309 x .951 - 54.01 = 72 - 16.&4 - 54.01 = + 1.14
For e:: 7 1°, 7 1 - 57.32 x .325 x .9455 - 54.01 :: 7 1 - 17.61 - 54.01:: - 0.376
e:: 71.5", 7 1.5- 57.32x .3 173 x .948- 54.0 1 :: 7 1.5- 17.24-54.0 1 = + .248
T hen /,= r + rl'Os7 15 °
= 0.3 + 0.3 x 0.3173 = 0.395 m . Am.
Problem 4 .3 A slOlIe weighs 392.4 N ill air and 196.2 N in .mler. Compule Ihe )"olume of slon e
and ils specific grm·ily.
Solution . Given:
Weigtlt of SlO ne in air = 392.4 N
Wdglll of Slone in water == 196.2 N
ror equilibrium.
Weigtll in air - Weight of sto ne in water = Weigh t of w~H er displa<:ed
or 392.4 - 196.2 == 196.2 = 1000 x 9.81 x Volume o f wata displaced
Volume o f wa ler displaced
196.2 t t
= ~~~~== _ rn 3 == - x 1 0~ c rn 3 == 2 x 10' em l . Ans.
looox9.8 1 50 50
= Volume of Slo ne
Volume o f Slo ne == 2 x 10· cm 3. An s.

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1134 Fluid Mechani cs

Specific G rav it y or Ston e

Mass o f stone '" Wcig tll in air '" 392.4 = 40 kg


g 9.8 1
Mass in air '" 40.0 kg kg
Densi ty o f stone = = 40x50=2000 -
~rn J
l
Vol ume rn
5()
De nsi ty of Slone 2000
Sp. gr. uf stolle '" '" '" 2.0. AilS.
Density o f wak r 1000
Problem 4 .4 A body of dimensions 1.5", x f.O '" x 21M, weighs /962 N in ....afer. Find ils I\"eight
in air. IViI,,/ will be ilJ' JJlecific gra,·;ly ?
Solution . Gi ve n :
Volum e of bod y '" 1.50 x 1.0 x 2 .0 '" 3.0 Ill l
Wcig tll of bod y in wa!c r '" 1962 N
Vol um e of rhe wa ter di splaced", Vo lume o f the body '" 3.0 Ill]
Weight of water d isplaced = 1000 x 9.8 1 x 3.0 '" 29430 N
For th e equilibrium o f rhe hod y
Wc igtn o f body in air - We ight of water di sp laced'" Weight in water
\¥.. r - 19430= 1962
IV..,'" 29430 + 1962 = 31 392 N

Mass of body = Weight in air '" 31392 '" )200 kg


g 9.81
M ass
Den sit y o f rhe body = '" 3200 '" 1066.67
Vo lu me 3.0
1066.67
Sp. grav ity o f th e bod y = '" 1.067. Ans .
1000
Problem 4.5 Find rlre den .~ily of a melilllic hody which /loms at Ihe inlerface of merCllry of
Sf'. gr. 13.6 alld Waler silch 1/1(1140% of ils \·olume is sub-merged ill mercllr)" and 60% ill wal"'.
Solution . Le t th e vo lume of the body '" V m 3
The n vo lume of body sub-me rged in me rcu ry
40
= - V", 0 .4 Vm 3
100
Vo lum e of body sub - m c r~ed in wate r

""
~_ )( V",0.6 Vm 3
I()()
For the equilihrium of the bod y
Fig . 4. 3

To ta l bu oy ant fo r"e (up ward force) '" We ig ht of the body


Bu t to tal buoy ant force '" Forc~ of buoy an cy du ~ to wa ter + Force of buoyan cy d ue to merc ury
Force of buoyancy d ue to water '" Weig ht o f wa tn d isplaced hy IxHl y
'" De ns ity of water )( g )( Vo lume o f wate r d isplaced
= 1(00)( g )( Vo lume of body in water

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 135 1


= 1000 x g x 0.6 x V N
and Force of buoya llcy du e to mercu ry = Weig ht of me rcury di splaced by body
= g x D ensi ty o f mercury x Vo lume of mercury displ ace d
= g x 13.6 x 1000 x Vo lum e o f body in merc ury
=Ex [) .6x I OOOx O.4 VN
We igh t of the bod y = Densi ty x
g x V olume of body =Px g x V
wtwre p is the de nsit y of th e bod y
For equilibriu m. we ha ve
To tal buoyant force = Weight o f th e body
I OOOxgxO.6xV + 1),6x 1000xg x .4 V=pXg x V
or p = 600 + 13600 x.4 = 600 + 54400 = 6040.00 kgfm l
De ns it y o f the body '" 6040.00 kg / m ) . An s.

Problem 4 .6 A flolli WIll'" regulates I/le flow of oil of sp. gr. 0.8 illio "ciSlem, The JpileriClil float
iJ' 15 em ill diameter. AOlJ is {/ weighlleS!>' link carrying lile floal al anI' <'11</. Will {/ m/"e at Ihe OIlier
end wllich closes Ille pipe Iltmugll wllich oil flows illla IIII' cis/cm . The /i,,1: i.1 mounled in (I friClionle.H
liillge m 0 alld llie (llIgle AOB i.f 135°. Tlit' lellglh ofOA is 20 em, (l1II! Ille disrtillee belweell Ille eelllrt'
of Ihe flom mId II,e hillge is 50 em. WIIt'll Ihe flow i.l slOpped AO will be I·ulieal. The \"G/re is 10 be
pressed all 10 II,e se(ll WillI a force of 9.81 N 10 co mplerel)' slop Ihe flow of oil inlo Ille cistern. It W(lS
obserl'ed IIwl the flow of oil i')' slopped whell Ihe free SlI rfrlCe of ai/ ill Ille cislem is 35 em bela,,· Ille
hillge. Delermil1f: Ihe weiglll of Ihe floo/.
Solution . Gi ve n : 0" SUPPLY
Sp. gr. of oil '" 0.8
Densit y of oil. Po = 0.8 x 1000
0: 800 kglm'
Dia. of flo at. D o: I5cm
LAOB = 135 Q
OA=20cm
Force . P=9.8 1 N
O B = 50 cm
Find tile weig llt of [h e float. Le t it is eq ual [ 0 W.
Wile n til e flow of o il is stopped. the ce ntre of float is s how n in Fig. 4.4
Tlic leve l of o il is al50 sllown. Til e ce ntre of fl oat is be low th e Icve l of o il. by a de pth '/r' .
From tJB OD, sin 450 0: 00 " OC + CD 35 + II
OB OB 50
50xsin45° ,,35 + h
I
II = 50 x J'i - 35 '" 35.355 - 35 " 0.355 Ctn " .00355 tn.
Th e weig lu of floa t is ac ting th ro ugh 8, but Ih" upward buoya nt force is acti ng throug h th" CCl)tre
o f weight o f o il displa(;ed .

Vol um e uf oil disp l;lccd

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1136 Fluid Mechani cs

'" t x It X {.075)3 + .{)(}355 x It x (.075) 2 '" 0.000945 111 3


Buoy ant force '" We ig ht of oil di splaced
'" Po x g X Volume of oil
: 800x9.8 1 x.000945 = 7.416 N
The buoyall1 force ~nd weight of Ihe floal passes through th e sa me vertical li ne. pass ing through B.
Let the we ig ht of float is W. Th en net vertical force o n 110.11
'" Buoyalll fo rce - Wc igtu of flo at'" (7.416 - IV)
Tak ing mo ments about the hin ge O. we gel
Px 20 '" (7 .4 16- IV) x 8D = (7.4 16 - IV) x 50 x \:0545 0
or 9.8 1 x 20 '" (7 .4 16 - IV) x 35.355

1"=7.4
T
16 - 20x9.8
35.355 1 = 7 .4 16 - 5.55= U!66 N. Ans .

.. 4.4 META -CENTRE

It is defined as Ihe (Xlint about wllich a body Slarts oscillatin g when Ih e body is tilled by a small
an gle. The 11lc1a-ccntre may also be de fi ned as the point at which Ihe li ne of act io n of th e force of
b uoya ncy will meet th e nonnal axi s of th e body whe n th e body is give n a s mal! angulardisplaccmcnt.
Consider a body fi oating in a liq uid as s hown in Fig. 4.5 (a). Let the body is in equilibrium and G is
th e ce ntre of grav it y and B the ce ntre o f buoyancy. Fo r equilibrium. both the points li e on the norma l
axis. whic h is ve n ic al.

NOj MAL AXtS J-... ANGUlAR


M DISPlACEME

•. . . :.. t...
I ,, ,
- "'-!-". !; ~ -~
I"
-;;'~?';-'

I / I'.
NORMAL AXIS
(a) (b)

Fig. 4.5 M na-<:f'nlr t

Le t th e body is given a small angular displa~"t!ment in the clockwise di recti on as Show n in Fig. 4.5 (b).
The I:entre of buoya ncy. wllich is Ille I:entre of gravity of Ill e di spl al:ed liquid or cenlre uf grav ily uf the
ponion of Ihe body sub-11Ie rJ(cd in liquid. will now be Shifted towa rds righl from Ihe nurm al axi s. Lei
iI is al B[ as show n in Fig. 4.5 (b ). The line o f action of lhe force of buoyancy in Ih is new posi tion. will
in tc["Sectlhe [lOTinal a~is of th e hody at SOllie point say M. This point /If is called Met,,· IT n lre .

.. 4 .S META -CENTRIC HEIGHT

The d islanc e MG. i.e .. Ih e disl anl:e belween th e mcl a-ce ntre of a n oal in g body and Ille cemre of
grav it y o f the body is called IllCla-centric heig ht.

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 137 1


.. 4.6 ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR META -CENTRE HEIGHT

Fig. 4.6 (0) shows the position of a noming body in equilibrium. The location of centre of gravity
and centre of buoyallcy in Ihis position is al G and 8. The floming body is given a small angu lar
displacement in the clocl;wisc direction. Tliis is shown in Fig. 4.6 (b). The new centre of buoyancy is
al 8 1" The vcnica l linc through 8 1 cuts Ihe normal ax is at M. Hence M is the meta-centre and GM is
mew-centric height.
----. ANGULAR
M ISPLACEMENT

A S
"'.
S'
Go
S
Gi--(+~I:--"C
, 101
'. C

T (

l (c) PLAN OF BODY AT WATER LINE

~.E-".
Fig. 4.6 Mela-Cf'nlre height of f/Qdfillg body.
The angular displacement of the body in Ihe cloc kwise direction causcs the wedge-shaped prism
B08' un Ihe rigtu of the axis 10 go inside the water while tile idemical wedge-shaped prism reprcscmed
by AOA' emerges OuI of tile water un tile len uf tile axis. These wedges represent a gain in buuyam
force on the right side and a corresponding loss of buoyant force on the len side. The gain is
r~pr~scnted by a vertical force dFJj acti ng th rough the c.G. of the prism BOB' while th e loss is
represcnt~d by an equal and op]Xlsite force dFo ac ting Vertically downward through the centroid of
AOA'. The coup le due to these buoyant forces <IF/! tends to rotate the ship in the counte rclockwise
direction. Also the moment caused hy the displacement of the centre of huoyancy from B to Bl is also
in the coullterclocl; wisc direction. Thus these two coup les must he equal.
Co uille I) ue to Wed ges. Co nsider towards the right of the axis a sma ll strip of thicl;ness <Ix at a
distance x from 0 as Shown in Fig. 4.5 (b). The height of strip x x LBOB': x x e.
! ... L B08'" LAOA'" 8MB,'" 6)
Area of strip := Height x Thickness", .r x 6 x <Ix

If L is the lenglh of lhe floating body. then


Volume of strip :AreaxL
"xx6xLxdx
Weight of stri p := pg X Volu1\le:= pgx fJL dx
Similarl y, if a small Slrip of thickn~ss dx at a distance .l from 0 towards the left of the axis is
considered, the weight of Slrip will he pg_.fJ L d.L The two weights are acting in the opposite direction
and h~nce constitute a coupl~.

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1138 Fluid Mechani cs

Moment of ttJis couple '" Weight of each stri p x Distance between Ihes<: two weigh ts
=pgx fJLdxlx+_t]
= pgx aL dx x 2x = 2pgxl 9L dx
Moment of the couple for the whole wedge
"J 2pg_~ aL dx .. ,(4 . 1)
MomcnI of coup!c duc 10 shirting of cemrc of buoyancy from B 10 HI
:FyxBBI
= FHXBMxfJ ('0" BB I " BMx fJif9is "cry ~m alll

" WxBMx9 I': Fe" WI ...(4.2)


BUl these two l'Oup lcs arc the same. Hence equating equations (4.1) and (4.2), we get
IV x HM x e" J lpg_'.! e ulx
IV x 8M x e" 2pg9 J:h_Ax
IV x 8M "" 2pg J_'~Ldx
Now LAx == Elem en tal area on the wmcr line shown in Fig. 4.6 (c) and == dA
II' x 8M '" 2pg j .,.2dA .
BUl from Fig. 4.5 (el it is clear lhm 2/ x 2 dA is lh", second moment of area of the plan o f Ihe body
at water surface about the axis Y~Y. Therefore
lwhere I '" 2 f x dAl
2
Wx JiM", pgl

8M = pgl
IV
IV" Weight of the body
""' = Weight of the fluid d isp laced by the body
= pg x Volume of the fiuid displaced by th e body
= pg x Volume of the body sub-merged in water
= pgx V

BM = pgx'=i .. .(4 .3)


pgxV V
I
GM=BM - BG= - - BG

I

Meta-ccntric height = GM = - -8G. ... (4 .4 )

Problem 4.7

A rec/(Ingu/ar prwlOafl is 5 /II 101lg. J m ...ide and 1.20 m lIigll. The deplll of
immerJ'iOll of Ihe pOllloOll is 0.80 m ill se(l waler. If /lle cell/re of grtll"ily is 0.6 '" abo\'e Ihe bollom of
(h e pOll/OOll. delermill e lite meia -celllric heighl. The dellJ'ily for Sell waler = 1025 kg/", J.
Solution. Given:
Dimension of pontoon =5mx3mx l. 20m
!kpth of imm ersion = 0.8 m

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 139 1


Distance AG", 0.6 III 1-'- 3 m -----.,

Distance AB = t x Depth of imlllersion


",,-r-:t;
G ,Tl+.
, ...&,
.. -
'" -t. x
.8=0.4 III s ' 4 6m 1mO.6m
Iknsity for se a Waler '" 1025 kg/Ill '
Meta -ce ntre height GM. given by equat ion (4.4) is
, A T

where f'" M.D. IlIcni~


GM= -
I

• -BG
of th'" plan of the poll1oon about Y-Y allis
T
S.Om

'"
12
~ x 5)( 31 m~ '"
45 m~
4
'<i = Volume of the body sub-mugcd in water
=3)(0.8)(5.0= 12.0ml
,
PLAN AT WATER SURFACE
1
BG = AG - Ali = 0.6 - 0.4 '" 0.2 111 Fig . 4.7
45 I 45
GM = - x - - - 0.2 '" - - 0.2 '" 0.9375 - 0.2 = 0.7375 m. Ans.
4 12.0 48
Problem 4 .8 A wllform hody of size 3 m long X 2 m wide x I 111 deep jlOlllS in ImIN. IV/WI is the
weighl of I/le botly if depth of immersion is 0.8 //I ? De/ermine the mew-centric fleig/II (I/$().
Solution. (jiven :
Dimcnsioll o f body = 3x2xl
Deptli of imm ersion = 0.8
Find (i)Wcigh t of lxKly. IV
III
-t--. --+-
(ii) Meta-centric lIeiglit. GM
(i) Wt:ight of Bod~' , W j.- 3.0m ~.J

-~c4'C!tft--~-
== Wcigllt of water displaced
== pg x Volume of water displaced
== lOOO x 9.81 X Volume o f lxKly in water
== H)OOx9.8 1 x J x 2 xO.8 N
A
== 47088 N. AilS. ELEVATION
Fig. 4.8
(iI) Ml."h,-cl."ntrk !lelght . GM
Using equation (4.4). we get
I
GM== - - BG

whe re f

= M.O.I about y. y axis of the plan of the body
! 3 ]x2 J ~
= - x]x2 = - - =2.0 m
12 12
V == Volume of body in wmer
=3x2xO.8=4.8 m3

BG= AG - AB = ~_ 0.8 = 0.5 - 0.4 =0. 1


2 2
GM = 2.0 _ 0.1 = 0.4167 _ 0.1 = 0.3 167 III. A" s.
4.8

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1140 Fluid Mechani cs


Problem 4 .9 A block of wood of specific gm!'il}' 0.7 j1oalJ' ill Waler. Determine Ihe mew-celllric
hciglll of the blod:. if its size i.! 2 III X I III x O.S m.
Solution. Given:
Dimension of block
leI depth of immersion
=2 xlxO.8
'" II In
1
2.0 m

Sp. gr. of wood '" 0.7 : I


Wcigllt of wooden piece '" Weight density of wood· x Volume
'CAN , -'-
= 0.7 x IOOOx 9.Rl x 2 x 1 xO.8 N
-.
~! ~_8';;- ~ c
-
Wc igllt uf water displ<lccd '" Weight density of water
X Volunw of the wood sub-me rged in wa ter 1 ~
A
=1000x9.8Ix2xlxhN
For eq uilibrium. Fig. 4.9
Wciglll of wooden piece '" Weighl of watl'r displaced
700 x9.8 1 x 2 x 1 x O.ll '" 1{lOO x9Jll x2 x I x II

/,= 100x9.81x2x l xO.8 :O.7xO.8=O.56m


lOOOx9.8 1x2x l
Distance of ccnlre of Buoyancy from 001l001, i.e .•
I! 0.56
AB = - '" - - '" 0.28 1lI
2 2
and AG '" 0.8/2.0 '" 0.4 m
UG =AG - AB '" 0.4 - 0.28= 0.12 In
The Inew -ce ntril: height is given by equation (4.4) or
f
GM: - -BG

1 \ 1 4

where /: - x2x1.0· : - m
12 6
'I;f: Volume of wood in wate r
:2x 1 xll",2x I x.56: 112m l
I I
GM: - X - - 0.12 '" 0.1 488 - 0.12 '" 0.0288 tn. Ans.
6 1.1 2
Problem 4.10 A solid cylillder of diollleler -1.0 III has (I heighl of 3 melres. Filld Ille melli-centric
/!eiglll of Ihe cylillder whell il is floil/illg ill Wil/er wilh ils axis I"eflical. Ti, e sp. gr. of Ihe cylillder
'" 0.6.
Solution. Given:
Dia. o f cylindcr. D", 4.0 m
Height of cylinder, II '" 3.0 III

• Weight density of wood .. p x g. where p .. density of wood


.. 0.7 X 1000 = 700 kg/m ). Hence ... for wood = 700 x 9.8 1 Nlm l.

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 141 1


Sp. gr. or cylinder
[kpIII of im mersion of cylinde r
'" 0.6 j-o- 4m -
, o<

'" 0.6 x 3.0 '" 1.8 III

1.8 09
AB"'T'" . III

3 'CAN I
AG=2'" 1.5m
T
~l, 'r
~
~
~

BG: AG - All
= 1.5-0,9=0.6111
Fig. 4.10
Now the meta-centric he ight GM is given by equation (4.4)
/
GM= - -nG

"0'
"
J = M.O.!. about Y-Y ax is of the plan of Ih.-: bod y

= ~ 0 4 : ~ X (4.0)4
64 64
md 'V '" Volume of cylinder in wata

= .::. D! x Depth of inllllcrsion


4

GM= . ~x ( 4.0)·
64
,
- x (4.0 )" x 1.8
4
_ 0.6

I 4.0' , I
= - x - - - 0.(, = - - 0.6 = 0.55 - 0.6 = - 0.05 m. AilS.
16 1.8 1.8
- vc sig n 1I\eans 1ha1 IllcI3 -cemrc. (M) is below the c.;,olre of gravity (G).
Problem 4.11 A hotly /W.I lilt! cylintlricalllpper ponion of 3 m diameter alld I.S //I deep. nle lower
POrllOlI is a cun'cd one....hich displaces a )'oilllne of 0.6 /IIJ of wa/er. The cenrre of blw)'oncy of ,he
cun'ell pOrlion is at a diswnce of 1.95 m below the lop of the cylinder. Th e celilre of gwriry of Ihe
whole body is 1.20 m below the lOp of the cylinder. The lolal displacement ofwatl'( is 3.9 1011llt'S. Find
Ihe mela--cenlric heiglll of the body.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of body " J.O III

[kptli of body " 1.8 III


Volume disp laced by curved portion
1
= 0.6 m o f water.
Let 8 I is tlie cemre of buoyancy o f the curved surf:lce and G is tlie centre of gravity of the whole
body.

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1142 Fluid Mechani cs


Then CB, '" 1.95 III
CG:I.20m
Total wCigtll of water displaced by body = 3.9 lonncs
== 3.9 x 1000 == 3900 kgf
+-.-+
= 3900 x 9.81 N = 38259 N
Find mela- ct'nlric heighl of the body.
Lei tile heig ht of the body abov" th e water s urface x 111. Total
weight of water displa\:cd by body
= Weight density of water x [Vulume of water displaced I
'" 1000 x 9.81 x IVolu nw uflhe body in water1 ,
ELEVATION
= 9810 [Volume o f "ylindrical pan in wmcr + Volume
Fig. 4. 11
of curved portion I

'" 98 [0 [~x D" xDe pth ofcylindrical part in water


+ Vo lume di spl aced by cur.... ed port ion ]

"' 38259 =98 1 0 [~ (3)l x(1.8-X ) +O.6]


-' 3
() ' xO. 8 ) + 0 .6= -
-x 38259
- =3.9
4 98 10
,
'4
,
x 3 )( (1.8-x)= 3.9 - 0.6 = 3.3

1.8 _.( = 3.3 x 4 '" 0.4668


Itx 3 x 3
x = 1.8 - .4668 = 1.33 m
li:l B~ is the centre of buoyancy of cy li ndrical part and B is the centre of buoyancy of thc who le
body.
Then depth of cylind rical part in water = 1.8 - x = 0.467 111

CH 2 "'.r + .4~7 = 1.33 + .2335 = 1.5635 m.


Th" d is tanc" of the ccntm o f buoyancy of the who l" body from the top o f the cylindrical part is
given as
CB", (Vo lume of curved portion x CHI + Vo lume of cylindrical part in water x CB l )
+ (TOlal volume of wmcr displaced)
0.6 )( 1.95 + 3.J)( 1.5635 1.1 7+5. 159
= '" '" 1.623 m.
(0.6+33) 39
Then BG = C8 - CG= 1.623 - 1.20= .423m.
Met a-centric heig ht, GM. is givcn by
/
GM= - - BG

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 143 1


whe re f'" M.O.I. or the plan of llie body al water surface about y.y axi s
)'[ 4 )'[ 44
= - xD = - x3 III
64 64
';j '" Vo lum e ort he body in water '" 3.9 Ill l

IT 3'
GM'" - x - - .423 " 1.0 19 - .423 '" 0.596 m. Ans.
64 3.9

.. 4.7 CONDITIONS Of EQUILIBRIUM Of A fLOATING AND SUB-MERGED


BODIES

II. sub- Ill crj;cd o r a floating body is said 10 be stable if it w ill es back to its original position afl cr a
slig ht disturbance. T he relative position of the ce lllfC of grav ity (G) and cemfC of buoyancy (Ill) of a
body de termines the stability of a sub-ilwrgcd hody.
4 . 7 . 1 Stilbility of iI Sub- merged Body. The position of ce lltre of grav ity and centre of buoy -
ancy in case of a complete ly su b-merged hody arc fixed. Consider a balloon. which is complete ly su b-
merged in air. LeI the lower portion of the balloon comai ns heavie r IHalerial, so thaI ils eemfe of
gravity is luwe r thnn its wntre of buoyancy ~s shown in Fig. 4.12 «(I). Let the weight uf the balloon is
W. The weight W is acting through O. verticall y in the downward direction. while the buoyant force FB
is acting vertica ll y up. Ihrough n. For the equilibrium of the balloon IV= Fl!' If Ihe balloon is given an
angular di splacement in the clocl.:wisc di r~ction as shown in Fig. 4.1 2 (a) . then IV and FIJ const itute a
couple act in g in the ant i-c lockwise direction and brings the balloon in the orig inal pos ition. T hu s the
balloon in the position. show n by Fig. 4.12 (a) is in stab le equ ilibrium.

(,) (b)
G
, w
o «)
STABLE EQUILIBRIUM UNST ABLE EQUILIBRIUM NEUTRAL EQU ILIBR IUM

Fig. 4.12 Stabiliries of mb-merged bodies.

(a) Sta hl e Equillhrium. When IV = Fe and poin l n is above G. the body is said 10 be in stahk
equilibrium.
(b) Unstahle Equilibri um . If IV = F o' bUI Ihe ce ntre o f buoyancy (8) is h~low ee nlre of gravity (a),
Ihe body is in unstable equilibrium as shown in Fig. 4. 12 (b). A ~light disp lacement 10 Ihe body. in Ihe
clockwise direc tion. gives the co upl e due to W and I'IJ also in [he c lock wise dirt."ction. Th us Ih e body
docs nOI relurn 10 its origi nal po~ilion and hence Ih e body is in unslable equi lihrium.
(c) Ne utml Equi lib rium . If F/I= Wand IJ and G arc at [he same point. as shown in Fig. 4.12 (c). the
body is said to be in neutral equili brium.
4 .7.2 Stability of Floilting Body. The sWbility of a nual in g body is determined from [he posi-
tiun of Meta-ce ntre (M). In C3SC of fi(Hlting body. the weig ht o f the bod y is equ al to dIe weight of liquid
displaced.

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1144 Fluid Mechani cs


(a) SlabJe EqullibrlullI. [flh~ Jl'Oilli M is above G. the floalillg bod y will be in stab le equilibrium as
shown in Fig. 4.[3 (a). If a slight angular displacement is given to Ihe flo atin g body in Ihe clockwise
direction. the centre of buoyancy shifts from 8 to 8 1 such thm the vcnicallinc through 8 1 cutS al M.
Then Ihe buoyant force Felhroug h 8, ,IIlO weight IV lhrough G constitute a couple aCling in the anti-
clockwise dircclion and thus brillging th e floaling body in the original position.

DISTURB ING
----.. COUPLE

,
tal Slablc equilibrium /If is above G (b) UnSlablt equilibrium /If i< below G.

Flg. 4.13 Stability offloating bodin.

(b) Unstab le Equilibrium. If the point hi is below G. the floating body will be in unstable equilib·
rium as shown in Pig. 4.13 (b). The disturbing co upl e is acting in tht clod:wis.: direction. The coup lt
due to buoyaru force F/:I and IV is also aCling ill the cloc kwis.: dirc.::tion 311d thus oven urnin g the
floating body.
(c) Ncutr:ll Equilibrium. Jfthe poim M is at Iliecel1treofgravily oflhc body. 1he floa1ing body will
be in neu1ral equilibri um .
Problem 4.12 A solid cy/inda of diameler -1. 0 '" ha~· a lreiglll of -1.0 m. Find Ihe meta-cenlric heigill
of Ille cylinder if rile specific gflll"ily of Illl' material of cylinde r'" 0.6 ami ir is floaling in l..arer lI"illl ils
a.{is I·urical. Slale II"herher IIIe eqw·librillm is ~·I,jbll' or unswble.
SolutIon. Given: D=4m 1 4·~ 1
Heigh!. 11=4m
Sp. gr.
!kptll of cylinder in water
'" 0.6
=Sp.gr.xh
+- .
'" 0.6 x 4.0 '" 2.4 m PLAN y
Distance of cent re o f buoyancy (B) from A

AD= i-
24
'" 1.2m -------
Distance of centre of gravity (G) from A
-:.~:.

, " -".1:
,G
4.0m 2.4 m

AG = ~ '" 4.0 =2.0 m


, -L 1
"' 2 2 Fig . 4 .14
BG '" AG - AB = 2.0 - 1.2 = 0.8 III
Now 1he 111em·ccruric height GM is givcn by
I
GM"'"r/-BG

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 145 1


w ltc rc f = M ,0.1. o f Ihe plan of tile body abo ut Y- Y ax is

= ~ 04 ", 2:. X (4 .0)4


64 64
'1 " Vo lume o f cyli nder in w ater

= ~ x D2 X I)"pl h of cy lind er in wat er '" ~ X 4 2 x 2.4 m 3


4.0 4
~ )(4'
] 4! 1
= ~64>'c-_ _ = ~ x - = - =0.4167 m
'r:I ;X 4 1 )( 2.4 16 2.4 2.4

I
GM = 'r/ - BG '" 0.41 67 - 0. 8 '" - O.3H33 m. Ail s.

- vc sig n me ans thalthc meta-centre (M ) is be low the centre o f grav ity (G). T itus th e c ylind er is in
un stabl e equilibrium . Ails.
Problem 4.13 A solid cylinder of !O em diwneler alld 40 em /ollg. COIIS;SfS of nm parrs made of
differel17 mll/erin/s. Theftrsl pari GIllie base is 1.0 em long and of specific gral'iry '" 6.0. The Oilier pari
of Ille cylinder ;s mode of tlie mareria/ IWI'il1g specific gWl'ily 0.6. Siale, if if call flom \'enically in
Irma.
Solution. G ive n: D : Wc m
Length. L ", 40 cm
Len gth o f I st pa rt. 'I: 1.0 u n
Sp. gr .. SI == 6.0
Densit y of 1st part. l
PI'" 6 x 1000 '" 6000 kg/m
Le ngth o f 2nd pan,
Sp. gr ..
, ", 40- 1.0=39.0cm
l

S2 '" 0.6
Sp.gr.
=0.6 -
T
Dc n~i t y of 2nd part , P2 '" 0.6 x 1000 '" 600 kgfml

1
The cy linde r will floal l'c n ic all y in W31c r iF its meta-ce ntric he ight GM is
1.0cm
posi tive. To find me ta -cc ntric hc ight. find the location of ccntrc o f gra vit y
U.
(G) and ce nt re o f huoy all cy ( 8 ) of th e combined so lid c ylind er. Th e di s tance
of the ce nt re of gra vity o f th e so lid cy linder fro m A is given as T LJ.-l
,
Sp.gr = 6.0
A G : [(Weight o f 1st pan x Distance ofCG. o f 1st pa rt from A) F ig . 4.15
+ (Wcight of 2nd pan of cy lindcr
x Di stance uf CG. of 2nd pan fro m A) I
+ IWc ight uf 1st part + wcig ht of 2nd p~rtl

== (~O l X1.0 x 6.0 x 0.5) + (~O l X39.0 x 0.6 x (1.0 x 3912 ))


( : 0 " x 1.0 x 6.0 + : 0 " x 39 x 0.6)

1.0 x 6.0 x 0.5 + 39.0 x.6 x (20.5)


=
I.Ox6.0+39.0xO.6
3.0 + 479.7 482.7
Cance l : Dl in th e Numerator and De nu mina to r == 4 = - - == 16.42.
6.0 +23. 29.4

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1146 Fluid Mechani cs

To fi nd th e ce lllfC o f bu oyancy of th e co mbined two parts o r of th e cy lind er. de term ine Ihe dcptll
of imme rsion of the cyl in der. Let the de pth of imm ersion of the cy linde r is II . T he n
Weigh t of the cy lin de r " We ight of wa ter displaced
It , 39 .0 11: , 1.0 It , II
- )( (. It x - - )(600 )( 9.81 + - Cit x - )(6000 )(9,8 1 = - (. 1)" x - x 1000 x9.8 1
4 100 4 [00 4 100
I ": h is in cml

I:a ncc llin g ~ , cIOOO


( I) x
=:~X~9~.8,,1 th rougho ut. we get
100
39.0xO.6+ I.Ox6.0 =11 or 11=23.4+6.0=29.4
Th", d istance of the cen tre of the buoyancy B, of the cylinder from A is
29.4
AB = 1!12 '" - , - = 14.7

BG = AG - AS '" 16.42 - 14.70 = 1.72 C Ill .

Meta -ce ntric heig ht GM is give n by

GM= ~ - BG
wllerc

1 = M.O.1. of pla n of the body about Y- Y ax is

'" ~ D~= ~ (lO)~c m ~


64 .64
'It = Volume o f cy linder in water

= '4If D-xh=
,
4"It (10)-x29.4
,
111
1

~
'V
'" ~ (10)4/ .:!.( 1O !
64 4 )
x 29.4 '" -.!... x
[6
10 ' = -,-'~OO
29.4
O;;;-c = 0.2 12
19 x 29.4
GM = 0.2 12 - 1.72 '" - 1.50S e rn
As GM is - ve. it mea ns th at the Me ta -ce ntre M is below the cen tre o f gra vi ty (G). T hu s tlw
cy linder is in uns tab le eq ui librium and !\O it ca nnot fl oat ven ica ll y in water. An s.
Problem 4.14 A rectangillar POII/OOII 10.0/11 long. 7 m broad (lnd 2.5 m deep weighs 686.7 kN. /I
carries Oil ils "pper deck (In empty boiler 0/5.0 m di",,,eter weighing 588.6 kN. The celi lre 0/ gw!"il)'
o/Ihe boiler alllilile POIi/OOII are (1/ Illei r respectil'e relltres alollg a l"erlicallille. Filld tlte //Iela-celllric
height. lI'eighl dellsity a/sea lrater is /0./04 kN1mJ.
Solution. Give n : Di me nsiu n u f pon tuon = [0 x 7 x 2 .5
Weig ht o f pont oon. 11'1'" 6S6.7 kN
f
IG,
T
5.0 m
Dia. of boile r. D=5.0 m lG
Wr ight o f boile r.
\\' fu r sea wate r
11'1 '" 5SS.6 kN
= [0. [04 kN/m 3 IT
"t B
G
,
gm ~

1.
To find the met a-ce nt ric heig ht. first dc tc nni n ~ the co mmo n ce n- A
I
tre of gravi ty G and cOl11 mon ce ntre of buoya ncy B of the ooi la and 1 -7.0m- l
po ntOO n. Let G I nnd G , nrc the ce ntre of grav iti es of pontOOn and Fig. 4.16
boiler r.:sj)Ccli ,·e ly. The n

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 147 1

AG 1 ",
2.5
2 '" 1.25 III
,
AG1 ", 2.5 + 25.0 "" 2.5 +2.5 '" 5.0 III
The distanl'C of co mm on (;cnt rc of gravity G from A is given as
1\1 x AC, + IV, X AG,
AG '" ~---.~o.'--~
\~ + IVz
I
to.Om

686.7 x 1.25 + 588.6 x 5.0

Let!J is th e depth of immersion . Then


(686.7 + 588.6)

Total weigh t of polUoon and boiler'" Weight of sea water displaced


(686.7 + 588.6) = Ii' x Volume o f th e pomoon in water
'" 2.98 111.

I· 7.0 ~ ------l
J
Fig . 4. 17 Plan of tbe body
= 10.104 x I. x h x Deplh of immersion a/ water·line
1275.3", 10.104 x 10 x 7 X II

1/: -;-;~~1~27~5~.3~~ : 1.803m


10 x7 x 10.104
The di stance of the com mon cen tre of buoyancy IJ from A is

All= ~==
1.803 == .90 15 III
2 2
BG == AG - AB '" 2.98 - .9015 '" 2.0785 In - 2.078 111

Mct3 -ccmric height is given by GM '" .!.... - BG


V
where 1== M.O.1. of the pl'lll of the body at th e water leve l along Y-Y

=...:.. x [O.Ox7J: IOx 49x7 m4


[2 12
';j == V o lume of Ille lxxl y in water
== Lxbx II == [0.0 x 7 x 1.857

J : IOx49x7 CC~4~9~ =2.[9&111


= ~
';j [2x[Ox7xI.857 12 x 1.857
I
GM " ';j - BG = 2.198 - 2.078 = 0. 12 m.
Mela·t...,nlric lIeighl o f bolh Ih e ponloon 1lnd boiler == 0.12 Ill. An s.
Problem 4.15 A lI"oodell cy/illder of sp. gr. = 0.6 lmd cirCli/ll f ill cron·· seClioll i~· reqllired 10 flo (ll
in oil (sp. gf. = 0.90). Fint/ Ihe LID ralio for Ihe cylint/er 10 floal will, ils /Ongilut/inal a.ris ,·erliC(l/
in oil ....IIue L is Ih e Ireiglll of cylinder fwd 0 is ils diam eler.
Solution. Gi\"~n :
Dia. of cy linder
Heighl o f cyli nder
Sr . gr. of cylinder.

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1148 Fluid Mechani cs


Sp. gr. of oil 52'" 0.9
Let the depth of cylinder immersed in oi l '" II
ror the principle of buoyancy C' ~
Wcigtlt of q lindc r '" WI. of oil displaced
, lG
'-----'
- "4
11: , It ,
- 0- x L x 0.6 x 1000)( 9.81: - 0- x II x 0.9 x 1000 )( 9.81 0
,
4 4
0' LxO.6 : /1)(0.9

h",O.6)(L = ~L
0.9 3
1• °
, 1
Fig . 4.18
L
The distance of centre o f grav it y G from A, AU '" -
2
The dist ance of ccnlT" o f buoyanc y B from A.

The meta -ce ntric height GM is given by

GM"' ~- BG

where I ",""::'" D~ and ';j '" Volum e of cylinder in oil '" ~ 0 2 X "
M 4

!....=(~ D./~ D2")=-.!...


V 64 4 16
Ol =_ D,,'-;-_ =3Dl
II 16
x,
2L 32 L { h=H
3Dl L
GM: - - - .
32L (,
For Mable equilibrium, GM should be +vc or
3D' L
GM>O or - >0
32 L 6
1
3D L
-- > -
32L 6
t 1 18 9
0' - <- 0'
OJ 32 16

~ <~ =%
IJD < 3/4. A. ns.
Problem 4 .16 511011' /lw / a cy/;ndrit'(I/ buoy of I m diameter Illld 2.0 m heighl \\'eiglling 7.848 kN
wil/ 110/ floll i "ulial/ly in sea waler of densily f()JO kglm J• Find Ihe force necessary in a "erlica/
chain a((a("/It:d al Ihe cell ire of base of Ihe buoy Ihal will keep il ,·ulica/.

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 149 1


Solution . Gi ve n : Dia. o f bu oy. 0 '" I III
Hciglil. H = 2.0 III
Wci~1I1. IV = 7.848 kN
= 7.348 x 1000", 784 8 N
Density. p::: 1030 kg/ml
(i) Show th e cylinder will not l1oa1 ve rticall y.
( ii) Find the force in the c hain. ---,-_.
Purl I. Th e cy linder will no t fl oat if me ta·centric heig ht is - 'Ie.
LeI the d~pll1 of immersio n be II 2.0 h
Then for equilibriuln , Wei ght o f cy linder
'" Wcig lll of wa ter displaced
,
"" Density x g x Volume of cylinder in water
1-,, -1
7848 = 1030 )(9.81 x~ Olxh Fig. 4.19
4
,
::: 10 104.3 x - (It)( II
,
4
4 x 7848
::: 0.989 Ill.
10104.3)(11
The di stance of centre of buo ya ncy n from A,
AB::: ~ ::: 0.989 = 0 .494 Ill.
2 2
And the distance of ccmre of gra\'ily G. from A is AG ::: 22.0 ::: 1.0 III

8C::: AG - AB::: 1.0 - .494 ::: .506 m.

Now meta-ce nlri c height GM is given by GM:::'!"" -BG


V

where 1= ~ D~= ~ X(I)~m4

and It;f == Volume of cy linde r in wa ter == ..::. D I x " == ..::. I I x .989


, 4

-, x I' ~X 1 4
J 64 6'
V " ~ D 2 xh "::'X I ~ X.989
4 4

== ~ xtlx _'_ = =0.063 11\


16 .989 16x.989
GM = .063 - .506 == - 0.443 m. Am.
As the m ~la·ce nlri c hdghl is - ye, Ih e poinl M ties below G and he nce Ihe cy linde r will be in
un sta bl e equilibrium :lI1d hence cy linder will nOl float vertica ll y.

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1150 Fluid Mechani cs

Purl II. Let tlie force applied in a ve rtical chain 3nachcd aI the centre .,.,.,J-t-1~,,-~
of the base of Ihe buoy is T (0 ~ccp the buoy venical. :0
Now find the combined position of ccmn: of grav ity (G') and cen tre of
buoyancy (B'). For the combined Centfe uf bUUyJIH':Y. let
/J' = depth of immersion when the force T is applied. Then
TQlal downward force = Weight of water displaced
or (784S + n
= Density o f wate r x g x Volume of cy lilldcr in water
= lO30x9.81 x ~ D')( Ii' I where II': depth ufimmeThion I
, A

7848 + T 10 I ()..I.3+ T Fig. 4.20


m
I Ol04.3X~Xl l 7935.9

, II' 1 [ 7848 + T ] 7848 + T


AB=T="2 7935.9 = 15871.8 m.
The combined cenlTC of gravity (G') duc 10 wcigtn of cy linder and d uc to tension T ill the chain
from A is
AG'" IWI. of l:Ylindc r x Distance of CG. of cylinder from A
+ T x Distance of e.G. of T from A] + ]Wcig hl of cylinder + T]

" (7848 x ~ + T x 0) + ]7848 + T] == 7848 m


2 7848 + T

B'G' = AG' _ AB' = 7848 (7848 + T)


(7848+ T) 15871.8

The meta-centric height GM is given by GM == Vf - B'G'


where == ~XD4== ~ X]4=~nl4
64 64 64
V = ~ D~ X II' =~ X ]1 x (7848 + T) ==.!:. x 7848 + T
4 4 7935.9 4 7935.9
,
f

• " =oi'64~", (7&48+ T )


It

4 7935.9

GM = -:-C~79,"3:"'.,-9 = 71\48 (7848+ T) ]


16 (7848 + T ) [ (7848 + T) 15871.8
For stable equilibriunl GM shou ld be positi ve
GM> 0

7935.9 [ 7848 (7848 + T)] > 0


16 (7848 +T) (7848 + T) 15871.8

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 151 1


7935.9 7848 + 7848 + T , 0
16 (7848 + T ) (7848 +T) 15871.8

,-79"3;;',.;9,,-~'6;-':..;7~84,,,8 + (7848 + T) > 0


16 (7&48 + T) 15871.8

~-"I~'7C;6~:n",+ (7848 + T) > 0


J6 (7848+T) 15871.8

(7848 + T) :> ,,-~''~7~63~2""


15871.8 16(7848 + T)
0' (7&48 + n 2:> 117632 x 1587 1.8
16.0
:> 11 6689473.5
:> ( 10802.))!
7848 + T:> 10802.3
T:> 10802.3 - 7848
:> 2954. 3 N. A ns .
Th.e force in lhe chain IllUS! be at least 2954.3 N so that the cy lindric al buoy can be !;cpt in
vert ic al position. An s.
Pro blem 4.17 A solid coile floats in warer ",itl, irs apex downwards. Determill e Ille lew/ apex ollgle
of cone jar .liable equilibrium. Tlw specific 8WI';I)' of lile material of the coile is gil'el l O.S.
Solullo n. Given:
Spo gr. of cone == 0.8
DensiTy uf I:one.
Co<
P == 0.8 x 1000 == SOO kg/m l
D == Dia. of the cone
/
d == Dia. of cone ,H water leve l
+
, CAN 0'
29 = Apex angl e o f cOil e C ONE AT

H == Hei ght o f C()nc


w" ER LINE
I' D •I
II = De pth of cone in water
G'" Centre of gravi ty of the cone
B = Centrc uf buoya ncy of Th c conc
For tllc I:onc. thc di st~ncc of ce nTre of gravity from the ~[lcx A is
AC = t height of conc '" tH
"
also
Volume of water di splaced '"
Volume of cone
AB", t dcpth of cone in wa1cr '"
t It? x II
= 1- X TtR 2 X II
t"
,
Fig. 4.2 1
il
:. Weight of cone =800 xgx tx TtR'" xH
EF R
Now from JiAEF. Ian 9= - =-
EA H
R=Hta n 9
Similarly. r",htan6

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1152 Fluid Mechani cs

:. Wei~hl of cOile

.. Weight of water displaced", ]()OO x g x t x II'! X II

'" lOOOxgx tXI[(htan 9) , X/I= -1


. .000"""x""' 'X'O'ITfX~h" _'""'''_',>.
3.0
For equilibrium
Wcigllt of l"OIlC '" Weight of water displaced

3.0 3.0
or 800xlt= 1000 x II)

H3 = 1000 X11.1or!!'" = (1000)'"


800 /, 800
For stable cljuilibrium. Meta -centric height GM should be positive. But GM is given by
/
GM= - -8G

where 1= M.O.! . of cone al wateT-lil'" = ~ d~
64
. In,
V = Volume of con" In water =- - d" x h
34
/
V=64
IT d ' l "3)("4
' IT d ,- X "
I x3 d 2 3d' 3 ' 3r'
=- x - =- =- x(2, r = - -
16 II 161, 1611 4 II
3 (/l lan6)1
= I': r=I,[an91
4 1/
=t illa ,,2e
and BG '" AG - AB = fH - til'" f (H - II)
GM = til tanl e - t(ll - II)
For stable equilibrium GM should be positive or
t ht3n!e -1 (1I - 11»O or htan!e - (If - h»O
or htan 2e>(H _ h) ur htan 2 e + h>H

hltan!a+ 11>11

So< !!.. = ('OOO)iIJ = 1.077


h 800
, I
scc~ e > 1.077 or cos' 0 > - - '" 0.9285
1.077
cos e > 0.9635
0> 15° 30' or 20>31 °
Apex angle (20) s hould be aileasl 3 1°. Am.

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Buoyancy and Floatati on 153 1


Problem 4 .18 A cOile of Ifleciftc gra\'it)' S. is floating ill wmer willi its apex dowlI.",ard,~. II has a

di(lmeler f) (md l'erlin,/Iu:ighl H. Show Ilwl jor stah/e equilibrium of the COli I' H < !.. [V i. 5;;; ]"1,
2 2 S
Solution. Given:
Dia. of oone =D
Hciglll o f cone'" H
PLAN OF
Sp. gr. o f cone = S CONE AT
WATER LINE
Let G", CemTC of gravity of cone
B '" Ccmrc of bUOYHIlCy
~ D _I
29 = Arcx angle
A = Apex of the cone
II'" Depth of immersion
T
J = Dia. of cmw at Waler surface "
Then AG:2H
4
, 1
3 fig. 4.22
A8= - II
4
Also weight of cone =Weigh t of water displaced.
I' I , '2
lOOOSxgX,lTWX H : IOOOxgx-rrr'xh or sn-H=,h
3
SR!H
II = - -
,-

R" ,
B" t~ne = - = -
H "
N=Hmne.r=ltlan8
SX(Hlan6)l xH
II '"
(1/ tan er,
SX II l xtan 1 exfI SH J
I,: " : __ or h 3 =SH 3
It" tan " e ,,1
I,,,, (SH1)1fJ = Sill H ... (1)
Distancc. 8G '" AG -An
J
=-H - - b= -
3 3 (H - b)= -3H(- .1/3
S /I)
4 4 4 4
'" 2 HI I _SI Il I ... (2)
4
Also I", M.O. Inenia of the plan of body at wate r surface

'" 3... It
64
.
V", Volume o f cu ne III water'" 3In: , In: ,
x 4 x iI + x h '" 34 iI+ IH.S
III
I

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1154 Fluid Mechani cs

~d'
J 64
- = .----o"'c----c 16.H.slll
V x 1 It d H.S'1l
3 4
Now Mcl<l-ce ntric height GM is given as
I 3d " 3H
GM = - _ BG '" ~~'"'- :.-- II _ S'/3 1
'rJ 16.fI ,S"J 4
GM should be +ve for swblc equi librium or GM > 0

... (3)

Also we know R = titan e and r= h tan e


R H D
= - =-
r II d
If '" DII '" D X HS' fl '" DS' fJ
H H
Substituting the value of di n cqum io n (3), we get
1
3(0 5 1))1 3H .lt3
~::':;--"i, > - (l - S ) or
1.6.H.S'IJ 4
D J .S'/J
H2< 4 ( 1_ 5"1)

"'
II> 4.8 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Of DETERMINATION OF META -CENTRIC
HEIGHT

The mcla-cc ntric heigh t of a noati ng vessel can be determined, provided we know th e (emre of
grav it y of the Ooaling vc~scl. Lei"", is a known we ig hl placed over the ce ntre of the VCS1;e J as show n in
Fig. 4.23 (iI) and the vesse l is floating.

(a) Floating body (b) Tilted body

Fig. 4.23 M l!l d-<:f'rltric bright.

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 155 1


Let IV '" Weight of vessel including WI

G '" Celltrc of gmvity of the I'essel


B '" Celllrc of buuyancy of the vessel
The weight 11" 1 is 1Oo\'Cd across Ihe vessel towards right through a di Sinn/;c x as shown in Fig. 4.23 (b).
e
The vessel will be tilled. The angle of heel is measured by means of a plumblinc and a protractor
attached on tlie vesse l. The neW cenlrcof gravity of the VC~!ic J will sh ift to G 1 as the we ighl WI hasbcen
moved towards Ihe right Also the centre of buoyancy will change to B] as Ih" vcss<:l ha.~ lih~d. Under
equilibrium. the moment caused by the movement of lhe load WI through a distance x must be eq ual to
Ihe rnOlTIcl\t caused by the s hifl o f the relltrc of g ravity from G to G I' Thus
The momenl due to change of = GG I X IV=
G IVx GM tall e
The moment duc to movement of WI = 11'1 X X
11'1 '\ '" IVGM tan e

Hence GM = cc'"~"~'cc ...(4 .5)


IV tan e
Problem 4 .19 A J'l!ip 70 III 10llg {md 10 III bro{{d h{{s a displacemenl of 19610 kN. A weight of
343.35 kN is mOI'l'd across Ille deck: IhrOllgh a tii.,·I{Wce of6 III. The .IMp is lilled Ihrollgll 6 ". The
momelll of inertia of Ille ship m wmer-line abOli1 ils fore Wid afl axis is 75% of M.O.I. of I/Il'
circlIIIIJ"cribing reClmlg/e. Tlw celllre of buoyancy is 1.15 III belo", ",ala-lille. Find tile meta -cen/rit"
IJeigllt lIlIIl PO$ilioli of celilre of gr""ity of J'hip. Specific weight of sell '\"lIler is 10 I 04 Nlm J •
Solution. Given:
Length of ship. L=7UIlI
Bread th of ship. b = to m
Displacement. IV= 19620kN
Angle of heel. e" 6°
", .0.1. of ship at water-line " 75% of M.O,I. of circumscribing rectangle
". for sea- water = 10 I 04 N11lI 1 " 10.104 kN/m
l

Movable weight. w, " 343.35 kN


Distance l\loved by "'I' .\ =6 m
Centre o f buoyancy = 2.25 m below Waler surface
Find (I) Meta-ce ntri \: height. GM
(ii) Position of centre of grav ity. G.
(i) Meta- cc ntric height . GM is given by equation (4.5)
GM = "'IX 343.35 kN x 6.0
IV tan e 19620 kN x lal16°
34335 kN x6.0
" '" 0.999 m. Ans.
19620 kN x .105!
(ii) Pos ition of Centre of Gra vit y, G

GM=.!.... - BG

where

1== M.O.l. of the ship al water-line about Y-Y

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1156 Fluid Mechani cs

.--
WATER LINE

2.25

~10m ~

Fig. 4.24 Fig. 4.25

'" 75% o f -.!.... x 70 X 101 ", .75 X...!... x 70 X 101 ", 4375 111 4
[2 12
We ight of ~h ip
lUlU V" Vu lume of ship in wme r '" -:::c-:'c'-'C'':'''-'O''--:-:c:
Weight df.>nsily of wate r
19620 '" 1941.74 m1
10. 104
.!... '" 4375 '" 2.253 111
'rJ 1941. 74
GM", 2.253 - IJG or .999 '" 2.25] - BG
BG = 2.253 - .999 = 1.254 m.
From Fig. 4. 25. it is c lear lhal Ih e di stan ce of G from free surface o f the wa ter '" dist ance o f B
from water surface - BG
" 2.25 - 1.254 ", 0.996 111. An s.
Problem 4 .20 A pOIl/QOI! of 15696 kN di~placemt'1lI iJ floating in water. A »'<'igh! of 245.25 kN is
IIwred 1/"014gh a diSllIllce of 8 m across the deck ojpOIl/OOIl, II'hic// lills the pontoon l!lrOJlgll all angle
·r. Find mela-anlric height of the pontOOIi.
Solution. Given:
Weig ht of (lOntoo n = Di splace ment
W = 15696 1; N
"' MOl' abl e we ight. 245,25 kN
11'( '"

Distan ce moved by weig ht "'I ' x == 8 m


Angle of hee l. 6 == 4 °
Th.;, nwta-ce ntri c heig ht. GM is giv.;, ,, hy eq uati o n (4.5)
GM == ~w",x'-o 245.25 kN x 8
"' 1\1 tan 6 15696 kN x tan 4°

--;:""",,96,,2;.-;;:,;;;;
== -;-: == 1.788 III . '\ IIS.
15696 x 0.0699

~ 4.9 OSCILLATION (ROLLING) OF A FLOATING BODY


Consider a fio at ing body. which is tilted thro ugh an a ng k by a n ol'e nurnin g co uple as s how n in
Fig. 4. 26 . Let the o\'Crtu rn ing co upl e is suddenly re moved . The bod y will start osc ill ati ng. T hu s. the

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 157 1


body will be in a Siale of oscillation as if suspended allhe mcta·CCnlrc M. This is similar 10 the case of
a pe ndulu lll . The only force acting on the body is due to Ihe restoring couple duc to the weight Wof
the body force of buoyancy FR"

,

Fig. 4.26
Restoring couple '" \I' x Distance GA
= II'x GM sin 9 . .. ( i)
This couple tries 10 decrease Ihe imgle
d1 S
Angular 3(;celcralion of the body. (l = - - ,- .
d,
- ve sign has been introduced as Ihe restoring couple tries to dcr rcasc the angle B.
Torque due \0 inenia = Moment of 11lcrlia about Y-Y x Angular acceleration

= I y_y x
[- -dtlr"J
,-

IV ,
f r' r = gK
where IV = Weigh t of body, K = Radius of gyra tion about r·Y

[nenin torque _ '" K' ( _ d1,' J__ _~ .,2 dle,


" ... (U)
g dt " g dl '
Equating (I) and (il). we ge l

IVxGMsin9= _~ K 2 d2?
g dr ' "'
For sma ll angle e. sine - e

K'
Dividing by - , , we gel d1?+ GM Xfx e ",0
dl- K-
Th" above equalion is a differenlial equat ion of second deg ree. The solUlion is

e ", C ,S l n
. JGM.g
~ XI + C2 COS
JGM.g
Kl
xI ...(iii)

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1158 Fluid Mechani cs

where C t and C2 arc constants of integration.


The values o f C 1 and C 1 arc obtained from boundary conditions whic h arc
(i) 311==0,6==0

(ii) all= ~,e =o


where Tis Ihe time period o f one complete o!;(:ilimion.
Suhstituting the 1st ooundary condition in (iii), we get
O=C 1 xO+C1 X1 (': si06=0.0:0s6= 11
C1 == 0
Substituting 2nd boundary conditions in (iii), we get

Bm C 1 cannot Ix: equal to 1.Cro and so tile olher ahcmalivc is

sin JGM.s: T
- - - x -=O=sinlt (.: sinlt=OI
Kl 2

T=2n~ Kl ...(4 .6)


GM .g
Time period of oscillation is give n by ~qualion (4.6).
Problem 4.21 Til e "',1.11
rat/illS of gy,III;OIl of {/ sllip is S III (/111/ meta-centric height 70 CIII. Caleu-
la/e Ihe lime period of o.\'ciliatiQlI of Ihe Jllip.
Solution. Given:
Least radiu s of gy ration. K = 8 III
Mcta -cc nlric height. GM == 70 em == 0.70 111
The tim e period of oscillation is given by equation (4.6).

T: 2n j£,'
GM.g
8x8
- - : 2n , 1 ;cOCC~~ : 19. IH sec. Ans .
0.7x9.81
Problem 4 .22 The lime period of rof/illg of a ship of weighI 29430 k.N ill sea waler is 10 seconds.
T/l e cellire of buo}'(l/Icy of Ihe ship is /.5 m be/ow II/e cen/re of grlll'it)'. Fifl(llile radius of g)"",liOl/ of
Ihe ~IIip if Ihe moment of inerlia af Ihe ship al IIIe lI'aler Urle aboUI fore and aft luis is I()(x) m~. Take
j'l'ecijic weiglll af sea Imler as = 10 I (X) Ntm J•
Solution. Given:
Time period. T : 10 s«c
Distance between centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity. BG : I.S 111
Mome nt of Inertia. I: 10000 m~
WciglH. IV" 29430 kN '" 29430 x 1000 N
Let the radi us of gyration: K
PiTSt calculate the meta-cenuie height GM. whieh is given as
I
GM: BM - BG '" - - BG

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Buoyancy and Floa tation 159 1


wlterc 1 = M.O. llicnia
.,d V = Volume of water displaced
Weight o f ship 29430 x 1000
- - ~~"";;';~' = 2912.6 rn
3
- Sp. we ight of sea water - 10 104
10000
GM = - - - 1.5 = 3.433- I.S = 1.933 Ill.
29 12.6

Using equation (4.6), we get T= lit


~ GM xg
'
K' 2,K
10= 211 ,I~~~~
" 1.933x9.81 JI.933 x 9.8 1

K = clO
- c,-,-
J~I'~3c3C'C'C',,-1 = 6.93 m . An s .
" 2,

HIGHLIGHTS

1. The upward fOrl'e cxcncd by a liquid on a body when the body is immersed in the liquid is known 8S
buoyancy or force of huoyancy.
2. The point through which force o f buoyancy is _,upposed to act is called centre of buoyancy.
J. The point about which a body slanS oscillating when the body is ti lled is known as mcla-ccntre,
4. The distance between the mela-ccnlre and centre of llravilY is known as mcla-Ccnlric height

5. The meta-ccnlric height (OM) is gi,'en by GII1 = V


, -IJG

where I ~ Moment of lnenia of \he floating body (in plan) at water surface nboutthe axis Y-Y
'!j .. Volume of the OOdy sub-merged in wuter
BG '" Distance between ~entre of grnvity and centre of buoyancy.
b. Conditions of equilibrium of a floating and sub-merged OOdy are :

Equilibrium Flooting Hody Sub·merged /JOlly


(i) Stable Equilibrium 111 is above G /J is abo,·" G
(ii) Unstable Equilibrium M is below G /J is below G
{iii} Ncutr.. 1 Equilibrium M and G coincide Band G coincide

7. The value of meta-centric height GM, experimentally is given as GM "' -;c,'


"'"'
Wtan6
' oc
where 11', ~ Movable w~ight

of .. Distance through which 11'1 is mowd


W .. Weight of lhe ship or flooling body including 1<',

6., Angle through the ship or flo.1ling OOdy is lilted due to the movement of 11',.

8. The time period of o!'Cillation or rolling of a floating OOdy is given by T", 21f
v~
c;;;t;g
,,'here K .. Radius of gymlion. GM .. Mela -cenlric height
T", Time of one complete o!'Ciliation.

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1160 Fluid Mechani cs

EXERCISE

(A) THEORETICAL PROBLEMS


l. Define the lenn, 'buoyanq" ~nd 'cenlre of buoyancy' ,
2 . Explain the terms 'meta-<:entrc' and 'meta-centric heighI'.
3. Derive an expression for the mela-ccmric height of a floating body.

4 . Show thai the distance bctw~..,n the mcta-ccntre and centre of buoyancy is giw" by Hili ~ -
,
V
where I • Moment of incnia of the plan of the float ing body at water surface about longitudinal axis.
V _ VOlume of the body sub -merged in liq uid.
S . What arc the conditions of equilibrium of a floallng I>ody and a sub-merged body ?
6. How will you deten"inc the meta"':c"l,;C height of a floating body experimentally ? Explain wilh ncal
sketch.
7. Sclectlhc correct Staiement:
(a) The buoyant force for a floating body passes through the
(i) centre of gravity of the body (ii) centroid of vol ume of the body
( iii) mcta-.celllre of the body (il·) cCllIre of gravity of the suh.merged pan of the body
(,,) ccntroid of thc displaced volume.
(b ) A body sub-mer~~"<.l in liquid is in equilibrium when;
(i) it' meta-.centre is above the centre of gravity
(I;) its mcta...:cn!rc is above the cenlre of buoyancy
(iii) its centre of gravity is above thc centre of buoyancy
(i" ) its centre of buopn,y is abo,·e the centre of gral·ity
(,,) noneoflhesc. IAn s. 7 (II) (" J. (b ) (i1')1
8. Dcri,·c an cxpression for !he lime pcriO<l of lhe oscillation of a floating body in lcnns of radius of gyrmion
and mela-.centrie hcight of the floating body.
9. Define the termS meta-<.·entrc. ccntrc of buoyancy. mcla-centric height. ga uge pres,ure and absolute
pressure.
10 . What do you understand by the hydroslatic equation ? With the he lpof this equation. derivc the expression
for the buoyant force acting on a sub·merged body.
II . With neal sketches. explain lhe conditions of equilibrium for fiOal ing and sub-merged bodies.
12. Differenlime between:
(i) Dynamic viseosi1y and kinematic ,·iseosity. (ii) Absol ute and ga uge pressure (iii) Simple and
differenti al manomelers (i" ) Cent re of gr~vily and cenlrc of buoyancy.
(Del/,i Ulli'·t"rsiry. Dec. 10M)

(B) NUMER ICAL PROBLEMS

1. 1\ wooden block of width 2 m, depth 1.5 til and lenglh 4 til floats horizontally in water. f ind the volume
of water displaced and position of centre of buoyancy. Thc specific gravily of thc wooden hloc k is 0.7.
IAns. 8.4 til ! . 0.525 m from (he basel

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Buoyancy and Floatation 161 1


2 . A wooden log ofO .8m di,,,"c(er and 6 III length is noaling in rivcr Waler. Find the depth of wooden
log in water when the sp. gr. of the wooden log is 0.7. [Ans. O.54m ]
3. A Slone weighs 4SlO.5 N in air and 196.2 N in waler. Determine the volume of Slone and its specific
gravity. IAn s. 0.03 Ill J or 3 x W' eml, 1.671
4 . A body of dimen,ions 1.0 III X 1.0 m x 3.0 III weighs 3924 N in water. I:ind its weight in air. W hat will be
its spedfic gravity? [Ans. 62784 N. 1.06671
5. A metallic body floats at the interface of mercury of sp. gr. 13.6 and water in such a way that 30% of its
volume is sub-merged in mercury and 70% in water. I:;nd the den<it y of the meu!!ic body.
[Ans. 4780 kglmJI
6 . A hody of dimensions 0.5 III )( 0.5 III x 1.0 m and of sp. gr. 3.0 is immersed in water. Delenni"e the leaSI
force required to lift the body . (An .•. 49()5 N I
1. A "'''tangular pontoon is 4 rn long. 3 10 wide and 1.4010 high. The depth o f immersion of the pontoon is
1.0 m in sea -wmer. If the centre of gr~"ily is 0.70 m above the boltom of the ponloon. detemline Ihc meta -
cent ric height. Take the densily of sea-Water as 1030 kg/m J • (Ans. 0.45 ml
8. A un ifonn bod~ o f size 4 m long X 2 m wide x I rn deep noats in water . Whal is the weight of Ihe body if
depth of immersion is 0.6 m? Detennine thc mCla-ccntric height also . (,\n s. 4 7088 N. 0.355 IllI
9. A block o f wood of specific grJvity 0.8 no.,ts in water. Detenninc the meta-centric height of thc block if
its size is 3m)( 2m x I 111. (Ans. 0.316 IllI
10 . A solid cylinder of diameter 3.0 m has a height of 2 m. find the meta-centric heighl of tne cylinder when
it is noaling in water with its axis ,·wical. The sp. gr. of the cyhnder is 0 .7. (AilS. 0.1017 ml
II . A body has the cylindrical upper poniOll of 4 m diamete r and 2 m deep. The lower p<mion is a curved one,
which displace .• a volume of 0.<) m1 of water. The cenlre of buoyancy of the curved ponion is at a distance
of 2.10 III below Ihe lOp of the cylinder. The centre of gravity o f the whole body is 1 50 m below the tOP
of the cylinder. Th e totnl displacement of water is 4.5 tonnes . find the Illeta-centric height of the body.
(Ans. 23871ll1
12. A solid cylinder of di~meter 5.0 10 ha .• a height of 5.0 10, Find the Illeta--centric he ight of the cylinder if
the spe"ific gravity of the material of cylin<.lcr is 0.7 and it is n=ting in water with it> axis vertical. State
whether thc equilibrium is Slable Or unstable. IAR •. - 0 ,304 m. Unstable Equilibriuml
13. A solid cylin<.lcr of 15 cm diameter and 60 Crn long . consists of tWO parts rna<.le of different materials. The
f,rsl part al the base is 1,20 cm long and of specific gravily '" 5 ,0. The olhcr parts of the cylindcr is made
of Ihe material havins specific gravily 0 ,6, Slale. if il can noat \'er(ically in water.
(Ans. G/I1 _ - 5.26. Unstable. Equilibriuml
14. A rectangular pontoon 80 to long. 7 m broad and 3.0 m <.leep weiShs 588.6 kN.lt carries on its uppcrdeck
nn empty boiler of 4.0 to diameter weigh ing 392.4 kN. Th e centre of gravity of the boiler and the pontoon
mc m their respective centres along a vertical line. Find the mcta--ccntric height. Weight density of sea -
water is 10104 N/ml . (Ans. 0.325 ml
I S. A wooden cylinder of sp. gr, 0.6 and circular in cross-secti on is require<.l to nOOt in oil (sp gr. 0 .8 ). Find
the /.JO ratio for the cylinder to noot with its longitudinal a~is ,'ertical in oi l where L is the heigh t of
cylinder and 0 is it, diameter, IAns. (UO) < 0. 81641
16. Show that a cylindrical buoy of 1.5", di~meter an<.l 3 10 long weighing 2.5 tonne> will not n<Xlt vertically
in sea-water of density 1030 kg/",'. Find Ihe force necessary in a ,'crtical chain all~chc<.l at the centre oflhe
b",;e Oflhe buoy Ihal will keep il vertical. (A ns. 10609.5 N I
11 . A solid cone nOMS in water its apex downwards. Dc-Iennine Ihe least apex angle of cone for slable equilib·
rium. The specific gravily of thc materia l of Ihe cone is given 0.7. (Ans. 39° 7'1
18 . A ship 60 m long and 12 tn broad has a <.lisplacement of 19620 kN. A weight of 294 ,3 kN is moved across
the deck through a distance of 6.5 m, The sh ip is ti lted through 5". The momenl o f inertia of the sh ip at

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1162 Fluid Mechani cs


walcr line aboUl its fo",,, and aft axis is 75% of mOment of inertia the circumscribing rec(,mgle. The ccnlre
of buoyancy is 2.75 Tn below watcr line. Find the mcl~.ccnuic height and position of centre of gnlvity of
ship. Take spc<:ific weight of sea walcr = 10104 Nlrn J , IA ns. 1.1145 m. 0.53 m below walcrsurfaccl
19. II pontoon of 1500 lnnnes dispiacClllCnl is !looting in watef. II weight of 20 lonnes is moved through
a distance of 6 m across the deck of poilloon. which tilts the pontoon through an angle of 5", Find
Illcla-<:cntric height of the pontoon. lA ns. O.9145ml
20 . Find the lime period of rolling of a solid e;"",lm cylinder of radius 2.5 Tn and 5.0 m long. Th,- specific
gravity of the cylinder is 0.9 and is floating in water wilh its axis vertical. IAn s, 0.35 secl

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CR~ER

A. KIN EMATICS OF flOW

~ S.I INTRODUCTION

Kinematics is dctincd as that branch of sc ience whic h deals with motion of particles without
co nsidering the forces causing the motion. The ve locit y at any point in a flow field at an y till1~ is
studied in this brandt of fluid ll1~chanics. Once the velocity is known. (h e n the pressure distri bution
and hence forces ac tin g on the fluid can be dClemlincd. In this <:hapter. the methods of determining
velocity and acceleration arc discussed .

.. S .2 METHODS OF DESCRIBING flUID MOTION

The fluid motion is described by two methods. The y arc - (i) Lagrangian Method. and (ii) Eulerian
Method. In the Lagrangian method. a sin gle fluid particle is followed during its nlO1ion and its
yelocity. acceicration, density. clc .• ilre described . In case of Eulerian melhod. lhe velocily. ilccelera-
tion. prcssure. dens it y etc .. arc described ,,( n point in flow field. The Eulerian method is common ly
used in fluid mechanics .

II> S.l TYPES OF FLUID FLOW

The fluid flow is classified as:


(i ) Sleady and unsteady flows:
(ii) Un ifo rm and non·uniform flows:
(iii ) Lami nar and turbulent flows;
(i v) Comp ressible and in compressible flows:
(v ) Rotational and irrOlationaJ flows; and
(ri ) One. two and thrt,e -dimensional flows.
S.l . I Steady and Un steady FloW5. Steady flow iSdefi lled as thilttypc of flow in which the fluid
charac teristics Ii!;e ve loc ity. pressure. density. etc.. at a point do not change with time. T hlls for
steady flow, 1I1athematically, we have
163

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1164 Fluid Mechanics

,.
- 0 -P
- . ( dill )
•. J.....
~
('P) "" ,.",
=0 -
'at =0

where (.(0- )'0 - 4 ) is a fixed poim in fluid field.


Unsteady flow is that type of now, in which the velocity, pressure or dcnsily ;n a point changes wilh
respect to time. Thus. mathematically. for uIl5tcady flow

(~~) .~o.(~:) ~OCIC .


... ·'0· '" .... y• • ""
5. 3. 2 Uniform and Non -uniform Flows. Uniform flow is dcfillcd as lhal lyPl' of flow in
which Ih~ velocity at an y given time does nOI cllange with respect 10 space (i.e .• length of di~ct ion of
the flow ). Mathematically. for uniform flow

(~~L~I =0
where av = Change of ve locity
as = Length of flow in the ui rcction S.
Non-uniform flow is lhal type of flow in which the veloci ty al any given time ctl311gCS with respect
\0 space. Thus, mathematically. for non -uniform flow

('V)
as ' _ron"",
.0
.
5. 3. 3 Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar flow is defined as that type of flow in whieh
the fluid panicles move along we ll·deflned paths or stream line and all the stream-lines arc straight and
parallel. Thus the panicles move in laminas or layers gliding smooth ly over the adj acent layer. This
type of Ilow is also called stream-line Ilow or viscous flow.
Turbulent now is that type of flow in which the fluid panicles move in a zig-zag way. Due to the
movement of fluid particles in a zig-zag way. the eddies fonnation takes place which arc responsible
VD
for high energy loss. For a pipe flow. the type of flow is determined by a non-dimensional number-

called the Reynold number. "


where D = Diamckr of pipe
V = Mean vcioci ty of now in pipe
and t' = Kinematic viscosity of fluid.
If the Reynold number is less than 2000. the now is calkd laminar. If th~ Reynold number is more
thaI14000. it is called turbulent now . Irthe Reynold number lies between 2000 and 4()()().thc now may
be laminar or turbul~nt.
5.3.4 Compressible and Incompressible Flows. Co mpressible flow is that type of flow in
which the density of the fluid c hanges from point \0 point o r in other words the densit y (p) is not
constant for the fluid. Thus, math~matically, for compressible flow
p ... Constant
Incompressible flow is that type of flow in which the density is constant for the fluid flow. Liquids
arc generally incompressible while gases arc compressi ble. Mathematically. for incompressible flow
p = ConslanL

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Kinematics o f Flow and Ideal Flow 165 1


S. 3. S Rotational and Irrotational flows . ROlalional flow is 1lial type of flow in wllich the
fluid panicles wll ile flowing along stream-lines. also rolate about thcir own axis. And if the fluid
panicles white flowi llg along stream-li nes, do not rotale abou t their own axis then ttJallypc of flow is
"ailed irrotational flow.
5.3.6 One- , Two- ilnd Three- Dimensional Flows. Onc·dirn cnskmlll n ow is thai lyp" of
flow in which Ihe flow parameter such as ve locity is a function of lime a nd One space co-ordinate on ly_
say.T. For a steady one-dimensional flow. the I'doc ity is a func tion of onc-spacc-co-ordinatc only. The
variation of veloc itie s in ol her 1WO mutually perpendicular directions is assumed negligible. H ence
mathematically. for one-dimensional flow
II =j(x).,·= Oand w= 0

where 11_ V and W <Ire velocity components in x. y ,lnd z directions respe\:tively.


Two-dim e ... ion a l n ow is thaI type of flow in which the veloci ty is a function of time and two
r~ctangular space co-ordinates say x and y. For a steady two - dimen~iOllal flow the ve locit y is a func lion
of IWO space C{}-ordinales only. The variation of veloci ly in the third dircction is negligihle. Thus.
mathematically for two-dimensional flow
II = f,( .... y ). v = f 2(x. y) and w :: O.
Th ~ _dimcn sional fl nw is that Iype of flow in which the veloci ty is a function of time and th ree
mutually perpemlkular diredions. BUI for a sle:,dy three-dimensional flow the fluid p<trameten; arc
functions of three spa ce co-ordinates (x . y and z) only. Thus. mathematically. for three-dimensional
now
II:: fl(x . y . z) . ,' :: fl (. y . z) and 11':: fix . y. z) .

.. 5.4 RATE OF FLOW OR DISCHARGE (Q)

It is delined as the quanti ly of a fluid flowing per second through a seclion of a pipe or a chanrlCl.
For an incom pressib le fluid (or liquid) Ihe rale of flow or discharge is expres.scd as the vo lum e of fluid
flowing across the s.cclion per second. For compressibl e fluids. Ihe rale o f flow is usually expressed as
the we ight of fluid flowing across Ihc section . Thus
(i) For liquids Ihe uni ls of Q arc mJfs or iilres/s
(ii) For gascs the uni ls of Q is kgffs or Newtonfs
Consider a liquid flowing through a pipe in which
A :: Cross-sectional area of pipe
V:: Average ve loc it y of fluid a(;fOSS the section
Then discharge Q= A xY. ...(5.1 )

.. S .S CONTINUITY EQUATION

The eq uat ion based on Ihe principle of conservation o f mass is called contin uit y eq uati on. Thus for
a fluid flow in g through th e pipe at all the cross-sectiun. the quantity of fluid per secund is constant.
Consider IWO ",ross-sections of a pipe as show n in Fig. 5. 1.
Let VI:: A vera ge velocity at cross-sedion I- I
PI = Density at section I- I
A I = Area o f pipe at section I-I

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1166 Fluid Mcchanics

and V2. P2' A~ arc correspo ndin g valu es al section. 2-2. <D @
~~ ,_",.l~'"'.'"'.'"'.'"".'"'."11.,"".,.,."
The n rate of now section 1- 1 "" p ,A, VI
Rate of flow at "ce uon 2-2 == P ~!Vl
Acco rdin g 10 law o f co nse rva ti on of 1ll,ISS
Rate of flow al seclio n I - I
OF FLOW
== Rate of fl ow al sec lio n 2-2
DIRECTl ON~
- 7""
i
'
+.
b"""'" " ',~"",..,. i ,

or p, A I V, = PzAIVl ... (5 .2 )
Eq u:u ion (5.2) is appli ca ble 10 the co mpressi ble as we ll as inCQlIl - Fig . 5.1 Fluid flowi ng through
pn: ...s iblc fluids and is callcd Contlnull}' Equation. If the fluid is in - a pi~.
compressi ble. Ihc n P, '" p, and continuity eq uati on (5.2) redu ces \0
... ( 5.3 )
Problem 5.1 The diameters of a pipe atlhe seclions I (/lId 2 lire /0 em mid 15 em respeclil-ely. Find
rhe disc/wrge Ihrough lilt' pipe if the relocily of W<lIer flowing through rhe pipe ar sec lion 1 is
5 mls. Determine also IIIe )'e/oeify al sl'clioll 2.
Solution. G iven:
CD <ZJ
At sc(;ti on 1. D,,,, lO cm ,,,O.1 1ll !
AI "'..::. (0 , 2) :"::' (. I) l " 0 .007854 Ill l _ , D,=1Ocm
4 4
V, '" 5 m/s.
At scc tio n 2. O 2 ,,, 15cIll ", 0.1 5 III
V," 5m./s.ec
A2 ="4" (. 15t =0 .0 1767 m-, Fig. 5.2
(/) DiSCharge through pipe is g iven by equa tion (5. 1)
or Q=Al x V,
= 0.007854 x 5 = 11.03927 III lls. A/l s.
Using equ.u io n (5.3). we ha ve A,V, " A 2 V1
A, V, ,O~.=
OO 78~54
,=-
( ii) V 2 = - A,
-,- " - 0.0 1767 )( 5 .0 = 2.22 m'-~. Ans.

Problem 5 .2 A 30 em diameler pipe. coIII'eying warer. branches illlo 111'0 pipes of diametl'Ts
20 em and 15 em respecti)'e/y. If IIIe (II'erage ~'e/oeir)' in II,e 30 em diamerl'r pipe is 2.5 mls. find the
disc/mrge ill this pipe. Also derermille rhe ),elocity ill 15 em pipe if tile (II'ew ge I'e/oeify ill 20 em
diumeler pipe is 2 mls.
Solution. G iven :

V," 2.5m/ sec


0, "3Ocm-

(j)

Fig. 5.3

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Kinematics o f Flow and Ideal Flow 167 1


D, '" 3Dcm =0.30 III

11" 1 11" , ,
A, '" - V , = - x .3" =0.07068 m "
4 4
V, '" 2.5 In/s
D2 '" 20 ern = 0.20 III

Al =~ (.2)2 = ~ x .4 = 0.0 3 14 OI l ,
V2 =2 rn /s
DJ = 15cm = O.15m

A):-
,
II ,
,If
(. Is r =- x 0.22S '" 0.01767 m -
,

Find (I) Discharge in pi pe I o r Q ,


(ii) Veloc ity in pipe of di a. 15 (Ill or V)
Le t QI' Q1 nnd QJ are disch<lrgcs in pipe 1. 2 and 3 rcs[X:ct ivcl y.
Then accordi ng 10 continu ity equ ati o n
Q,=Q2 + Q3 .. .(1 )
(,) Th~ dl~c hu rgc Q, in pi pe I is g ive n hy
Q, = A, l', = 0.07068 x 25 lO lls = 0.1767 rn l/s . A n~.
( ii) Value o r V.l
Q l = A1V1 = 0.03 14 )( 2.0 = 0.0628 m3/s
Substitutin g th e values of Q, a nd Q1 in cqu~t io n (I)
0.1 767 = 0.0628 + Q3
QJ'" 0 .1 767 - 0.0628 '" 0. 1139 m1ls
Q3 = A1 XV3 =O.0 1767XV) or O. I 139=O.O I 767 XV3

V}= 0.1 139 = 6.·U m/s. An s.


0.01767
Problem 5 .3 \Yarer flows ["ro ugh II pipe AH 1.2 m diameler a/ j mls and Ihell pt/SIes II!rollgh II
pipe BC 1.5 m diameter. AI C, the pipe brallches. Ilrallch CD is 0.8 m it! diameter alld carries Olle-
l/!ird of Ille flow in All. The flow I"elocity ill brallch CE i.~ 2.5 mls. Pilld Ihe I"olume rale of flow ill
AIJ. Ihe )"e/OCily ill BC, Ihe \"e1ocif)' ill CD alld l/ie diameter of CEo
Sol ut io n. G ive n:
Dia meter of pipe AB. DAS= I .2 m
Veloci ty o f fl ow th rough AB. VAS = 3.0 m/s
Di a. of pi pe HC, lJ /iC = 1.5 m
Dia. o f branch ed pipe CD. Dcv = O.8m
Ve locity o f flow in pi pe CEo Vn · = 2.5 mls
Lei lhe fl ow rate in pi pe AB=Q mlts
Ve loc ity o f fl ow in pipe BC = VIIC mts
Ve loc it y of fl ow in pipe CD = Ve/J mts

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1168 Fluid Mechanics

A
, B,
t
~ ~
0

12m 1.5 m ,
! I
~ ,
V>B= 3 m/sec

VeE" 2.5 m/$<)C

Fig. 5.4
Diameter o f pipe CE", Da :
Then now ratc thrQu~h CD : QI3

'IliU now ralc th roug h CE=Q-QI3= 2Q


3
(i) Now volume flow ralc th roug h AB = Q = V,\~ x Area of An
1t 2 11 2 J
= 3.0 x -
(DAR) = 3.0 x - (1.2) = 3.393 m Is. Ans .
4 4
(rr) App lying co ntinu ity equatio n \0 pipe AB and pipe BC,
VAH x Area of pipe AB == VHe x Area o f pipe Be
It , 1t 2
3.0 x- (D.... /I)" == V/IC x- (Doc)
4 4

"'
3.0 x (1.2)2 == VBe X ( 1.5) 2 [Di Vide by ~]
3)( 1.2 2
V nc l = 1.92 m/s . An s.
1.5
(iii) The flow ratc through pipe
CD=QI= Q = 3.393 = 1.13 1 rn J/s
3 3
Q 1 '" VCD x Are a uf pipe CD )(~ (Om)!

. 131", Veo
, )(0.8-, '" 0.5026 Veo
)(4
.

1.1 31
V ClJ : - - - = 2.25 m /s. Ans.
0.5026
(i,') Flow rate th rough CEo
Q 2 == Q - Q 1 = 3.393 - 1.1 3 1 = 2.262 rn J/s

Q 1 = Vet- )( Area of pipe CE = Vc£~ (Dn/

2.263 = 2.5
,
)("4 x (DClf
,

2.2(3)( 4 ~5'
=,, \.1;).0" 1.0735m
"' DeE::
2.5 x Il
Diame ter of pipe CE:: 1.0735 m. A n s.

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Kinematics of Flow and Ideal Flow 169 1


Problem 5.4 A 25 elll diallle/I'r pipe carries oil of sp. gr. 0.9 aI II \'e/ociry of 3 rnls. AI atlOt!!er
secriolllire diameter is 20 em. Filld the \'elociry a/ Ihis .Iec/ioll and also mass rate offlow of oil.
Solution. Given
at section I. v, = 25 em =0.25 m
IT 2 It 1 1
A , : - D , =- x 0 .25 = 0.049 OJ
4 4
V,=3 rnls
at section 2. DJ '" 20 ern = 0.2 rn
"
Al : - (D.l t '" 0.0314 111 -,
4
V2 "'?
Mass ra tc o f flow o f oi l = ?
Apply ing continuity equat io n al sectio ns and 2 .
A,V, = AlV l
0' 0.049 x 3.0 = 0.03 14 X Vl
0.049 x 3.0
V. '" = 4.68 IIlls. AilS.
o 0.03[4
Mass ratc of fl ow of o il = Ma ss de nsity x Q = p X A , )( VI
Density of o il
Sr . gr. of oil
Densit y of water
De ns ity of oil '" Sp. gr. of oil x Densi ty of' wate r
1 900 ~g
= 0 .9 x 1000 kgfm = - - ,-
m
Mass ratc of flow = 900 x 0.049 x 3.0 kg/s = 132.23 kg/so AilS.
Problem 5.5 A jel ofll'aler from a 15 mm diameter nozzle is directed l'erlically up\>'drds. Anl/ming
Illat llie jet remains circular and neglerling any loss of energy, 111(11 lI'ill be llie diameler at II poim 4.5 m
abow! Ille IIOU Ie, if Ille "elodly "'ill, II'/licll Ille jel {cares rile 1I0ule is /1 mls.
Solution. Give n
,
T
Dia. o f nozz le. 0, '" 25 mm '" 0.025 rn
Velocity o f jet at nozz le. VI'" 12 rn/s
Heigllt of poin t A. II'" 45 III
JET Of
I • .• m
Lei Ille velocily of Ih e jel at a heig ll t 4.5 rn '" V 2 WATE

Consider th e ve rlkal motion of Ihe jel from th e out ld of Ille


nozzle to Ille poilU A (neglecting an y loss of e nergy).
Ini lial veiocily.
Final veloc it y.
U=

V = V2
V, '" 12m/s NOZZLE
J
Value o f g= - 9.1I 1 m/s 2 and li0: 4.5m
- 1/ 0: 2g/l . we gel
Using.
V~
V!
,-12 , =2)«(-9.81 »( 45
Fig . 5.5

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1170 Fluid Mechanics

V2 ~1 21 2x 9.8 1:.:4.5 Jl44 88.29 7.46111/s


Now applying continu ity cqu:nion to the ouliet of nouk and at point A.
we gel

A\c
" ,
VI-X VI Itx (0.025)2 xI2
Al = - ' _I", 4 = 0.0007896
V1 V1 4x 1.46
OJ = Di31nclcr of jd 3\ point A.

Then Al ="2If 02 ! or 0.0007396 ="411 x DJ


2

x4
OJ "'V/0.0007896
It = 0.03 17 m '" 31.7 mm. A ns .

.. 5. 6 CONTINUITY EQUATION IN THREE · DIMENSIONS

Consider a Iluid cle ment of Icnglhsdx. tty and dZ in the direct ion o f .(, y and Z. LeI U, I' and II' arc the
inlet ve loc it y co mponents in
x.)' and Z directions respectively. Mass of fluid ente ring th e face ABCD
per seco nd
= p X Velocity in x-d irection x Area o f ABeD
=pxux(dvxdz)

Then mass of fluid leavi ng the fa<:c EFGH pe r second = pu dydz +~


a., (pu dydz ) d...
Gain of mass in x-dircction
= Mass through ABeD - Ma ss through EFGH per sccolld

'" pu dplz - pJI dydz - -


o (pu dydz)tlx
ih-
=-
a
- (pll dydz) dx
ax ,
=-
o
- (pu) Ii.( dydz .. dyllz is l:o nstant I
ax
Similarly. the lI et g ain of mass in y-dircctioll

'" - -
"
ay (pI') d,l.dydz
and in z- di rcct ion '" -
a
- (pw) d_l dydz
a, y Fig. 5.6

Net gaill of masses '" -[~


O.l
(plI) + ~ (PI') + ~ (pw)] dxdyd:
oy oz
Since the mass is neither created nor destroyed in the fl uid cle ment. the ne t inc rease of mass per unit
time in the fluid cle ment must be equal to the rate of increase of mass of fluid in thc clement. But mass

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Kinematics o f Flow and Ideal Flow 171 1


of fluid ill the cleme n! is p. d.\". dy. tlz and its ralC of incrca!;C wilh time is~
a, (p dx. dy. tlz) or

. dx d)' dz.

Equati ng the two cxprcssio lls.

"' - [-' (pu) + -a (pI') + -a (rw)


ax ay (Jz
1 Or . dxdydz
d_w/yilz '" -
dt
ap + ~ (pu)+ ~(pL') + ~ (pw) = 0 ICancelling dx.dy.dz from both sides1 ... (5. 3.-\ )
"' at ,h oy <lz
Equation (5.3A) is the continuity cq um iun in I:arlcsian l'O-urdinatcs in its most general rOlln. This
equation is upplicablc to :
(il Steady and unsteady flow,
(ii) U niform and non -uniform flow, and
(iii) Compressible lInd incompressible fluids.

For stead y flow. Up = 0 and hence equation (5.3A) becomes as


a,
o , 0
- (pu) +- (pl') + - trw) = 0 .. .(5 .3R)
ax uy <Jz
If the fluid is incompress ible, then p is COnSt31l1 and the above eq uat ion becomes as
all
-+-+-~O
vv vW ... ( 5.4 )
0.( vy VZ
Equation (5.4 ) is th~ continuity "quation in three-dimensions. For a two-dimen sional flow. the com-
ponent w" 0 and hence continui ty equation becomes as
au + a,· ,,0. ... (5 .5)
ax ay
5. 6. 1 Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Polar Co-ordinates. The continu it y equation in
cylindrical polar en·ordinates (i.e .• ~. 9. Z co-ordinates) is deri ved hy the procedure given below.
Consider a two-dimensional ineompr~ssibl e now field. The
two-dimensional polar co-ord inates are, and 9. Consider a fluid ~ · dr
element ABCD hctween the radii, and r + dr as s hown in
Fig. 5.7. The angle subtendcd by the clement at the centre is d9.

Th" componen ts of the velocity V arc "r in the radial direction
and ue in the tangential direction. The sides of the c lement ar~
having the lengths as
Side All "" rd9.BC "" dr. DC", ('+ Iff) d9. AD" Ifr.
The thidncss of the c leme nt perpendicular to the plane o r
the paper is assumed to be unity.
,."
COllsider the flow in radial direclioll
Mass of fluid en tering the fa"e AB per unit tim e
",
"p x Ve locity in , -direction x Area
Fig. 5.7

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1172 Fluid Mechanics


"'pxu,x(A LIx I) (,: Arca '" AB x Thickness = rdO x I )
'" p X II, X (rilO x I ) = p. II," rdO
Mass o f fluid Ic~ving the fa<:c CD per uni t time
= p x Velocity x Arca

= px(u, + a;; .df) x(CDx I) (,: Area = COx I )

(
=px u, + J:
a.. )
dr X(r+dr)dO I': CD=(r+tlr)dO I

=p xlI,xr + u,dr+r -
[ a.., d,+ -a.., (d,')' 1d O
aT ar
'" r{lIrxr +u , xdr+ rJ;; .df] dO
[Th e tenn containing (11,)1 is very small and has been ncgk~ t cd l
Gain of mass in r-di rect ion per un it time
'" (M aS/; through All - Mass through CD) pcr unit time

'" p. ",. rdO - P[U,.f + 1I,.dr+ r a;~ .lIr] dO

[
= p.Il ,.rdO- p.u r·r.de - p u,.dr+r dr,ilf de a.., 1
[
= -p 1I, .dr + r dr,ilT .dO''', 1
[Tlli s is writlcn in this form because
(r. de. dr. I) is eq ual to vo lum e of
ele mentl

Now COllsir/er the flow in S-direr/io"


Gain in mass in a·direction per uni t time
= (Mass through Be - Mass through AD) per unit lime
'" [p x Velocity th rough Be x Area - p x Velocity through AD x Area l

:: [P.ua.ii, x1-p (110 + i.l~~ ,de)xdr xlJ


", - p( ~ .de) drx 1 (': Area=drx I )

aU a r.J6.dr
= -P aE! ' , [Multiplying and div iding by rl
Total ga in in fluid mass per unit time
u, (lU
'l . r. dr. dfJ - p-aUa- · rtia,. tir
= - P [ -;:- + -, -, ...(S.SA )
ae

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Kinematics o f Flow and Ideal Flow 173 1


Bul11lilSS of fluid clement =:p x Volume of fluid clemen!
=px[rd6xdrxll
=px,,'9.dr
Rat e o f in creasc of fluid mass in the cle ment with lime
a [p. rde.dr ] = a;'
"a; ap rdedr ... (5.58)

(": rde . <If. 1 is th e vol ume of c lemen t and is a constant quantity)


Since the mass is neither created nor destroyed in the fluid clement. hence net ga in of mass per unit
lime in the flu id cle ment must be eq ual 10 the rale of increase o f mass o f fluid in the clemen!.
Hence equating th e two express ions given by equ ations (5.5 A) ,Old (5.5 8). we gel
1
-p [ -U, + -(111, r.dr.d9-p -dUo rde. dr ilp
= - rd9dr
rar Ja r dt

"' - p[
U, Ju,]
---; + Jr -p
dUe
Ja r =
dP
at [Cancelling rilr . d9 from bolh sides ]

[u,
-dp +p - + - Ju,] + p -aile . ~ __ 0 ...(5.50
"' at r dr r i.l9
Equation (5.5 C) is Ihe continuity equation in polar co -ordinates for two-dimensional flow.

For steady flow ap : 0 and hence equation (5.5 C) reduces to


a,
u, au, ] aUe I
p[ - + - +p - . - :O
r ar ae r

~+au,+ aue .!.:o


,a, ae ',
au, aUe
u,+ '-a;+ de :0
"'
:, (ru,) + dd (un) '" 0 [.: : , (r. u,) '" r. daU; + u,] ...(5 .5D)
"' O
Equation (5.5 /J) represcnts the cuntinuity cquation in pol~ r cu-ordin ates for two-di mensional steady
incompressible flow,
Problem 5.5A Examine whetllef Ille [o/lQ ..... illg I'e/oeity compollell ts rt'preselll a physically possible
flow?
", = r Jill O. Uo '" 2rtos O.
Solution . Given: u, '" r sin e and ue '" 2r cos 8
For phys ica ll y possible flow. the cont inu ity equation.
a
ar (,u,) + asa (110): 0 should bt'satisfied.
Now ",: 'sin e
Multiplying the abov~ equation by,. we gd
fII,=?sin8

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1174 Fluid Mechanics


Differentiating Ihe preceding equation W.r. l. r. we get

~ (furl" ~ (r sin 8)
{)T aT
=2rsin8 (": si n e is cons tant w.r.!. r)
Now jje'" 2r cos e
Differentiati ng th e nbovc cqumion w.r.l . e. we gel

a
{}9 (" 0) '"
a (2,- cos 9)
as
'" 2, (- sin 8) (.: 2,- is conSlalll W.r.I. 9)
= -lrsi n e

i.(nI,) +~ (u e ) = 2r sin e - 2,- sin e = 0


a, ae
Hene.: the cominuity eq U<ll ion is sn li sfied. Hence Illc given velocity co mponents rcprcsem a physi·
cally possible flow.

to 5.7 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

LeI V is the rcsu hant ve locit y a1 any poim in a fluid flow. LeI 1/. I' and w arc its componclll in .1', y and
Z di rections. The velocity co mponents arc functions of space-eo-ordinates and lime. M31llcmal icall y.
Ihe ve locit y co m ponents arc given as
U=ft(.I',Y·Z,I)
\' "'li·I, y, Z, I)
w=f,(.r.), . z. t)
and R~~ullaI11 vdoc ily. V= IIi + vj+ wI: = Ju l + v l + w l
Lei <1r <1 , and a, arc Ilic lot al acce lerdtlo n in x. y and Z directions respective ly. Tllen by the cliain
rulc o f d ifferc ntia tion. we lIave
du au iI.l au dy au dz au
a = - = --+--+- .- + -
, ill dl ax til til dl ay az
dx ely dz
- =u. - = I'anO- =w
til ill til
du dll dll du du
a = -;II-+I'-+W-+-
, til dx dy dZ dl

d,'
a . = - =u -
dl' a,· d" av
Similarl y.
) til ax +v -d), +w -dZ + -(II ...(5.6)

dw dW dW dW dW
a.= - =U - +>' - +>' - + -
- I
If ih ay azal
('or ste ad y no w. -
av '" O. wllcrc V is result ant veloc it y
a,

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Kinematics of Flow and Ideal Flow 175 1

VII =O,Jv =Oand Jw =0


"' Jt iJl U/
Hence acceleration in -I', y and Z directions bci:OI