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Larry Weas

iPay Technologies
Learning & Development
Larry D. Weas, Northern Illinois University

MAJOR:
Pursuing an Ed. D. in Instructional Technology
specializing in eLearning, social learning, and
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)

RESEARCH INTEREST:
A Qualitative Study…

The Multi-Generational Workforce: Exploring


the effectiveness of adult learning styles using
technology in corporate training instruction for
the workplace
lweas@niu.edu
• Training: Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model

• Learning: An ADDIE Activity

• Business: Sample of Using the Dick & Carey Model

• Questions: Summary & Comments


ADDIE Learning

Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. In
identifying the five processes of the ADDIE model the five steps are:

1.Analysis: where identification of goals, objectives, audience needs and other factors
are determined that will affect the creation, development, delivery, and assessment of the
project.

2.Design: where the forming of the learning objectives is planned and plotted, as well as
the design tool that will be used to create the project.

3.Development: where the creative construction of the content and learning materials
comes into existence through creating instruction for the objectives.

4.Implementation: where the learning plan is put into action and the procedure for
deploying the module is facilitated for the learners.

5.Evaluation: where the culmination of formative (ongoing) evaluation and summative


(end result) evaluation occurs, methods for determining the effectiveness of the
training, whether the learning gaps have been addressed, including
feedback, questionnaires and reviews for revision.
A Systematic Approach to Designing Instruction…ADDIE

The nine basic steps (excluding Summative Evaluation) represent a set of procedures, which is
referred to as the systems approach because it is made up of interacting components, each having
its own input and output, which together produce predetermined products using the ADDIE process.

A second reason for the success of the systems approach is the careful linkage between each
component, especially the relationship between the instructional strategy and the desired learning
outcomes.
Conducting Front-End Analysis to Identify Instructional Goal(s)…
The first step in the model is to determine what it is that you want learners to be able to do
when they have completed your instruction.

The instructional goal may be defined from the following:

• a list of goals
• a performance analysis
• a needs assessment
• a practical experience with learning difficulties of students
• an analysis of people who are doing a job -or-
• some other requirements for instruction
Conducting a Goal Analysis of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes…
After you have identified the instructional goal, you will determine step-by-step what people
are doing when they perform that goal.

The final step in the instructional analysis process is to determine what skills, knowledge, and
attitudes , know as entry behaviors, are required of learners to be able to begin the instruction.

• Producing a diagram -or- chart that depicts the relationships among all of the skills that have
been identified
• Organized the skills, knowledge, and attitudes in a logical way (Hierarchical Learning)
Analyzing Learners and Contexts…
In addition to analyzing the instructional goal, there is a parallel analysis of the learners, the
context in which they will learn the skills, and the context in which they will use them.

Learners’ current skills, preferences, and attitudes are determined along with the characteristics
of the instructional setting and the setting in which the skills will eventually be used.

• This, crucial information shapes a number of the succeeding steps in the model, especially the
instructional strategy
• Consider the target population when developing instruction
• Consider the contextual characteristics of the instructional setting
Writing Performance Objectives…
Based on the instructional analysis and the statement of entry behaviors, you will write specific
statements of what the learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction.

These statements, which are derived from the skills identified in the instructional analysis:

• will identify the skills to be learned


• the conditions under which the skills must be performed
• and, the criteria for successful performance
Developing Assessment Instruments…
Based on the objectives you have written, you will develop assessments that are parallel to and
measure the learners’ ability to perform what you described in the objectives.

Major emphasis is place on relating the kind of skills described in the objectives to what the
assessment requires. Given a variety of the following testing and measurement instrument:
Developing an Instructional Strategy…
Based on the information from the five preceding steps, you will identify the strategy that you
will use in your instruction to achieve the terminal objective. The strategy will emphasize
components to foster student learning include:

• Pre-instructional activities
• Presentation of content
• Learner participation
• Assessment, and follow-through activities

These components are used to develop -or- select materials and plan for interactive classroom
instruction, mediated instruction, and distance learning using a technology for delivering.
Developing Instructional Materials…
In this step you will use your instructional strategy to produce the instruction. This typically
includes guidance for learners, instructional materials, and assessments.

When we use the term instructional material we are including all forms of instruction such as:
Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluations…
Following the completion of a draft of the instruction, a series of evaluations is conducted to
collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction. The three types of
formative evaluations are referred to as:

• One-to-One Evaluation
• Small-Group Evaluation
• Field-Trial Evaluation

Each type of evaluation provides the designer with a different type of information that can be
used to improve the instruction. Similar techniques can be applied to the formative evaluation
of existing materials or classroom instruction.
Revising Instructional Materials…
The final step in the design and development process (and the first step in a repeat cycle) is
revising the instruction. Data from the formative evaluation are summarized and interpreted to
identify difficulties experienced by learners in achieving the objectives and to relate those
difficulties to specific deficiencies in the instruction.

It is used to re-examine the validity of instructional analysis and the assumptions about the
entry behaviors and characteristics of learners. It may be necessary to reexamine statements of
performance objectives and test times in light of collected data.

The instructional strategy is reviewed and finally all of these considerations are incorporated
into revisions of the instruction to make it a more effective instructional tool.
Designing and Conducting Summative Evaluations…
Although summative evaluation is the culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of
instruction, it generally is not part of the design process.

It is an evaluation of the absolute and/or relative value or worth of the instruction and occurs
only after the instruction has been formatively evaluated and sufficiently revised to meet the
standards of the designer.

Since the summative evaluation does not involve the designer of the instruction but instead
involves an independent evaluator. This component is not considered and integral part of the
instructional design process per se.
Design? Develop? Implement?

Analyze?
Evaluate?

Results!
Conducting Front-End Analysis to Identify Instructional Goal… Writing Performance Objectives…

The first step in the model is to determine what it is that you Based on the instructional analysis and the statement of entry
want learners to be able to do when they have completed your behaviors, you will write specific statements of what the
instruction. learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction.

Conducting a Goal Analysis of Skills, Knowledge, & Attitudes… Developing Assessment Instruments…

After you have identified the instructional goal, you will Based on the objectives you have written, you will develop
determine step-by-step what people are doing when they assessments that are parallel to and measure the learners’
perform that goal. ability to perform what you described in the objectives.

Analyzing Learners and Contexts… Developing an Instructional Strategy…

In addition to analyzing the instructional goal, there is a parallel Based on the information from the five preceding steps, you will
analysis of the learners, the context in which they will learn the identify the strategy that you will use in your instruction to
skills, and the context in which they will use them. achieve the terminal objective.

Revising Instructional Materials…

Developing Instructional Materials… The final step in the design and development process (and the
first step in a repeat cycle) is revising the instruction.
In this step you will use your instructional strategy to produce
the instruction. This typically includes guidance for
learners, instructional materials, and assessments.
Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluations…

Disseminated among the stages of ADDIE… Following the completion of a draft of the instruction, a series
Implementation in the ADDIE group is disseminated among the of evaluations is conducted to collect data that are used to
stages of Dick & Carey, in that it is within every phase of the identify how to improve the instruction.
model.
©Weas,2012
Dick, W. & Carey, L. (2005). The systematic design of instruction. Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon.

Hanna Barbera Cartoon Characters website. Retrieved from website August


2012, http://www.wingnuttoons.com/Hanna_Barbera.html

Richey, R. K. (2011). The Instructional Design Knowledge Base. New York:


Routledge.

Weas, L. D. (2012). An Introduction to the Dick & Carey Instructional Design


Model. Presented at the 2012 Educator’s Conference, Monett, MO.