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TYp"ulled at ShuLhRm COIllI"'""r, New Delhi Printed ,,/ Hep '" l "dia Ltd. , MUlllhai
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CONTENTS
Chapter Pages
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(xi)
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(xii)
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(xiii)
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(xiv)
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(xvii)
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(xix )
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(u,
15.3. Basic Equations of Compressible Flow 695
15.3.1. Continuity Equation 695
15.3.2. Bernoulli's Equation 695
Solved Problems 15.1 15.3 697
15.3.3. Momentum Equations 702
15.4. Velocity of Sound or Pressure Wave in II Fluid 702
15.4.1. Expression for Velocity of Sound
Wave in II Fluid 702
15.4.2. Veloeity of Sound in Terms of
Bulk Modulus 704
15.4.3. Velocity of Sound for Isothe rmal Process 705
15.4.4. Vdoci ty of Sound fo r Adiabatic Process 705
15.5. Mach Number 705
Solved Problems 15.415.7 706
15.6 . Propagation of Pressure Waves (or Disturbances)
in II Compressible Fluid 708
15.6.1. Mach Angle 709
15.6.2. Zone of Action 710
15.6.3. Zone or Silence 710
Solved Problems 15.8 15.10 710
15.7. Stagnation Properties 711
15.7.1. Expression for Stagnation Pressure (p.) 711
15.7.2. Expression for Stagnation Density (p, ) 715
15.7.3. Expression for Stagnati.m Temperature ( T ,) 715
Solved Problems 15.11 15.12 716
15.8. Area Velocity Relation ship for Compressible Flow 718
15.9. Flow of Compressible Fluid Through Orifices and
Noz~les Fitted to a Large Tank 719
15.9.1. Value of II or !!l. for Maximum Value
p,
of Mass Rate of Flow 721
15.9.2. Value of V 2 for Maximum Rate of Flow
of Fluid 721
15.9.3. Maximum Rate of Flow of Fl uid Through
No~zle 722
15.9.4. Variation of Mass Rate of Flow of Compressible
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(xxii)
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to 1. 1 INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics is that branch of sc ience which deals with the behav iour o f the fluids (liquids or
gases) at rest as well as in motion. Thus this branch of scienl'C deals WiTh the stat ic. kinematics and
dy namic aspecTs of fluids. The study of fluids at rest is called fluid statics. The study of fluids in
Illotion. where pressure forces are not considered. is c all ed tluid kinematics and if the pressure forees
are also considered for the flu ids in motion. that branch of science is callt>d fluid dynamics.
p=
1.2.2 Specific Weight or Weight Dens ity. Specific weig ht or weight density of a fluid is the
ratio between the weight of a fluid to its volume. Thus weight per unit volume of a fluid is called
weight density and it is denoted by the symbo l w.
Mass of fluid )
=p><g =p
Volu me o f flu id
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12 Fluid MC(;hanics
The va lue of specific weight or weig h! density (w) for water is 9.81 x WOO Newlon/II]"' in Sl units.
1.2.3 Specific Volume. Specific volu ille of a fluid is defi ned as the volume of a fluid occupied
by a unit mass or volum e per unit mass of a fluid is callcd specific vo lu11Ie. Mathemat ically. il i~
expressed as
Vo lume of fl uid
Specific volume =
M ass of fl uid ~M,!","",,,o"r~n~""d;r; '" p
Volume of flu id
Thus specific vol um e is the rec iprocal of mass density. It is c.'pressed as m' fk g. It is commonly
applied 10 gases.
1.2.4 Specific C;uvity. Specific gravity is defined as the rali o of th e weight densit y (or de nsity)
of a fluid to the weight de nsit y (o r den sity) uf a standard fluid. For liquids. the standard fluid is Taken
water and for gases, th e standard fluid is taken air. Specific gravity is nlso called relntivc dens it y. h is
dimension less quantit y and is de noted by tlie symbol S.
Problem 1.1 Co/m/ill" tl/<' sfH'ciflc weigili. delisiTy om/ spnific gral'ily of 0111' lifr" of (/ liquid
... IIid, II'pigll,' 7 N.
Solution. Given:
I , . I ;
Volume = I litre =   m IIlTe = 1000 m or I li tre
llJOO
Weight = 7 N
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Properties of Fluids 31
Problem 1.2 Ca/culale tile dellsity. specific weigh! and weight of one lilre of Pe/rot of sped/it
gra..!ty '" 0.7
.. 1,3 VISCOSITY
Vis<:osi ly is d efi ned as the property of a fluid whi<:h offers rcsiswnce tu the movement of o ne layer
of fluid over imolhcr adj ace nt layer of ihe fluid. When twO laye rs of a fluid. a dislanl'C 'dy' aparL move
one over the other at different velocities, say u a nd u + du as show n in Fig. 1.1. Ihe viSC(}~ity togclher
wi th relative velocity cause~ a shear stre~s acting between Ihe nuid laye rs.
Th e lOp layer eauses a shear Slress on the
adjace nt lower layer while the lowe r layer causes
a shear stress on th~ adjacent top layer. This shear
stress is propo rtional to the rate of c han ge of ve
locit y with respec t to y. It is denoted by symbol "
VELOC ITY PROFILE
t (Tau).
d,
Mathe maticall y. ,~ 
dy
Fig. 1.1 Velocity variation near a mlid boundary.
t~)J
dy "
 ... (1.2)
where )J (calk'd mu) is the (.unstant of proportionality and is known as the (.ucfficient of dynamic viS«)sity
d,
oronl y viMusity.  represents the rate of she<lr sirain or f:ltc of sheardcfomtatioo or velocity gradient.
dy
If)"
Th us viscosity is a lso defin ed as th e she ar stress required to produce unit rate of shear strain.
1.3.1 Unit$ of Vi$co$ity. Th e uni ts of viscosity is obtained by putt ing the dimcnsions o f the
quantities in cq uation (1.3)
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14 Fluid MC(;hanics
The nume rical conversion oflhc unit ofviscosi l y from MKS unit to eGS unit is given beluw:
9.8 1 Nsec
I': I kgf=9.8 1 New ton)
• 98 . 1 dynesec
, = 98. 1 poisc ,d"y,"",~,:c'=c = 1.: POiSC)
c m' em ' 1
Th us for solving numerical prob lems. if viscosity is given in poise. it must be divided by 9&.1 10 get
ils equivalent numerical value in MKS.
8m
ml
=+,"
one kg f scc • 9.8 1 Ns
Ill "
= 98.1 poise
one Ns 9&.1 1 N,
•   poise = 10 poisc One poise =
~ 9.81 10 ml
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Properties of Fluids 51
. dyncxs ( l gm X I Cm ) ,
Alt rrnllil' Mdhod . One po lS<: '" l '" l X 
,
em s el11
[ em
But dyn e gill X  ,
"
I k
O ne poise
I gm lOiXIg
'" ;;::;; '" I
'  m
100
I
= IOpoisc.
1000 "'
1"'otr . (i) In $[ un;l< second i. represented by's" and nOl by 'sec',
(iil If \'iscosity i. gi,'cn in poi,." it mus, be divided by 10 to gel its equivalent numerical ..alue in SJ unil",
Somclimcs a unit of v;"''OSily as centipoise is used where
. , I , 1
I ccntlpo,,,, '"  POIse or ICP.  P rtf' '" Centipoise. P '" Poise 1
100 100
The visco,ily of water at 20~C is D.OJ poise or 1.0 centipoise.
1.3 .2 I(in e m~ti c Viscos ity . h is deFined as the ratio between Ihe dynamic viscosity and density
of fluid. 11 is de uoted by lhe Greek symbol (v) c a lled 'no . Thus, ma thematica ll y.
Vi scos ily jJ
\I '" '"  ...( 1.4)
De nsi ty p
The units of kinematic viscosity is oblai llcd as
,. URilS of P
UnitsufjJ Force x Time
'=~~ =
Force x T ime
M ass
(Le ngth) ' x Mass J
(Length ) Length
r
Length
Mass x , x T ime Force"" M ass x Ace. )
(Time)"
= 7':';"';
M,,,
( Length 1 .
= M ass )(
Leng th
Time
l
(Le ngth )!
= S="
Tim e
In MKS and SI. the unit of kinematic viscosity is metre'!scc or m'/sec while in CGS unilS it is
written as (;111'/s. In CGS units. killcm~lic viscosity is also known as stoke.
1
Cen tistoke means = sloke.
100
1.3 . 3 Newton ' s Law of Visco s ity. It SImes that1h" she ar sIres.; (l) on a fluid clemcnt layer is
dircClly proportional to the ral c of shear strain. The 1:01151:1111 of proportionality is called the co
cfficielll of viscosi ty. Mathematically, ;1 is c~prcssed as givell by equation (1.2) or as
till
t = !I  .
(/ )'
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16 Fluid MC(;hanics
Fluids which obey the above relation arc known as NewtonL'l1i fluids and the fluids which do not
obey tlie above relation arc callcd No nNewto nia n fluids.
1. 3.4 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature . Temperature affects the viscosity. The
viscosity of liquids dcneasc s with Ihe increase of tcmpcrmurc while Ihe viscosity of gases inncascs
with the increase of tempermure. This is duc to reason that Ihe viscous forces in a fluid arc duc to
cohesive forces and molecular momentum lransfcr. In liquids. the cOhesive forces predominates
the Illolccular 1110111cn lurn lraJlskr, duc 10 closely packed Illolcculcs and with Ih e increase in
temperature. Ihe cohesive forces decreases wilh the resuh o f decreasing viscosity. Bul in case of
gas.cs the cohesive forces arc small and molecular momentum transfer predominaks. With the
increase in tempera ture, molecular fllom<"nturn transfer increases and h<"nce vis.cosily increases. The
relation between viscosity and temperatu re for liquid.~ and g ases are:
y " 0 alld y = 0./5 111. Take dYllamic I'iscosify offtllid (IS 8.63 poises.
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Properties of Fluids 71
2 , till ,
Solution. Giwn : II= YY '" ..:.  2y
3 dy 3
("")

,/ Y  ",,_0."
"' ("") d Y ,_ 0' 5
2
=  2x.15=.667.30=0.367
3
t o = Il (~)
(Iy y. Q
'" 0.863 x 0.667 '" 0.5756 N/m~. Am.
(l:)y . O_l~ '" Il (;;1y') '" 0.863 x 0.367 '" 03 167 N/m l, AilS.
y_ O l ~
Problem 1.4 A plm/' 0.025 """ (/i.<I"''' from 1I fi.nl philP, /IIm'n {I/ (,() ("111/,' tII,,1 rl'ff"ir.... " fora "f
2 N pprllll;1 (lrra i.r., 2 Nlm z 10 ",(lima;" 'iii.• sJ'l'rd. f)"'('nl1i,,,, /1", flllid viuos;r), brl»,"'" 111(' plalt'3.
Solution. Given:
f
Distance bel ween pl ates. dy = .025 nlln
= .025 x 10] m
Velocity of upper pl:u~. 1/ = 60 em/s = 0.6 m/s T "'i"''''''''''''
N FIXED PLATE
('orce on upper plate. F= 2.0 2 ,
m Fig. 1.3
This is lhe value of shear Slr~ss i.t', ••
lei the fiuid vi.'>Cosily between the plales is~.
2.0==~ ;:;~0~.6~0
c '" 2.0 x .025 X lOl == 8.33 x 10 .s Ns
.025 x 10 0.60 111 2
5
'" 8.33 x 10 X 10 poise '" tl..~ .~ x 1O ~ IlOi~(' . Ans.
Problem 1.5 A jlal pimp of <ifNI 1.5 x J(/' 111m2 is p"l/n! wilb a sllt'rtf of 0.4 mls ",Ialil'p 10
wJOllwr pl<llrloHllrd (1/ 1I dis/(//ICI' of 0.15 111m from il. Fillillile fora mill po ....'" rf</lIirrd 10 IIwill/aill
Illis spud, if Ilw jlllitl srpllrmillg ' '('11/
is /wl'illg l'iscosiIYa5 J poise.
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Is Fluid MC(;hanics
Solution. Given:
Area uf the plate.
Speed of plate relative 10 anOlhcr plale. "" '" 0.4 tn/s
Distance ~Iwccn [he plales.liy = 0.15 mill = 0.15 x 10 J III
I N,
Viscosity )..1= I poise:   ,.
10 Ill '
x :~~O~
.4='
d" I
Using eq uation (1.2) we have '!: " )..l ) = _66.66 2N
dy 10 .l5xlO III
where (III '" change of ve locity betwee n s haft and bearing'" II  0 '" II
I 0.785 .. !
==x J =.2 ..BNfm. AIIs.
10 l.5 xlO
Problem 1 .7 ,a/rllia/(' II", (Iy"m"ic I·iscmily of w, oil ....hid, is uSNI for lubricatioll bNW"CII a
J'IU"rt' 1,Iatp of sic,' O.S III x O.S III amI (III i"diflNI philiP wilh allgl/' of ifldi""titm .woflJ sho",,, ill
Fig. lA. The w..ighl of the S'lllfl'.. plat .. is 300 N (Illd il slilln (IOwlIl{,r illclill~d plmlf Wilh" IIl1iform
I'elocil), ofO.J /Ills. 'fI", thicJ.:III'ss of oil fillll is J.5 111111.
Solution. Given:
Area of plate, A = 0.8 x 0.8 = 0.64 111 2
Angle of plane. e = 30"
Weight of plme. IV= 300 N
Velocity of p late. II == 0.3 111/s
Fig. 1.4
* Power=l'x"Nmls=FxulV ( '.· NmJs=Wal1 j
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Properties of Fluids 91
Thick.ness of oil film. I" lly" 1.5 111 III " 1.5 x 10 3 III
leI the ViSl:os ity of nuid between plate and inclined plane i s~.
Component of weight IV, along the plane" IV cos 60~ '" 300 oos 60° '" 150 N
Thus the she ar force. F • on the bunum su rface of the plate'" 150 N
3
150 15 10
"= "''''';';'::;;c;
x
0.64 x 0.3
x
'" 1.17 N 2
s/m '" 1.17 x 10 " 11.7 Jlois('. Ans.
Problem 1.8 Two IlOri~ollllll l'/mf'S (Iff' plll("'f(1 1.25 em (l1'MI. I/W 51'11("(' bnwulI IIII'm bf'illg jillnf
wi,II oil ('I \'i5,.OS;'Y
/ 4 l>oi5"5. CII/ru/ml' 110(' S/WlI' 5/ rl'55 ill oil if UPP'" phil" ; .5 mm'~d wilh fI \<'10";1)'
0[2.5 ",Is.
Solullon. Giv<,)11 :
Dista nce between plates. dy = 1.25 em = 0.0 125 III
Solution. Given:
Eac h s id e of a square pla te ,,60 elll '" 0.60 1ll
:. Area. A " 0.6 x 0.6 " 0.36 m
1
Th ic kn ess of oil film. d y " 12.5 mm '" [2.5 x 10 3 1ll
Ve loc ity of upper plate. 11" 2.5 mIse"
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rn '
'" 1.3635 N~ Cln~lS '" to poise )
'" 1.3(35)( 10", I.t6.\5 puist'o Ans.
( ii) Sp. gr. of oil. S '" 0.95
leI v'" kine m 3lic viscosity o f o il
Usi ng equation ( 1.IA).
Mass de ns it y of oi l. p'" S x 1000 '" 0.95 x 1000 '" 950 kg/Ill}
1.3635 ( N~l
Using the relatio rl . v = 1:. we ge l v = III  =.00 1435 m 2/sec = .()() 1435 x 104 C111 2/S
P 950
= 14 ..'5 s lok~s. Ans. (": cm 2/s '" sIDke)
j
Problem 1.10 Filll/,11l' killfl/Uuir visrosily of 1111 oil/w\'illg (/l'1!5ily 98/ kgllll , TIll' S/W(If 5Iri'.' S (1/
"PO;/ll in oil j" 0.2452 NI",l ' Illd ",,'/oril), grad;f'JIl lU I/U" p"ill/ is 0.2 pn .w("(md.
Solutio n. Gi ven:
Ma ss densit y. p" 98 1 kg/lll '
Shear stress. 1: = 0.245 2 N/m!
Solution. Givcn :
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I.l _4 0.05 I
Usi ng thc relation v::  .wcgclO.035xIO =  x 
P 10 p
0.05
X ~~'C4" = 14 28.5 kg/m3
10 0.0]5 x [0
Density of liquid 14285
Sp. gL of liljuid :: ::   :: 1.4285 ::: 1.4.\. AilS.
Density of wate r 1000
Problem 1.12 /Jell'rmilll' IIIl' I'iscosily of (/ hlfllid havillg til/i'lI/lUil' \;Seosil)' 6 s/okn 1111<1 specific
gm.it)' 1.9.
Solution. Given:
Kinematic viscosi ty v:: 6 stokes = 6 cl11'/s:: 6 X 1O 4 11//S
Sp. gL of liquid :: 1.9
LeI the v iscosity of liq uid .p
D<:nsity of lh ~ liquid
Now sp. gr. of a liquid
Density of water
1.9 :: c"'
='c"="c'Yso~rcn,q=':::
;d
1000
kg
Ik nsi ly of liquid = 1000 x 1.9 = 1900  ,
m
Problem 1.13 Tilt' l'e/oeiIY distriblliiou for jlow OI'e r " JIM p/lIlr is gil'l'lI by " = 1 )' l ill which
II ;5 IIII' \'e/oeil)' ;111111'1'1' IN" secQlul (1/ a (/;5/(IIICI' y 1111'1'" abore IIII' 11/(1/1'. DrlulII;nr IIII' silell' SI'I'SS
aJ)' = 0. 15 Ill . Takl' (/),II(11l1ic \'is("o,lily ofjluid ( 1.1 8.6 poiSl'.
Solution. G iven: 11= ~ 1' _ 1,2
4 ' .
(I u 3
 =   2)'
If)' 4
(Iu 3
At .1'=0. 15.  =   2xO. 15=0.75  0.30=0.45
If .I' 4
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till 85 N N
Using eq uatio n ( 1.2). r = '"  ~  x 0.45  : = 0.,\1'1 25  : . AilS.
If )' 10 In m
Problem 1.14 11/1' (/pwlllic viscosity of WI oil. lISt'll for II/brim/ioll bnwrl'u (I SIUlfi 01111 5/1'1'1'(' is
61"';u, TI", .,'mp i., of di"'"N(,T 0.4 III "",I roW/P.' 1lI 190 T.p.m. Cuk ulmr 1111' I}{)""P T /0.'/ ill IIii' brllrill8
fo r ti slnl'(' /""8,11 oJ90m",. TIIr lilickllrH of/lie oil film is 1.5 "''''.
Solution. Gi ve n : 1.5 mm
Viscos ity j.I=6poi se
~
6 Ns
10 m l
= 0.6  ,
Ns
m
d y o_~ m
Dia. o f sha ft.
Speed o f shaft.
f) = 0.4
N= 190r.p. m
III
,C': ';::J lKAFT
SLEEVE
Sleeve k ng1h. L = 90 mm = 90 x 10 ) III
Thic kn ess of oil fi lm, I'" 1.5 111m '" 15 x 10 .1 m Fig. 1.5
'(tDN IT x 0.4 x 190
Tangc llti al vel oc ity of shaft . /I = ~= 60 = 3.98 IIl!S
tlu
Using the re lation t=lI 
dy
where '/11 = Change of veloc ity = II  0 = /I '" 3.98 m!s
Ify = Change of d istance = I = 1.5)( 10 3 1ll
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Vrlodty Gradient
"' Y (""]
= O. Veloc ity grad ient. 
(/ y 1*°
=  0.6 )( 0 + 12 = Ills. Ans.
at y '" 10c m.
(""]

(f y
1  10
=  0.6)( 10+1 2=  6+ 12: 6/s. AD S.
at y : 20 c m.
( ~".]) y _ 20
=  0.6 )( 20 +1 2:  12+12= 0. Ans.
Shear Str('sses
till
Shear stress is g iven by. t : fl
(/ )'
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Problem 1 .16 A New/ollillll Jill;" is fill ..,} ill IIII' c/CII'<IIICf' bl'lw/>/'/1 {( shaft IIml" collCl'IIlrir sIN'I'e.
Till' s/,,{'\,I' IIIll1illS {/ sP('('(/ of 50 ollis, W/1l'1I II lorn" of 40 N is IIPIJ/inf 10 the S/I'I'I'I' parallel 10 IIII' slmfl.
/){'/('flllillf IIIl' SpUI/ if {/ jora of 200 N is (If'l'lin/.
rorce F
where t = Shear stress'"   •
Are a A
<ill '" Change of ve loc ity = /I  0="
Ily'" Clearance'" )'
F =1.1 "
A Y
A jJ u
F=." I. A. j.l JIlO yare constanT}
Y
F f~
...l= ....:.
",
200
Substituting val ues. we gel 40 ==
50
50x 200
'" 50 x 5 == 250 cml.~. Ans.
40
Problem 1.17 A 15 nil diol/w/f r "erlirol c)'lil/der rotales COI/C<'III rical/)' illsitit' ((lIatller cylilllirr oJ
!lilli/WIer 15.10 nil. 80111 cylindt'rs ort' 25 rill lIigli. Til<' SP((C<' bnw<'<'n III<' c)'lilUlers is jillnl willi 0
liquid whost' I'ismsil), is unknowll. If " torqut' of J2.0 Nm is r..quired 10 rOUlt .. II, .. illll'" cylillll'" lit
100 r,p.III .• dr/erll/illt' Iht' viscosity of lilt' fluid.
Solution. Given:
Diameler of cyli nder == 15cm==O.15m
Dia. o f oUler cylinder == 15.10 cm == 0. 151 111
Lenglh of cy li nders, L == 25 cm == 0.25 111
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dy = "0.,,
15,,',,,,0,,
.' "'
eo: III = .0005 m
2
Il x .1854
.0005
).1x .7854
Sheaf force. F = Shear stress x Area = x . 11 78
.0005
lJ
Torque. T= Fx 
2
12.0",
Il x .7854
X. 11 78 x
.15
.0005 2
12.0 x .0005 x 2
= 0.864 N shn!
.7854x .11 78 )(.l 5
'" 0.864 x 10 = 1i.64]loisc. An s.
Problem 1 . 18 Two Illrgt' phll/P sIIr/tln's (I'f' 2.4 rill apart. Thl' Spllcr b(,/I<'I'I'II ,h" slIr/act's is filln!
willi giY("f'rilll'. II'lul/ fora 13 rrq"irnllo drag /I 1't"Y Ihill plllll' of sur/act' (If('ll 0.5 squarr /lleI,."
b"I»'''''''I",. /\1'd largl' plm,,' sII ,fa,.. s til II sprn/ of O. 6 m/s, if:
(i ) lill' 1i1ill [,/alr is ill lh" middll' oflhl' 11>'0 p!t11l1' surfllCl's. mul
fii) IIII' Illill 1'1(1/(' is at rl disliIllCl' of 0.81'111 frO/II 011(' of Ille plllll<' sIOrfll(,('3 ? Take IIII' dYliamic
"ism sil), ofgl),urill(, '" 8.10 x uri N .!1m?
Solution. Given:
Distan ce Iwtw", ... n two large ~urfac es '" 2.4 em
Ar~a of th in plate. A = 0.5 [11 ! 1.2 em
Velocity of thin plate.
Viscosity of g lyce rine.
/I = 0.6 mf.~
!! = 8.10 X 10 1 N shn l
2.4 em .,
1.2 em
C:tw I. Wh en the thin plate is in the middle of the tw o plane
surfaces 1Re fer to Fig. 1.7 (n)1
FI '" Shear force on the upper s id e o f the th in plate Fig . 1.7 (a)
""2 = S h~ar forc~ On th~ low~ r s id~ o rth e th in pl~te
"" = Total force required to drag Ih~ plate
Then F",F1+F1
The , hear S1r~ss (t l ) on th e upper side o f the thin plate is give n by equation,
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tl '" ~C~:~),
where 1111 '" Relative ve locit y between thin p late and upper large plane surface
'" 0.6 mlsec
d y '" Distance between thin plale and upper large plane surface
'" [.2 em '" 0.012 III (p late is a thin one and he nce thickness of plate is neglected)
0·')=40.5Nllll1
11=8.IOx 10 x(.012 I
12 =1.1 (~)
dy !
= 8.IOx 10 I x (~)
0.012
=40.5 N/ml
""  [(Iy"") I
xll:S.IOxIO ,x (0.'
 ) xO.5:15. ISN
0.016
The shear force 011 the lowe r s ide of the thill plme.
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(2.2  0.2)
= =lcm= _Olm.
2
Now the shear force On the left side of tlie nw tallic plale.
FI '" Shear stress x Area
=" (:!:!.],
(f )' (O."J
xArca=2.0x   xl.2xL.2N
.01
(.; Area = 1.2x 1.2m 2)
= 43.2 N.
Similarly, Ihe shear force on Ihe Tight side of the metallic plale,
• (0."]
F, = Shear stress x Area = 2.0 x   x 1.2 x 1.2 = 43.2 N
.01
Total sheaf force = FI + F z = 43.2 + 43.2 = 86.4 N.
In this case lh~ weight o f plate (wh ich is acting verti cally dOwnward) and upward thrust is also to be
taken into account.
The upward thrust = Weight o f nuid displaced
= (Weigh t density of nuid) x Volume of nuid displaced
=9.81 x900x .00288 N
( .: Volume of nuid displaced = Volume of plat~ = .(0288)
= 25.43 N.
The net forc~ acting in the downward di rection duc to weight of the plate and upward thrust
= Weight ofplatc  Upw ard thrust = 40  25.43 = 14.57 N
Tot al force required to lift the plate up
= Total s hear force + 14.57 = 86.4 + 14.57'" 100.97 N. Ans.
Fluids consist of liquids or gas.:s. Bul gas.:s are compressible fluids and hence thermody namic
prope r1i es play an important role. With the cha ng e of pressure and I~mpcrature. the gases undergo
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large var iati on in de nsit y. T he rel ati onship be twee n press ure (absolut e), s pecific vo lum e and
temperatu re (absolute) of a g as is give n by the equatio n of state as
R= ~
pT
kgf/ m 2 kgf m
( 0 In MKS units R= ii5C'
(~} K kgoK
(ii) In 5 1 un its, p is ex pressed in Ncw ton/m ' or N/m!,
R = N/ m' Nm louie
 =  lJ oule = Nm I
kg kg K kgK
~X K
J
=
kg K
1.4.2 botherm~1 Procen. If Ihe c hange in de nsity occu rs a1 co nstanl temp erature. the n the
process is called iMlthe nnal and relatio nship be twee n pre.'i.~ ure (p ) and densit y ( p) is give n by
1.4 . 3 Adiabatic Process. If the c hange in d~ n s ity occ urs with no heat exc han ge to and fro m the
gas. the process is c all ed adiabatic. And if no h<":at is ge nerated within th e gas due to fri ct ion. the
relatio nship be twttn press ure and densi ty is give n by
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J! == Absolute pressure
T= Absolute temperatu re
Then. we have /IV == mRT .. .( 1.8)
where R == Gas eonM:mL
Equation (1.8) can be made universal. i.I' .. applicable 10 all gases if it is expressed in moll'·bas is.
If == Number of moles in volul11e of a ga s
'T/ == Vo lume o f th e gas
M == "c'c"o'coof,;,,'ho'C""c'co"'oOol'«"'olc'c'
M ass of a hydrogc ll atom
1/1" Mas;; of a gas in kg
Then. we have II x M == III.
Substituting the val ue o f 1/1 in equation ( 1.8), we get
1''V=nxMxRT ...( \.'))
The produl'! M x R is called universal gas <:OIlStanl and is equal to 848 = _.k" ',"' ' '" cc in MKS units
kg mo le o K
and 8314 l/kg rnolc K in 51 units.
One kilogram mole is defined as the product of One kilogrlllll mass oflhe gas and its molecular weight.
Problem 1.20 A gns wl'iglis /6 NI",J lU 25°C Wid fII WI IIbsolu/f prl'SslIrt' of 0.25 NIl/III':. Dnfr
111;111' Ille glls ("OIIS/(/1/I (l1II! dflls;ry of IIII' gas.
Solution. Given:
Weight den s ity. '" '" 16 N/m~
Temperature. I " 250C
T ", 273 + I"" 273 + 25 '" 2RROK
P" 0.25 Nlmm~ (a bs.) '" 0.25 x 106 N/m 1 '" 25 x 104 Nlm 1
(i) Using relation", "" pg. density is obtained as
w 16 ,
P =  '"   '" J.(i .~ kg/m· . "ns.
g 9.8 1
Problem 1.21 A ("y/ind", of 0.6 mJ ill "01111111' ("01l/a;1IS air a/50°C allil 0 J Nlmm! lIbsollllr
"rI'HI"I'. '1111' lIir is ("omprnsed 10 0.3 IIr'. Find (i) prl'.,wrl' in~· idl' till' ("yli"dl'r ".'.IlImi"8 i.IlII/lI'rlt!(1I
pro'·I'.'.' (11"/ ( ii) prnsllrp ",,,lll'Inpnfllllrf' ('.,3,,,,,in8 ",li"ba/i' ·I,,"'·n.<. T"k" k = 104.
Solution. Give n
Initial vo lum~.
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Temperatu re I,:SO°C
1', '" 213 + 50 '" 323°K
Pressure P, == 0.3 N/rnm 2 '" 0.3 x 106 Nlm 2 '" 30 x 104 N/m 2
Final voluille 'If 2 == 0.3 m}
k= 1.4
(i) Isolhe r lllJj[ Ilroccss :
1','<1, "'1'/</:
1','rI j 30 X 10" x 0.6
1': =   = '" 0.6 X 106 Nlm l '" 0.6 N/mml. AilS.
'\f 2 0.3
(ii) Adiabatic Ilroccs_~ :
NT NT
P '" ;;; and ;; x '<t* '" Constant
RTv. I '" Constant
r '\fl ~ 1 '" Constant (. R is also tonstanll
T 'It i _ I _ T '\tk I
I I 
1 2 2
T2=T,(;:r
I: '" 426.2  273 '" IS.l.rc. AilS.
Problem 1 .22 (',,!cu/wi' tile pr('ssllfI' (,Xf'rI~d by 5 I.:g ofllilrogell gas 11/ (l1l'IIIPl'''III''l' of 100e if
Ihe \'0111111(, i5 0.4 III "'. Molnll/(lr "·e iglll of uilrogl'u is 28. A ssuml'. irinll 8"5 III\\'5 (lrl' "I'P/ iC(lblt'.
Solu t ion. Given:
Mass of nitrogen '" Skg
Temperature_ 1= lQoe
T=273+ 10=2S3°K
Volume of ni trogen. 'V = 0.4 m l
Molecular weighl = 28
Using equat ion (1.9). we have p'V '" tJ X M x RT
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Relationship between Bulk Modu lus (K) and Pressure (p) for a Gas
The relationship betwee n bulk modulus of elastici ty (K) and pressu re for a gas for two different
processes of compression arc as:
(,) For Iso thermal Proces!l. Equation (1.6) gives the relationship between pressure (1') and density
(M of a gas as
J!.. = Constant
p
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1''1", Const:lII\
Diffcrc",i~ti n g this equation. we gel (I' and '1/ both arc vari~blcs)
li
p
'" Constant or f' 'I;Il '" Constant
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';J .0 125
,
= 8.75 x 10 N/cm '' . Ans .
Surface tension is defmed as the te nsile force acting on the su rface of a liquid in contact with a gas
or on the surfal:c between twO immis.:iblc liquids such that the contact surfa"c behaves like a
membrane unde r tension. The I1wgnitudc of this force per uni t icngth of Ih.: free surface will have the
same val ue as the surface energy per unil area. It is denoted by Greek Idlef 0 (calkd sigma). In M KS
units. it is cxprcs~d as kgflm while in SI uniLs as N/m.
The phenomenon of surface tension is explained by
Fig. 1.10. CO rl sider three mol~cules A, ll. C of a liquid in a
mass of liquid. The molec u le A is allmcled in all directions
~'{jually by the surrounding molecules of Ihe liquid. Th us the
resultant force actirlg on the molecule A is zero. But the
molecule IJ. which is situat~d ncar the free surface. is acted
upon by upward and downward forces which arc unbalanced.
Thus a net result.1r1t fo rce on molec u le II is acting in the
downward direction. The molecule C. situated on the free
    
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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(ii) pressure force on Ihe area ~ll ! = l' x ~ ti! as shown ir>
4 4
Fig. Lli (e). Thc~ two forces will be equal and opposite
under equilibrium co nditions. I.P ..
(9) DROPLET (b) SURFACE TENSION
f'X ~ ,r=aXT(,!
4
(J x Ttll 40
...(1.14)
" (e) PRESSURE FORCES
Fig. 1.11 Foret's on dropln.
1.6 .2 Surface Te nsion on <II Hollow Bubble . A llOliow bubble like a soap bubble in air has 1WO
surfaces in co ntact wilh air . one illsidc and other outside. Thus two surfaces arc subjected to surface
lensioll. III suc h cao.c. we have
"x.::. rr=2x(crxrrd)
4
2 and Scr
p=    =  ... ( 1. 15)
.::. d! d
4
1.6.3 Surface Tension on <II Li quid Jet. COil sider a liquid jet of diameter "tf and lenglh 'L' as
shown in Fig. 1.12.
Lell' '" Pressure intensity inside the liquid jet aho ve the outside pressure
(J = Surface tension of the liquid. •
.I •
•
••
Consider the equilibrium of the semi jet. we have •
•
••
Force due 10 pressure = p x :Irea of semi jcl •• •
==pxLxd , • •
•
•••
••
Force due 10 surface tension == a x 2L. •
• ••
Equating the forces. we have •
•• ••
pxLxd==ax2L •• •
• •
f' ==
a x2 L
Lx"
... (1 . 16) •
I" I"
Fig. 1.12 Forcts 011 liquid jn
Pro blem 1 .25 1111' sHrfll("(' IntsiOIl of ""iliff ill ("011/(1("1 will! lIir (1/ 20°C is O . 0725 NIl/!. Till' prl'Ssllr<'
ilrshlr II drop/("/ of ""fila is /Q h" 0.02 Nkm 1 grNiI"r (//(III IIII' ouuid" pre Hllr". Ca/ru/(I/(" IIII' I/imll("/(" r
of IIII' l lw/,In of "·Il/ff.
Solut ion. Given:
Su rface tensioll. (J = 0.0725 Nlm
Pressure intensity. I' in exc ess of outside pressure is
, • N
p = 0.02 Nlcm '" 0.02 x 10  ,
m
1/ = dia. of the droplet
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The pressure inside the droplet. in excess of outside pressure is given by equation (I 14)
4 x 0.0725
4(1 ,
P" 
: J ,,7250Nlm= 7250 N = 0.725 Nkml
,I .04 x 10 10' cm ~
Pressure inside the droplet = p + I'ressure outside the droplet
= 0.725 + 10.32 = 11.045 N/em !. A il S.
1.6 .4 Capillarity. Capillarity is defined as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a
small!U~ relative to the adjacent gcnerallevcl of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the liquid.
The rise of liquid surface is known as capi lla ry rise while the fall o f the liquid surface is known as
capillary depression. [t is ex presscd in Te rms of (;m or mm of liquid. Its
val ue depends upon the specific weight of the liquid. diameter of Ihe
" .. 9 1" ,
tube and surface tension o f til.: liquid.
E)(IJress ion fur Cljllillary Risc. Consider a glass lube of small
diameter 'd' opened at ooth ends and is inserted in a liquid . .~y water.
The liquid wi ll rise in the tube aoove the level of the liquid.
L<:t II" heig ht of the liquid in the lUbe. Under a state ofeq uilihrium.
: LIQUID
the weigh t of liquid of height II is balanced by the force at the surface of
The liquid in the tube. But the force at (he surface of the liquid in Ihe
tube is due to surface Tensioll . F ig. 1.13 Capjflary rilc.
Let (J = Surface tension of liquid
9" Ang le of contact betwee n liquid and glass tu be.
The we ight of liquid of heighT II in the tube" (Area of tube x III x p x g
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126 Fluid Mechanics
=~,PxlJxpxg .(1.1 7)
4
where p '" Density of liquid
Vertil:al \:ump<)llcm of the surf~cc tensile fuTl'C
'" (0 x Circumference) x cos 0
=crx/tdxcosO •..( 1. 1H)
For equi librium. equating (1.17) and (1.18), we get
It ,Pxllxpxg=axlf.I/xcosO
4
crXltl{XCOSi} 4 crL'OsO
II '" ";"'''''=O .. (1. 19)
Il , pxgxd
4 d  xpxg
The value of 0 betwee n water and clean g lass tube is approximately equa l to zero and hence cos e is
equal to unity. Tlicn ri se of water is given by
40
II = ''''c ... ( 1.20)
pxgX('
EXll rcss ion for f:a llili llry Fall . Iflhe g lass lube is dipped in mercury. the level of mercury in Ihe lube
wi ll be lower than the general level of the olllsidc liquid as shown in Fig. 1.14.
U:i II '" Height of depression in tube.
Theil in equilibrium. twO forces arc a<:ling un the mercury inside the tuhc. First one is due to surf~ce
lension ~cting in Ihe downward direction ,md is eqn~1 to (I x 1((/ x cos a.
SCl"Ond force is due to hydrostatic fo rce acting upward and is equal 10 inlensity of pressure al a
deplh '11' x Area
1( , 1( ,
'" P X  IF '" pg )( h )(  d" 1 .. P '" pgll)
4 4
Equal ing the IWO. we gel
O"X1(dxcos9=pghx
• ,"
¥ ,"\'
Value of 9 for mercury and
II = '4cO':"eOc'~'
gl 3 s~
pgd
lube is 128".
... ( 1.21)
"' \
MERCURY
Fig. 1.1 4
Problem 1 .26 C{I/m/III,. Ihl' copillllry riS/' ill (I glass /UbI' of 2.5111111 dimlll'lrr ",hell illllll,.rsed
\'f'rlicoll y itl (II) wllil'rlmd (b) mff("w, '. Take surfllce lellsiollS 0'" 0.0725 Nlm for II"O/,.r IIl1d 0 = 0.52 Nlm
for ml'rmry ill ("011/(/("1 lI"illl lIir. Ti,e 51'''(" iji(" g "wiry for mnmry is gil"<'l1 1/5 13.6 mill IIl1g/e of ("011/1/("1
= 130".
Solution. Given:
Dia. of tu be. ,/ '" 2.5 mill '" 2.5)( 10 3 111
Surface lension. 0" for water = 0.0725 N/Ill
0"fo r mercury = 0.52 N/m
Sp. gr. of me rcury = 13.6
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Prope rties of Fluids 271
Density '" 13.6 x 1000 kglln ·1.
«(I) Capillary ris(' ror water (9 '" O ~)
4a cos6 4 x0.52xcosI30"
Usmg equation ( I 2 1), we gel Ii '" = ,,;~",,"''''CiC':';'''';;;0
pxgxd 13.6xlOOOx9.Rlx2.Sx lO
= .004 III =  0.4 em. Ail S.
The negalive sign ind icmcs the capill:lry dcpn:ssion.
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128 Fluid Mechanics
(/= ;:",c
. 4"X,::°C·O~7~2C5c::",J ,,0.1 48111 == 14.S em. Ans.
IOOOx 9.8 1x.2 xl O
Th u ~ minimum diameter o f the lube shou ld be 14.8 em .
Problem 1.31 Filld U!/f II", minimu", S;:;I' of glllH /UbI' I/UII "'/II hi' U$nllO IIINuur" II'mn Il'wl if
IIlI' l:" l'illary riu iu 1/'" IIIlu' is W he rPslril'tt'd 10 2 111m, COl!sitll'y .lllr/ucr 11'11S;"" "iw{l/p r in ,'O/lUwl
wilh nir a~ O.U7J575 NIl/!.
Solution. Given:
Capi Ilary risco II = 2.0 lllm = 2.0 x 10) 111
Surface tension. a = 0 .073575 Nfm
Lei dia. of tube =d
The angle e for wa ter == au
The densi ty for wakr, p = 1000 kg/m l
Using cqualioll ( 1.20), we get
40 4 x 0.073575
,,= .,,,"';
px g x d
or 2.0 x 10 1 =
lOOO x 9.8 1 x d
4 x 0.073575
if= ;~""':",'="''c~ = 0.015 III = 1.5 em. AilS.
lOOOx 9.8 l x2xlO J
Thus minimum diameter of the l u~ shou ld ~ 1.5 ern.
Problem 1.32 All oil of l'is ("Osil), 5 l",i3l' is l.s<'(1 for IIIU,i",lioll Ul'lln'l'lI II slw/l wltl £1,,<'1'1'. Tilt'
diwlI"I'" of III<' $1111/1 i:l" 0.5 m lIml il 'Ol/lles m 2()() '.p.m. ClI/cH/mp IIII' po,,"'" losl ill oil for (/ sll'el'e
Ip1IgIII of I()() """. Tile IIIirk1l1'S.1 of oil jil'" is 1.0 "''''.
Solution. Given:
Vi~osi ty. ~ = 5 poise
= 2.
= 0.5 N s/rnl
10
Dia. of shan. D=O.5 rn
Speed o f shan. N = 200 r,p.m.
S I ~e\'c lengt h. /. = I{)() rnm: I{)() X IO J III : 0.1 III
Thick ness of oil film . I : 1.0mrn: I X IO J m
II x 05 x200
Tangc mi a l veloc ity of shan. I I : 11: DN : = 5.235 Ill/S
60 60
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Properties of Fluids 29 1
wltcrc . ClilIngc of velocity = 11  0 = Il = 5.235 tnls
dll '"
'" """""i~
05 5.235
x
x
1 10
= J
26175 N/m"
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130 Fluid Mechanics
HIGHLIGHTS
I . The weight density Or sp<.>eific weight of a fluid is equal [0 weight per unit volume. It is also cqualto,
w"'pxg.
2. Specific volume is the reciprocal of mass density.
8. For isolhcmlal process, J!.. '" Constant whereas for adiabatic process, .. constanl.
p
 lip
9. modulus of elasticity is given as K
(":r
Bul~ ~
""
The value of a for water is taken equal to zero and for mercury equal to 128°.
EXERCISE
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Properties of Fluids 311
4 . Explain the len". : (i) Dynamic vi>cosily. and (ii) Kinema!ic viscosity. Give their dimensions.
5. State the Newton's law of viscosity and Kjve examples of its application.
6 . Enunciale Newton's law of ,·;""osi1y. Explain the importance of viscosity in n uid motion. W hat ;s the
effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air?
7. Define Newl<mian and NonNewtonian nuids
8. Whal do you understand by tenns : (I) lsothennal process, (ii) Adiabalic process. and (iii) Universalgas
constant

,
9. Define compressibility. I'ro,'c that compressibility for a perfect !las undergoing isothcnnal compression is
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132 Fluid Mechanics
7. In a stream of glycerine in 1I101ion. at a certain point the "ciocily gradient is 0.25 metre pcr sec pcr melre.
The mas~ density of fluid is 1268.4 kg pcr cubic melre UTl d kinematic viscosity is 6.30 x 10 • square metre
pcr St><:ond, Calculate lhe shear StreSS al1he poin!. [An •• 0.2 NIm' 1
8 . Find the kinematic viscosity of an oil having density 980 kg/m' "hen al a certain point in Ihc oil. Ihe shear
distance of y m above the plaTe. [kterminc the shear stress at y., 0, 0.1 and 0.2 m. Take ).l = 6 poise.
IAn s.. 0,4 .. 0.028 and 0, 159 N/ml j
14. In 'luestion 13.. find Ihe dislance in melres above Ihe plate .. al which Ihe shear stress is zero.
IAns .. 0.333 ml
15 .. The ,'elocily profile of a viscous fluid m'er a plate is parabolic wilh venex 20 cm from Ihe plate. where Ihe
velocity is 120 cm/s. Calculale the "clocity gradic111 and shear stress at distances of O. 5 and 15 cm from the
plate. given the viscosity of the fluid = 6 poise. IArrs. I2Is. 7.18 N/m': 9/s. 5.385 N/m ' : 3/., 1,7<)5 Nfm' j
16. The weight of a gas is given as 17.658 N/m l at 30°C and at an absolule pre>sure of 29.43 Niem', \)elcr
. J. 8k S 539.55N ml
mine Ihe gas constant and also Ihe density of the gas, [ A ns' ;;;r' kgo K
17 . A cylinder of 0.9 Ill} in volume conlains air at O°C and 39,24 NI~rn l absolule pressure. The air is
cornpres.""d 10 0045 ml . Find (i) Ihe pressure inside the cylinder a~suming isothemwl process.
(ii) pre,sure and lempem ture assumins mJiabalic proce<s. Take k ~ I A for air.
(Ans. (i) 78.48 N/em ' • (ii) 103.5 Ntm!. 140~CI
18 . Calculate the pre>.~ure exe" ed by 4 kg lna>< of nitrogen gas at a lemperature of IYC if Ihe volume is 0.35 ml .
Molccular weight of nitrogen is 28. [Ans. 97.8 Nlem' j
19 . The pressure of a liquid is increa«ed from 60 Nlem' 10 100 Nlcm' and volume decreases hy 0.2 per cenL
Detennine the bulk modulus ofelasticily. IAns. 2 X 10" Nleml l
20. DCle"nine Ihe bulk modulus of elaslicity of a fluid which is compressed in a cylinder from a volume of
0.009 ml at 70 Nlcm l pressure to a volume of 0.0085 m l at 270 Nlcm l pre .. ure . [An s. 3.6 X 10' N/cm l l
2 1. The surface lension of watcr in contact with air at 20"C is gh'cn as 0.0716 N/m. The pressure inside a
droplet of waler is 10 be 0.0147 N/em l grealer than the outside pressure. calculate Ihe diameter of the
<lroplelof waler , IAns. ) ,94 mml
22 . Find Ihe surface Icnsion in a SD.1p bubble of 30 mm diameter wheTI the inside pressure is 1.962 N/n/ above
almosphere, IAns. 0.00735 N/ml
23. The surface tension of Waler in eont.1C1 with air is given as 0.0725 Ntm. The pressure oUlside the droplel of
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Prope rties of Fluids 33 1
24 . Calculate the capillary risc in:l glass tube of 3 .0 nlln diameter when hnll1cr>ed vcnically in (,,) waler. and
(1)) mercury. Take surface len.ions for mercury and water as 0.0725 N/m and 0.52 Nirn respectively in
contact with air. Spcdfic gravity for mercury is given as 13.6. IAn •. 0.966 em. 0.3275 eml
25. The ~apillary risc in the glass lube used for mc"suring waler level is not (0 exceed 0.5 min. Dctennin" ils
minimum size. given thaI surface lension for water in conlae! wilh air,. 0,07112 Nlm. [Ans. 5.8 em]
26 . (SI LTnits). One lilre of crude oil weighs 9 .6 N. Calculmc its specifIc weight. density and specific gravity.
[Ans. %00 Nlm'; 979.6 kg/ln ' : 0.971\61
27. (SI "nits). A piston 796 mill diameter and 200 nun IonS works in a cylinder of 800 mill diameter. If the
annular space i. filled with a lubricating oil of viscosity 5 cp (c.·nti poi,.,), cakulate the speed of de>cem
of the piston in vertical po~jtion. The weight of the piston and 3 .• iaII03d are 9.1\1 N. [,\ns. 7.84 m/s[
2!1, (SI lTnit~). Find the capillary risc of water in a wtlc 0.03 em diameter. The surface tension of water is
0.0735 Nlm. [A tls. 9.99 eml
2', Calculate the specific weight. density and specific gravity of two litres of a liquid which weight 15 N.
[AilS, 7500 N/m l . 764 .5 kg/mI. 0.764 1
30. A I SO mm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another cylinder of diameter lSI mm.
Both the cylinders are of 250 mm height. The space between the cyl inders is filled with ~ liquid of viscos·
ity 10 poise. Detennine the torque required to rotate thc inner cylinder at 100 T.p.m. IAns. 13.S7 Nml
.~ 1 . A Shaft of diameter 120 nlln is rotating inside a journal bearing of diameter 122 mm at a speed of 360 r.p.m.
The ']XIce between the Shaft and the bearins is f,lIed with a lubricating oil of viscusity 6 poise. Find the
power absorbed in oil if the length of bearing is 100 mm. [Ans. 115.73 WI
.\2. A shaft of diameter 100 mm is rotating inside a journal bearing of diameter 102 mm at a space of J60
r,p ,m. The space between the shafl and bearing is filled with a lubricating oil of viscosity 5 poisc. The
length of the t1c:.ring is 200 mm. Find the power absortlcd in the lubricating oil. [Ans. 111.58 W[
.\,\ . Assumi ng that the bu lk modulus of elasticity of water is 2.07 x 106 kN/m l at standard atmospheric
conditions. detcnnine the increase of pressure necessary to produce I % reduction in volume at the same
tcmperature.
• , dV 1
[l1int . K ~ 2.07 x 10 kNlm ;~ 0  .0.01.
100
Increase in pressure (dl')" Kx (  ~V) ~ 2.07 X10" x 0.01 = 2.07 x 10' kNhn 1.]
.\.4. A square plate of size 1 m x 1m and weighing 350 N slides down an inelined plall e with a unifonn velocily
of 1.5 mls. The inclined plane is laid on a slope of 5 venicalto 12 horizonlnl and has an oil film of 1 mm
thickness. Caiculutc the d)l11amic viscosity of oil . [J.tV. T.V., lIy,lembm/. S 2002[
'
[ Ihnl. 5 =Be
A= I x I ~ 1m l . W_3SON.u", 1.5m/s. tan 0 ..   c
12 AB
Component o f weight along the plane = W x sin (I
where sin (I .,
3C _ _' [, .. AC"'JAB1+BC~
r.c:o:,
1 A "
12 8
AC 13 .. JI2~+52 . 13 W E
350N
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.. 2 . 1 fLUID PRESSURE AT A POINT
Consider a sma ll area liA in large mass of fluid. If tile fluid is stationary. tllen tile force exerted by
the surrounding fluid on tile area IiA will always be P'Crpcndicular to the su rface (LA. Let ,IF is tile force
<IF
acting on the area dA in the normal direction. Tllen the ratio of  is known as the intensity of
dA
pressure or simply pressure and this ratio is reprcsented by p. Hence math~lllatically th~ pressure at a
point in a fl uid at rest is
p =
dA
If the forl"C (11 is uniformly distributed ove r the area (A). then pressure at any point is given by
F Force
p = A =""'''
Area
Force or pressure force. F = I' x A.
The unils of pressure ar~: (i) kgffm" and kgffclll 2 in MK5 units, (i,) N~wtonfrl1 lOr Nfm l and
Nfnl1n 2 in 51 units. Nfm 2 is known as Pascal and is represented by Pa. Other common ly used units of
pressure arc :
kilo pascal = 1000 Nfm ~
, '
100 kPa '" 10 Nflll.
35
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f\. and fI: arc the pressufCs or inlcilsity o f pressure acting on Ihe face AB. AC and Be respectively. Let
LABe", a. 1'lIcll th e fo rces acting Oil the clc ln elll arc:
L Pressure forces nonnallo the surfaces. and
2. Weight of c lemen t in Ihe vcnical direction.
The forces 011 the faces arc:
Force on the face All '" fI, x Area offacc AlJ
""p" xdyX I
Simi larly force on Ihe face AC '" p,. x d.f X I
Force on the face UC '" fI , x ds x 1
Weighl of clement '" (M ass of element) x g

   J 
:::::::::::::~
 
' ~:(::::_
_____ A 
ri::::
B .,_______
Consider a small fl uid cleme n! as shown in Fig. 2.2
 
_"______ ·tJZ 
_______
Let M= Crosssectional area of element  
~Z'" Height of fluid c lement ::::::'

? ilp£t::
::::::
 
P '" rres~ure on face AS .{ p+ tJZ)M.
___._" :k ____.__
Z", Distance of fluid elemellt from free surface.
Fig. 2.2 Forces on a fluid e!emeT/l.
The forces acting on tile fluid clement are:
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2. Pressure force on CD =(1' + ~~ llZ) x dA. actin g perpendicular 10 face CD. w rti cally upward
direction.
3 . Weight of fluid c lement = Density x g )( Vo lume = p)( g x (All. x AZ).
4. Pressure forces on surfaces IJC and AD arc equa l and opposite. For equilibriu m o f nuid
c le men!. we have
~~~+PXgX.MllZ=O
ap = p x II [cancelling MAZ on both
0' :~IlZ6A = p Xg xMIlZ or Jz
sid~sl
"I'
aZ =PXg=w (':pXg=w) ... (2 ...1 )
Are a of plunger.
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= 0.2.\54 ~. AilS.
,m
(c) For mercury. sp. gr. '" 13 .6
Fro m equa tion (l. IA) we know that tile den s ity of J fluid is eq ua l to specific g ravi ty of fluid
multiplied by densit y o f water
Densi1y of mercury. p. = Spcl:ific grav it y of mercury x Density of water
= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m l
P=P.xgxZ
N
'" 13600 x 9.81 x 0. ] " 40025 ~ ,
111 
40025 N
~   ,  " 4.002 !' Ans.
10 em
Problem 2.4 Till'" prnSlln illlnlsily (1/ (I poim ill (lfluid is gil"nl 3.924 Nlnl/. Find Iltf ("orrnpolll/
illg Iti'ighl offluid ...hi'llilti' fluid i~ ; ( II) W(I(Fr. lind (b) oil OfS!" gr. 0.9.
Solullon. Given:
N , N
Pressure imensity. 1''' ].924   , "].924 x 10 ~,.
cm  m
The cU lTcsponding heigh1. Z. of 1hc fluid is givcn by eq ua1i u ll (2 .6) as
z==  " 
I'X ,
(u ) For watcr. p " 1000 kghn·l
3.924 x 104
z== ~"  4 III uf wa ter. An s.
I'X, lOOOx 9 .81
(b) For uil. s p. gr. " 0.9
l
:. Density of oil Po" 0.9 x 1000 " 900 kg/m·
__ _ ,_, _ __ 3o~ 92~4~X~'~O~'
Z :; == 4.44 11\ uf uil. Ans.
Po xg 900 x9.81
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Problem 2.5 All oil of sp. gr. 0.9 is ("OIlWillt'd ill (I "<'asd. AI <I poim 11Il' heig/II of oil is 40 tIl. Find
Ihe corrt'Sl'olUlillg ileighl ofwO/n at lil" porlll.
Solution. Given:
Sp. gr. of oil, So = 0.9
Hciglll of oil. Zo=40m
Density of oi l. Po = Sp. gL of oil x Dt:nsily of walcr = 0.9 )( 1000 = 900 kglm 3
N
lntcnsi ly of press ure. p = Po x g x 70 = 900 x 9.81 x 40  ,
of 'h" "IIlk.
Solution. Given:
Hciglll of water. ZI",2m
Height of oil. Z2'" 1m
Sp. gr. of oi l. So'" 0.9
Density of water. PI '" lOOO kg/m '
Density of oi l. Pl'" Sp. gr. of oil x Dens ity of water
'" 0.9 x 1000== 900 kg/m'
Pressure intensity at ~ny poim is given by
p =pxgxz' Fig. 2.4
(i) At interface. i.l' .. at A
P"'P2 x g X1 .O
",900x9.81 x 1.0
N 8829 •
'" 8829  , ~  , = 0.8829 Nfcm . Ans.
III lO
(ii) At Ihe bottom. i." .• at B
l' '" P2 X gZ2 + PI X 8 X ZI = 900 x 9.81 )( 1.0 + [000 x 9.81 x 2.0
1 28449 , •
= 8829 + 19620 = 28449 N/1I1 = ~ Nkm' = 2.8449 Nfcm . Ans.
Problem 2.7 TI", dilllllt'/prs of (I sm(ll/ pi.<lOII Imd II /flrgp piMO" of (I hydraulic j(lck {lfP 3 C/ll lII"l
10 cm rp,!ppclil'dy. AftJrf'P (Jf 80 N is flpplil'l{ "" II", SIII,,/l piSI"", Filll{ Ih .. 1(J(I(llijtl'l1 by II", [flrg"
pis",,, ".hpII :
( a ) Ilw piSIOllS afF ,,/ Ih .. SIIIII" In'pl .
( b) SI1I<1I1 piS/Oil is 40 elll IIbo\'(' Iltl' large l,is/OII.
The (1I'usil), of lit" liquid iu /lle jack is g;"1'1I 1M 1000 kglllr'.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of small pislOn. (1=3cm
1'1',2 11 , 1
Area of small pi~IOn, II'"  (, =  x (3)' = 7.068 e lll
4 4
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~W~~~;i'G'
~.......
Prcs~urc in[cllsity on small piston s~,
P ISTON PISTON
F 80
II 7.068 .
.
__ . _.
_
This is Iransmincd equ all y on thc large piston. . . . . . .
Pr".'\Sure intensity on Ih" large piston f i g. 2.5
= 
7.068
Force on the large piston '" Pressure )( Area
80
=   )( 78.54 N '" 8tlX.'J6 N. AilS.
7.068
(b) Whl'n the small Ilision is 40 em abo ve th(' tar~(' I)iston
Pressure intens ity on Ihc small piston
F 80 ,
(I 7J168 I
Pressurc ill1cnsity at sectio n AA
F
'"  + Pr~ssurc i ntensity due [0 height o f 40 ern of liquid.
"
But pressure intensity due to 40 cnl of liquid w
=pxgxh= IOClOx 9.8 1 xOANlm 2 "_._
1000 x9.8 1 x.40 

.
10'
Nlt:m! = 0.1924 Nlcm! 


Pressure int~nsity at sect ion A A Fig. 2.6
80
=   + 0.3924
7068
= 1l.J2 + 0.3924 == 11.71 Nlcm 1
Pressure intensity transmitted to the large pislOn = 11.71 Nkm 2
Force on the large pislOn = Pressure x Area of the large piston
=11.71 x A == 11.71 x 78.54 = 9 19.7 N .
The pressure on a fluid is measured in twu different syste ms. In one system. it is measured above
the absolute zero or complete vacuum and it is called the absulute pressure and in other sys tem.
pressure is measured above the atmospheric pressure :md it is called gauge pressure. Thus:
I. AI.soluh' 1H"t'sS UH' is defined as the pressure which is measured with refe rence to absolute
va;:uu1t1 pressure.
2 . C,lIU/tC l.rCSSUrl' is defined as th e pressure whid is measured with the help uf a pressure mea
suring instrument. in which the atmospheric pressure is wken as datum. The atmospheric pressure on
the s<:a le is marked as zero.
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Fig. 2.7.
Mathe mati call y: ~r VACUUM PRESSURE
(i) Ahso lute pressure
1
ASSOlUTE
PRESSURE ..... ,
== Atmosph eric pressure + Gauge press orI'
II., = P.. ," + p~",V'
"' (ii) Vac uum pressure ABSOLUTE ZERO PRESSURE
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T
1
(al For ga uge pressure (b) For vacuum p<8SSUf8
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As th e pressure is th e same for the horizontal surface. Hence pressure above th e horizontal datum
line A A in the Ieli co luilln and in the right co lumn of UIube manometer shou ld be same.
Pressure above AA in tile left co lumn " P + PI X g X hi
Pressure above AA in the right column " Pl x g x II,
Hence equating th e two prc!iSUrCS p + Pig/II'" p,g l,!
P" (pUS/I,  P I X g x III)' .. .(2 .1 )
(b) ~or V"cuum P ....SS UI'f'. For rn ~ asuri n g vacuum pressure. the k vc l of th e heavy liquid in the
mallomC lc r wi ll be as shown ill Fi g. 2.9 (b). T hen
Pressure above AA in the left co lumn "P!8"2 + Plgh l + f!
Pressure h"ad in Ihe ri ght column arovc AA " 0
P181!2 + Pig/II + II" 0
fI"  (P;oKiJ 1 + Plg" I)' ...(2.8)
Problem 2.9 Tile right limb of a ,~imple U/Ilbe mOI/Olllet'" CQllfaillitlg mercury is ope,1 to Ille
almO.fpllere while Ihe left limb iI connected 10 a pipe in which a fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 i.f flowing. Tile
cenlre of IIII' pipe is J1 cm below IIII' lere! of mercury in IIII' riglll limb. Find IIII' pre.l.wre of fluid in
III<' pipe if IIII' difference of mercury lel'e! in Ihe two limbs is 10 cm.
Solution. G ivcn :
Sp. gr. of fluid, 5, = 0.9
Densi!y of fluid. p , =5, x 1000=0.9x 1000 = 900 kglm 3 r
Sr. gr. of me rcury, 5~ = 13.6
Densi ty of mercury. p~ = l3.6 x 1000 kgfmJ
"
j
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"/I). + 98 1 N/m
2 ...( i) 1
'T
Pressure at C", Pressure at D + I'reSl;ure due 10 10 em o f merc ury LEFT lIMB_
"'O+PoxgX/lo
where Po for mercury '" 13.6 x 1000 kg/Ill}
, C
N
= 12360.6 2 . An s.
lin d Pa rt '"
Gi ve n. 1'.. = 9 8 10 N/m 1
Find ncw di ffe re nce of merc ury level. The arrangemcnt is shown in Fig. 2. 11 (b) . In this case the
pressure at A i5981 0 Nlm '"w hie h is Jess lhanlh e 12360.6 N/ml. He nce merc ury in Je fllimb will ri se.
The ri se o f merc ury i n Jeft lim b will be equ a l 10 l he fall o f mercury in righl lim b as lhe tOlal vo lu me of
merc ury re mai ns sam e.
Lel .1 '" Ri se of merc ury in left linlb in (;m
Then fall of mcr(;ury in rig ht limb ", x cm
Th e poi nts S , C and D show lhe initial cond itions wlwre as poi nts 8 *. C* and D* show lhe
fin al conditi ons.
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,= 
2 6()
262
'" 0.992 em
Fig. 2.11 (b)
New diffcfCIlCC of mercury '" 10  2 l em =10  2 x 0.992
'" IWI6 em. Ans.
Problem 2.12 Fig. 2.12 .\110;"$ "colliC(IIl'l'Sse/ /I(I\'illg iu 011//1'1 til A /0 wllirh fI Ut""" mlUlOllli'll'r
i.1 rOlllll'("/I'l/. H", rNII/ill8 oflhl' /II"HomNer g;,'''" ill IIIl' figllre S/Wlt'" wlwllll", ""$.W'I is ('/"1'1)'. Filld 1/'"
rl'{I{lillg "1'/'" ""IIl"III('/l'r Wlt,," Ih" w ssd i. (""",[,Indy filled ,..ith .m/('T.
Solu tion. Vcssd is elllll' )'. Given:
Difference of mercury level
Le t ill "" He igh t of water abo ve X·X
Sr . gL of mercury, Sl = 13,6 ,M
Sr . gr. of watu. SI = 1.0 , I
Density of nU'rcury. P2 '" 13.6 x lOoo 1
Dcnsity o f wmc r. PI '" 1000
I "
Eq uatin g the pressure above datum line XX. we have
P2 xgxil 2 ""Plxgxil l
1
or 13 .6x IOOOx9.8 1 x 0.2"" lOoox9.8 1 xiii
III "" 2.72 111 of water.
V~ssel is full uf wa te r. When ves.w l is full of water. the Fi g . 2. 12
pressure in the right limb will increase and mercury leve l in the rig ht limb will gu down. Let the
distance throu gh which mercury goes down in the right limb be . ), cm as shown in Fig. 2. 13. The
mercury wi ll rise in the left hy a d ist an ce of)' Clll. Now the datum line is Zz. Equat ing the pressure
aoove th e datum line Z·z.
Pressure in left lim b"" Pressure in righ t limb
13.6 x WOO x 9.81 x (0.2 + 2)"1100)
'" lOOOx9.8 1 x(3+II I +yI I 00)
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LEVEL
SEPARATION  , 1:1  LEVEL
Fa ll in surface lel'.:1 of C
= Fa ll in separalion kl"eJ x a
Fig . 2.14
A
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T
r
_,r!;~'::'~_:'1R~Yo~:_=~"'Qj
/I" = Pressure at A. w hich is \0 bll measured
A = Crosssection!11 area of the reservoir ",
(I '" Crosssc(;t;onal area of Ihe right limb 1 y y
S, = Sp. gr. of liquid in pipe
T
$1 = Sp. gr. of heavy liquid in reservoir and right limb
'"
PI = Density of liquid in pipe Fig. 2.15 V"lical si'lgie coll/mn
malwmeur.
Pl = Density of liqu id in reservoir
Fall of heavy liquid in rc!,crvoir will c ause a rise of heavy liquid kvcl in lh", right limb.
A X ~, = (/ X hl
.. .(2 .9)
As the area A is very large as compared 10 fl. hence ratio!!... becomes very s mall and can be
A
neglecled.
Thcnp,,="lP!8  ",P,g ... ( 2. 10)
From equation (2. 10), it is c lear lhal as ", is known
and hence by knowing /'1 or rise of heavy liq uid in the
right limb. lhe pressure at A call be ca lcu laled .
2. Inclined Single Column Manometer
Fig. 2.16 shows the incli l1ed sin gle (o lumn mal101l\
e\Cr. This manometer is more sensitive. Due to in(lina
tion th r dis\ance moved by the heavy liquid in the rig ht Fig. 2.16 Inclined single coll/mn
limb will be more. manometer.
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"
PA = A IhlpzR
  PIS! + hop,S
•   "IPIS
1
:  X 0.4[13.6 x 1000 )( 9.81  900 x 9.81 J + 0.4 x [3.6 x 1000 )( 9.8 1  0.2 x 900 x 9.81
100
== 0.4 [1 3341 6 _ 8829 ) + 53366.4 _ 1765.8
100
= 533.664 + 53366,4  1765.8 Nlmz = 52 [34 Nlmz = 5.21 Niem I. A ilS •
.. 2 . 7 DIFFERENTIAL MANOMETERS
Diff.:rcmial manomcters arc th e d.:viees used for mcasuring th e differencc of pressures betwee n
two poims in a pipe or in two differelll pipes. A differential manometer l'Ons iSls of a U· lUbe. coma in·
in g a heavy liqu id. whose two ends are con nected to lhe poinls. whose difference of pressure is 10 be
measured . Most commonly types of differential manometers arc:
!. U·tube differential lIlano lll eter and
2. In ve n ed U·tu bc diffe rent ia l manometer.
2 . 7 . 1 U  tube Differential Manometer. Fig. 2.18 shuws the differential manumeters of
U·tubc type.
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T
,
, T
t
1 t '1 '
,  J" ,
(a)Two rHpes at differenllevels (b) A aJ'ld B ale at the sa me Ieve1
Fig. 2.18 Uwbe difftr..nlial manomtll"l'$.
In Fig. 2.18 (ll). the tWO points A and 8 are at different level and also contai ns liquid s of different
sr. g r. These point~ are C{lonecled 10 the U luhe differential manometer. Le t th e pressure al A "fld B
arc I'A and PB"
Le\ ,,= Difference of mercury level in the U tune.
Y'" Distance o f th e cCl1m: o f B, from the mercury level in the right limh.
x'" Distall(;c of the lemrc o f A. from thc mercury level in the right limb.
PI = Density of liquid at A.
P 2 = Density of liquid al B.
p & = Density of he avy liquid or m<:rcury.
Taking dmum lin e m XX.
Pressure abo ve XX in Ihe left limb '" Plg(1J + x) + 1',\
wherc p,\ '" pressure at A.
Pressure above XX in the rigllt limb '" P~ x g X II + P~ X g X Y + 1'8
wllere 1'8 '" Pressure 3t 8.
Equ ating tile two pressure. we Ilave
Plg(1! + x) + I'll '" PJ X g x I! + P28Y + P/I
P.t  pB '" P, x g X II + P!G)'  Plg(1I + x)
'" It x g(P J  PI) + P2g),  Plgx ... (2. 12)
Difference of pressure at A and 8 '" I! x g(PJ  PI) + Pig)'  Plg.t·
In Fig. 2. 18 (b), the two points A and lJ are at the same le ve l and contains tile s.ame liquid of den sity
PI' Tlien
Pressure aboveX·Xin rigllt limb '" p.xg xl, + PI xg xX +PB
Pressure above X X in le ft limb '" PI x g x (II + xl + p ...
Equati ng the two press ure
P, x g X II + Plgx + 1'/1 '" PI X g x (II + xl + JIll
I'"  JIB'" p. X g x I! + p ,gx  p,g(1I + x)
'" g x lI(p~  PI)' ... ( 2 . 13)
Problem 2.15 A pip .. COIII{lillS (11/ oil of sp. gr. 0.9. A diff"'''l!Iia/ 1I/1II1<I1II .. I..r mllllfC/e(1 <1/ /11 .. IWO
poillls A (I//(I Jj SIIOWI <I diff~ '<'II("" ill lIIe ,nltJ' 1"1"1'/ {U 15 CIII. Filllllh .. diff~ '<'II("" of Jlr..ssl"" III lit .. /11'0
poims.
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Solution. Given:
Sp. gr. of oil. 3
Density. PI "" 0.9 x I()(K)" 900 kg/rn
Difference in rncn:ury level. I,: lSClll=O.ISm
Sp. gr. of rncffury. Ss = 13.6 Density, p~ = 13.6 x [000 kglm J
The diffcl\)ncc of pressure is given by equation (2. 13)
f',t  PB" g X h{P,  PI)
'" 9.8! x 0. 15 (13600  9(0) '" 186K!1 N/m!. Ans .
Problem 2.16 A difJrTl'1IIiai m"""",,,'l''' i .• (',,""N"/I'll (l/ flIP Iwo Iminl s A ",,,18 "f I ... " l'ipl's {I$
SilO,.." ill Fig. 2./9. Til .. p'iN' A . 'omaills a Ii'll/itf of 31" gr. = 1.5 ... /,i/" [}ip" lJ collwillS 1I liquid "I
w gr. = 0.9, Til" prnmrn a/ II mnlH (If" I kgflrm ! IIlIff /,80 kgJ7m/ rl'.!prrlil"r/y. Fi"d I/U'
dijJrrf'IICf ill mereu,)' /","/'I ill Ih" (Iiffrrnllitd """!(Jllli'lrr. Sp . gr." ' .5
PA =1 kg/1mi'
SolutIon. Given:
Sp.gr.ofliquidatA, SI = I.S
Sp. gr. of liquid at /J. 52 "" 0.9
.. PI"" 1500
Pl"" 900 [ Sp, gr.=0.9
~
Pressure at A. PA = I kgflcm 1 = 1 x 10· I.:gffm 2
= 10"x9 ,81 Nfm!('; 1 I.: gf=9.81 N)
2.0m Pe = 1.8 kgflan'
1'8'" 1.8 ~gflcm 2
Pressure al 8,
= 1.8 x 104 kgffrn l
,
~
lknsity of mercury
=1.8xlD"x9.81 Nfm2 (": Ikgf = 9.81N) x
= 13.6 x 1000 kgfm J
r
Taking XX as datum line.
Fig. 2.19
Pressure above XX in the left limb
= 13.6 x lO00x9.8 1 xh+ 1500x9.8 1 x(2+3)+/J,\
'" 13.(; x 1000 x 9.8 1 x II + 7500 x 9.81 + 9.8 1 x 104
Pressure above XX in the right limb '" 900 x 9.81 x (11 + 2) + Pfl
=900x9.8 1 x(h+ 2)+ 1.8 x 10"x9.81
Equ at ing the two pres.<;ure. we get
13.6 x 1000 x 9.81// + 7500 x 9.81 + 9.81 x 10·
'" 900 x 9.81 x (II + 2) + 1.8 x 10" x 9.81
Dividing by 1000 x 9.81. we gel
13.6/1 + 7.5 + 10 = (h + 2.0) x.9 + 18
13,6/1+ 17.5=0.911+ 1.8 + 18=0.9h+ 19.8
{l3.6  0.9)11 '" 19.8  17.5 or 12.711 '" 2.3
"' 23
,,= 
12.7
=0.181 III = 18.1 em . AIlS .
Problem 2 .17 A dijJfrl'mi(l/lIwlwllwli'r i~ ("",,,w("li'd (If IIU' 1"'0 Imims A (/Jut H (IS sho"'" ill
Fig. 2.20. AlII "ir prnsurl' ;,' 9.8/ NiemI ((11M). find Ihl' "b,<oll1/l' prl'S$llrf lI/ A.
Solution. Given:
Ai r pressure al II '" 9.8 1 N/cm l
1'8=9.81 x lO"N/m l
"'
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'" 19620  1000 x 9.81 x 0.3 '" 16677 N/m!. 6''''>o, OIL of
Sp. gr. 0.8
Pressure below xx in the ri~hl limb ,
=PB  1000x9.81 xO.I  800x9.81 xO. 12
=PR  98 1  941.76=PR  1922.76
Equati ng Ih e t wO pressure. we gel
16677 =PR1922.76
or I'll '" 16677 + 1922.76 ", 18599.76 Nfrnl WATER
Problem 2.19 III Fig. 2.23. (III im'fr/n/ (flffarmio/liumOIlJl'lfr i~ romlfclnJ IQ ''''0 pi"t'S A /IIullJ
",/lid, COIIW)' "'tUa. TIll' jlI,id ill IHmWlllflFr is oil ofsp_ gr. 0.8. Ff" 1/,(, IIWIWl/lnU rl'(IIIill85 showll ill
,II .. fig"'''. jiml IIU' l'rf $S/lrf difJrrl'lu'f' hp/wi'('11 It (111(/ B. OIL of
Solution. Given: Sp. g'. 0.8
, x
Sr. gr. of oit
Difference of oil in Ihe two li mbs
= 0.8
I:
Taking datum lin e 31 XX
=(30+ 20)  30 = 20cI11
H
Pressure in th e left limb tJ..,]ow XX 11
=PIl  IOOOx9.81 xO Fig. 2.2.3
'" p"  2943
Pressure in the ri ght limb be low XX
"'p,,  IOOO x9.8 1 xO.J  800x9.8 1 xO.2
"'I',,  2943  1569.6"'p"  45[2.6
Equating the twO pressure 1',,  2943 '" 1'"  4512.6
p"  p,, '" 4512.6  2943 '" 1569.6 N/m ~. A"~ .
Problem 2 .20 Fimf 011/ Ilw dijJl'rfllli(ll rnulillg 'iI' of 1111 im'erletl UIube 1I1lI1I01II<'11'r collwillillg oil of
sl",cijic grmity 0.7 <IS III<' m(l/lOmelric j/I,ili Wilfll COIIII<'clnl <lrrOS5 pipes A 111111 JJ (IS 5i1owII ill Fig. 2.24
below. cO/wfyillg liqllids ojW('("ijic grlllitin 1.2 will 1.0 111111 immiscible wilh 1IU1/lOlIwlric j/llill. Pil><'5 A
IIIIIILJ lire lorflled III Ihe 5WI/<' lerel lIIul a55W"" Ihe 1'11'551111'5 (/I A (IIu/ B 10 be eqlla/.
Solution. Given: &"""' j'.".~.'
Fig. 2.24 shows th e arrangement. Taking XX as datum [Inc.
II Ii
~ I IL
SolutJon. Given :
S..,.,cific gravity of measuring liq uid "" 0.8 . gr. =O.B
I I Ii
~ I IL
For compress ible fiu ids . densit y (p) changes wilh tlie c han ge of pressure and te mperature . Such
pro blems arc e nco un te red in aeronautic s. ocean og raph y and meteoro logy where we arc con ce rn ed
with atm os ph eric * air where dens it y. press ure and temperature changes with e le vati o n. Thu s for fluid s
wilh varia bl e densi ty. equatio n (2.4) canno t be integ rated. unless th e relatio nship betwee n p and p is
kn ow n. Fo r g ~ scs th e equatio n of state is
I
p
til' '" _jZL(fz= _L JZd:
P. f' 1" RT RT Z.
I' g
log  ~  IZ  2;. 1
Po
NT
whcrepo is th e pressure where he ight is Zo. Ir the d atum lin e is Hlke n at Zo. th en Zo = 0 and 1'0 bo:co mcs
th", pressure at d:llulil linc.
log L = ::.!. z
Po NT
L = (' ..11FT
p,
or pressure at a hciglit Z is give n by I' = PrI' S7/KT' • • •( 2.18)
• The standard atmospheric pressure. temperawre and dcnsily referred 10 STP at {he sealevel are :
Pressure .. 101.325 k.N/m l; Temperature", 15°C and ();:,nsily = 1.225 I;:glm J.
I I Ii
~ I IL
". . .. ( i i)
(~l pc
Inlcgrating. we gel ) " em I' III: ill' = j Z_glfZ
" '"
[ ""'
p
~
]'
'"
, ,.
p
p 1
  +1
lZ  Zo J
=  g
or
[ p~l'• =  g[Z  ZoJor ['~ !C1P
l
P •
!
/.:1 P
~
=  g[2  201
~I I~
~ I IL
0. i!.. xPn
P Po
=[1+/:: 1gZfu]
Po
k
... (iii)

Po
p
[ )'" [
, 
l'o
P ] /::  1
,, 1   gZ.....2..
k
P
Po
2. B. 3 Temper<lture at any Point in Compressible Fluid. For the adiab at ic process. the
lemperature al any height ill air is \' alc ulm cd as :
Equ ati o n of stale at gro und leve l and al:t heig ht Z from grou nd levd is wri llc n as
Po  Ri'0
 3n dJ!... 
 Ri'
Po P
Dividing thcse cqualio ll s. we get
I I Ii
~ I IL
L £..2.. in cqu<ltion
·
Substituting the values of :md (I). we get
Po P
,
~ =[1_ /.:  1gZ ]ti X[1_ k1 /lZ ]t:1
1'0 k RIo
k
/lZ ]
K/0
I I Ii
~ I IL
Problem 2 .22 (SI Units) if rhe a/1II()Jpilere pres,~ure (1/ .~ea /el'e/ is 10. 143 Nkm ! , derami/Ie Ihe
pressure m a ''''igM of 2500 III aS$lwling Ille pressure mriarirm follows (i) Hydros/a1ie lim', and
J
(ii) isolhermal law. The density of oir is gil'en as 1.208 1r.g1m •
Solution. Given :
Press ure at se alevel. Po = 10.1 4 3 N/c1111 = 10. 14 3 x I O~ N/rn l
Height. 2 =2500 111
1
!knsi ty of air. Po = 1.208 kg/nr
(I) Press u re by hyd rostatic h, w. For hyd ro static law. p is assumed constallt and hence p is g ive n
. dp
by equalloll  =  pg
dZ
~
= 10. 143 x 1 0~ e r.
~
= 10. 143 X 10 4 e I'l>
= 10 . 143 x I 0 4 e (_ lloOO . ) ,1(IB x 9,8) JllO.)43. )If'
'" 1J.6 x 1000 ~glmJ. Hence prcssure (p ) will Dc cqual to p x g X Z i.f .. 13.6 x 1000 x 9.81 x : : NI1111.
~ I I~
~ I IL
"p
,'Z =  pg
f Pdp =  f ZpgdZ or I'  ['0 =  pg[Z  lol
'0 4
1'''l'opgZ [.: lo"datumline"O)
= 10.143)( 104  1.285)( 9.81 )( 7500
= 101430  94543 = 6887 N/rn l " O.6~~~ , Ans,
em "
(ii) f'nsslITl' l"(lrimioH follows iSOlIiI'rIll(lI/ow:
Using equation (2.18), we have /, = PrI' Jl/II.T
'I
Using equation (2. 19), we have , where Po = 1.285 kg/m
l
I I Ii
~ I IL
,.
p = I 0 1430 1 (1.4  1.0) x9.81)( ,( 7"5"00,,X 5) J' .
.:,',.,2:::8," _1.0
[ 1.4 101430
'" 10 1430 II  .2662 1' ''''· == 10 1430 X (.7337) 3.5
, N
'" .\4.'10 Nfm  or .'.431  , . AIl~ .
,m'
Problem 2.25 Ca/ndllll' lilt' prnsllre (//1(/ dn/sit)' Of air (1/ II Iwight of 4000 III from 5I'1I/PI'l'lwl!frt'
prf ss,,,/' (I/UI {('III/N' ralllrf' of /111' (lir (/rl' 10. 143 Nkm (jill! J5°(.' rnpaliw/),. TIll' Il'lIIpff(llllrl' 1111'S('
raIl' is g;1'I'1I as OJXJ65°CIIII. Take <I""5il), of oir <1/ Ull/(,I'ei (''1IIl1/IO 1.285 kglllri.
Solution. Given :
~lc ig h l. Z=4000 m
, , N
Pressure 31 sealevel. 1'0= 10. 143 Nlcm= 10. 143x 10 = 10 1430  ,
m
Tc mpc rmu rc at sealeve l. 10= 15°C
To'" 273 + IS == 288° K
tiT
Te mperat ure lapse rate. L=  =  O.0065° Kfm
dZ
Po::: 1.285 kg/ml
k '
P"'l'o I    ,Z  o
[
pJ," ,w herck= 1.222 and Po'" 1.285
k 1'0
un
'" 10 1430 [ , _ ( 1.222  1.0 ) x 9.&1 x 4000 x 1.285 ]1.222  [.0
P 1.222 101430
'" 1 0 1 430 [I  O.0915.~ ", I0 1430x.595
, N
'" 60350 Nfm '" (j.O.~5   • . Ans.
cm 
I I Ii
~ I IL
,
.e = RT
where f' == Pressure at 4000 111 heigh t
P == Density al 4000 III height
T", Te mperatu re at 4000 III lic igh t
Now T is calc ulated from temperatu re la pseralc as
<IT
lat4000m = 10 +x 4000 = 15,(1065 x 4000 = 1526=II °C

<12
T=273+1=273  11 = 262QK
P 60350 3 3
Densi ty is given by P == RT = 274 .09 x 262 kglll1 '" O.K4 k glm . AilS.
Problem 2.26 All II1'rUpillllt' is flyillg III WI {,I/;Im'" of 5000 III. C,lIn,/ale IIlI' prf'SSIIrf' tlrol/llI/liI"
Ql'rop/mw, g;\'1'1I liIl' IlIpSI'rll/(' ill IIIl' atlllosphrrl' liS OlXJ65° Kim. N('gll'c/ "'tria/ioll of g wilh III/iIUdl'.
TakF puss/lfe 11m! umprr(l/ilre (1/ grol/lld lewl (IS 10.143 Nlclll~ (///(I 15°C (llid dellsity of air (IS
1.285 kg/ow'.
Solution. Given:
Height. Z=5000m
,rr
Lapserate. 1. ==  =  .0065 KJm Q
dZ
Pressure at ground leve l. 1'0 = 10.143 x IO~ N/ml
'0= 15°C
To = 273 + 15 = 288" K
Density. Po = 1.285 kglm)
or _.0065 =_ 9!I ( k ~ l )
_ .0065=_~(kl)
274.09 k
k", 1.222
The pressure is giv~n by equation (2.19) as
I I Ii
~I IL
l,ll2
HIGHLIGHTS
I . The press ure at any point in a fluid is defined as the force per unit area ,
2. The Pascal's law ,tates that intensity ()f prc.. ure for a fluid .11 rest is equal in all direction •.
~ . l>ressure variation at a point in a fluid at reSt is given by the hydrostatic law which siate, thai the rate of
incre:''''' of pres,ure in the vertically downward direction is equal 10 the specific weight of the fluid.
tip _w*pxg.
dl
4. The pressure at any point in a incompressible fluid (liquid) is equal to the produ(,! of density of fluid at
Ihm point. :lcccleralion duc to grnvity and verlical heigh! from free surface of nuid.
p .. pXgxZ.
S. Absolute pressure is the pressure in which absolute vacuum pressure is taken as datum while gauge
pl'C'ssure is the pressure in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as datum.
p_ = p _ + 1'_1<
6. Manomeler is a device used for measuring pressure at a point in a nuid.
7. Manomelers arc classified as (n) Simple manometers and (b) Differentia l manometers.
8. Simple manometers all' used for measuring PIl'SSUIl' al a point while differentialmanomelers all' used for
measuring the difference of pressures belween the IWO poims in a pipe. or two different pipes.
9. A ~ingle column manomeler (or micromeler ) is used for measuring small pressures, where accuracy is
required.
10. The pressure al" poim in SIalic compressible fluid is oblained by combining Iwo equ~lions. i.e .. equal ion
of Slale for a gas and equ~lion given by hydroslalic law .
I L The pressure at a height Z in a stalic compressible fluid (gas) under going isolhennal compression
p " Po c rZlRT
where I'~ " Absolute pressure at seaIewl or al ground le\'el
Z .. Height from sea or ground le"el
R .. Gas conSlam
T ~ Absolute lemperalure.
12. The pressure and lempcmlurc al a heighl Z in a SIalic compressible fluid (gas) undergoing adiabalic
compression (plpi = consl. )
, ,
[ kI . P"j" [kI gZ ]I,'i
I'=Po l   ,  gZ 1'0 = /'oI  'RT
o
II Ii
~ I IL
'R ('')
L . 
,
if (i) k E I. temperature is Zero.
(ii) k > 1. lcmpemturc decreases with the increase of height.
EXERCISE
J. A hydraulic press has a ram of 30 em diameter and a plunger of 5 em di:unet,·r.l'ind the weightlificd by
the h)·draulic press when the force applied althe plunger is 400 N. [Ans. 14.4 kNI
2. /I hydraulic press has a r~m of 20 em diameter and a plunger of 4 em di~lI1eter. It is used for lifting ~
weight of 20 kN. find the foree required al the plunger. [Ans. SOONI
I I Ii
~ I IL
.\ . Cakul~tc th~ pressure due to a col umn of 0.4 In of (u) wuter. (b) an oil of >1>. gr. 0.9, and (coJ mercul)' of!>p. gr.
"
13.6. Ta~e density 0( .....:l1cr. p _ 1000 3 ,
m
jAns. (a) 0.3924 Nlcm', (b) 0.353 NiemI, (el 5.33 Nlemll
,
" The pressure imensily at a point in a fluid i.< g;,en 4,<) Nlcm', Find the corresponding height of fluid when il
is ,(n) water. and (I,) an oil o f sp. gr. OX I AI~~. (n):; m o f waler. (b) 6 .25 In of oill
S. An oil of sp. gr. 0.8 is contained in a vess.cl. At a point the height of oil is 20 m. Find the correspondi,,)!
height of ....:!tcr at that point. jAilS. 16 ml
6. An open I,mk contains waler UplO a depth of 1.5 m and above it an oil of sp. gr. 0.8 for a depth o f 2 m. FioJ
the pressure intensity: (il at the interface of the two li'luids. and (ii) al Ihc bonum of the (a"k.
IAn_,. (il 1.57 Niem I. (ii) 3.04 Nleml j
7. The diameter> of a ...mal l pislon and a largc pi'ton of a hydraulic jacl are 2 em and 10 cm respectively. A
fo("(;e of60 N is applied On the small piston . Find the lo.1d lifted by the large piston. when: (tI) the pistons me
at Ihc salHe level. and (I,) slllal] pislon is 20 Cllt above Ihe large pislon. The density of Ihe liquid in the jack is
.
is 7.848 Nkml (abs .j. fi nd the absol ute pressure at A. IAns. 6.91 Nlcm1 j
, '"
,';1 OIL Sp . '
OIL Sp. gr. ~O.8
""
T
"'= T ~i
,~
i
,,~
1
M ERCURY
"''' =
~
I
~=
1.
WATER
~ ~Ei
Sp. g'.En.6
Fi g . 2.25 Fig . 2.26
I I Ii
~ I IL
~ I I~
~ I IL
I I Ii
... 3. 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter de~ls with the fluids (i.e .. liqu ids ~nd gases) <l1 rest. This mea ns thm there will be no
relative motion between ndjilcent or ne ighbou rin g fluid Inyers. The velocity gudient. which is eq ual to
Ih e change of velocity between two adjacent fluid layers div ided by the di~tnnce between the layers.
will be zero Of dll '" O. The shearstrcss which is equal to IJ all wil l also be Zero. Then the forces actin g
d)" a)"
on the flu id particles wi ll be :
I. due to pressure of fluid normal to the surface.
2. due to gravity (or sclf~weigh t of fluid particles) .
I I Ii
~ I IL
(a) Tot a l P ress u ~ (1') . The total pressure 011 tlie surface FREE SURFACE OF lIaUID
may be determined by dividing the emire surface into II numbe r
"'T""'" ,,',',',','"'"''1''1' '
b _
of small parallel strips. The force 011 small strip is then calcu
lated and the tOlal pressure force on the whole area is calculated , A
I I Ii
~ I IL
pgAl1 X h* = pg fa
I O= IG + Ax h 2
where I e "M omc rll of ln cnia of ar(! 3 about an axis pass ing through the C G . of Ihe are a and parallel
\0 th e fre e s urface of liquid.
Substitutin g 10 in equat ion (3.4), we get
h* =
•'o +~A~I<_' ~ + II
,',,: ,_ ... ( 3 .5 )
AI< AI<
In equat ion (3.5), h is the di stan ce o f c.G. o f the area o f Ih e ve nica l surface from fre e surface of
Ih e liqu id. He nce frolll equati on (3.5), it is c lear that :
(i) Cent re of pressure (i.e .• 11*) lies be low the centre of gra vit y of th e ve rti cal surface.
(il) The di stance of ce ntre of pressure from free s urface of liquid is independe nt of th e de ns it y of Ihe
liquid .
Tab le 3 .1 The m o ments o r in.orlia a nd olile r g~'tIm etric propcrliC5 or so m e im port an t p la ne surfaC<.'!l
I Rectangle
I
T
 , I
r >d' >d'
G d
i 1
x ~  bd  
2
" J
1' 0<
,. Triangle
,/1\i . ~
x~ •

3
bh , bh'

36
bh'

"
COllld ..
I I Ii
~ I IL
3 Circle
)/
, Gj 1
~
.1'=
d
2
.w'

4
.w'

64

j"
4. Trapezium
fzL~IG~ x_(2l1+b)~
IHb 3
(u +b )
d
2
1 1
(u +4ab +b )Xh1
36(o+b)

I " If
Pro blem 3 .1 A ,ec/(lIIg/liar plane .mrface is 2 III wide ami 3 In deep. II lie.! in I'errical plane in
W<lIer. Dererln;/I!' rile 100al pre.!.lure and position of celllre of pressure 0/1 II,e plane surface lI'ile/l its
upper edge is horizollIal and (a) coillcides ",ill, waler surface. (b) 2.5 m below II,e f ree water surface.
Solution. Given :
Width of plane surface. b=2 01
[)cplll of plane surface. d=) 111
(a) Uppu edg e coincides with water s urfa ce (Fig. 3.2). Tot:,1 pressure is ~ i\'c n by equati on (3.1 )
f" = pgAI.
J FREE WATE R SURFACE
wh ere P == 1000 kg/m , 11 == 9. 81 I11 /S1
,
A ", 3 x 2 = 6 111 •h "' "2I (3) '" 15 m.
F = lOOOx9.81 x 6 x 1.5
'" 88290 N. A ns .
Depth of l'C rme of pressure is give n by eq uati on (3. 5) as
I"
11· =~ + ll

AI<
where 'G= 1'.1 .0.1. about e.G. o f the area of surface Fig. 3.2
J J
bd 2x3 4
"  " =4.5m
12 12
I I Ii
~ I IL
~O':i J
Ah
whe re IG == 4.5. A == 6.0, Ii == 4.0
f2 ml
;;4~.5';;, +4.0
11·= ; Fig. 3.3
6.0x 4.0


Area.
It = 3.0 III
Total pressure is give n by eq uati on (3. J).
. 3.0 m
F = pgAh
GO + <
= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.767 x 3.0 N L\r   o ,
= 52002.11 1 N. Ans .
Position of centre of pressure (11·) is g iven by equation (3.5).
11.5 m ..j
h·=~ + h
I"  Fig. 3.4
Ah
4 4
rtd It X 1.5
whe re IG =
64
= 64
= 0.2485 Ul~
0.2485
+ 3.0 = 0.0468 + 3.0
1. 767 x ].0
'" 3.04611 m . ADS.
I I Ii
~ I IL
Problem 3.3 A reC/lwgl/lar .fluice gme is silUllleil QII lite I'u/ieal \\'01/ of a lock. Til<' I'errical side
oJfhe sluice is 'd ' metres ill lellglh ami deplh ofcel1lroid of tile area is 'p' III below Iile W<lIer surface.
11
t b P h'
Solution. Gi ve n :
i Ll=
~ r ij
[kplli of vc n kal gale = lI m
lei (h e w idth of gate ",b m
Are a. A=b x d m 2
Fig . 3.5
[krill of e.G. fro m free surface
h =p lll .
Le i 11* is the depth o f ce ntre of pressure from free surface. whic h is give n by equati on n.5) as
I _ bd l
I,· '" ~ + h . where I e '"  '2
AI>
Are a.
4
"
A =  x3 = 7.0685 m'
Depth. of e.G.. 1I = 4m
(i) ['orce on (he di sc is given by eq uation (J .I) as
.!!. d"
I"
h·= ~ + ll = ;;
 c<64",
· __
+ 4.0
All : d l )(4.0
d' J~
: ~'o,,+ 4.0= ~'o" + 4.0 = 0.14+ 4.0 = 4. 14 m
16x4,0 16 )(4.0
I I Ii
~ I IL
'1 TT


  

0_:: 'm

10 , U
B
".
3m '  ,
, 1..
fig. 3.6
The for(;c F is ad;"g at a distance of 4. 14 m from free surface. Momcll1 uf this fOKe about
horizontal diam eter XX
'" F x (h ·ii) " 277368 (4. 14  4.0) '" 3HIBI Nm. A IlS.
Hence a torque of )883 1 Nm mu st be applied o n the di sc in Ihe c loc kwise di rect ion.
Problem 3 .5 A pipe line II'lIic/1 is <I m in diameter conraillJ a gille roll'c. The pressure at rhe celllre
of 'he pipe is 19.6 Nkm!, If rhe pipe is filled wilh oil of sp. gr. 0.S7. find I/Ie force exerted by the oil
"PO" rhe gme alld POSilioli of c.'lIlre of pressurt!.
Solullon. Given:
Dia. of pipe. "=4 rn
19.6
Fig . 3.7
OJ
Area, A=~x 42 =4 1ln1 2
4
Sr . gr. of oil. S = 0.87
Density o f oiL Po = 0.87 x 1000 = 870 kg/m "'
Weight dcnsily of oil. "'o"Po xg,,870x9.8 1 Nfm 3
Pressure at Ih~ ct;! ntre of pipe. P " 19.6 Nfcm 2 " 19.6 x 104 Nfm2
p 19.6 x I0·
Pressure head al Ih e cenlr~ =: '" 22.988 m
11'0 870 x 9.8 1
The heig ht of equiva lent free oi l surface from the ce ntre of pipe" 22.988 Ill.
The depth o f e.G. of Ih e gate va lve from free oi l surface II = 22.988 nl.
(i) Now Ihe force exef(",d by Ihe oil on Ih e gate is given by
F = pgAh
where p = densily of oil = 870 kg/m 3
F = 870 x 9.8 1 X 4n x 22.988 = 2465500 N " 2.465 r.I N. Ails.
(ii) Posi li on of !;enlre of pressure (".) is given by (3.5) as
I I Ii
~ I IL
II+= 'G..+h
AI<
where fc = M.0.1. of triangular section about its e.G.
bI/ 4 x4 l
=   =    =7. 11 m4
36 36
II. = 7.1 1 + 1.33 = 0.6667 + 1.33 = 1.99 m . AilS.
8.0 X 1.33
Problem 3 .7 A "ulical sluice gale is used IQ CQ l'er an opl'liilig in a dam. The opnlillg is 1 m wide
and 1.1 m /Iigll. 011 111l' IIp_lIream ofl/l e gale. I/Ie liquid of sp. gr. 1.45. 1il'.1 "1110 {/ Iwig/II of 1.5 m
abO"e I/Ie lOp of I/Ie gate. "'/Ierea.lon I/Ie dO"'II_lIream .fide Ihe waler is ami/able IIplO {/ heiglll 101lch·
illg Ihe lap of Ihe gate. Filld Ihe resulumr force acring on Ille gate alld pQ.lirioll of celi lre of pressure.
Find also Ihe force aCling horizolltally at rhe fOp of Ihe gale .... hich is capable af opening ir. Assume
Ilwl rile gille is hinged all/U' bOl/om.
Solullon. Given:
Width of gale. b = 2 III
[kplll of gate. d=1.2 m
Area. A =b xd= 2 x 1.2= 2.4m 1
Sr . gr. of liquid = 1.45
I I Ii
~ I IL
:: 1.5 + 21. 2 :: 2. 1 m.
FREE SURFACE OF LIQUID
UQUIOOF
Sp . gr.=1.45 FREE SURFACE
F OF WATER
UPSTREAM
DOWN STREAM
HINGE
Fig. 3.9
F,= 1450 x9.8 1 )(2.4 x2. 1 =7 169 1 N
Similarly. F2 :: p~ . A;;l
l
where p! '" 1.000 kglm
/,!:: Depth oren . of gmc fro m free surface uf watcr
",.!.xl.2=O.6 m
2
F 1 :: 1000 x 9.81 x 2.4 x 0.6:: 141 26 N
( i) Rl."sultanl fo r ce un th e gule '" F,  F2 = 7 169 1  14 126 = 57565 N. A ns.
(ii) Pos ition of ce ntre of pl't'ssure of ...,s uUan! fo rce. Th e fo rce PI will be acting al a de plh of
11, * from free surface of liqu id. g iven by the rel ati o n
I, 
hl* = ~ +h ,
Alii
where
I I Ii
~ I IL
4  2
where IG = 0.288 rn , /'1 = 0.6 JIl. A = 2.4 10 •
0,288
II! '" + 0.6 = 0.2 + 0.6 = 0.8 III
2.4 xO.6
Distance of F1 from hinge '" 1.2  0.8 = 0.4 III
The r~sul ta nt force 57565 N will be acting at a distance given by
= ,7,1069clcXc.o54~2,9~cil4cl,206cXcO",.4
57565
3392 1 5650.4
= m above hi nge
57565
= 0.578 m abo ....~ the hin ge. An s.
(iii) Force at th e 1011 of gale ",hich is capa ble of o pe nin g the ga le. Let F is tile force required
on Ihe lOp of the gmc to open ;1 as shown in Fig. 3.9. Taking the moments of F. 1', and F1 about Ihe
hin ge. we get
Fx [. 2 + 1'2)(0.4 =F, )(.5429
f; x .5429  ,.~ x 0.4
or F= 
12
7169 1 x .5429  141 26 x 0.4 38921  5650.4
=
1.2 1.2
= 27725.5 N. Ail S.
Problem 3.8 A caisson [or closing tile elllrance 10 Ii dry dock iJ' oflrapezoidalform 16 III wide a/ Ille
rop wId 10 III wide a/ lire bOl/om and 6 III deep. Filltlille lotal pre~'SlIre allli celltre of pres.~I1'" Otl Ille
caissoli if IIII' water 011 IIII' o"lsidf' is j"~'1 /ne/ ...ill> IIII' lop and tlock is emply.
Solution. Given:
Width al top
Width al bottom
= 16 m
WATER SURFACE
,..._ _ _ t 6m
=:\
' 1
=lO m
Depth. tI=6 m
A , '0
Are a of tr apezoidal ALJCD.
A = ,I~
B C,;;+~A~D") x If
2
Fig. 3.10
180 + 36
" 78 = 2.769 m from water surface.
I I Ii
~ I IL
bd J IOx6
J
~
Then 'r;, '" [2= 12 = 180 In
1<;, is the M. O.1. of the recltmgle about the axis passing through G,.
M.O. I. o f the rectangk atJ.oul the axis passing th rough the e.G. oflh.e trape zoida l 1(;, + Area of
I1'c[ang le x .f,l
where .r , is distance between the CG. of rectang le and e.G. of trapezoidal
'" (3.0  2.769) '" 0.231 III
M .0.1. of FIJCE passing through CG . of trapezoi dal
'" 180 + 10)(6)«0.231 )2 ", 180+3.20= 183.20m4
bd'
Now IG, = M.O.1. of MBD in Fig. 3. 11 about G~ = J6
(16  10) X6 3 ~
= =36 m
3b
The distance between the e.G. of triangle and e.G. of trapeZOidal
'" (2.769  2.0)" 0.769
M.O. I. of the two ~~ about an axi s passing through C.G. of trape zoi dal
== la, + Area of triangles x (.769)2 A F. E 0
= 36.0 +   x (.769)
6 x6 I ;T;~
2
=
+ M.O.1. of triang les about the e.G. of the trapezoidal
183.20 + 46.64 = 229.84 m
4
j
6m
I ,  "C
II" == 4. + II
Ah Fig. 3.11
where A == 78. Ii == 2.769
I I Ii
~ I IL
(2(1 + /1) II
x= x
(a + b) 3
(2xlO + !6) 6
= )(  (.: a= IO,/>= 16andlr=6)
(10 +1 6) 3
'" 36 x2=2.769In
26
This is also equal ro th e di stance of III" CG. o f the trapezoidal from rn:" surface of water.
Ii '" 2.769 m
Total pressu re. F = pgAiI (": A = 7S)
'" 1{lOO x 9.81 x 78 x 2.769 N '" 211H783 N. AilS.
I I Ii
~ I IL
F == pgA h
= IOOOx9.81 x3.0 x 0.44444 = 13079.9N. Ans.
(ii) Cenl ..., of Pressure ( h*). M.O .I. of rectangle FB eE aboul its CG.,
bd J 2x] J I
fo =  =  =  Ill~
I 12 12 6
M .0 .1. of FBeE abou t an axis passi ng through the e.G. of trapezoidal
'c,· 'c,
== + AI x [DiSlancc he tween CG. of rec tangl e and CG.
of lra p.:zoidalf
I ,
'"  + 2 x 10.5  .4444 1 " .1666 + .006 182" 0. 1727
6
1'.1.0.1. orl he twO triang les ABF am.! ECD about th eir C.G .•
11* '" "' + Ii '" 0.24059 + .4444 '" 0.18()4{, + .4444 '" 0.6248
Air 3x.4444
'" 0.625 m. AilS.
I I Ii
~ I IL
Altt'rnate M eth od
The diswncc oflhe C.G. oflhe trapezoidal channel frum su rfa ce AD is given by (refer to Tab le 3.1
on page 7 1).
(2a + b) II (2)<2+ 4) I
x= x = x ( .; a=2,b=4andh= I )
«(I +b) 3 (2+4) 3
== 0.444 m
h =X= 0.444 III
Total pressure. F=pgAh= 1000><9.81 >< 3.0 x.444 (": A = 3.0)
= 13079 N. Ans .
0.2 407
+ .444 '" 0.625 m. Am .
3.0 x.444
Problem 3.10 A sqlwre oper7llre in the rerrical side of a ((III/.: Iws Dill' diagonal I'errical and is
camp/cleiy col'ered by a p/alle plate Ilil/ged a/ollg olle of Ihe upper sides ollhe aperlllre. The diagonals
of Ihe oper/ure (Iff! 2 III /ollg and II,e Ilmk COll10illS Ii liquid of specific gral'ily 1./5. Th e cerllre of
aperture is /.5 /II heloK' r/,,,, f ree surface. Co!c,,/rlle the thrusl exerled Oil Ille p/ale by 1111: liql/it! (lnt!
posililm of ib aI/Ire of pressu re.
Solution. G ive n : Diagonals of aperture. AC", lJD", 2 m
Area of square aperture. A = Area of ~ClJ + Area o f 6ACD
ACxlJO ACxOD
2 + 2
Sp. gr. of liqu id = 1.15
Density of liqu id. p: 1.15x 1000= 1150kgfm 3
Depth of centre of aperture from free surface.
Ii '" 1.5 Ill.
Fig. l.U
I I Ii
~ I IL
=
ACxOB l
="",,'+
12 ="""'
ACxOOJ
12
(.: M.a .l.of a tria ngle aooulits base '" b/;J)
2 X 13 2 x] J I 1 I ~
= += +  =  III
12 12 6 6 3
Fig. 3.14
Intensity of pressure 00 hasc (or no.po '" PlgiJ l + P2E x 0.5
'" 7848 + 1000 x 9 .8 1 x 0.5", 7848 + 4905 '" 12753 N/m 2
Now force F t '" Area of MDE x Width of tank
I I
'"  x AD x DE x 2.0 =  x 1 x 7848 x 2.0 '" 7848 N
2 2
I I Ii
~ I IL
'" "2I )( EF x Fe)( 2.0 '" "2I x 0.5 x 4905 x 2.0 '" 24525 N
:. Total pressure. F = F, + F, + F}
'" 7848 + 7848 + 2452.5 '" 18148.5 N. AilS.
(ii) Cen tre of Pressu re (h. ). Ta kin g the Illoments of all force abou t A, we get
OIL OF SP. GR . ~O . 9
 . ,
   ..
,     ~ .
,
I' I:
,_
7946.1 IF 5686
1383i .t
I
:,
Fig. 3.15
I I Ii
~ I IL
,
This for<:e will be acting at the CG. of tile triangle ADE. i.e .. al a di>!ancc of ~ xO.9 = 0.6 m below A
Consider a plane hori7.ontal surface immersed in a stalic nuid. As every point of the surface is at the
same depth from the free s urface o f the liquid. the pressure intensity will he equal on the e ntire s urface
and equal 10. {J '" pgll, where II is depth of surface.
I I Ii
~ I IL
Consider a plane surface of arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid in sucli a way that the plane of the
su rface mak es an angle 9 witli the free surface of the liq uid as sliown in Fig. 3.1 &.
FREE LIQU ID SURFACE
I I Ii
~ I IL
B" jFM=AY
whae)' = Distance orCG. fro m axi s 0 0
F = pgsin9 yxA
= pgA l1 (.; h= y sin 9) . .0 .6)
Cenl .... of Press ure (h·)
Pressure force o n lhe strip.dF = pglldA
= pgy sin dA e III = y sin e]
Moment of the force. IIF. ahout axis 0·0
= IIF x Y = pgy si n e dA x y = pg sin e lilA
Sum of mom e nts of all such forces about 00
J
= pg ~i n e yl dA = pg sin eJi dA
= 'P~'c'c;'~'cBc ,.
f
y* ...(3.9)
F
Now
sin 9
".
y. =   . F= pgAI!
I I Ii
~ I IL
I< I,
B", ==si n9
y
or y=  
si n e
I,· '" ""'o[
~
AI<
IG + Ax  .h',
Sm e1
• Ic si n ' S 
II = + 11 ... (3 . 10)
"' AI<
If e '" 90 °, equatio n (3.10) hecomes same as eq uation (3.5) which. is app licab le to vert ic all y plane
submerged surfaces.
In equation (3.10), Ie '" M.O.1. of inc lined surfaces about an ax is passing th rough G ami parallel to 0 0 .
Problem 3.14 (a) A fec/ung,,{ar pit", .. J"ur!"ce 1 m wide and 3 m d"ep!ies in ,mler iii J'uc/! tI w"Y
tiull il$ plmle makes ' m (lIIgle of 3~ " Will, tile free SlIr/llce of waler. Determine Ihe total preSSlue and
1'0,\';1;011 of [enlre of pre.ISllfe when lile Ilflper edge is /.5 III below IIIl' free water surface.
Solu t ion. G iven: FREE WATER SURFACE
o
Width of plJne su rface. b = 2 m
Depth. 11= 3m
Angle, e
= 30"
".
Di~tance of upper edge from free wa la surface = 1.5 m
(,) Total pre._~ ure fo rce is gil'en by equa li o n (3.6) as
F= pgAIi
where p = 1000 kglm 3
z
A=bxd=3x2=6m
Ii = Depth of c.G. fmm free wate r surface
'" 1.5+ 1.5 sin 30° Fig. 3.19
I I Ii
~ I IL
F= pgAh
J V_ """""I
where p = 1000 kglm , to plate
A :bxd = 3x 4 = [2 m 2
I I Ii
~ I IL
F", pgA/'
'" 1000 x 9.81 x 7.0685 x 2.749 '" 190621 N. Am.
(ii) Ct' litre of press urt' (h *)
It /( 4 4
where l G '" 64 (t '" 64 0) '" 3.976 III
Area of ho le
/'",CD+GCsine
= 1.5+ 1.5sin e
F: pgA h
'" 1000 x 9.8 1 x 5.3014 x 2.75
'" 143018 N '" 143.018 kN. An s.
I I Ii
~ I IL
A ' [d'
   d'
0 ' [3'
[    15'[
. !l1 ,
4 4
sin a ", 2~5 and h = 2.75
+ 2.75
I I Ii
~ I IL
Fluid Mechanics
It tt It j
where IG '" 64
4
'" 64 OJ . A", '4It d,, 
II '" 1.5 III
.
and Sill e '" _
, d , x (')'

64

1 d~
, , 3 + ! 5= 16x 9xl.5
  + 1.5
4 "" x 1.5
3'
= ~"~~+ 1.5 ", J1416 + 1.5", 1.5416 m. Ails .
16x 9x l 5
Problem 3.17 A rec/alls"lar 8m .. 5 In xl m is /I;nged at its bll$e "IIlI indi/led ar 60" 10 IIIe horizon 
(a/lIS shown i" Fig. 3.22. To keep Ihe 8<1(e in "Mable position. a coulller II'ciglll of 5000 kgfis a ((ached
aT Il,e upper elld of II,,.
8a /e as sholt'/I il/jigll re. Find Ille depll! ofwa rer {I/ which Ihe gllle begins 10 fall.
Neglect Ihe weight of the gtlle and /ricliOIl at rhe Ilinge and /mlley.
Solution. Given:
Lenglh o f g ~le
Widlh of gale
= 511\
=2 m """. , ,
9", 60 0 ~~  "
Weight. IV", 5000 kgf ,
'" 5000 x 9.81 N
= 49050 (': I kgf = 9.8 1 N)
N
" A_

C
60
As the pulle y is fric ti on less. Ihe force actin g at H= 49050 N. First
HINGE
find th e 100ai force F actin g o n Ihe g ate All for a give n de plh o f
wate r. Fig. 3.2.2.
AE II 5 211
From figure,
AD", sine '" sin 60o"'""J3i2=T3
211 411 2
Area of gate imme rsed in water. A = AD)( Widt h x ""7:' x 2 == ""7:' m
..;3 ..;3
=
bx(AD'J
12
2 (2" y
12)( .J3)
I I Ii
~ I IL
0'
.245250 = 39240 Itl
3x3
Problem 3 .18 A" inclilled re"/{1II8,,/ar J/uice gme All, 1.2 111 by 5 III size as sho wn in f"ig. 3.23 is
iustal/ed 10 cOlll'Olllle di.{Clwrge o/wmer. The end A is/lillged. Determitll' Ille force norma/to lite gMf!
" f'piied ul 8 Iv open il.
Solution. Gi ve n :
A = Area o f ga le = 1.2 x 5.0 '" 6.0 111 2
Dt:plli of e.G . of the gale from free surface of the wate r = h
= DC '" 8C _ BE FREE WATER SURFACE 0 C 0
= 5.0 _ BG si n 45 0
I
== 5.0  0.6 x Ji == 4.576 m
I I Ii
~ I IL
211  II
Area. A=ACxl=~xl:II= 
"1/3 2
2/, )3 Fig.3.24
Ix ( "0/;'
"3 gil ' 211 ,
12 "'12x3xlf,"'9xJJ
I I Ii
~ I IL
2h 2/,
11  3=  or 11  =3 or ~3 '" .3
3 3
h=3x3=9m
Height of water for tipping the gate = 9 m . An s.
Problem 3 .20 A reCllmglflar sluice gale An. 1 In wide Wid 3 m 10llg is hinged at A as ,~lIo\\'n ill
"ig. 3.25. II is kepI closed by a weiglllfl.I"<,J 10 Ille gare. 11w IOwl weighl ofrlw gale {/tulwl'igll1jixed 10
Ihe gmt' is 313350 N. Find Ihe height of tile water 'II' wlliell .... ill jlw eOfue 1111" gale to open. Ti,e anlre
olgral'il}, ofrhe ...eight and gale is a/ G.
Solution. Given:
Width of g,nc. b '" 2 m: Length or gate L= 3 III
1
Area. A=2)(3=6m
Weight of gate ami W.:: 343350 N
Angle of j"clination. e '"
45°
Let /, is the required height of wale r.
C'
I, ' = ~4 ' cX":::"'c'c4",'o + (II 
C 1.521) = ; cO,.3c7'o'~ + (II  <0 I) m
1..,_
6x(1t 1.52 1) (h 1.521)
I I Ii
~ I IL
........
•
1,
~
'".  " t
e '" 45"
, "
_ _ . K. 
:: F~  e
(b) (a)
Fig. J .ZS
Now laking rn om,," \s about hin ge A. We gel
343350xEG",FxAH
AK
343350 X 0.6 '" F x  
sin 450
[
rro m AAKH. Fig. 3.25 (b) AK '" AU sin ij ", AH sin 45~ ,', AH '" ~l
sin 450
AK: :~J"7,,,
5 C" +(h  1.52 1)  (1I  2.12 1)
111.521
375 375
= :'7CC:
Ii 1.521
+ 2. 11 1  152 J '" :'7CC:
II 1.521
+ 0.6 .. ,(i ii)
I I Ii
~ I IL
=2.5+
1
x3xT
fi {: AG '" ±Of hdg ht of triangle }
3
'" 2.5 + .866 m = 3.366 m
(i) T o ta l p ress ure for~ (1')
F = pgA/' '" 1000 x 9.8 1 x 3 x 3.366 '" 9906 1.38 N. Am.
(ii) Ce nt re o r p ress ure (h "'). Dept h of ce ntre of pres.wrc from free surface of water is gil·en hy
1,· = Icsin
, 
All
le 
+ II
bill 2x 3J 3 4
where Ic =  =   =  = 1.5m
36 36 2
l
n f:iJ'
I,· " 1.53 xX si3.366 + 3.366" 0.111 + 3.366" 3 .477 m . AIlS.
Consider a curved surface AB, submerged in a s tatic nuid as shown in Fig. 3.27. Let dA is the area
of a small strip at a depth of II from water surface.
Thcn pressure intensity on the area dA is "pgil
and pressure forcc. Iff"" P X Area" pgll X dA ... (3 . 11)
This force dF acts nomlalto the surface.
Hcnce IOlal pressure force on the cu rved surface should be
I I Ii
~ I IL
WATER
SURFACE C
,
E4~
 .....
 ::::=::~:: dF,::
:.,:: ,
dA cos {I
AREAdA
(')
(.)
FIg . 3.27
Bul here as Ihe direction of Ihe forces on tbe small areas arc 110t in the same direction. but varies
from point 10 ()Oint. Hence in1egralion of equation (3.1 1) for curved surface is irnpos~ible. The problem
can. however. be solved by rc!\Olving the force dF in two components dF, and <IF,. in the x and )'
directions respectively. The total force in the .r and y direct ions. i.e., F$ and F" arc obtained hy
inlcgraling dF, and lIF,. T hen 100al force on tile curved surface is
2
F=JF, +F' , · .. 0 ·13)
F
;md inclin~tiol1 of rcsuitanl wilh horizonwl is tan 4' == 2:. ... (3.14 )
F,
Resolving the force dF given by equation (3.1 1) in x and)' directions:
dF, = rlF sin e = pgildA sin €I I': dF=pghdAI
and <iF" '" dF cos 8:: pglldA cos 8
TotJI forces in 'he of Jnd }' dirediun ~re :
F , :: J dFA '" J p.!:luiA sin 8 '" pg J II/fA sin 0 ... (3. 15)
and F, = J dF, '" J pgllllA cos 8 "" pg J IIlJA cos 8 ...(3. 16)
Fig. 3.27 (b) shows the cnlarged area dA. From this figure. i. e .• n.EFG.
EF=dA
FG::dAsin8
EG=dAcos9
Thus in equation (3.15). dA sin 8= FG = Vcrtical projec ti on of the ~rea dA and h~nce the expression
pg JIldA sin e repr~scnts the total pressure force 011 the projected area of the curved surface on Ihe
vertical plane. Thus
Fx :: Tutal pressure force on the projected area of the curvcd surface on vertical plane. . .. (3. 17)
e
Also dA l'OS = EG = hurilOntal projecliun of dA and hence /IdA cos is the voluUle o f the liquid e
contained in the elementary arca dA UplO free surface of the liquid. Thus J /ldA cos e is Ihe total
volume contained between the curved surface e~tended upto free surface.
Hence pg J I1dA cos e is the 10lal weighl suppo l1ed by the curved surface. Thus
F. "'pg JhdAcosO
'" weight uf liquid su pported by the curved surface UplO free surface of liquid. . .. (3. 1&)
I I Ii
~ I IL
== pgAh
I I Ii
~ I IL
F = JCFo,:+::F,''
= .j19620+30819 .j384944400 + 949810761
= 36534.4 N. Ans.
The ang le made by the resultant with horizontal is give n by
Fy 30819
Ian 9=  =   " 1.5708
F. 19620
e " Ian 1.5708 = 57' 3 1'. Ans.
Problem 3 .24 Find tile magnitude and direclion of II,e re.illitwlI force due 10 water acting on (I
roller gale of cylindrical form of 4.0 m diameter. wl,ell the gate is placed all tile dam ill such a way that
,,·Clter is just goillg to spill. Toke Ihe lenglh of the gClte os 8 III.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of gale =4 (11
Rad ius. R =2 rn
Len gth of gal~. 1= 8 rn
I I Ii
~ I IL
e = 3 1" 8', An s.
Problem 3.25 F illd the /wriZOlilul and I'f!r/ica/ campanelli of W(ller pressu re (lc/i' ,g all lite face of II
rainIer ga/eo/90° ~'eClorofrlldi"s 4 m (l~' si,o ,,,,, in Fig. 3.32. Take widlll ofgllte ullily.
SolutIon. Given:
Radius of g~te, R",4rn
Horizontal cornponenl of force acting on the gale is
Fx'" Porce on area of gate
projected o n I'enica l plane
'" Force on area ADlJ
= pgA l1
whe re A", A8 x Width of gate
",2xADxl (": AlJ =: 2AD) Fi g . 3.32
=: 2 x 4 x sin 45° =: 8 )( .707 =: 5.656 rn ! [':AD=4sin4·n
h _
_ _An __ 5,656 _ 2 828 m
~~ _ .
2 2
F, = 1000x9.81 x 5.656 x 2.828 N = 156',)11 N. Ans.
Vertica l co mpone n'
I I Ii
~ I IL
r(lilller gale of radius 8 II! (IS shown ill Fig. 3.33. Take ,..idlh of gale "IIily.
Solution. Th e hori7.0nlal compone nt of water pressure is gile n by
F , '" pgA /, '" Fo rce on th e area proj ected on ve ni ca l plane
"" Force on the vertical area o f BD WATER SURFACE c
whe re A", IJD x W idth o f gate", 4 .0 x I '" 4.0 III
 I
'.Lm
h=x4=2m
2
F, = lOOOx9.8 1 x 4 .0x2 .0= 78480N. An s. Fig . l,lJ
Vertical rompone nl of Ih e wale r pressu re is give n by
F, '" Weight of Wale r su prmncd or enclosed (imagi nary) by c urved
surface en
'" Weight of water in the portion eBDC
'" pg x [Area of portion CBD C ] x Wid t h of gale
'" pg x (Area of sector eBO  Area of the trian g le BODI x 1
= 9810 X [ .!... 7t x 8l ~ ~
4.~
O ~X~8~.8~OO='=3~O_O]
12 2
1': DO" 80 cos 30° = 8 x cos 30° 1
'" 9810 x 116.755 ~ 13.856] = 28439 N. An s.
Problem 3.27 A cylindriClIl gllle of 4 m diameler 2 m long has ...lIIer on ils bolll sides as sllo ...n in
Fig. 3.3 4. Delermine Ihe magnilllde. 10culioll wId direClion of Ihe resuillml force e.wrted b)' Ihe ...lIler
on Ihe gille. Fillli aiso Ihe /easl "'eiglll of Ille cylinder so Ihlll il may 1101 be lifted 11 ... (1)' f rom Ihe floor.
Solution. Given: WATER SURFACE A
Dia. of g ale =4m
Radius ,,2 In WATER
(i) The forces acting on th e left Sidc of the cy linder aTe _ _ _ _ ~Q ___ _ D SURFACE
The ho ri zontal co mpone nt. F. ,
where f"", "
F 4m
B
x,__~_ ~
Force of wate r on area projected on ve rtlcal =_:_::::::~=~ ~~ _:__ FY, : Fy,
i :t :_
c::~~~::::::
'm
p l an e ._:_:_:_:._:_=_ :._:._=_:._. 'C Fx
= Force o n ,uea AOC
Fig. 3.34
" pgA h where A"ACxW idth ,, 4 x2
1
" looox9.8 1 x8x2 "" 8 m
" 156960 N
I I Ii
~I IL
=pgX[~ R l] xWidlhof ga te
= 1000 x9.8 1 x ~ x2 1 x2 = 6 1638 N
4
Resulta nt force in tile direction o f x.
Fx = F"  F" = 156960  39240 = 11 7720 N
Resultant force in the direction o f y.
F ., =F,• I +F,, = 123276+6 1638= 1S49 14 N
(i) Res ulhmt fore", F is give n 3S
rorcc. F" acts OIl a distance of 2; 4 = 2.67 m from the tOp su rface of water o n left side. while F.,
ac ts at a distance of t x 2 = 1.:\3 III from free surfa<:e on the right side o f the <:y linder. The rcsu lWnt
force F, in the d irection of.r wi ll act at a distance of y fro m the bonom as
F, x)' == F" [4  2.67 1 F" [2  1.33[
117720 x)' = 156960 x 1.33  39240 x .67 == 208756.8  26290.8 == 182466
182466
Y= = 1.55 m from the bonom.
117720
Force F a<:ts at a disl<Ince 4R fro m AGe Of at a distance 4 x 2.0 == 0.8488 m from AGe IOwanls
JI 31t 31t
left of AOe.
Also F), aets at a distance 4R == 0.8488 m from AGe towards the right of AGe. The resu ltant force
, 3,
FJ will act at a distance x from AGe which is give ll by
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:::::::::;f~'"
(i) lIurl lo ntnl C umpunent uf Fure..
:0T
= 1.5 x 2.0 = 3.0 1l1 ~
F, =pgA/'
where A == Area projected on vc.rtical plane ~~~IM~~~~~~
, ' , ' , ' , ' , ' fG , _ ,
: 2.5 m
'\

"=2+
15
=2.75 :::::::::t:a ~ _Ol..; __
2 _:_:_:_:1~5 ~ .: H ,0
F~ = l000x9.81 x3.0x2.75 :::::}:r:::~
= 80932.5 N. An s . ,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:::~
(ii) Vt'rtical CO llll)Ollent of Forcc 

F, '" Weigh! of water enclosed or supported

a(;lually or imaginary by (;urvcd surface ABC
== Weight of water in the portion CODE ABC
= Weight of water ill COOFflC  Weight of water in A£FB
But weight of water in CODFBC
== Weight of wata in [COB + ODFBO[
== 64458.5 N
Weight of water in AEFB '" pg [Area of AEFB[ x 2.0
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Problem 3 .30 A dam has" p"rabolic shapl! y '" Yo (c<..)2 a~' shown ill Fig. 3.38 below IUn'illg xQ '" 6 m
.',
{lnd Yo '" 9 m. The fluid is water with density '" /000 kg/m.!, Compule the "ori2Omal. !'Imical alld Ihe
resu/Ullil thrust exerted by ",mer per melre lellglh of the dam.
Solullon. Given:
Equalion of Ihe curve OA is
P)'o
2
(;:r =9(~r =9 x ;: '" x:
1
.t '" 4)'
"'
of '" .J4Y '"
2ylr.'
Width of dam. b: lnl.
(i) lIorizontnllhrus t t'xerled by w:ller
F, '" Force c"cned by wate r on venica l surface
OB, i.e.. the surfa(;c obtained by projc(;ling
the curved s urface 011 vertical plane
Fig . 3.38
"' pgA;;
'" 1000x9.81 x(9x I) Xl9 == 397305 N. Ans.
=19620 x [(~:i~ ) =I ,
19620 x ~ [9.\12 1
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~~ ~ ~~~~~=
_~_~_~ _~_~_~_:_:
 
~
C
:,
'0
L
Weight of cy linder. IV= 196.2 k.N = 196200N 3m F. 0"  + ~ A
HoriwnwJ fOT..,c exerted by water l tFy
F , = Force on vcnical area SOC ,
: pgAh f ig. 3.39
, ~ I
whe re A =BOCx/= 3x4= 12m.iI =  x3= 1.5m
2
F,= l000 x9 _81 x 12x L5= 176580N
The ve ni cal force e~ened by water
F, = Weight of wate r enclosed in BDC08
Lock gates arc the devices 1I',ed for changing the water level in a cana l or a rive r for na viga ti on.
Fig. 3.40 shows plan and elev ati on of a pair o f lock gates. Let All and IlC he the two lock ga tes. Each
gate is supponed Orl twO hinges Ii~ed on their top arid ool1om at the ends A and C. In the c losed
position. th e gat~s meet at 8.
Let F = Resulta nt force due to water on the gate All or IlC acting arc right angles to the gate
R = Reaction at the lower and upper hin ge
P = Reaction at the oommon oontact surface of the two gates and acti ng perpendic ular to the
con tact surface.
Let the force P and F meet at O. Then the reactio n R must pass through 0 as the gate All is in the
equilib rium under the adion of three forces. Let e is the inclination o f the lock gate with the normal to
the side of the lock.
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ELEVATION
DOWNSTREAM
SIDE
'CAN
Fig. 3.40
F = F\ _ F _ pgIH\' _ pglHi
Resu ltant force 2 2 2
Substituting the val ue o f ij and F in equation (3.20). the value of P and R e~n be c~kulated.
Reaction s .. t th e tol' li nd bott om hin ges
Let R, '" Reaction o f the top hi nge
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a distance of ~
3
from bollOOl while F, acts at a di stance o f

H~3 from bonoill.
R
.
X Sln
Fi HI F, H ,
&x H =  x     x  .• ,(1)
I 2 3 2 3
where H = DiMallcc between twO hinges
Resol ving force s horiZOntally
. . fj F,
R,sme + Rb slne=   .....:... ...(ii)
2 2
From equations (0 and (ii). we can find R, and Rho
Problem 3.32 Each gare of a lock i,y 6 In high Wilt is supported by two hillges placcd ()II IIIe lap
alld bOl/om of lile gille. W/lell Iile gale.! (lfe c/o.!ei/. 111e)' make GIl angle of 110°. The widlll of lack is
5 m. Ifrlie ",/rer (e"e!s lIr,' I m lind 2 III Oil 1101' upsrream and dOll'lIsrr.am sides reSl'eC(iI'ely. derermine
rlie Imlg,lirl,,!e of rile forces 011 rlie liillges dill' ro lI'arer pressllre.
Solution. Given:
Heig tu of loc k:
Width of lock
:: 6m
:: 5m
r :;:;?;:
HINGE
1'm 
Width of each lock gate =A B
~
"' 10
AD
cos 30°
0
2.5
cos 30°
't I ,~~'
'''' '"
ELEVATIQ INGE R R
:: 2.887 m C
''''.oT L
Angle belwee ll gales :: 120°
180· 120' ~~~ ~
eo
Height of wa ter on upslream side
2
"'fm DOWN$TRE
HI = 4m PLAN A 30"
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'" 56643 N
,~~~~ L HINGES
,
'm
, •
(3) PlAN (b) ELEVATION
Fig.J.42
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0'
.r = c'c."X"'."67c,cF'LX
" ,,
1.3,,,
3 lS I2. 26x2.67  453.065x 1.33
F 1359.195
4838.734  602.576 3 3
'" '" .1I6= . . lI m
1359.195
Hence R is a lso aC iillg ai a d istance 3, 11 m from bol1om.
Tak ing mo ment s o f Rr and R aboll1 the bo no ll1 hinge
RTx 16.0  1.01= R x (x  1.0)
RX(I'  I.O) 1359.195x2.11
RT = = 573.58 N
5.0 5.0
Rs"' R  RT'" 1359.195573.58
'" 785.6\5 kN. A ilS .
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In c hapl ers 2 and 3 . the containers which co ntains liquids. arc assumed to be at resl. Hence the
liquids are also at res!. They arc in st:uic cquilibri ulll wilh respecI to con lainas. Bul if Ih e container
containing a liq uid is mad e (0 move Wilh a COn S[an l acceleration. the liquid panicles initi all y will mOVe
relmive 10 each o lh er and after some tim e. there will nO! be an y relative motion between the liquid
part icles and bound ari es o f Ihe conta in er . The liquid w ill tak.e up a new position under th e effect of
acceleration imparted to ils con tainer. T he liqu id will come \0 rest in this neW position rda tive 10 \ll<)
container. Th e en li re nu id ma ss moves as a si ng le unit. Since the liqu id aFter anainin g a new position
is in sta tic condi tion relative to the cOlllainer. the laws o f hydrostatic can be applied to determine the
liquid pressure. As there is no re lat ive motion between the liquid panicles. hence the shear stresses and
shear forces be tween liquid panicles will be zero. T he pressure will be normal to th e surface in co ntact
with the liqu id.
The following are the important c ases under consideration:
(i) Liquid (.'Ontainers subject to constant horizontal accele ration.
(i,) Liquid cont ain ers subjl'ct to ronstant vertical acceleration.
) .8. I Liquid Containers Subject to Constant Horizonta l Acceleration. Fig. 3.43 (<<)
shows a tank conta inin g a liqui d upto a certain depth. The ta nk is s tationary and free surface of liqu id
is horizontal. Let this tank is moving with a ronstant accelerat ion 'n' in the horizo nta l direction towards
right as shown in Fig. 3.43 (b). The initia l free su rface of liqu id which was horizontal, now takes the
"hape as shown in Fig. 3.43 (b). Now AB represcn ts the new free surface of th e liquid. Thus the free
surface of liqu id due to horizo ntal acceleration wi ll become a downward slopi ng inclined plan". with
the liquid ri sing at the back end. the liqu id fallin g at the front end . The equation for the free liqu id
surface c an be derived by considering the equilibrium of a fluid elcmelll C lying on the free su rface.
The forces acting o n the clement Care:
Free surface of
l;quOd
, Originat liquid
sorlsCfl
Moving horizontat
c Tank
    e C mX8
""Rear
or
,",
end
•
lW) • • • (0'
(., (0'
Fig. 3.43
(i) the pressure force P exerted by the s urround ing fluid on the cle melll C. This force is normal to
the free surface.
(it) the weig ht of the fluid cle melll i.e .. m x g acting vertically downward.
(iii) accelerating force i.e .. Nt x n aC ling in horizontal direc tion.
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, ,
/'JI:=:;,. LInes 01 constant
pressure
"
' ~M::l:
f pgh,
Fi g, 3.44
Consider the equilibrium of the eleme nta ry prism DE.
The forces acting on this pri~m DE in the ve nil:al direl:tion arc:
(i) the atmospheric pressure force (Po x riA) althe top end of the prism ac ting downwards,
(ii) tile weigh t of th e clemen t (p x g x" x dA) at the e.G. o f Ihe c le ment acting in Ih e downward
d irection. and
(iii) tile pressure force (p x <fA) althc bottom end of thc prism acting upwards.
Sincc there is no venka l acccleration givcn to the tanl.:. he nce net force acting verticall y should be
zero.
P x <fA  Po x riA  pgll riA =0
p  Po pgll=O or P=Po +pgll
"'
or P  Po =pg/r
or gauge pressure at point D is given by
P = pglr
or pressure head at point D.  I' =/1.
PS
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F I = Total pressure force exerted by liq uid 011 the rear sid e of th e tank
F z = T ot al pressu re force exert ed by liq uid o n th e fronl s id ~ of th ~ lank .
th" n FI = (A rea of tri ang le AM L) x W idth
I I ~. b.h ~
= ( rxLM X AM Xb)=rxpglllxIlIXb= 2
T. 1
T he valu es o f FI and F2 can al so he o btained as
[R efer to F ig. 3 .44 (a )l


Itl
=2I "I",
", ;[[[g{;~[,,
md
=P Xg x(hl x b) x
~pXgx(",xb) x ......:..

_
2
I"~
2
A,
pg. b.
= h,

xh and h,
I"~
==
 2 1 t
..... .
:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:
 ,~~~::~~~:::~:
F.·:·:~'..
•••••••• •• :. ..•••••
~ h
I , Fig. 3.44(a)
= "2 pg.bxI12·
It ca n also he prove d that th e diffe re nce of th ese two forces (i.e .. FI  FJJ is eq ual to the force
r~ qui redto acce lerate the lIla~s o f the liq uid co ntained in th e ta nk i.e ..
f'1  F 2= M xa
whe re M = T o ta l m ass o f the liqu id con tained in the tank
II = Horizon tal co nstant acceleratio n .
Note : (I) If a tank completely filled with liquid and open at the top is subjected to a COIIstam horirontal
acceleration . then some of the liquid will spill out from the tank snd new free surf""e wit h il< slope given by
equation tan 9 = _!!. will be de'·eloped.
g
(ii ) If a tanK par1ly filled with liquid and open at the top is subjected to a constant horizontal acce leration.
spilling of the liquid may taKe plae<.: depending upon the magn itude of the acceleration.
(iii) If a lan k complelely filled wilh liquid and closed althe top is subjecled 10 a con,tam horizontal accelera 
tion.lhen the liquid wo uld not spill oul from the tan k all d also there wil l be no adjustment in Ihe surface cle"alion
oflhe liquid. Bullhc eq uation tan e =   "g i< applicable for Ihi' case also.
(i" ) The example for a tan~ with liquid .<ubjected 10 a constam horizontal acceleration. i, a fuel tank on an
ail1'l~n" during t~ke off.
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, "



the cont rol volume in the horizontal di recti on must be equal 10
the pl'<)duct of ma.% of the liquid in CQntml vol um" and accel  ,
eration of the liquid. ~I."m ~'
(F,  f',) 5!>1 XlI F ig. 3.46
= (p X volumc of cont rol vol umc) x II
5
[lOOO x ( AC"D)
2 . 1x2.4
xA8xwldth
= 36000 N
(": AC = h, " 1.7338 Ill. SO = h, = 0.2662 tll. and tlB = 6 Ill. width," 2.5 m)
Th e abovc force is "early the same as thc difference of the forces acting on thc two ends of the tank. (i.e,.
35992,88 :< 36000)
Problem 3.35 Tile reClang"lar lallk of lite abOl'" probl"m contaill S ...aler 10 a deplll of 1.5 III. Fin d
Ille I,orizon/{,l acceleralion wllicll m"y be im(!llfled 10 lite IlI/lk ilt lite direCliOIl of ilJ' lengllt J"O Ilwl
(i) Ihe spillillg of ..."ter f rom Ihe 1'lIIk is jllst 011 Ihe !"erge of latill g pl(!ce.
(il) Ihe f r0l11 bo/lom co mer of Ihe ,,,"k iJ' j ll S! e_.posed.
(iii) lite bOl/om of I/Il' /(IIIk is eXpOJ'ed upla ils mid·poinl.
AI,w c,dClllate Ihe tolal force.! exerted by II,e ...mer on each end of lite lank ilt eaclt caJ'e. A 1$0 pro!"e
Illat IIII' di/fer('/tce belweelt Ilte,le forces is elflw l to lite fo rce "eCeJsa ,)" 10 accelerale lite mass of ...ater
wllk.
Solution. Given:
Dimensions of the tank from pre vio us problem.
L '" 6 Ill. width (b ) '" 2.5 m and depth '" 2 III
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JUII 0/111/1'
"
,age oftak./Ilg place
d' I
..xl a '" reqUiTe ..omo nla aeee cral10n
I T__ , ,,. ". 8
":. 3.. ::._ ":.::"j,":
:_:::_:::':::':::_:':~_:::_: _. _: ._:
When the sp lllm g of water from thc lank IS JUS1 o n th e 15m . ~::: :_:'~. ~:.~: ~:_~~~: ~:::_
\ ergc of lakmg pi ace. tlie water wou Id rise u PIO the rear ' .' : ,::, .:_ . _ . _.: _'  .:_.:::.:__
tOp corne r of the tank as sliown 111 FIg. 3.47 (a) E,"    .,•. , ., •. ,  ,,   ,. F
I · ' m ~
~ ' I
Ian 9= AC '" (2 1.5) '" 0.5 =0. 1667
AO 3 3 Fig. 3.47 (J) Spilling of 'IlNlur is just on
tht tJerge of taking place.
But frolll equation (3.20) Ian a = "g (Numerica ll y)
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(22+1 ) x6x2.5=22.5m.,
aHer ~e<.1ioo sunace
=
(Ii) (iI) Horizontal acceieral;on ... I,en tile frolll
bOl/om cortler of Ihe Iallk i,~ just e.rpoud
Refe r 10 Fig. 3.47 (b). In this c ase the free su r
face of water in the tank will be along CD. •
leI 1I '" required hori zontal acceleration.
CE 2 I
In th is <:ase, 1309 =  =  = 
ED 6 3 , ,
BUI from equatioll (J.l7), I . 'm ~
" .I
Fig. 3.47 (b)
tan e = ~ (Numerically)
g
(b) Tolal jorces exerted by waler 011 eaell end of Ihe l(llik
The force exerted by water on the end CE of the tank is
F, "'pg xA , x h'
whe re A,=CExw idth= 2x2.S",'; m"
CE 2
h, =  :  = lm = 1{lOOx9.81 x5x 1
2 2
= 49050 N. Ans.
The force exerted by Waler on the end BD of the tank is zero as there is no water against the face BD
Fl =0
Difference of forces = 49050  0 = 49050 N
(e) Difference offorces is eqlw/IO rhe force neeeHary 10 accelerate rhe lIIass ofwarer ill rhe /(llik.
= 2;6 x2.5= 15 m3
Force necessary to accele rate the mass of water in th e tank
= Mass of water in tank x Ac(;e lcratiun
= (1000 x Volume of water) x 3.27
= 1000 x 15 x3.27 =4,)050 N
Difference of two forces is also = 490S0 N
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i ....... 7. '
of the ta n~ is eq ual \0 the force necessary to accelerate
the mass of wate r in th e tank.
(iii) (a) Horizon/al (lac/era/ioll wllell the bOl/om of
till' lallk is eXJlosed lip/a its midpoiru
Refer 10 Fig. 3.47 (e). hi thi s casc the free surface of •
r
W31cr in the tank w ill be a lo ng CD'. where D * is the
mid po int of ED. :::::':':'::.
Let (/ '" required horizontal acce lerat io n from
Fig. 3.47 (e), it is clear that
C£ 2
lane=  ~
ED' 3
But from cquiltion (3.20 ) numerically
1ane=~
, , ,
a=gxlan 6=9.81 x  =6.54 mls. Ail S.
3
(b) Tolal forces exerted by ,m/er on cod, end of Ihe lank
The force cxcrwd by water on the end C£ of the tant is
F I=pxgxAlx/IJ
where A 1 =CExWidlh=2x2.S=Sm!
CE 2
1,,=  =  : lm
, 2
"lOOOx9.81 x5x 1
'" 49050 N. AilS.
The force exen cd by waler on lhe end 8D is zero as lh ere is no waler againsllhe face BD.
Fl '" 0
Differe nce o f lhe forces'" FI  Fl = 49050  0 = 49050 N
(c) Difference of rhe 1»"0 force.! is equtl/ fa rile force neces.lary fa aealerare rile Intls.f of lI"aler
reI/wining ill Ihe Iallk
Volume o f waler in lhe lank:: Area CED* x Widlh o f tank
C£xED* 2x3
2 X2.5"  ,  X2.5=7.5 m)
Force necessary 10 accele rate th e mass of water in the tank
" Mass of water x Acce leration
= p x Volume of water x 6.54
= 1000 x 7.5 x 6.54
=49050 N
This is th e same force JS the difference of the lWO forces on the lWO ends of the wnk.
Problem 3.36 A reclallgular wnk of lellglll 6 m. widlll 2.5 m (md lleighl 2 In is completely filled lI"ilh
K·(ller when al resl. The tUIlk. 6· opell 01 Ihe lop. The 1(JIlk is subjected 10 0 hor;zoll/o/ COlis/mi l {illear
accelemlioll of 2..1 mli ill Ihe directiOl1 of ils /ellglh. Find Ihe ,·olume of ,,"ala spilled from 1111;0 lallk.
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So lution. Given:
L "" 6 Ill . b " 2.5 111 and height, H", 2 m
Horizontal acceleration. 1I '" 2.4 rnls ,
2
The slope of Ihe free surface of water after the lank is subjected to linear comaa,,1 acceleration is
given by equation (3 .20) as
tan6= 
8e
AB
BC=ABxtan8
=6)(0.2446 I' 8m '1
(": AB '" Length = 6 III ; Ian e = 0.2446) Fig . 3.48
= 1.4676 III
Volume of water spilled = Area of ABC x Width of tank
=(+XABxBC) x 2.5 (': Width = 2.5 10)
=+)(6)(1.4676)(2.5 (,: IJC= 1.4676111)
'" i 1.007 nrl, Ail S.
3.8.2 Liquid Container Subjected to Constant Vertical Acceleration . Fig. 3.49 sliows
a tank containi ng a liquid and the tank is moving vertically upward wilh a constant 3(;ccicrmion. The
liquid in the tank will be su bjected to the same ve nic al accckration. To obtain Ihe expression for the
pressure at any point in the liqu id Illass subjec ted to venical upward accele ration. consider a vertical
elementary prism of liquid CDFE.
Free surface
I 1
101 ""1
f pgh(1 · t )  1
Fig. 3.49
LeI dA '" Crosssectional area of prism
I,,,, Hdghl of prism
/10 " Atmospheric pre5.';u re acting on Ihe face CE
p " Pn:ssure at a depth II acting on the fat"'! DF
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But (p  Po) is the g~uge pressure. l'len<:(; gauge pressure OIl any point in the liquid m~ ss subjec ted to
,1 constam vertical upward ~lcceleration , is given by
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b= 2m
To find the force exerted by wate r 011 the side
of the tank when moving vertically upward. Ie! us
"
I
first tlnd the pressure al the honom o f th e tank.
The gauge pressure at the bonolll (i.e .. at point B)
for this case is give R by equation as
Fig. 1.51
==(txA8X8C) Xb
== 3678.75 Nfn/
This pressure is represented by line Be.
Now th" force on the side AB == Area of triangle ABC x Width
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=(t XA B xBD)X b
= (ixO.5x 4905)x2 (': ED :: 4905)
= 2452.5 N. AilS.
For this case. the force on An can also be obtained as
"AIl= pgA.;;
wllerc A:: AB x Widlll = 0.5 x 2 = 1 m 2
 AS 0 .5
It::  :  =0.25111 = 1000 x9.81 x 1 xO.25
2 2
= 2452.5 N. AilS.
Problem 3.38 A umk coll/oins »'a/er "plo (j depth of 1.5 m, The leng/II amI wid/I, of /lIe lank (lrl!
I m (lIld :z m respec/indy. Th e wnk is mo\'ing lip "" jllc/ined p/(Jlle with (I cons/,w/ (lccderu/iol! of
I ",Ii. The inc/inaliOll of Ihe p/mw will, the /u)riZOJ1la/ is 30° as 11110 ...11 in Fig. 3.53. Find.
(i) Ihe ''''gle made hy Ihefree J'u rf"ce ofll'lIler will! Ihe horiWII{(,/.
(ii) Ihe pressure III Ihe hOI/om of I/le lallt (1/ Ihe fro n/ ami rear ellds.
Solution. Given:
'm
Dcptli of water. 11 == 1.5 10 : Lengt li. L == 4 III and
Width. b == 2 Ul
Constant acceleration along th e inclined plane.
1
II '" 4 Ill /5
Inclination of plaoe. 0: == 3D"
a
Let == Angle mad~ by the free surfac", of w~ter
after tlie acceleration is imparted to the tank
p~ == Pressure ,lithe bo1l0111 of the tank :It the from ",nd
and Pv == Pressure at the bottom of the taJlk at the reaT
end. Fig. 3.53
This proble m can be donr by resolving the give n acceleration along thc horizontal direction and
vertical d irection. The n eac h of these c ases Ill ay be separately anal ysed according to the sct procedure.
Horizontal and vertical eomponcnts of the acceleration arc:
a" '" II cos Cl " 4 cos 30° '" 3.464 lll/s
2
,
{/ == a sin Cl == 4 sin 30° == 2 m/s 2
When th~ tnnk is station~ry on the inclined plane, free s urfac", o f liquid will be along EF ~s shown
in Fig, 3.53, But when til", tank is moving upward alo ng the indi Jled plane th e fr"'e surface of liquid
will be along ne. When the tank containing a liquid is moving up an inclined plane with a constant
accderation. thc angl e madc by the frce surface of thc liquid with thc horizontal is g iven by
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S. The centre of pressure for a plane ,'crtical surface III's al a depth of twothird the height of the
immersed surface.
where f~ ", Hnriwntal force on cun"cd surface and is equal to total pressure force on the projected area
of Ihe curved surface on the ,"nieal plane.
K pgAh
and F, '" Vertical force on submerged curvcd surface and is equal 10 Ihc weight of liquid actually
or imaginary supported by the curved surface.
F
7. The inclinalion of Ihc result,ml force on curved surface with horizontal. tan e = .2....
F,
8. The resultant for • .:: on a sluice gate. F = FI  Fl
where F, = Pressure force On (he upstream side o f (he sluice !laIc and
F : '" Pressure force on the downstream side of the sluice gate.
9. Po. a lock gate. the reaction ""'tween the two gates i. equal to the r~action at the hing~" R" I'.
EXERCISE
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u. Derive an expression for the reaction between the gates as I' '" _ __
,.
11. Prove 1ha1 the reaction between the gates of a lock is equal to the reaction at the hinge.
2 sin e
where"" Resultant water pressure on lock gale, (I '" inclination of the gate with nonnal to the side oflhe lock.
11 . When will centfe of pressure and centre of gmvity of an immersed plane surface coincide?
IS. Find an expression for the force cxened and ccnlre of pressure for a complclely SUbmerged inclined pi:me
surf~ce. Can Ihe same melhod be applied for finding Ihe resull~nl for.:e On a curved surface innners..'<l in
Ihe liljuid ? If nOI. why?
16. Whal do yo u undersland by Ihe hydroslalic equal ion ? Wilh Ihe help oflhis equalion derive Ihe expressions
for lhe IOlal Ihrusl on a sub·merged plane area and Ihe buoyam force aCling on a sub·merged body.
I . DClcnninc Ihe 10lal press ure and dcplh of cenlre of pressure on a plane re<:I:,ngulur surface of 1 111 wide
and 3 111 deep when ils upper edge is horizonlal and (al coincides wilh Waler surface (b) 2 111 below Ihe
free waler surface. [Ans. (a) 44 145 N. 2.0m. (b) 103005 N. 3.71 4 ml
2. Dctennine the IOlal pressure on a cir.:ular plale of diamcler 1.5 m which is placed verlkally in walcr in
such a way Ihal ceTllrc of plale is 2 m below Ihe free surface of waler Find Ihe posilion of cenlre of
pressure also. IAn< . 34668.54N.2.07rnl
3. A re<;langular sluice gale is situaled on the ,·crlkal wall of a lock. The verlkal side of the sluice is 6 m
in lenglh and depth of centroid of area is 8 m below the Water surface. Prove Ihat Ihe depth of cemre of
pressure is given by 8.475 m.
4. A circular opening. 3 m diamelcr. in a vertkal side of a tank is closro by a disc of 3 m diameter Which can
rotate about a horizontal diameter. Calculate (i) the force on the disc. and (iI) the torque required 10
maintain the di", in equilibrium in the .. ertical position when the head of water abo,·e the hori,ontal
diameter is 6 m. IAns. (i)416.05 kN . ( ii) 39005 Nml
5. The pressure at the centre of a pipe of diatneter 3 m is 29.43 Nkml. The pire contains oi l of sp. gr. 0.87
and is filled wilh a gate valve . Find thc force cxene<:l by the oi! on the gate and posilion of centre of
pressure. IAns.l.OIl MN ..016 m below cenlre of pipe]
6. Determine the tota l pre.<>ure and ccntre of prc<Sute on an isosceles triangular piate of ba,e 5 m and
allilude 5 m when Ihc plale is immersed verlically in an oil of sp. gL 0.11. The base of the plale is I m
below the free surface of waleL [An •• 261927 N. 3.19 ml
7. The opening in a dam is 3 m wide and 2 III high. A ycnical sluice gale is used to cover the opening. On
the up,lream of Ihe gale. the liquid of sp. gr. 1.5. lie, uplo a heighl of 2.0 m above the lop of Ihe gale.
whereas on the downSlrcalll ,ide. Ihe waler is available uplO a height of the top of Ihe g~le. Find the
rcsuUanl force aCling on Ihe gale and posilion of centre of pr~ss~re. Assume Ihal Ihe gale is higher al
Ihe bononl. [Ans. 206010 N. 0 .964 '" above Ihe hingel
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Fig..H4 Fig.3.SS
15 . An inclined rcct:lngular gale of width 5 m and depth .5 m is installed to comrol the discharge of waler as
shown in Fig. 3.55. The end A is hinged. Dcle""inc Ihe force nonnal to Ihe gale applied al H to open it.
{An s. 97435.8NI
16. A gale supporting wa(er is shown in Fig. 3.56. F;nd lhe heigh(
'h' of (he wa1er so tha( lhe ga(c begins to (ip aooul 1he hinge.
Take the widlh of lhe gale as unilY. IAns. 3)(./3 "'I
17. Find the tOlal pres,u re and depth of cen1re of pressure on a
Iriangular plate of base 3 m and heighl 3 III which is immersed in
waler in such a way lhal plane of lhe pla1e makes an angle of 60" Fig. 3.56
wilh the free surface. The ba<e of Ihe plale is parallel 10 waler surface and at a deplh of 2 III from water
surface. [Ans. 126.52 IN. 2.996ml
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WATER SURFACE

,
Fig. 3.S7 Fig. 3.58
19 . fig. 3.58 shows a gale having a quadrant shape of radius of 3 Ill. rind Ihe resultant force due to waler pcr
metre length of the gale. rind also the angle at which the total force wil l acl. [Ans. 82.201 kN, 0 = 57° 31 ' I
20 . A roller gate is shown in I:ig . ).59. It is cylindrical fonn of 6.0 In diameter. It is placed on lhe dam. I'ind
lhe magnitude and direction of lhe reSUllan! force d ue 10 waler aCling On the gale when the waler is just
going 10 spilL The I 1 of [he gal" is gi"en 10m. ( Ans. 2.245 M N.e~3l!" g·1
according to Ihe relalion y '"  ", as shown in I' ig. 3.61. The
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the plate shown in Fig. 3.62 immersed in a liquid of specific gravity 0.9.
IAn • . 62. 4 kN. 3.04 ml
,
27 . Octennine the total force and kx:ation of .'entre of pressure on one face of FREE SURFACE OF L1aU ID

F=pgAh '" l000x9.81 X "4 x3 " (' ,] X 1.75", 121.J5kN.
h' • + 1.75 .. 0.08 + 1.75 .. 1.83 m.1
Fig. 3.63
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CHAPTER
.. 4. 1 INTRODUCTION
In th i~ c hapte r. the equ ilibrium Ml he Oo alin g and subme rged bodies will be co nsidered . Thu s Ihe
c hapter will inc lude: I. Buoya ncy. 2. Ce ntre of buoy ancy. 3. Mclace ntre. 4. Metace ntri c hf.> ight.
5. Ana lytica l method fo r deta minin g mdacentric heig ht. 6. Condition s of equilibrium o f a fl oatin g
and sub merged bod y. and 7. Expe rim ental met hod fo r metacc ntri c he ight.
.. 4.2 BUOYANCY
Whe n a bod y is imm ersed in a fluid_ an up ward force is exe n cd by the fluid o n the bod y. Th i~
upw ard forec is e qual to the we ight o f the fluid displaced by the body and is c al k d th e force of
buoy an cy or s impl y bu oy ancy .
It is de fin ed as the poi nt. th rough whi ch th e force of buoy ancy is supposed to ac t. As tlw force of
buoyancy is a ve rtica l force and is equal to th e we ight of th e Ou id d isplaced by th e body. the centre of
b uoy ancy wi ll be thc ce ntre o f grav it y of th e fluid di splaced.
Proble m 4.1 Fittd lite I'Olume of Ille lI'aler displaced alld pwiliOlt of cenlre of buoyancy for a
lI'oodell block of wid III 2.5 m and of depth 1.5 m. whell il floals horizollwl/y in Waler. The densilY of
woodell block i.f 650 kg/III ) {Illd ils lenglli 6.0 m.
Solution . Gi vc n :
Width " 2.5 10
Ikplh " 1.5 111
Le ngth " 6.0 111
G
jw
Vol ume of Ihe bl oc k = 2.5 x 1.5 x 6.0 = 22.50 ln 3
Iknsi ty of wood. p = 650 kgfm}
Wf.> ig ht of bloc k = px g x Volum c 2.5 m
= 650 x 9 .81 x 22.50N= 14347 1 N Fig. 4.1
131
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Problem 4.2 A ...oodell fog 0/0.6 m diameter and 5 m lenglll is j7<w(illg ill ,;,"er waler. Pind Ille
depth of Ille ,,"OOdl'l! log ill \\'(l/er when lile !Ip. gf",;Iy of flU! log i,y O. 7.
Solution . Given:
,
Dia. of log
Length.
=O.6m
L:5m
, ::
o
Sp. gr .. S '" 0.7
Dens ity of log'" 0.7 x 1000", 700 kgfm}
We igh! dcnsi!y of log . w = px g o
Fig. 4.2
=700x9.81 Nfm 3
Find depth of immersion ur II
W~igtl! of wooden log '" Weigh! densily x Volum e of log
,
=7 00x9.8 1 X 4 (DrXL
,
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:: It? [3(j(360"
)·"l + "21 r (;Os e x 2r si n e
:: It? [l  ~l
IS(r + , 2 OOS. 9 .sin 9
,  .09 , .,
  cos S10 ::   
.0848
.00157 .00 157
e  57.32 cos e sin e:: 54.01.
or e  57.32 ("(IS e si n e  54.01 = 0
For 0:: 6(}0, 60  57.32 x 0.5 x .S()6  54.01'" 60  24.81  54.01::  llUn
For e:: 70°, 70  57.32 x .342 x 0.9396  54.01 '" 70  18.4  54.01 ::  2.41
For e:: 72°, 72  57.32 x.309 x .951  54.01 = 72  16.&4  54.01 = + 1.14
For e:: 7 1°, 7 1  57.32 x .325 x .9455  54.01 :: 7 1  17.61  54.01::  0.376
e:: 71.5", 7 1.5 57.32x .3 173 x .948 54.0 1 :: 7 1.5 17.2454.0 1 = + .248
T hen /,= r + rl'Os7 15 °
= 0.3 + 0.3 x 0.3173 = 0.395 m . Am.
Problem 4 .3 A slOlIe weighs 392.4 N ill air and 196.2 N in .mler. Compule Ihe )"olume of slon e
and ils specific grm·ily.
Solution . Given:
Weigtlt of SlO ne in air = 392.4 N
Wdglll of Slone in water == 196.2 N
ror equilibrium.
Weigtll in air  Weight of sto ne in water = Weigh t of w~H er displa<:ed
or 392.4  196.2 == 196.2 = 1000 x 9.81 x Volume o f wata displaced
Volume o f wa ler displaced
196.2 t t
= ~~~~== _ rn 3 ==  x 1 0~ c rn 3 == 2 x 10' em l . Ans.
looox9.8 1 50 50
= Volume of Slo ne
Volume o f Slo ne == 2 x 10· cm 3. An s.
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""
~_ )( V",0.6 Vm 3
I()()
For the equilihrium of the bod y
Fig . 4. 3
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Problem 4 .6 A flolli WIll'" regulates I/le flow of oil of sp. gr. 0.8 illio "ciSlem, The JpileriClil float
iJ' 15 em ill diameter. AOlJ is {/ weighlleS!>' link carrying lile floal al anI' <'11</. Will {/ m/"e at Ihe OIlier
end wllich closes Ille pipe Iltmugll wllich oil flows illla IIII' cis/cm . The /i,,1: i.1 mounled in (I friClionle.H
liillge m 0 alld llie (llIgle AOB i.f 135°. Tlit' lellglh ofOA is 20 em, (l1II! Ille disrtillee belweell Ille eelllrt'
of Ihe flom mId II,e hillge is 50 em. WIIt'll Ihe flow i.l slOpped AO will be I·ulieal. The \"G/re is 10 be
pressed all 10 II,e se(ll WillI a force of 9.81 N 10 co mplerel)' slop Ihe flow of oil inlo Ille cistern. It W(lS
obserl'ed IIwl the flow of oil i')' slopped whell Ihe free SlI rfrlCe of ai/ ill Ille cislem is 35 em bela,,· Ille
hillge. Delermil1f: Ihe weiglll of Ihe floo/.
Solution . Gi ve n : 0" SUPPLY
Sp. gr. of oil '" 0.8
Densit y of oil. Po = 0.8 x 1000
0: 800 kglm'
Dia. of flo at. D o: I5cm
LAOB = 135 Q
OA=20cm
Force . P=9.8 1 N
O B = 50 cm
Find tile weig llt of [h e float. Le t it is eq ual [ 0 W.
Wile n til e flow of o il is stopped. the ce ntre of float is s how n in Fig. 4.4
Tlic leve l of o il is al50 sllown. Til e ce ntre of fl oat is be low th e Icve l of o il. by a de pth '/r' .
From tJB OD, sin 450 0: 00 " OC + CD 35 + II
OB OB 50
50xsin45° ,,35 + h
I
II = 50 x J'i  35 '" 35.355  35 " 0.355 Ctn " .00355 tn.
Th e weig lu of floa t is ac ting th ro ugh 8, but Ih" upward buoya nt force is acti ng throug h th" CCl)tre
o f weight o f o il displa(;ed .
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1"=7.4
T
16  20x9.8
35.355 1 = 7 .4 16  5.55= U!66 N. Ans .
It is defined as Ihe (Xlint about wllich a body Slarts oscillatin g when Ih e body is tilled by a small
an gle. The 11lc1accntre may also be de fi ned as the point at which Ihe li ne of act io n of th e force of
b uoya ncy will meet th e nonnal axi s of th e body whe n th e body is give n a s mal! angulardisplaccmcnt.
Consider a body fi oating in a liq uid as s hown in Fig. 4.5 (a). Let the body is in equilibrium and G is
th e ce ntre of grav it y and B the ce ntre o f buoyancy. Fo r equilibrium. both the points li e on the norma l
axis. whic h is ve n ic al.
•. . . :.. t...
I ,, ,
 "'!". !; ~ ~
I"
;;'~?';'
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NORMAL AXIS
(a) (b)
Le t th e body is given a small angular displa~"t!ment in the clockwise di recti on as Show n in Fig. 4.5 (b).
The I:entre of buoya ncy. wllich is Ille I:entre of gravity of Ill e di spl al:ed liquid or cenlre uf grav ily uf the
ponion of Ihe body sub11Ie rJ(cd in liquid. will now be Shifted towa rds righl from Ihe nurm al axi s. Lei
iI is al B[ as show n in Fig. 4.5 (b ). The line o f action of lhe force of buoyancy in Ih is new posi tion. will
in tc["Sectlhe [lOTinal a~is of th e hody at SOllie point say M. This point /If is called Met,,· IT n lre .
The d islanc e MG. i.e .. Ih e disl anl:e belween th e mcl ace ntre of a n oal in g body and Ille cemre of
grav it y o f the body is called IllClacentric heig ht.
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Fig. 4.6 (0) shows the position of a noming body in equilibrium. The location of centre of gravity
and centre of buoyallcy in Ihis position is al G and 8. The floming body is given a small angu lar
displacement in the clocl;wisc direction. Tliis is shown in Fig. 4.6 (b). The new centre of buoyancy is
al 8 1" The vcnica l linc through 8 1 cuts Ihe normal ax is at M. Hence M is the metacentre and GM is
mewcentric height.
. ANGULAR
M ISPLACEMENT
A S
"'.
S'
Go
S
Gi(+~I:"C
, 101
'. C
T (
~.E".
Fig. 4.6 MelaCf'nlre height of f/Qdfillg body.
The angular displacement of the body in Ihe cloc kwise direction causcs the wedgeshaped prism
B08' un Ihe rigtu of the axis 10 go inside the water while tile idemical wedgeshaped prism reprcscmed
by AOA' emerges OuI of tile water un tile len uf tile axis. These wedges represent a gain in buuyam
force on the right side and a corresponding loss of buoyant force on the len side. The gain is
r~pr~scnted by a vertical force dFJj acti ng th rough the c.G. of the prism BOB' while th e loss is
represcnt~d by an equal and op]Xlsite force dFo ac ting Vertically downward through the centroid of
AOA'. The coup le due to these buoyant forces <IF/! tends to rotate the ship in the counte rclockwise
direction. Also the moment caused hy the displacement of the centre of huoyancy from B to Bl is also
in the coullterclocl; wisc direction. Thus these two coup les must he equal.
Co uille I) ue to Wed ges. Co nsider towards the right of the axis a sma ll strip of thicl;ness <Ix at a
distance x from 0 as Shown in Fig. 4.5 (b). The height of strip x x LBOB': x x e.
! ... L B08'" LAOA'" 8MB,'" 6)
Area of strip := Height x Thickness", .r x 6 x <Ix
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Moment of ttJis couple '" Weight of each stri p x Distance between Ihes<: two weigh ts
=pgx fJLdxlx+_t]
= pgx aL dx x 2x = 2pgxl 9L dx
Moment of the couple for the whole wedge
"J 2pg_~ aL dx .. ,(4 . 1)
MomcnI of coup!c duc 10 shirting of cemrc of buoyancy from B 10 HI
:FyxBBI
= FHXBMxfJ ('0" BB I " BMx fJif9is "cry ~m alll
8M = pgl
IV
IV" Weight of the body
""' = Weight of the fluid d isp laced by the body
= pg x Volume of the fiuid displaced by th e body
= pg x Volume of the body submerged in water
= pgx V
I
•
Metaccntric height = GM =  8G. ... (4 .4 )
Problem 4.7
•
A rec/(Ingu/ar prwlOafl is 5 /II 101lg. J m ...ide and 1.20 m lIigll. The deplll of
immerJ'iOll of Ihe pOllloOll is 0.80 m ill se(l waler. If /lle cell/re of grtll"ily is 0.6 '" abo\'e Ihe bollom of
(h e pOll/OOll. delermill e lite meia celllric heighl. The dellJ'ily for Sell waler = 1025 kg/", J.
Solution. Given:
Dimension of pontoon =5mx3mx l. 20m
!kpth of imm ersion = 0.8 m
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• BG
of th'" plan of the poll1oon about YY allis
T
S.Om
'"
12
~ x 5)( 31 m~ '"
45 m~
4
'<i = Volume of the body submugcd in water
=3)(0.8)(5.0= 12.0ml
,
PLAN AT WATER SURFACE
1
BG = AG  Ali = 0.6  0.4 '" 0.2 111 Fig . 4.7
45 I 45
GM =  x    0.2 '"   0.2 '" 0.9375  0.2 = 0.7375 m. Ans.
4 12.0 48
Problem 4 .8 A wllform hody of size 3 m long X 2 m wide x I 111 deep jlOlllS in ImIN. IV/WI is the
weighl of I/le botly if depth of immersion is 0.8 //I ? De/ermine the mewcentric fleig/II (I/$().
Solution. (jiven :
Dimcnsioll o f body = 3x2xl
Deptli of imm ersion = 0.8
Find (i)Wcigh t of lxKly. IV
III
t. +
(ii) Metacentric lIeiglit. GM
(i) Wt:ight of Bod~' , W j. 3.0m ~.J
~c4'C!tft~
== Wcigllt of water displaced
== pg x Volume of water displaced
== lOOO x 9.81 X Volume o f lxKly in water
== H)OOx9.8 1 x J x 2 xO.8 N
A
== 47088 N. AilS. ELEVATION
Fig. 4.8
(iI) Ml."h,cl."ntrk !lelght . GM
Using equation (4.4). we get
I
GM==   BG
whe re f
•
= M.O.I about y. y axis of the plan of the body
! 3 ]x2 J ~
=  x]x2 =   =2.0 m
12 12
V == Volume of body in wmer
=3x2xO.8=4.8 m3
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1 \ 1 4
•
where /:  x2x1.0· :  m
12 6
'I;f: Volume of wood in wate r
:2x 1 xll",2x I x.56: 112m l
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GM:  X   0.12 '" 0.1 488  0.12 '" 0.0288 tn. Ans.
6 1.1 2
Problem 4.10 A solid cylillder of diollleler 1.0 III has (I heighl of 3 melres. Filld Ille mellicentric
/!eiglll of Ihe cylillder whell il is floil/illg ill Wil/er wilh ils axis I"eflical. Ti, e sp. gr. of Ihe cylillder
'" 0.6.
Solution. Given:
Dia. o f cylindcr. D", 4.0 m
Height of cylinder, II '" 3.0 III
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1.8 09
AB"'T'" . III
3 'CAN I
AG=2'" 1.5m
T
~l, 'r
~
~
~
BG: AG  All
= 1.50,9=0.6111
Fig. 4.10
Now the metacentric he ight GM is given by equation (4.4)
/
GM=  nG
"0'
"
J = M.O.!. about YY ax is of the plan of Ih.: bod y
= ~ 0 4 : ~ X (4.0)4
64 64
md 'V '" Volume of cylinder in wata
GM= . ~x ( 4.0)·
64
,
 x (4.0 )" x 1.8
4
_ 0.6
I 4.0' , I
=  x    0.(, =   0.6 = 0.55  0.6 =  0.05 m. AilS.
16 1.8 1.8
 vc sig n 1I\eans 1ha1 IllcI3 cemrc. (M) is below the c.;,olre of gravity (G).
Problem 4.11 A hotly /W.I lilt! cylintlricalllpper ponion of 3 m diameter alld I.S //I deep. nle lower
POrllOlI is a cun'cd one....hich displaces a )'oilllne of 0.6 /IIJ of wa/er. The cenrre of blw)'oncy of ,he
cun'ell pOrlion is at a diswnce of 1.95 m below the lop of the cylinder. Th e celilre of gwriry of Ihe
whole body is 1.20 m below the lOp of the cylinder. The lolal displacement ofwatl'( is 3.9 1011llt'S. Find
Ihe melacenlric heiglll of the body.
Solution. Given:
Dia. of body " J.O III
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IT 3'
GM'"  x   .423 " 1.0 19  .423 '" 0.596 m. Ans.
64 3.9
II. sub Ill crj;cd o r a floating body is said 10 be stable if it w ill es back to its original position afl cr a
slig ht disturbance. T he relative position of the ce lllfC of grav ity (G) and cemfC of buoyancy (Ill) of a
body de termines the stability of a subilwrgcd hody.
4 . 7 . 1 Stilbility of iI Sub merged Body. The position of ce lltre of grav ity and centre of buoy 
ancy in case of a complete ly su bmerged hody arc fixed. Consider a balloon. which is complete ly su b
merged in air. LeI the lower portion of the balloon comai ns heavie r IHalerial, so thaI ils eemfe of
gravity is luwe r thnn its wntre of buoyancy ~s shown in Fig. 4.12 «(I). Let the weight uf the balloon is
W. The weight W is acting through O. verticall y in the downward direction. while the buoyant force FB
is acting vertica ll y up. Ihrough n. For the equilibrium of the balloon IV= Fl!' If Ihe balloon is given an
angular di splacement in the clocl.:wisc di r~ction as shown in Fig. 4.1 2 (a) . then IV and FIJ const itute a
couple act in g in the ant ic lockwise direction and brings the balloon in the orig inal pos ition. T hu s the
balloon in the position. show n by Fig. 4.12 (a) is in stab le equ ilibrium.
(,) (b)
G
, w
o «)
STABLE EQUILIBRIUM UNST ABLE EQUILIBRIUM NEUTRAL EQU ILIBR IUM
(a) Sta hl e Equillhrium. When IV = Fe and poin l n is above G. the body is said 10 be in stahk
equilibrium.
(b) Unstahle Equilibri um . If IV = F o' bUI Ihe ce ntre o f buoyancy (8) is h~low ee nlre of gravity (a),
Ihe body is in unstable equilibrium as shown in Fig. 4. 12 (b). A ~light disp lacement 10 Ihe body. in Ihe
clockwise direc tion. gives the co upl e due to W and I'IJ also in [he c lock wise dirt."ction. Th us Ih e body
docs nOI relurn 10 its origi nal po~ilion and hence Ih e body is in unslable equi lihrium.
(c) Ne utml Equi lib rium . If F/I= Wand IJ and G arc at [he same point. as shown in Fig. 4.12 (c). the
body is said to be in neutral equili brium.
4 .7.2 Stability of Floilting Body. The sWbility of a nual in g body is determined from [he posi
tiun of Metace ntre (M). In C3SC of fi(Hlting body. the weig ht o f the bod y is equ al to dIe weight of liquid
displaced.
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DISTURB ING
.. COUPLE
,
tal Slablc equilibrium /If is above G (b) UnSlablt equilibrium /If i< below G.
(b) Unstab le Equilibrium. If the point hi is below G. the floating body will be in unstable equilib·
rium as shown in Pig. 4.13 (b). The disturbing co upl e is acting in tht clod:wis.: direction. The coup lt
due to buoyaru force F/:I and IV is also aCling ill the cloc kwis.: dirc.::tion 311d thus oven urnin g the
floating body.
(c) Ncutr:ll Equilibrium. Jfthe poim M is at Iliecel1treofgravily oflhc body. 1he floa1ing body will
be in neu1ral equilibri um .
Problem 4.12 A solid cy/inda of diameler 1. 0 '" ha~· a lreiglll of 1.0 m. Find Ihe metacenlric heigill
of Ille cylinder if rile specific gflll"ily of Illl' material of cylinde r'" 0.6 ami ir is floaling in l..arer lI"illl ils
a.{is I·urical. Slale II"herher IIIe eqw·librillm is ~·I,jbll' or unswble.
SolutIon. Given: D=4m 1 4·~ 1
Heigh!. 11=4m
Sp. gr.
!kptll of cylinder in water
'" 0.6
=Sp.gr.xh
+ .
'" 0.6 x 4.0 '" 2.4 m PLAN y
Distance of cent re o f buoyancy (B) from A
AD= i
24
'" 1.2m 
Distance of centre of gravity (G) from A
:.~:.
, " ".1:
,G
4.0m 2.4 m
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GM = 'r/  BG '" 0.41 67  0. 8 '"  O.3H33 m. Ail s.
 vc sig n me ans thalthc metacentre (M ) is be low the centre o f grav ity (G). T itus th e c ylind er is in
un stabl e equilibrium . Ails.
Problem 4.13 A solid cylinder of !O em diwneler alld 40 em /ollg. COIIS;SfS of nm parrs made of
differel17 mll/erin/s. Theftrsl pari GIllie base is 1.0 em long and of specific gral'iry '" 6.0. The Oilier pari
of Ille cylinder ;s mode of tlie mareria/ IWI'il1g specific gWl'ily 0.6. Siale, if if call flom \'enically in
Irma.
Solution. G ive n: D : Wc m
Length. L ", 40 cm
Len gth o f I st pa rt. 'I: 1.0 u n
Sp. gr .. SI == 6.0
Densit y of 1st part. l
PI'" 6 x 1000 '" 6000 kg/m
Le ngth o f 2nd pan,
Sp. gr ..
, ", 40 1.0=39.0cm
l
S2 '" 0.6
Sp.gr.
=0.6 
T
Dc n~i t y of 2nd part , P2 '" 0.6 x 1000 '" 600 kgfml
1
The cy linde r will floal l'c n ic all y in W31c r iF its metace ntric he ight GM is
1.0cm
posi tive. To find me ta cc ntric hc ight. find the location of ccntrc o f gra vit y
U.
(G) and ce nt re o f huoy all cy ( 8 ) of th e combined so lid c ylind er. Th e di s tance
of the ce nt re of gra vity o f th e so lid cy linder fro m A is given as T LJ.l
,
Sp.gr = 6.0
A G : [(Weight o f 1st pan x Distance ofCG. o f 1st pa rt from A) F ig . 4.15
+ (Wcight of 2nd pan of cy lindcr
x Di stance uf CG. of 2nd pan fro m A) I
+ IWc ight uf 1st part + wcig ht of 2nd p~rtl
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To fi nd th e ce lllfC o f bu oyancy of th e co mbined two parts o r of th e cy lind er. de term ine Ihe dcptll
of imme rsion of the cyl in der. Let the de pth of imm ersion of the cy linde r is II . T he n
Weigh t of the cy lin de r " We ight of wa ter displaced
It , 39 .0 11: , 1.0 It , II
 )( (. It x   )(600 )( 9.81 +  Cit x  )(6000 )(9,8 1 =  (. 1)" x  x 1000 x9.8 1
4 100 4 [00 4 100
I ": h is in cml
GM= ~  BG
wllerc
•
1 = M.O.1. of pla n of the body about Y Y ax is
= '4If Dxh=
,
4"It (10)x29.4
,
111
1
~
'V
'" ~ (10)4/ .:!.( 1O !
64 4 )
x 29.4 '" .!... x
[6
10 ' = ,'~OO
29.4
O;;;c = 0.2 12
19 x 29.4
GM = 0.2 12  1.72 '"  1.50S e rn
As GM is  ve. it mea ns th at the Me ta ce ntre M is below the cen tre o f gra vi ty (G). T hu s tlw
cy linder is in uns tab le eq ui librium and !\O it ca nnot fl oat ven ica ll y in water. An s.
Problem 4.14 A rectangillar POII/OOII 10.0/11 long. 7 m broad (lnd 2.5 m deep weighs 686.7 kN. /I
carries Oil ils "pper deck (In empty boiler 0/5.0 m di",,,eter weighing 588.6 kN. The celi lre 0/ gw!"il)'
o/Ihe boiler alllilile POIi/OOII are (1/ Illei r respectil'e relltres alollg a l"erlicallille. Filld tlte //Ielacelllric
height. lI'eighl dellsity a/sea lrater is /0./04 kN1mJ.
Solution. Give n : Di me nsiu n u f pon tuon = [0 x 7 x 2 .5
Weig ht o f pont oon. 11'1'" 6S6.7 kN
f
IG,
T
5.0 m
Dia. of boile r. D=5.0 m lG
Wr ight o f boile r.
\\' fu r sea wate r
11'1 '" 5SS.6 kN
= [0. [04 kN/m 3 IT
"t B
G
,
gm ~
1.
To find the met ace nt ric heig ht. first dc tc nni n ~ the co mmo n ce n A
I
tre of gravi ty G and cOl11 mon ce ntre of buoya ncy B of the ooi la and 1 7.0m l
po ntOO n. Let G I nnd G , nrc the ce ntre of grav iti es of pontOOn and Fig. 4.16
boiler r.:sj)Ccli ,·e ly. The n
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AG 1 ",
2.5
2 '" 1.25 III
,
AG1 ", 2.5 + 25.0 "" 2.5 +2.5 '" 5.0 III
The distanl'C of co mm on (;cnt rc of gravity G from A is given as
1\1 x AC, + IV, X AG,
AG '" ~.~o.'~
\~ + IVz
I
to.Om
I· 7.0 ~ l
J
Fig . 4. 17 Plan of tbe body
= 10.104 x I. x h x Deplh of immersion a/ water·line
1275.3", 10.104 x 10 x 7 X II
All= ~==
1.803 == .90 15 III
2 2
BG == AG  AB '" 2.98  .9015 '" 2.0785 In  2.078 111
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h",O.6)(L = ~L
0.9 3
1• °
, 1
Fig . 4.18
L
The distance of centre o f grav it y G from A, AU '" 
2
The dist ance of ccnlT" o f buoyanc y B from A.
GM"' ~ BG
•
where I ",""::'" D~ and ';j '" Volum e of cylinder in oil '" ~ 0 2 X "
M 4
~ <~ =%
IJD < 3/4. A. ns.
Problem 4 .16 511011' /lw / a cy/;ndrit'(I/ buoy of I m diameter Illld 2.0 m heighl \\'eiglling 7.848 kN
wil/ 110/ floll i "ulial/ly in sea waler of densily f()JO kglm J• Find Ihe force necessary in a "erlica/
chain a((a("/It:d al Ihe cell ire of base of Ihe buoy Ihal will keep il ,·ulica/.
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, x I' ~X 1 4
J 64 6'
V " ~ D 2 xh "::'X I ~ X.989
4 4
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Purl II. Let tlie force applied in a ve rtical chain 3nachcd aI the centre .,.,.,Jt1~,,~
of the base of Ihe buoy is T (0 ~ccp the buoy venical. :0
Now find the combined position of ccmn: of grav ity (G') and cen tre of
buoyancy (B'). For the combined Centfe uf bUUyJIH':Y. let
/J' = depth of immersion when the force T is applied. Then
TQlal downward force = Weight of water displaced
or (784S + n
= Density o f wate r x g x Volume of cy lilldcr in water
= lO30x9.81 x ~ D')( Ii' I where II': depth ufimmeThion I
, A
4 7935.9
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:. Wei~hl of cOile
3.0 3.0
or 800xlt= 1000 x II)
hltan!a+ 11>11
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di(lmeler f) (md l'erlin,/Iu:ighl H. Show Ilwl jor stah/e equilibrium of the COli I' H < !.. [V i. 5;;; ]"1,
2 2 S
Solution. Given:
Dia. of oone =D
Hciglll o f cone'" H
PLAN OF
Sp. gr. o f cone = S CONE AT
WATER LINE
Let G", CemTC of gravity of cone
B '" Ccmrc of bUOYHIlCy
~ D _I
29 = Arcx angle
A = Apex of the cone
II'" Depth of immersion
T
J = Dia. of cmw at Waler surface "
Then AG:2H
4
, 1
3 fig. 4.22
A8=  II
4
Also weight of cone =Weigh t of water displaced.
I' I , '2
lOOOSxgX,lTWX H : IOOOxgxrrr'xh or snH=,h
3
SR!H
II =  
,
R" ,
B" t~ne =  = 
H "
N=Hmne.r=ltlan8
SX(Hlan6)l xH
II '"
(1/ tan er,
SX II l xtan 1 exfI SH J
I,: " : __ or h 3 =SH 3
It" tan " e ,,1
I,,,, (SH1)1fJ = Sill H ... (1)
Distancc. 8G '" AG An
J
=H   b= 
3 3 (H  b)= 3H( .1/3
S /I)
4 4 4 4
'" 2 HI I _SI Il I ... (2)
4
Also I", M.O. Inenia of the plan of body at wate r surface
'" 3... It
64
.
V", Volume o f cu ne III water'" 3In: , In: ,
x 4 x iI + x h '" 34 iI+ IH.S
III
I
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~d'
J 64
 = .o"'cc 16.H.slll
V x 1 It d H.S'1l
3 4
Now Mcl<lce ntric height GM is given as
I 3d " 3H
GM =  _ BG '" ~~'"' :. II _ S'/3 1
'rJ 16.fI ,S"J 4
GM should be +ve for swblc equi librium or GM > 0
... (3)
"'
II> 4.8 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Of DETERMINATION OF META CENTRIC
HEIGHT
The mclacc ntric heigh t of a noati ng vessel can be determined, provided we know th e (emre of
grav it y of the Ooaling vc~scl. Lei"", is a known we ig hl placed over the ce ntre of the VCS1;e J as show n in
Fig. 4.23 (iI) and the vesse l is floating.
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GM=.!....  BG
where
•
1== M.O.l. of the ship al waterline about YY
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.
WATER LINE
2.25
~10m ~
'" 75% o f .!.... x 70 X 101 ", .75 X...!... x 70 X 101 ", 4375 111 4
[2 12
We ight of ~h ip
lUlU V" Vu lume of ship in wme r '" :::c:'c''C'':''''O''::c:
Weight df.>nsily of wate r
19620 '" 1941.74 m1
10. 104
.!... '" 4375 '" 2.253 111
'rJ 1941. 74
GM", 2.253  IJG or .999 '" 2.25]  BG
BG = 2.253  .999 = 1.254 m.
From Fig. 4. 25. it is c lear lhal Ih e di stan ce of G from free surface o f the wa ter '" dist ance o f B
from water surface  BG
" 2.25  1.254 ", 0.996 111. An s.
Problem 4 .20 A pOIl/QOI! of 15696 kN di~placemt'1lI iJ floating in water. A »'<'igh! of 245.25 kN is
IIwred 1/"014gh a diSllIllce of 8 m across the deck ojpOIl/OOIl, II'hic// lills the pontoon l!lrOJlgll all angle
·r. Find melaanlric height of the pontOOIi.
Solution. Given:
Weig ht of (lOntoo n = Di splace ment
W = 15696 1; N
"' MOl' abl e we ight. 245,25 kN
11'( '"
;:""",,96,,2;.;;:,;;;;
== ;: == 1.788 III . '\ IIS.
15696 x 0.0699
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,
•
Fig. 4.26
Restoring couple '" \I' x Distance GA
= II'x GM sin 9 . .. ( i)
This couple tries 10 decrease Ihe imgle
d1 S
Angular 3(;celcralion of the body. (l =   , .
d,
 ve sign has been introduced as Ihe restoring couple tries to dcr rcasc the angle B.
Torque due \0 inenia = Moment of 11lcrlia about YY x Angular acceleration
= I y_y x
[ dtlr"J
,
IV ,
f r' r = gK
where IV = Weigh t of body, K = Radius of gyra tion about r·Y
IVxGMsin9= _~ K 2 d2?
g dr ' "'
For sma ll angle e. sine  e
K'
Dividing by  , , we gel d1?+ GM Xfx e ",0
dl K
Th" above equalion is a differenlial equat ion of second deg ree. The solUlion is
e ", C ,S l n
. JGM.g
~ XI + C2 COS
JGM.g
Kl
xI ...(iii)
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sin JGM.s: T
   x =O=sinlt (.: sinlt=OI
Kl 2
T: 2n j£,'
GM.g
8x8
  : 2n , 1 ;cOCC~~ : 19. IH sec. Ans .
0.7x9.81
Problem 4 .22 The lime period of rof/illg of a ship of weighI 29430 k.N ill sea waler is 10 seconds.
T/l e cellire of buo}'(l/Icy of Ihe ship is /.5 m be/ow II/e cen/re of grlll'it)'. Fifl(llile radius of g)"",liOl/ of
Ihe ~IIip if Ihe moment of inerlia af Ihe ship al IIIe lI'aler Urle aboUI fore and aft luis is I()(x) m~. Take
j'l'ecijic weiglll af sea Imler as = 10 I (X) Ntm J•
Solution. Given:
Time period. T : 10 s«c
Distance between centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity. BG : I.S 111
Mome nt of Inertia. I: 10000 m~
WciglH. IV" 29430 kN '" 29430 x 1000 N
Let the radi us of gyration: K
PiTSt calculate the metacenuie height GM. whieh is given as
I
GM: BM  BG '"   BG
•
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K = clO
 c,,
J~I'~3c3C'C'C',,1 = 6.93 m . An s .
" 2,
HIGHLIGHTS
1. The upward fOrl'e cxcncd by a liquid on a body when the body is immersed in the liquid is known 8S
buoyancy or force of huoyancy.
2. The point through which force o f buoyancy is _,upposed to act is called centre of buoyancy.
J. The point about which a body slanS oscillating when the body is ti lled is known as mclaccntre,
4. The distance between the melaccnlre and centre of llravilY is known as mclaCcnlric height
where I ~ Moment of lnenia of \he floating body (in plan) at water surface nboutthe axis YY
'!j .. Volume of the OOdy submerged in wuter
BG '" Distance between ~entre of grnvity and centre of buoyancy.
b. Conditions of equilibrium of a floating and submerged OOdy are :
6., Angle through the ship or flo.1ling OOdy is lilted due to the movement of 11',.
8. The time period of o!'Cillation or rolling of a floating OOdy is given by T", 21f
v~
c;;;t;g
,,'here K .. Radius of gymlion. GM .. Mela cenlric height
T", Time of one complete o!'Ciliation.
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EXERCISE
4 . Show thai the distance bctw~..,n the mctaccntre and centre of buoyancy is giw" by Hili ~ 
,
V
where I • Moment of incnia of the plan of the float ing body at water surface about longitudinal axis.
V _ VOlume of the body sub merged in liq uid.
S . What arc the conditions of equilibrium of a floallng I>ody and a submerged body ?
6. How will you deten"inc the meta"':c"l,;C height of a floating body experimentally ? Explain wilh ncal
sketch.
7. Sclectlhc correct Staiement:
(a) The buoyant force for a floating body passes through the
(i) centre of gravity of the body (ii) centroid of vol ume of the body
( iii) mcta.celllre of the body (il·) cCllIre of gravity of the suh.merged pan of the body
(,,) ccntroid of thc displaced volume.
(b ) A body submer~~"<.l in liquid is in equilibrium when;
(i) it' meta.centre is above the centre of gravity
(I;) its mcta...:cn!rc is above the cenlre of buoyancy
(iii) its centre of gravity is above thc centre of buoyancy
(i" ) its centre of buopn,y is abo,·e the centre of gral·ity
(,,) noneoflhesc. IAn s. 7 (II) (" J. (b ) (i1')1
8. Dcri,·c an cxpression for !he lime pcriO<l of lhe oscillation of a floating body in lcnns of radius of gyrmion
and mela.centrie hcight of the floating body.
9. Define the termS meta<.·entrc. ccntrc of buoyancy. mclacentric height. ga uge pres,ure and absolute
pressure.
10 . What do you understand by the hydroslatic equation ? With the he lpof this equation. derivc the expression
for the buoyant force acting on a sub·merged body.
II . With neal sketches. explain lhe conditions of equilibrium for fiOal ing and submerged bodies.
12. Differenlime between:
(i) Dynamic viseosi1y and kinematic ,·iseosity. (ii) Absol ute and ga uge pressure (iii) Simple and
differenti al manomelers (i" ) Cent re of gr~vily and cenlrc of buoyancy.
(Del/,i Ulli'·t"rsiry. Dec. 10M)
1. 1\ wooden block of width 2 m, depth 1.5 til and lenglh 4 til floats horizontally in water. f ind the volume
of water displaced and position of centre of buoyancy. Thc specific gravily of thc wooden hloc k is 0.7.
IAns. 8.4 til ! . 0.525 m from (he basel
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CR~ER
~ S.I INTRODUCTION
Kinematics is dctincd as that branch of sc ience whic h deals with motion of particles without
co nsidering the forces causing the motion. The ve locit y at any point in a flow field at an y till1~ is
studied in this brandt of fluid ll1~chanics. Once the velocity is known. (h e n the pressure distri bution
and hence forces ac tin g on the fluid can be dClemlincd. In this <:hapter. the methods of determining
velocity and acceleration arc discussed .
The fluid motion is described by two methods. The y arc  (i) Lagrangian Method. and (ii) Eulerian
Method. In the Lagrangian method. a sin gle fluid particle is followed during its nlO1ion and its
yelocity. acceicration, density. clc .• ilre described . In case of Eulerian melhod. lhe velocily. ilccelera
tion. prcssure. dens it y etc .. arc described ,,( n point in flow field. The Eulerian method is common ly
used in fluid mechanics .
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,.
 0 P
 . ( dill )
•. J.....
~
('P) "" ,.",
=0 
'at =0
(~~L~I =0
where av = Change of ve locity
as = Length of flow in the ui rcction S.
Nonuniform flow is lhal type of flow in which the veloci ty al any given time ctl311gCS with respect
\0 space. Thus, mathematically. for non uniform flow
('V)
as ' _ron"",
.0
.
5. 3. 3 Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar flow is defined as that type of flow in whieh
the fluid panicles move along we ll·deflned paths or stream line and all the streamlines arc straight and
parallel. Thus the panicles move in laminas or layers gliding smooth ly over the adj acent layer. This
type of Ilow is also called streamline Ilow or viscous flow.
Turbulent now is that type of flow in which the fluid panicles move in a zigzag way. Due to the
movement of fluid particles in a zigzag way. the eddies fonnation takes place which arc responsible
VD
for high energy loss. For a pipe flow. the type of flow is determined by a nondimensional number
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It is delined as the quanti ly of a fluid flowing per second through a seclion of a pipe or a chanrlCl.
For an incom pressib le fluid (or liquid) Ihe rale of flow or discharge is expres.scd as the vo lum e of fluid
flowing across the s.cclion per second. For compressibl e fluids. Ihe rale o f flow is usually expressed as
the we ight of fluid flowing across Ihc section . Thus
(i) For liquids Ihe uni ls of Q arc mJfs or iilres/s
(ii) For gascs the uni ls of Q is kgffs or Newtonfs
Consider a liquid flowing through a pipe in which
A :: Crosssectional area of pipe
V:: Average ve loc it y of fluid a(;fOSS the section
Then discharge Q= A xY. ...(5.1 )
.. S .S CONTINUITY EQUATION
The eq uat ion based on Ihe principle of conservation o f mass is called contin uit y eq uati on. Thus for
a fluid flow in g through th e pipe at all the crosssectiun. the quantity of fluid per secund is constant.
Consider IWO ",rosssections of a pipe as show n in Fig. 5. 1.
Let VI:: A vera ge velocity at crosssedion I I
PI = Density at section I I
A I = Area o f pipe at section II
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and V2. P2' A~ arc correspo ndin g valu es al section. 22. <D @
~~ ,_",.l~'"'.'"'.'"'.'"".'"'."11.,"".,.,."
The n rate of now section 1 1 "" p ,A, VI
Rate of flow at "ce uon 22 == P ~!Vl
Acco rdin g 10 law o f co nse rva ti on of 1ll,ISS
Rate of flow al seclio n I  I
OF FLOW
== Rate of fl ow al sec lio n 22
DIRECTl ON~
 7""
i
'
+.
b"""'" " ',~"",..,. i ,
or p, A I V, = PzAIVl ... (5 .2 )
Eq u:u ion (5.2) is appli ca ble 10 the co mpressi ble as we ll as inCQlIl  Fig . 5.1 Fluid flowi ng through
pn: ...s iblc fluids and is callcd Contlnull}' Equation. If the fluid is in  a pi~.
compressi ble. Ihc n P, '" p, and continuity eq uati on (5.2) redu ces \0
... ( 5.3 )
Problem 5.1 The diameters of a pipe atlhe seclions I (/lId 2 lire /0 em mid 15 em respeclilely. Find
rhe disc/wrge Ihrough lilt' pipe if the relocily of W<lIer flowing through rhe pipe ar sec lion 1 is
5 mls. Determine also IIIe )'e/oeify al sl'clioll 2.
Solution. G iven:
CD <ZJ
At sc(;ti on 1. D,,,, lO cm ,,,O.1 1ll !
AI "'..::. (0 , 2) :"::' (. I) l " 0 .007854 Ill l _ , D,=1Ocm
4 4
V, '" 5 m/s.
At scc tio n 2. O 2 ,,, 15cIll ", 0.1 5 III
V," 5m./s.ec
A2 ="4" (. 15t =0 .0 1767 m, Fig. 5.2
(/) DiSCharge through pipe is g iven by equa tion (5. 1)
or Q=Al x V,
= 0.007854 x 5 = 11.03927 III lls. A/l s.
Using equ.u io n (5.3). we ha ve A,V, " A 2 V1
A, V, ,O~.=
OO 78~54
,=
( ii) V 2 =  A,
, "  0.0 1767 )( 5 .0 = 2.22 m'~. Ans.
Problem 5 .2 A 30 em diameler pipe. coIII'eying warer. branches illlo 111'0 pipes of diametl'Ts
20 em and 15 em respecti)'e/y. If IIIe (II'erage ~'e/oeir)' in II,e 30 em diamerl'r pipe is 2.5 mls. find the
disc/mrge ill this pipe. Also derermille rhe ),elocity ill 15 em pipe if tile (II'ew ge I'e/oeify ill 20 em
diumeler pipe is 2 mls.
Solution. G iven :
(j)
Fig. 5.3
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11" 1 11" , ,
A, '"  V , =  x .3" =0.07068 m "
4 4
V, '" 2.5 In/s
D2 '" 20 ern = 0.20 III
Al =~ (.2)2 = ~ x .4 = 0.0 3 14 OI l ,
V2 =2 rn /s
DJ = 15cm = O.15m
A):
,
II ,
,If
(. Is r = x 0.22S '" 0.01767 m 
,
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A
, B,
t
~ ~
0
12m 1.5 m ,
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V>B= 3 m/sec
Fig. 5.4
Diameter o f pipe CE", Da :
Then now ratc thrQu~h CD : QI3
"'
3.0 x (1.2)2 == VBe X ( 1.5) 2 [Di Vide by ~]
3)( 1.2 2
V nc l = 1.92 m/s . An s.
1.5
(iii) The flow ratc through pipe
CD=QI= Q = 3.393 = 1.13 1 rn J/s
3 3
Q 1 '" VCD x Are a uf pipe CD )(~ (Om)!
. 131", Veo
, )(0.8, '" 0.5026 Veo
)(4
.
1.1 31
V ClJ :    = 2.25 m /s. Ans.
0.5026
(i,') Flow rate th rough CEo
Q 2 == Q  Q 1 = 3.393  1.1 3 1 = 2.262 rn J/s
2.263 = 2.5
,
)("4 x (DClf
,
2.2(3)( 4 ~5'
=,, \.1;).0" 1.0735m
"' DeE::
2.5 x Il
Diame ter of pipe CE:: 1.0735 m. A n s.
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V = V2
V, '" 12m/s NOZZLE
J
Value o f g=  9.1I 1 m/s 2 and li0: 4.5m
 1/ 0: 2g/l . we gel
Using.
V~
V!
,12 , =2)«(9.81 »( 45
Fig . 5.5
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A\c
" ,
VIX VI Itx (0.025)2 xI2
Al =  ' _I", 4 = 0.0007896
V1 V1 4x 1.46
OJ = Di31nclcr of jd 3\ point A.
x4
OJ "'V/0.0007896
It = 0.03 17 m '" 31.7 mm. A ns .
Consider a Iluid cle ment of Icnglhsdx. tty and dZ in the direct ion o f .(, y and Z. LeI U, I' and II' arc the
inlet ve loc it y co mponents in
x.)' and Z directions respectively. Mass of fluid ente ring th e face ABCD
per seco nd
= p X Velocity in xd irection x Area o f ABeD
=pxux(dvxdz)
'"  
"
ay (pI') d,l.dydz
and in z di rcct ion '" 
a
 (pw) d_l dydz
a, y Fig. 5.6
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. dx d)' dz.
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(
=px u, + J:
a.. )
dr X(r+dr)dO I': CD=(r+tlr)dO I
=p xlI,xr + u,dr+r 
[ a.., d,+ a.., (d,')' 1d O
aT ar
'" r{lIrxr +u , xdr+ rJ;; .df] dO
[Th e tenn containing (11,)1 is very small and has been ncgk~ t cd l
Gain of mass in rdi rect ion per un it time
'" (M aS/; through All  Mass through CD) pcr unit time
[
= p.Il ,.rdO p.u r·r.de  p u,.dr+r dr,ilf de a.., 1
[
= p 1I, .dr + r dr,ilT .dO''', 1
[Tlli s is writlcn in this form because
(r. de. dr. I) is eq ual to vo lum e of
ele mentl
aU a r.J6.dr
= P aE! ' , [Multiplying and div iding by rl
Total ga in in fluid mass per unit time
u, (lU
'l . r. dr. dfJ  paUa · rtia,. tir
=  P [ ;: + , , ...(S.SA )
ae
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"'  p[
U, Ju,]
; + Jr p
dUe
Ja r =
dP
at [Cancelling rilr . d9 from bolh sides ]
[u,
dp +p  +  Ju,] + p aile . ~ __ 0 ...(5.50
"' at r dr r i.l9
Equation (5.5 C) is Ihe continuity equation in polar co ordinates for twodimensional flow.
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~ (furl" ~ (r sin 8)
{)T aT
=2rsin8 (": si n e is cons tant w.r.!. r)
Now jje'" 2r cos e
Differentiati ng th e nbovc cqumion w.r.l . e. we gel
a
{}9 (" 0) '"
a (2, cos 9)
as
'" 2, ( sin 8) (.: 2, is conSlalll W.r.I. 9)
= lrsi n e
LeI V is the rcsu hant ve locit y a1 any poim in a fluid flow. LeI 1/. I' and w arc its componclll in .1', y and
Z di rections. The velocity co mponents arc functions of spaceeoordinates and lime. M31llcmal icall y.
Ihe ve locit y co m ponents arc given as
U=ft(.I',Y·Z,I)
\' "'li·I, y, Z, I)
w=f,(.r.), . z. t)
and R~~ullaI11 vdoc ily. V= IIi + vj+ wI: = Ju l + v l + w l
Lei <1r <1 , and a, arc Ilic lot al acce lerdtlo n in x. y and Z directions respective ly. Tllen by the cliain
rulc o f d ifferc ntia tion. we lIave
du au iI.l au dy au dz au
a =  = ++ . + 
, ill dl ax til til dl ay az
dx ely dz
 =u.  = I'anO =w
til ill til
du dll dll du du
a = ;II+I'+W+
, til dx dy dZ dl
d,'
a . =  =u 
dl' a,· d" av
Similarl y.
) til ax +v d), +w dZ + (II ...(5.6)
dw dW dW dW dW
a.=  =U  +>'  +>'  + 
 I
If ih ay azal
('or ste ad y no w. 
av '" O. wllcrc V is result ant veloc it y
a,
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