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PHILIPPINE HISTORY West – South China Sea Bicol

Chapter 1 “Physical Environment” South – Zulu and Celebes Sea

Philippine Deep – lowest place in the country 89
3 important parts about knowing a country’s Area kms. Northeast of Mindanao with a depth of
history 300, 780 or 2% of the world’s land mass 37,732 ft. below sea level. Deepest place in the
God Having 7,107 islands world.
People Luzon – biggest island group (141, 395
Land Visayas – (101, 999 Major Mountain Ranges:
Mindanao – (56, 606 Sierra Mountain
The Name “Philippines” Mt. Apo
Early Chinese traders who visited Mindoro Main Islands: Mt. Pulog
called our nation “Ma-yi” which means land of Luzon 7. Mindoro Mt. Banahaw
gold. Mindanao 8. Leyte Mt. Bulusan
A Greek mapmaker named Claudius Ptolemy Samar 9. Cebu Mt. Halcon
called our islands “Maniolas” in his ancient Negros 10. Bohol Mt. Kanlaon
map. Palawan 11. Masbate Mt. Matutum
When Magellan came in 1521, he called the Panay
Phils. “Archipelago of St. Lazarus”. Major Lowlands Plains:
Ruy Lopez de Villalobos gave the name Topography Central Plain – the rice granary of the Phils.
“Filipinas” to the Phils. In honor of King Philip II 61 – natural harbors Cagayan Valley – greatest tobacco producing
of Spain. 20 – landlocked traits region in Asia, largest valley
Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be Manila Bay – the first harbor in Asia and also Agusan Valley
used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. the largest bay in the Phils. Cotabato
Then it became “The Philippine Islands” during Bays:
the American colonial era. Balayan Plateaus:
Pearl of the Orient Seas – most popular Tayabas Benguet
nickname for the Phil. Given by the Spanish Sindangan Bukidnon
missionary-historian named Fr. Juan Delgado in Illana and Sarangani
1751 Rivers:
Gulfs: Cagayan River – longest
Origin of the Philippines Lingayen Rio Grande – largest
Land forms were made by God as part of His Leyte Pasig
creation Davao
Telling legends Lakes:
It was a remnant of a prehistoric continent Strait: Laguna de Bay – largest
Scientific theory San Juanico Strait – narrowest strait in the
world between Samar and Leyte Springs:
Location Los Baños and Pansol
North – Bashi Channel Peninsulas: Pandi and Sibul
East – Pacific Ocean Bataan Tiwi
Magsingal Sampaguita – “Queen of Philippines Flowers” Pating bulik – huge whale shark
Grapes Pygmy goby and Tabios – two of the world’s
Waterfalls: Wheat – introduced and cultivated in the smallest fish, founded Dr. Albert Herre
Pagsanjan country during Spanish times, first introduced in Glory of the sea – world’s rarest and most
Maria Cristina Nagcarlan, Laguna by Fray Tomas Miranda in expensive shell
Hinulugang Taktak 1519 Tridacna gigas – world’s largest shell
Tamaraw Animal Life Pisidium – world’s smallest shell
Darosdos Birds – 850 species Pearl of Allah – world’s largest natural pearl
Eastern Sarus Crane – biggest bird
Climate The Phil. Monkey eating eagle – world’s largest Minerals
Dry season – (Dec.-May) eagle Mankayan –best known copper district in the
Wet season – (June – Nov.) Kalaw – “Clock of the Mountains” country
Rainfall – the most factor in its climate, with Palawan peacock Surigao del Norte / Sur – greatest iron bearing
most rainy days from July-October Limbas areas in the country
Katala Masinloc Zambales – the biggest deposits of
Typhoons / Earthquake Carabao – the most useful of the animals high quality chromite in the world
-lies within the “Ring of Fire” in the Pacific 4 unique animals Nonoc – one of the largest in the world and the
Tamaraw largest in Asia (Deposit of Nickel)
Typhoons Tarsius Deposit of Coal
About 20 to 30 typhoons lash the country The mouse deer Cebu
annually mostly from June – October The zebronkey Polillo island
Earthquake Masbate
Rock the country annually with intensities Forest Resources Mindanao
varying from 1 – 8 Forest lands – area of 16,633,000 hectares, 55% Asbestos – Ilocos Norte / Zambales
June 3, 1863 – most horrible earthquake in the of total land area Asphalt – Leyte
country Commercial forests – 14, 452, 650
PAGASA – monitor natural occurrences and Non – commercial forests – 2,180,000 Energy Sources
coordinate relief measures when needed Narra – most famous of forest trees Supplied by:
Volcanoes Fish and Marine Resources Hydroelectric power
Mt. Mayon – most famous and scenic Phil. 2,000 species of fish are found Bagasse
Volcanoes. Among those of commercial value: Geothermal energy
Mt. Taal – smallest and most unusual volcano Banak Coal
Mt. Pinatubo – worst volcanic eruption Dalag New sources of energy
Natural Resources Dilis Scenic Beauties and Natural Wonders
Soil – most important natural resources Biya Banaue Rice Terraces
Plant life – 8,120 species of plants, 1000 Lapu – lapu Mount Mayon
varieties of orchids, 1000 species of rice, and Bangus Manila bay sunset
3000 species of trees Pagsanjan falls
Sampalok A Nation of Many Languages. The Philippines is  Filipinos, owing to their beautiful
Hidden valley a nation of many languages and dialects. A country, are passionately romantic
Amazing umbrella geyser survey by Richard Pitman, an American linguist,  Filipinos are liberty-loving and brave
Hundred islands showed that there are 55 native languages and people.
Crystal cave 142 dialects in the country, apart from English  Gratitude is another sterling trait of the
Montalban caves and Spanish. Filipinos.
Chocolate Hills in Bohol National Language. In 1935, President  Filipinos are cooperative.
Manuel L. Quezon, championed the idea of  Filipinos are noted for their durability
Chapter 2 “Social Environment” having a language that would serve as a and resiliency.
common medium of expression for his multi-
Population. lingual people. Thus, President Quezon is Regional Traits. Filipinos possess different
Population as of 2016: 103 milliion. It is said known as the “Father of the National regional traits due to different regional
that the most urgent economic problems are (1) Language.” environments, the lack of contract and
developing and protecting natural resources, communication in previous centuries, the
and (2) controlling population growth.Two Education and High Literacy. The Filipino Spanish imperialist policy of “divide and rule,”
other important population problems are: (1) people are fond of education. As the Honorable and the different economic and social factors
the number of young people, and (2) migration. Frank Murphy, American Governor-General of which affect them in modern times.
the Philippines, said: “No people ever accepted
Social Classes. There are three social classes in the blessings of education with more  The Ilocanos of Ilocandia are the most
the country They are: (1) the rich, (2) the middle enthusiasm than the Filipinos.” The oldest adventurous, hardworking, and frugal
class, and (3) the lower-income groups and the university in the Philippines is the University of of Filipinos.
poor masses. Santo Tomas in Manila.  The Tagalogs, who inhabit Manila, the
provinces around it, and the nearby
The Only Christian Nation in Asia. The Filipino Character islands of Mindoro and Marinduque,
Philippines is the only Christian nation in Asia.  Filipinos are prone to gambling and feel superior to other Filipinos because
About 93% of the people are Christians - 83% betting they live in a region blessed with rich
are Catholics, 7.6% are Aglipayans, 2.3% are  Fatalism is another bad trait farm lands, navigable rivers and
Protestants and other sects.  They are very sensitive about their panoramic beauties, and also because
honor or reputation. of their major participation in history.
The Aglipay Church or Philippine Independent  Filipinos also prefer smooth relations  The Bicolanos of Bicolandia are a
Church is a unique Filipino Protestant sect, with their relatives, friends and religious, mild-tempered, and musical
founded by Isabelo de los Reyes in 1902, with colleagues people.
Gregorio L. Aglipay as its first Bishop.  Filipinos, unlike the Chinese or the  The Bisayans, particularly those from
The Iglesia ni Kristo, founded by Felix Y. Manalo Japanese, lack discipline Iloilo and Negros Occidental, are
in 1914, is a Philippine sect with members both  Mañana habit, which they inherited extravagant, carefree and jolly.
in the country and abroad. from the Spaniards.  The Muslim Filipinos in Mindanao and
Islam, with 1.6 million followers, is the country’s  Filipinos are famous not only for their Sulu are fierce.
second largest religion. warm hospitality, but also for their Cultural Minorities. Out of the 52 million
close family ties. Filipinos, around 1.6 million belong to so-called
national cultural minorities live in the remote
areas, particularly the high cordilleras of Luzon,  The belief that man came from apelike
the hills and mountain forests of Mindanao, and creatures that lived thousands of years
on isolated lakes and seashores. ago in caves.
Waves of Migration
Among the northern tribes are: the Ifugaos, the Negritos
Bontocs, the Kankanays, the Ibaloys, the  First people to come to the Philippines
Tinguians, the Kalingas, the Gaddangs, and the  Very small people, they had black skin,
Negritoes. short kinky hair, thick lips and black
Mindoro tribes comprise the Mangyans, a  They had no government, writing and
peace-loving, musical people with no head- permanent home
hunting tradition  Lived by hunting, fishing and gathering
wild plants and fruits.
The southern tribes of Mindanao and Sulu are Indonesians
the Maranao, Ilanum, Tausug and Samal, all  First immigrants to come by the sea to
Muslims; the Badjao and Yakan (partly Muslim); the Phil.
and the Subanon, Bukidnon, Mansaka,  The first type was tall, light skin, large
Higaunon, Kalagan, Mandaya, Bagobo, Tiruray, forehead, high nose and thin lips
Manobo, Blaan, Manubo Blit and Ubo tribes,  The second type were shorter and
mostly pagan tribes. darker, large nose, thick lips and heavy
Filipino Women. Women in the Philippines  Lived in a permanent homes, used fire
occupy a high place in society, politics and to cook
 Lived by hunting, fishing and small
The first lady President of the Philippines was
Mrs. Corazon (“Cory”) Cojuangco Aquino.
The Malays
 Medium in height, brown-skinned, dark
eyes, flat noses and straight black hair
Chapter 3 “Our Early Ancestors”
 Lived in the larger villages, they had
3 main sources:
government, writing music arts and
1. God’s creation in the Bible
2. Theory of Evolution
 Lived by agriculture, fishing, mining and
3. Legends and fairytales
1. The biblical story
3. Legends and fairytales
 All men and women originated from the
 The story of Malakas and Maganda
first man (Adam) and the first woman
(Eve).  The story of the brown people

2. Theory of Evolution