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Multi-Level DC-AC Power Electronic Converters

S. A. Saleh

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada

asaleh@unb.ca

Abstract— This paper presents the development and perfor- The popularity of CHB multi-level PECs has been due to several

mance evaluation of the wavelet modulation technique for single structural and operational advantages, including [6]–[10]:

phase (1φ) cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multi-level dc-ac power

electronic converters (PECs). The developed technique is based i) the modular design with simplified structure;

on employing sets of resolution-segmented wavelet basis functions ii) the availability of control methods to balance dc voltages;

as switching signals, where each set operates one H-bridge. The iii) the number of series connected H-bridge cells can be

number of sets of wavelet basis functions is selected to match the changed to match the desired output voltage;

number of levels in the output voltage of the 1φ CHB dc-ac PEC.

The wavelet modulation for 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PECs is These advantages over other multi-level topologies have made

implemented for performance evaluation both in simulation and CHB multi-level PECs good candidates for applications that

experimentation. The performance of the developed technique is require single phase (1φ) high power PECs. Examples of

evaluated for linear, nonlinear, and dynamic loads. Simulation such applications include photovoltaic systems and neutral-

results show significant reduction of output harmonics, along with

high magnitude of the fundamental component ion the output connected three phase power distribution systems [10]–[15].

voltage. The improvements offered by the wavelet modulation The increasing demands for multi-level PECs, including

technique are further demonstrated through comparisons with the the CHB ones, have prompted research works for developing

level-shifted and phase-shifted pulse-width modulation techniques switching strategies for multi-level PECs. Various switching

under similar loading conditions. strategies have been developed for operating the different

Index Terms: 1φ Cascaded H-bridge multi-level power elec- topologies of multi-level PECs. The square-wave switching

tronic converters, level-shifted PWM, and phase-shifted PWM. and pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategies have become

I. I NTRODUCTION widely used for operating multi-level PECs. However, PWM

techniques have shown good capabilities for accommodating

The growing industrial demands for power electronic con-

different control methods, and have been adapted for multi-

verters (PECs) that operate at medium and high voltages

level PECs. The PWM for multi-level PECs is based on the

with high power ratings, have motivated the development of

two-level PWM technique, where the ON and OFF switching

multi-level PECs. These PECs have become widely employed

actions are produced using multiple carrier signals. Two main

in several industrial sectors, including power systems, motor

approaches have been introduced to arrange the PWM carrier

drives, distributed generation units, electrical traction drives,

signals as [10]–[16]:

and plasma actuators. As of late, multi-level PECs have been

increasingly used in power systems to meet new mandates of a) Level-shifted PWM (LSPWM): carrier signals with offsets

high flexibility and power control. These new mandates have (vertical shifts);

emerged as a result of the growing number of interconnected b) Phase-shifted PWM (PSPWM): carrier signals with phase

distributed generation units. Several power systems have also shifts (horizontal shifts).

expressed interests in replacing distribution transformers with Several switching techniques have been introduced based

high and medium power rated multi-level PECs [1]–[9]. In these on modifying the LSPWM and PSPWM methods to further

applications, multi-level PECs are considered as a fundamental improve the performance of 1φ and 3φ multi-level PECs,

technology that can facilitate processing high power using low including 1φ CHB ones. Among these techniques are the phase

voltage switching elements, which can be operated at low opposition disposition (POD), alternative phase opposition dis-

switching frequencies [1]–[4], [10]–[12]. position (APOD), in-phase disposition (PD), hybrid disposition

The foundations of multi-level PECs are based on recon- (HD), trapezoidal, and space vector modulation [9]–[16]. The

structing an ac voltage by switching several independent dc conventional LSPWM and PSPWM and their modified versions

supplies. These PECs are typically designed using several have shown good abilities to operate 1φ and 3φ multi-level

series-connected switching elements, thus reducing the voltage PECs. Despite their abilities to operate multi-level PECs, PWM-

stress across each switching element [1]–[4]. Such designs based switching techniques have shown limited capabilities for

of multi-level PECs have demonstrated several structural and improving the magnitude of fundamental components of output

operational advantages over the conventional single-level PECs. voltage [9], [13]–[16]. At present, active research works are

Various topologies have been introduced for constructing multi- being conducted to further improve the performance of PWM-

level single and three phase PECs, among which are the diode- based switching techniques.

clamped, cascade H-bridge, and flying-capacitor topologies [4]– This paper presents the development, implementation, and

[9]. Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multi-level PECs have gained performance evaluation of the wavelet modulation technique

remarkable popularity in a wide range of industrial applications. for 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PECs. The proposed technique

978-1-5090-4894-6/17/$31.00 © IEEE

2017-IACC-0824 Page 2 of 9

based linearly-combined scaling basis functions as switching

signals to operate 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC. Each set of

resolution-segmented wavelet basis functions is used to operate

one H-bridge in the 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC. Moreover,

the number of resolution segmentations is selected to match

the number of levels in the output voltage of the 1φ CHB

multi-level dc-ac PEC. An implementation procedure for the

proposed modulation technique is developed in order to test

its performance under different loading conditions. Finally, this

paper provides steady-state performance comparisons of the

wavelet modulation technique with the LSPWM and PSPWM

techniques when operating a 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC to

supply different load types.

II. OVERVIEW OF C ASCADED H -B RIDGE M ULTI -L EVEL

DC-AC P OWER E LECTRONIC C ONVERTERS

A. Multi-Level Power Electronic Converters

The continuous industrial demands for power electronic

converters (PECs) that can operate efficiently at medium and

high voltages, have motivated the introduction of multi-level Fig. 1. A schematic diagram for a 1φ 7-level CHB dc-ac PEC with a square-

PECs. These new PECs have offered some advantages over wave switched output voltage.

conventional PECs, including modular structures, simple con- III. WAVELET M ODULATION T ECHNIQUE FOR 1φ CHB

trols, reduced input/out harmonic distortion, high power ratings, M ULTI -L EVEL DC-AC PEC S

low common-mode voltage, possible operation at low switching

A. The Wavelet Modulation Technique for 1φ DC-AC PECs

frequencies, and reduced voltage stresses across switching

elements [4]. The foundations of designing multi-level PECs The wavelet modulation technique is a new method for

are based on ON and OFF actions of series-connected switching operating (PECs) to achieve [17]–[19]:

elements fed by multiple dc supplies, to synthesize staircase ac a) reduced input/output harmonic distortions;

output voltages. While the input dc supplies can be capacitors, b) improved output fundamental frequency component in dc-ac

batteries, fuel cells, etc, ON and OFF actions of the switch- PECs;

ing elements combine these supplies to synthesize ac output c) improved output dc component in ac-dc PEcs;

voltages [1]–[6]. The designs of commercial multi-level PECs d) high and efficient energy transfer from the input side to the

have been based on three major topologies that are the diode- output side of the PEC;

clamped, flying capacitor, and cascaded H-bridge [7]–[12]. The wavelet modulation technique is realized by a non-dyadic

B. Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level PECs multirsolution analysis (MRA), which is constructed by sets

of scale-based linearly-combined wavelet basis functions. This

The cascaded H-bridge multi-level PEC is one of the main

non-dyadic MRA is composed of two stages, that are [17]–[19]:

topologies of multilevel PECs, which can be used for construct-

ing 1φ and 3φ PECs. This multi-level PEC topology employs i) The analysis stage. The reference modulating signal is

series-connected switching cells, each of which is composed sampled by using scale-based

linearly-combined scaling

of a 4-pulse H-bridge converter. The operation of an H-bridge basis functions ϕ 2j t − k ; j, k ∈ Z. These scaling

switching cell is based on activating the diagonal switching basis functions are generated by integer dilations and

element in each cell. For an m CHB multi-level PEC, (m−1)/2 translations of the scale-based linearly-combined scaling

switching cells are connected in series such that the output of function ϕ(t). The scaling function ϕ(t) is defined at scale

each H-bridge switching cell provides one positive level and j as [17]:

one negative level in the overall output voltage. Fig. 1 shows ϕj (t) = φH 2j+1 t +φH 2j+1 t − 1 + 2−(j+1) (1)

the schematic diagram of a 1φ 7-level CHB dc-ac PEC.

Commercially available CHB multi-level PECs are designed where j = 1, 2, 3, ... and φH (t) is the Haar scaling func-

and manufactured for two main classes that are [12], [13]: tion. The analysis stage produces groups of non-uniform

I- Symmetric CHB multi-level PECs: These multi-level recurrent samples, where each group has two samples. The

PECs are designed and operated for dc sources that have locations of the samples in each group determine the width

the similar dc voltage magnitudes. and location of an ON switching pulse.

II- Asymmetric CHB multi-level PECs: These multi-level ii) The synthesis stage. The reference modulating signal is re-

PECs are designed and operated for dc sources that may constructed from the groups of samples that are created in

have different dc voltage magnitudes. the analysis stage. The synthesis of the reference modulat-

In this paper, the wavelet modulation technique is developed ing signal is performed by scale-based

linearly-combined

and tested for 1φ symmetric CHB multi-level PECs. synthesis basis functions ϕ̃ 2j t − k ; j, k ∈ Z, which

978-1-5090-4894-6/17/$31.00 © IEEE

Page 3 of 9 2017-IACC-0824

are generated by the scale-based linearly-combined synthe- where J = max(j), and T o is the period of S M (t). Finally, the

sis scaling function ϕ̃(t) defined at scale j as: value of Dϕ over a half cycle of S M (t) can be defined as [17]:

ϕ̃j (t) = φH (t) − ϕj (t) (2) Dϕ = 2J + 1 (11)

The function ϕ̃(t) is the dual function for the scaling B. Resolution-Segmented Non-Dyadic MRA

function

j ϕ(t) [17]. The synthesis wavelet basis functions

ϕ̃ 2 t − k are used as ON switching pulses to operate In general, an MRA of a signal x(t) is a collection of j spaces

a dc-ac PEC so that the reference modulating signal is {V0 , V1 , . . . , Vj }, each of which contains a projection of x(t)

synthesized as its output. onto that space (see equation (6)). MRAs with spaces spanned

The notation of ϕ̃ j (t) is used to imply: by wavelet basis functions exhibit unique features due to the

properties of wavelet basis functions. One of these properties is

ϕ̃j (t) = ϕ̃ 2j t ; j ∈ Z (3) the dilation property, which can be defined for a set of wavelet

Reference [17] details the derivations of ϕ(t) and its dual ϕ̃(t), basis functions {λj,0 (t), λj,1 (t), . . . , λj,k (t)} as [17], [18]:

along with their refinement equations and intervals of support.

√ R−1

These functions are developed to process a sinusoidal reference λ 2j t = 2 g[r]λ 2j+1 t − r (12)

modulation signal S M (t), that is [17], [18]: r=0

SM (t) = sin (2πfo t) (4) where R ∈ Z is the number of vanishing moments of λ(t) and

where fo is the desired output frequency. The scale-based g[r] is a set of coefficients related to λ(t).

linearly-combined scaling function ϕ j (t) creates one group of The dilation property of wavelet basis functions is applicable

samples from SM (t) at each scale j and shift k. A finite number for the scale-based linearly-combined basis functions, used

for the wavelet modulation

technique.

The application of the

of sample

groups D ϕ is created over each cycle of S M (t) dilation property to ϕ̃ 2j t − k allows expressing the output

by ϕ 2j t − k . The interval of each group is defined as

[td1 , td2 ], where td1 and td2 are related to j as [17], [18]: voltage for a 1φ WM dc-ac PEC as:

Js1−1

vo (t) =VDC ϕ̃ 2j t

where d = 0, 1, 2, ..., Dϕ − 1.

At each j, [td1, td2 ] represents

j=1

for ϕ 2j t −

the interval of support k andϕ̃ 2j t − k [17]. √ R−1

Js2−1

The basis functions ϕ 2j t − k and ϕ̃ 2j t − k span + 2VDC gϕ [r]ϕ̃ 2(j+1) t − r

spaces to construct a non-dyadic MRA, which can be stated for j=Js1 r=0

SM (t) as [17], [18]: √

J

R−1

MRA (SM (t)) = (SM (t), Vj (ϕ)) , Ṽj (ϕ̃) (6)

j=Js2 r=0

j∈Z

√ R−1

Js1−1

where: + 2VDC gϕ [r]ϕ̃ 2(J−(j+1)) t − r

Vj (ϕ(t)) = ϕ 2j t − k ; j = 1, 2, ..., k ∈ Z (7) j=Js2 r=0

Ṽj (ϕ̃(t)) = ϕ̃ 2j t − k ; j = 1, 2, ..., k ∈ Z (8)

Js1−1

+ VDC ϕ̃ 2(Js1−j) t

where SM (t)(t), Vj (ϕ) is the projection

S M (t) onto the

of j=1

space Vj , which is spanned by ϕ 2j t − k . The projection

Js1−1

To

of SM (t) onto Vj can be expressed as: − VDC ϕ̃ 2j t −

2

td2 j=1

SM (t), Vj (ϕ) = SM (t)ϕ 2j t − k dt (9) R−1

√ Js2−1

To

k td1

− 2VDC gϕ [r]ϕ̃ 2(j+1) t − r −

2

The basis functions ϕ̃ 2j t− k synthesize

SM (t) from

j=Js1 r=0

groups of samples created by ϕ 2j t − k . If ϕ̃ 2j t − k

√ J R−1

To

are used as switching signals to operate a 1φ, 4-pulse dc-ac − 2VDC gϕ [r]ϕ̃ 2(j+2) t − r −

2

PEC, then the output voltage v o (t) will represent a synthesized j=Js2 r=0

version of S M (t) with a peak value of V DC . The output voltage R−1

√ Js1−1

(J−(j+1)) To

of a 1φ, 4-pulse wavelet modulated (WM) dc-ac PEC can be − 2VDC gϕ [r]ϕ̃ 2 t−r−

2

expressed over one cycle of S M (t) as [17]: j=Js2 r=0

⎛

Js1−1

J

J−1

− VDC ϕ̃ 2(Js1−j) t −

To

(13)

vo (t) =VDC ⎝ ϕ̃ 2j t + ϕ̃ 2(J−j) t 2

j=1

j=1 j=1

⎞ where Js1 ∈ Z and Js2 ∈ Z are values for the resolution such

J J−1

− ϕ̃ 2j t −

T o

− ϕ̃ 2(J−j) t −

T o ⎠ that 1 < Js1 < Js2 < J. The value of R for the scale-based

j=1

2 j=1

2 linearly-combined

wavelet basis functions is R = 2, and

(10) gϕ = √12 , √12 [17].

978-1-5090-4894-6/17/$31.00 © IEEE

2017-IACC-0824 Page 4 of 9

Remarks for Equation (13) Fig. 3 (next page) shows an example of reconstructing

a sinu-

j

• The basis functions ϕ̃ 2 t − k soidal signal using sets of resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k .

(j+1) ; j ∈ [Js1, Js2 − 1]

The proposed resolution segmentation of basis functions will be

have been replaced by ϕ̃ 2 t − k using the dila-

tion property (see equation (12)). used as the foundations of the wavelet modulation technique for

(j+1) 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PECs.

• The basis functions ϕ̃ 2 t−k (described in the

previous

(j+2) remark) with

j ∈ [Js2, J] have been replaced by C. Wavelet Modulation for 1φ CHB m-Level DC-AC PEC

ϕ̃ 2 t − k using the dilation property.

The previous subsection has introduced the resolution-

• The use of the dilation property can be generalized to

segmented basis functions, along with their capabilities to

replace basis functions from scale j with basis functions

process signals through constructing non-dyadic MRAs. These

from scale j + 1. j capabilities can be utilized to develop a new switching tech-

• The dilation property, for replacing

(j+1) (j+1) ϕ̃ 2 t−k

nique for operating 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PECs, where

with ϕ̃ 2

t−k

and ϕ̃ 2 t−k with

carrier signals are dispensed with. In general, a switching

ϕ̃ 2(j+2) t − k , has to be applied over the positive and

technique for multi-level dc-ac PECs has to be able to op-

negative half cycles of S M (t).

erate different groups of switching elements so that input dc

The significance of equation (13) is that it introduces the voltages are sequentially connected to or disconnected from

possibility of synthesizing S M (t) using sets of scale-based the output side of the PEC. This requirement

can be met by

linearly-combined basis functions from different scales. Such employing resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k as switching

a possibility is based on using each set of basis functions over signals, where each level of the output voltage is created by a

a specific range of scales. The selected ranges of scales will group of switching elements,

which are operated by one set of

be introduced in this paper as the

resolution

segmentation. The resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k . The relationship between

resolution segmentation of ϕ̃ 2j t − k , over aspecific range the number of levels m in the

output

voltage

and number of

of j, implies that the analysis basis functions ϕ 2j t − k sets of resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k , σ, can be stated

have to be resolution-segmented over the same range of j. This as:

condition is required to ensure the stability and convergence of m = 2σ + 1; m, σ ∈ Z, and σ ≥ 2 (14)

the constructed non-dyadic MRA, which is associated with the

wavelet modulation technique. It should be noted that for CHB multi-level PECs, the value of

Fig. 2 showssets of scale-based linearly combined synthesis σ will be identical to the number of H-bridge cells.

basis functions ϕ̃ 2j t − k from different scales, and created The employment of resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k as

through 2 resolution segmentations over a half cycle of S M (t). switching signals, to operate a multi-level dc-ac PEC, requires

defining a specific range of scales for each set. The desired

ranges of the scale are dependent on the number levels in the

j output voltage of a multi-level dc-ac PEC. Specific ranges of

ϕ̃ 2 t − k

the scale j for σ resolution segmentations can be selected as:

1

For σ = 2 : j ∈ {2, 4, 6, . . . , J}

0

(j+1) For σ = 3 : j ∈ {2, 5, 8, . . . , J}

ϕ̃ 2 t−k ..

1 .

For σ = σ : j ∈ {2, 2 + σ, 2 + 2σ, . . . , J}

0

(j+2)

ϕ̃ 2 t−k The resolution segmentation of ϕ̃ 2j t − k has to change

1 their intervals of support in order to maintain the stability and

convergence of the non-dyadic MRA. The interval of support

0

t for a resolution-segmented synthesis basis function ϕ̃ 2j t − k

Fig. 2.

Sets

of scale-based linearly-combined synthesis basis functions can be defined for a value σ as:

ϕ̃ 2j t − k created through 2 resolution segmentations over a half cycle

of SM (t). (td1 )σ = 2(σ+1) + dσ + 2−(j+σ) (15)

(σ+1) −(j+σ)

It can (td2 )σ = 2 + dσ + 1 − 2 (16)

be seen from Fig. 2 that the resolution segmentation

of ϕ̃ 2j t − k over specific ranges of j, allows employing where dσ = 0, 1, 2, ...,

synthesis basis functions from different scales to reconstruct Dσ − 1,

and Dσ is the number of sample

groups created by ϕ 2j t − k at the σ resolution segmentation.

SM . If sets of resolution-segmented synthesis basis functions

The value of D σ over a half cycle of S M (t) can be defined as:

are used to operate a dc-ac PEC, each set has to operate a

different group of switching elements to reconstruct S M (t) over Dϕ − 1

Dσ = ; Dσ ∈ Z (17)

a specific range of the scale j. A range for the scale j of one set 2σ

of resolution-segmented synthesis basis functions, is achieved It should be noted that the locations of all

sample groups,

by a finite number of sample groups. The summation of all re- created by a set of resolution-segmented ϕ 2j t − k , are

constructed versions of S M (as stated in equation (13)) from all centered around J. This setting is required to maintain the

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Page 5 of 9 2017-IACC-0824

(j+2)

ϕ̃ 2 t−k

(j+1)

ϕ̃ 2 t−k

j

ϕ̃ 2 t − k

SM (t)

t

Fig. 3. Reconstructing a sinusoidal signal SM (t) using resolution-segmented scale-based linearly-combined synthesis basis functions over one cycle of SM (t).

The number of resolution segmentation is 2.

generated

switching signals (sets STEP 2: Initialize j = 1, d = 0, d2 = 0, d3 = 0, . . . , dσ = 0,

of resolution-segmented ϕ̃ 2j t − k ). n = 0, and Ts (time step).

STEP 3: Create samples at td1 , td2 , td2 1 , td2 2 , td3 1 , td3 2 ,

IV. I MPLEMENTING THE WAVELET M ODULATION . . . , tdσ 1 , and tdσ 2 (equations (5), (15), and (16)).

T ECHNIQUE FOR A 1φ CHB M ULTI -L EVEL DC-AC PEC STEP 4: Generate ON-pulses for each H-bridge:

The foundations of the wavelet modulation technique are

H-Bridge 1: ON over [t d1 , td2 ]

based on processing a sinusoidal signal S M (t) jusing a H-Bridge 2: ON over [t d2 1 , td2 2 ]

non-dyadic

MRA, which is constructed by

ϕ 2t − k

and ϕ̃ 2j t − k . In such an MRA, ϕ 2j t − k deter- ..

.

mine

j the locations

and durations of switching pulses, while

ϕ̃ 2 t − k produce the switching pulses to operate the dc- H-Bridge σ: ON over [t dσ 1 , tdσ 2 ]

ac PEC. The wavelet modulation technique can be employed

STEP 5: Evaluate:

to operate multi-level dc-ac PECs, where the required non-

dyadic

j MRA is constructed

byresolution-segmented sets of A0 = SM

(td2 ) = cos (2πfo td2 ) (19)

ϕ 2 t − k and ϕ̃ 2j t − k . Such an MRA can process

A2 = SM (td2 2 ) = cos (2πfo td2 2 ) (20)

a sinusoidal reference modulating signal S M (t) in order to

..

operate a 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC as: .

a) locations and durations of switching pulses for the switch-

Aσ = SM (tdσ 2 ) = cos (2πfo tdσ 2 ) (21)

ing elements in each level are determined

by one set of

resolution-segmented ϕ 2j t − k . The required dura- STEP 6: Verify:

tions and locations are selected as [t d1 , td2 ] (for σ < 2 as IF A0 ≥ 0, j = j + 1; ELSE j = j − 1.

in equation (5)) and [t dσ 1 , tdσ 2 ] (for σ ≥ 2, as in equations IF A2 ≥ 0, j = j + 1; ELSE j = j − 1 (σ = 2).

(15) and (16), respectively). ..

.

b) switching pulses

jare generated

by one set of resolution- IF Aσ ≥ 0, j = j + 1; ELSE j = j − 1 (σ = σ).

segmented

j ϕ̃

2 t − k as in equation (13). Each set of STEP 7: Verify:

ϕ̃ 2 t − k generates switching pulses for a group of IF t ≥ Tm , THEN:

switching elements to create one level in the output voltage. j = 1, d = 0, d2 = 0, d3 = 0, . . . , dσ = 0

The previous description of the non-dyadic MRA can lead ELSE

to the implementation of the wavelet modulation technique for d=d+1

a 1φ CHB m-level dc-ac PEC as in the following steps: d2 = d2 + 1

STEP 1: Read the number of levels m in the output voltage, d3 = d3 + 1

and calculate σ as: ..

.

m−1 dσ = dσ + 1.

σ= (18)

2 STEP 8: Set n = n + 1 and Go to STEP 3.

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2017-IACC-0824 Page 6 of 9

14

The previous section presented a step-by-step procedure 9

4

to implement the proposed wavelet modulation technique for 1

operating 1φ CHB m-level dc-ac PECs. This procedure was j For σ = 2

14

implemented using a MATLAB code that generated switching 9

pulses to operate a SIMULINK model of a 1φ CHB multi- 4

level dc-ac PEC. The test SIMULINK model was developed 1

j For σ = 3

for m = 5, 7, and 9, where each H-bridge cell had an input dc 14

voltage of VDC = 50 V. The simulation tests were conducted 9

for three load types, which were: 4

1

• A linear load (static R − L load) with Z L as: 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.13

Time [sec.]

ZL = 10 + j7.54 Ω (22) Fig. 4. Simulation results for a 1φ CHB 7-level WM dc-ac PEC for suppling

a linear R − L load: the scale j for σ = 0, 2, 3.

• A 1φ full-wave diode rectifier with a resistive load of 15

Ω (non-linear Load). The waveforms and spectra of v o (t) and iL (t) in Fig. 5 (a),

• A 1φ, 2-hp, 60 Hz, 200 V split-phase induction motor (b), and (c) showed that v o (t) had the highest fundamental

(dynamic load); component, when the 1φ CHB 7-level dc-ac PEC was operated

For purposes of performance comparison, the developed by the wavelet modulation technique. Furthermore, the spectra

SIMULINK model of the 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC was of vo (t) obtained using the wavelet modulation had lower

operated by switching signals generated by the level-shifted harmonic distortion than those obtained by the LSPWM and

pulse-width modulation (LSPWM) and phase-shifted pulse- PSPWM. The values of the fundamental components and har-

width modulation (PSPWM) techniques. The LSPWM and monic distortion factors for output voltages obtained by using

PSPWM techniques were implemented following the methods the wavelet modulation, LSPWM, and PSPWM techniques,

presented in references [8], [9], and [14] with a carrier signal when supplying different load types are listed in Table I.

frequency of f c = 1.62 kHz and ma determined as: B. The Non-linear Load: Diode Rectifier

Am This simulation test was carried out by connecting the outputs

ma = ; 0.4 ≤ ma ≤ 1; ma ∈ R (23)

(m − 1)Ac of the 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC to feed a 1φ full-wave

where m is the number of levels in v o (t), Am is the peak of diode rectifier, which had a resistive load of R = 15 Ω. The

SM (t), and Ac is the peak of the carrier signal. The selection of non-linear load test was conducted for m = 5. The objective

fc was made on the basis of the number of generated switching of this test was to investigate the steady-sate performance of

pulses over each cycle of S M (t). The wavelet modulation a 1φ CHB 5-level dc-ac PEC feeding a non-linear load, when

technique generates 52 ON-switching pulses over one cycle of operated by the wavelet modulation, LSPWM, and PSPWM

SM (t) (fo = 60 Hz). The LSPWM and PSPWM techniques techniques. During this test, each dc voltage was set to V DC =

with fc = 1.62 kHz generate the same number of ON- 50 V . Fig. The waveforms and spectra of the output voltages

switching pulses over one cycle of S M (t) (fo = 60 Hz). Finally, and load currents obtained by using the wavelet modulation,

the spectra for voltages and currents were determined using LSPWM, and PSPWM techniques are shown in Fig. 6.

MATLAB built-in blocks [17]. The results obtained from the non-linear load test confirmed

the ability of the wavelet modulation technique to operate 1φ

A. The Linear Load: R − L Load

CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC to produce outputs with reduced

The performance test for the R − L load was carried out by harmonic distortion, when compared with thos produced by

operating the 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC with switching other techniques. The waveforms and spectra for the output

pulses generated by the wavelet modulation MATLAB code. voltages and load currents shown in Fig. 6 (a), (b), and (c)

This test was to investigate the steady-state performance of a show that the wavelet modulation technique was able to produce

1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC supplying a linear load, when a higher fundamental component in v o (t) than those obtained

operated by the wavelet modulation, LSPWM, and PSPWM. using the LSPWM and PSPWM techniques. These performance

In this test, the dc voltage inputs for the test PEC were features demonstrated good agreement with those revealed in

set as VDC = 50 V. The scale j for the different levels other tests, where the proposed technique was able to operate

(different values of σ) was collected during this simulation test the 1phi CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC to produce an output

as shown in Fig. 4. The scale j in Fig. 4, for different values voltage with the highest fundamental component and lowest

of σ, confirmed the ability of the resolution-segmented basis harmonic contents.

functions to maintain their quarter-cycle symmetry, which was

achieved by setting: C. The Dynamic Load: 1φ Split-phase Induction Motor

In this test, the 1φ CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC was config-

max(j)|σ=0 = max(j)|σ=2 = max(j)|σ=3 (24)

ured as a 9-level dc-ac PEC to feed a 1φ, 2-hp, 60 Hz, 200

Fig. 5 shows the waveforms and spectra of the output voltages V split-phase induction motor (dynamic load). The objective

and load currents obtained by using the wavelet modulation, of this simulation test was to investigate the steady-state per-

LSPWM, and PSPWM techniques. formance of a 1φ CHB 9-level dc-ac PEC feeding a dynamic

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Page 7 of 9 2017-IACC-0824

100 100 100

50 50 50

0 0 0

−50 −50 −50

−100 −100 −100

−150 −150 −150

0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11

150 150 150

|vo (f )| 120 |vo (f )|

120

|vo (f )| 120

90 90 90

60 60 60

30 30 30

0 0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

10 10 10

4 4 4

−2 −2 −2

−8 −8 −8

−14 −14 −14

0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11

12 12 12

|iL (f )| |iL (f )| |iL (f )|

8 8 8

4 4 4

0 0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Fig. 5. Simulation results for a 1φ CHB 7-level dc-ac PEC for suppling a linear R − L load: the output voltage vo (t) and its spectrum |vo (f )|, and load

current iL (t) and its spectrum |iL (f )|. (a) The wavelet modulation technique, (b) level-shifted PWM technique, and (c) phase-shifted PWM technique.

100 vo (t) (a) 100 vo (t) (b) 100 vo (t) (c)

50 50 50

0 0 0

−50 −50 −50

−100 −100 −100

0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11

120 120 120

90

|vo (f )| 90 |vo (f )| 90 |vo (f )|

60 60 60

30 30 30

0 0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

4 4 4

0 0 0

−4 −4 −4

−8 −8 −8

0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.09 Time [sec.] 0.10 0.11

4 4 4

2 2 2

0 0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Fig. 6. Simulation results for a 1φ CHB 5-level dc-ac PEC for suppling a non-linear load: the output voltage vo (t) and its spectrum |vo (f )|, and load current

iL (t) and its spectrum |iL (f )|. (a) The wavelet modulation technique, (b) level-shifted PWM technique, and (c) phase-shifted PWM technique.

load when operated by the wavelet modulation, LSPWM, and wavelet modulation technique has been able to outperform

PSPWM techniques. Fig. 7 shows the waveforms and spectra the conventional LSPWM and PSPWM techniques both the

of the output voltages and load currents obtained by using the quantity and the quality of output voltages. A summary of all

wavelet modulation, LSPWM, and PSPWM techniques. test results is provided in Table I.

Test results for the dynamic load show that the wavelet TABLE I

modulation technique was able to improve the magnitude of P ERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE WAVELET

the fundamental component of the voltage applied to the 1φ MODULATION , LSPWM, AND PSPWM TECHNIQUES

split-phase induction motor. This improvement was revealed by

the spectra of the output voltages obtained by using the three Load Parameters m

Wavelet

LSPWM PSPWM

tested techniques. (see Fig. 7 (a), (b), and (c)). Furthermore, Modulation

|V1 | [p.u] 0.94 0.82 0.81

the spectra of the voltages and currents demonstrated that the Linear

THDV

5

14.33% 30.04% 27.46%

wavelet modulation technique created less harmonic distortion |V1 | [p.u] 0.93 0.84 0.81

7

than the LSPWM and PSPWM techniques. The results of this THDV 11.46% 18.92% 16.86%

|V1 | [p.u] 0.95 0.83 0.82

test demonstrated a consistent ability of the wavelet modulation THDV

9

8.71% 12.12% 10.63%

technique to operate the 1phi CHB multi-level dc-ac PEC and |V1 | [p.u] 0.95 0.86 0.88

improve the quantity and quality of v o (t). Non-Linear 5

THDV 15.94% 32.32% 30.68%

|V1 | [p.u] 0.93 0.87 0.85

Performance results for the steady-state operation of 1φ CHB 7

THDV 12.85% 20.62% 18.92%

multi-level dc-ac PECs have demonstrated improved perfor- |V1 | [p.u]

9

0.93 0.86 0.87

THDV 9.03% 12.89% 10.07%

mance when using the proposed wavelet modulation technique.

|V1 | [p.u] 0.94 0.82 0.84

These improvements in the performance have been measured Dynamic

THDV

5

14.74% 30.02% 27.21%

in terms of the magnitude of the fundamental component |V1 | [p.u] 0.95 0.81 0.82

7

in the output voltage, as well as the voltage total harmonic THDV 10.91% 22.04% 17.33%

distortion factor. In all tests with different values of m, the |V1 | [p.u] 0.94 0.83 0.83

9

THDV 7.68% 13.19% 10.31%

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2017-IACC-0824 Page 8 of 9

200

150

vo (t) (a) 200

150

vo (t) (b) 200

150

vo (t) (c)

100 100 100

50 50 50

0 0 0

−50 −50 −50

−100 −100 −100

−150 −150 −150

−200 −200 −200

1.67 1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71 1.67 1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71 1.67 1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71

200 200 200

|vo (f )|

100 100 100

50 50 50

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

10 10 10

0 0 0

−10 −10 −10

−20 −20 −20

1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71 1.67 1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71 1.67 1.68 1.69 Time [sec.] 1.70 1.71

15 15 15

10 10 10

5 5 5

0 0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 f [kHz] 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Fig. 7. Simulation results for a 1φ CHB 9-level dc-ac PEC for suppling a dynamic load: the output voltage vo (t) and its spectrum |vo (f )|, and load current

iL (t) and its spectrum |iL (f )|. (a) The wavelet modulation technique, (b) level-shifted PWM technique, and (c) phase-shifted PWM technique.

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