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Design of Heat Exchanger

Engr. Rey F. Fiedacan, MEP - ME

DEVELOPED IN EXCEL BY: REY FIEDACAN - MECHANICAL ENGINEER ,11.07.2010


ENGINEERING CALCULATION
THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER
APPLIED LIMITATION: SENSIBLE COOLING or SENSIBLE HEATING ONLY
Project Title : HEAT EXCHANGER FOR CHILLED WATER
Part : Horizontal Shell
Prepared by : Rey Fiedacan
Date : 11.07.2010
Doc. No. : HX - 01 -09
Revision No. : 1
Key in value in blue color only

TUBE SIDE: HOT SIDE SHELL SIDE: COLD SIDE


[Fluid medium] WATER [Fluid medium] WATER
[Mass flowrate] 150 Kg/s [Mass flowrate] 50 Kg/s
[Inlet temperature] 20 C [Inlet temperature] 32 C
[Density] 998.2 kg/m3 [Density] 996.4 kg/m3
[Specific heat] 4181.6 J/Kg-K [Specific heat] 4178.7 J/Kg-K
[Thermal conductivity] 0.6044 W/m-K [Thermal conductivity] 0.6144 W/m-K
[Dynamic Viscosity] 0.0009832 N.s/m2 , kg/m-s [Dynamic Viscosity] 0.0008292 N.s/m2 , kg/m-s

FLOW CONDITION
[Type of flow] Counter flow
[Design Fouling Factor] 0.000176 m2- K/W
ESSENTIAL VARIABLES
[Tube materials] WATER
[Velocity of fluid inside Tubes] 2 m/s
[Tube Outside Diameter] 19 mm
[Tube Inside Diameter] 16 mm
[Thermal Conductivity of Tubes] 42.3 W/m-K
TUBE ORIENTATION & GEOMETRY
[Number of Passes] 3
[Tube Pitch] 0.0254 mm
[Tube layout] Square Layout
[Tube Count Layout] 45 deg.
[Baffle Spacing - baffle cut at 25%] 0.5 m

FINAL DECIDING VALUES BASED ON CORRELATED INPUTS ABOVE


Step #1: Evaluate the LMTD correction factor given the value of P and R ( Computed )
P = 0.19431
R = 3.00208
From this set of conditions, See Table on LMTD correction factor to determine the factor
F corresponding to type of flow ( Parallel or counterflow) and number of passes
Enter correction Factor, F 0.94
Step #2: Check the value of overall conductance, U against the recommend values
Computed value of U = 1,869.27 W/m2-K Based on the correlation of Reynolds
number, flow condition and thermal conductivity, Check this value against permissible range from table
of overall conductance U,
Enter value of U if the computed value is within the range 2263.20

Step #3: Check the % surface design of heat exchanger due to fouling effects
Computed value of = 61%
If the value is too high , Set value for desired surface design then enter 30%

Step #4: Evaluate computed length of tube of heat exchanger, Note that standard length is in
20 ft and it is recommended to use it out of the its length
Computed Length = 1.89 m
Enter, the effective length of tubes should not < computed length 4.00

Step #5: Evaluate the re-calculated shell diameter on the new length of HX, Inside diameter
should referred to available shell to be used ( can be pipe or rolled plate)
Computed Shell ID = 0.68 m

Enter new shell ID,must be available size 0.80


Step #6: Enter the absolute viscosity at wall temperature, Evaluate at reference temperature T
Reference Temp. = 24.83 oC
Enter absolute viscosity,kg/m - s at reference Temp. 0.0009001

FINISH
Check the result in the next sheet, Carefully evaluate and proceed next iteration
if needed. The areas for iteration will be size, tube layout, flow conditions, geometry
length of tubes ,baffle spacing and tube materials.
DEVELOPED IN EXCEL BY: REY FIEDACAN - MECHANICAL ENGINEER ,11.07.2010

1
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1

Project Title : HEAT EXCHANGER FOR CHILLED WATER


Part : Horizontal Shell
Sketch :
HEAT EXCHANGER THERMAL CALCULATION BY REY FIEDACAN, MEP - ME

I.HEAT & MASS BALANCE

1.0 Temperature of outlet fluid - Cold fluid ( Predicted from energy and mass balance)

msCps(Ts1-Ts2)
Ts2 = mtCpct = 295.3 K
2.0 Log mean temperature difference across the heat exchanger (LMTD)

Δtmax - Δtmin where:


LMTD = Δtmax = 7.1 K
LMTD = 6.21 for parallel flow
ln Δtmin LMTD = 7.08 for counterflow
P = 0.19431
R = 3.00208
F = 0.9400

3.0 LMTD Calculation ( Corrected )


where :
ΔTm = F(LMTD) = 6.655 K for Counter flow heat transfer between shell & tubes

4.0 HEAT DUTY OF HEAT EXCHANGER based on the temperature difference between hot fluids inlet
and outlet condition.

Q =(mscps)(Ts1 -Ts2) = 1,462.55 KW

5.0 NUMBER OF TUBES - based on the mass flowrate of cold fluid inside the tubes and recommended
velocity on the specified number of passes.
Nt = 4mtNp/ρtvtπdi2 = 1,121 tubes
374 per pass
II. TUBE SIDE CALCULATION:
1.0 TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANSFER
Nutkt where:
ht =
di Nut = Nusselt number of fluid inside the tubes
Kt = Thermal conductivity of fluid inside the tubes
di = Inside diameter of tubes

2.0 NUSSELT NUMBER ( CORRELATION FROM Petukhov - Kirililov for Turbulent flows )
which predicts results in the range of 104< Ret < 5 x106 and 0.5 < Prt < 200
(f/2)RetPrt
Nut =
1.07+12.7(f/2)1/2(Prt2/3 -1)
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1

2.1 Prandtl number Prt = 6.80236

2.2 Reynold number at tube side Ret = ρtvtdi/µt = 32,488.20 the flow is turbulent

2.3 Friction factor at given Re Ft = (1.58lnRet - 3.28)


-2
= 0.005797

(f/2)RetPrt
Nut = = 225.72
1.07+12.7(f/2)1/2(Prt2/3 -1)

Nutkt = 8,526.66 W/m2-K


ht =
di ( This correlated heat transfer coefficient at tube side
condition of flow )

III.SHELL SIDE CALCULATION


1.0 SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER BY KERN CORRELATION
which predicts results in the range of 2x103< Res = GsDe/µ< 1 x106

ht = 0.36ks Res0.55Prs1/3 where:


De Nus = Nusselt number of fluid outsidethe tubes
Ks = Thermal conductivity of fluid outside the tubes
de = Equivalent diameter of shell
Res = Reynold number flow outside the tubes
Prs = Prandtl number of flow outside the tunes

2.1 Reynolds Number Res = (ms/As)(De/µs) = 11,649.06 the flow is turbulent

2.2 Equivalent Diameter De = f(Square,Triangular layout)


do
De of square pitch in tube layout Flow
PT

DeΠ = 4(P -πdo /4)


2 2
T = 0.024 m2
De S s

De of triangular pitch in tube layout Flow PT


do

DeΔ = 4(PT (3) /4-πdo /8)


2 1/2 2
= 0.018 m2
πdo/2 0 s
Use: Square Pitch ; De = 0.024234

2.3 Bundle Crossflow As = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)


DsCB = 0.125 m2
=
PT 0 s
2.4 Total flow area of tubes As = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)
πdiNt = 0.225 m2
=
4 0 s
2.5 Estimated Shell Diameter Ds = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)
=
= 0.637(CL/CTP)(πdo PR N ) m
2 2 t 1/2
0.996
0 s
2.6 Tube Pitch Ratio PR = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)
= PT/do = 1.337 m
2.7 Tube Layout Constant = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)
for 90o and 45o CL = 1
for 30 and 60
o o
CL = 0.87
one tube pass CTP = 0.93
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1
two tube pass CTP = 0.9
three tube pass CTP = 0.85
Use: CL = 1.0 CTP = 0.930

ht = 0.36ks Res0.55Prs1/3 = 2,800.32 W/m2-K


De ( This correlated heat transfer coefficient at shell side
condition of flow )

IV. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT


1.0 Outer surface area - Clean heat transfer coefficient

-1
do
1 do 1 do ln( di )
Uc = + d h + kt = 1,869.27 W/m2-K
ho i i 2

1.1 Surface area of heat exchanger for clean condition ( No fouling Effect )

Ac = Q = 97.11 m2
UcΔTm
Use: Uc = 2263.2
2.0 Outer surface area - Fouled heat transfer coefficient

do -1
1 do 1 do ln( di )
Uf = + d h + kt + Rf = 1,406.54 W/m2-K
ho i i 2

2.1 Surface area of heat exchanger for clean condition ( with fouling Effect )

Af = Q = 156.25 m2
UfΔTm
2.2 Check for % surface design
Af
Os = = 61%
Ac
Use: Os = 30 %

2.3 Surface design area of heat exchanger at certain 30 % more allowance for fouling effect
A' = 126.24 m2

2.4 Effective length of tube for area in heat transfer


A'
L = N πd = 1.89 m
t o

Use: L = 4.00 m

2.5 New Shell Diameter Ds' = f(Clearance, Baffle spacing)


= 0.637(CL/CTP)1/2(A'PR2do/L)1/2
= 0.68 m corrected shell diameter at the given length
however, the actual diameter shall be the nearest
available size either seamless pipe or fabricated as rolled
plate
Use: Ds' = 0.80 m

V. PRESSURE DROP - This is used to determined the pumping power required to handle the fluid in tubes and shell.
1.0 TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1
1.1 Tube side friction factor ft = (1.5ln(Ret) - 3.28)
-2
= 0.005797

1.2 Tube side friction factor ftLNp µc2


ΔPt = + 4Np ρc
di 2
= 58.6762 Kpa , head required to pump the fluid into the tubes
= 8.5 psi

2.0 SHELL PRESSURE DROP The shell-side fluid experiences a pressure drop as it passes through the exchanger,
over the tubes, and around the baffles.
fsG2s(Nb+1)D's
ΔPs =
2ρsDeΦs
2.1 Shell side friction factor fs = exp(0.576 -0.19ln(Res)) = 0.300

2.2 Bundle crossflow area As = DsCB = 0.125 m2 , based on corrected shell Φ,


PT clearance of tubes and baffle spacing.

2.3 Wall temperature Tt1+Tt2 Ts1+Ts2 1


Tw = +
2 2 2
= 297.8 K , average temperature between cold and hot fluid across
the tube length
therefore:
the absolute viscosity and wall temperature of 24.8 oC
= 0.0009001 kg/m - s

2.4 Correction Factor µs 0.14


Φs = = 0.989
µw

2.5 Number of Baffles L


Nb = -1 = 7
B

2.6 Number of Baffles Ms


Gs = = 398.593 kg/m2-s
As

therefore: fsG2s(Nb+1)D's
ΔPs = 2ρsDeΦs

= 6.4 Kpa , head required to pump the fluid into the shell
= 0.9 psi
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1

Summary of THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER


TUBE SIDE : HOT SIDE
1 Inlet temperature 20 o
C
2 Mass flowrate 150 kg/s
3 Density 998.2 kg/m3
4 Thermal Conductivity 0.6044 W/m - K
5 Dynamic viscocity 0.0009832 N.s/m2
6 Specific Heat 4181.6 J/kg - K
7 Prandtl number 6.80236453
8 Velocity of fluid inside the tubes 2 m/s
9 Total fouling factor 0.000176 m2 - K/W
SHELL SIDE: COLD SIDE
1 Inlet temperature 32 o
C
2 Outlet temperature 25 o
C
3 Average temperature 28.5 o
C
4 Mass flowrate 50 kg/s
5 Density 996.4 kg/m3
6 Thermal Conductivity 0.6144 W/m - K
7 Dynamic viscocity 0.0008292 N.s/m2
9 Specific Heat 4178.7 J/kg - K
10 Prandtl number 5.6396127
CONSTRUCTIONAL DATA OF THE PROPOSED SHELL AND TUBE HX
1 Shell diameter 0.800 m
2 Number of tubes 1121.07
3 Length of tubes(Allowancefor tubesheet not included) 4.000 m
4 Tube outside diameter 0.019 m
5 Tube inside diameter 0.016 m
6 Baffle spacing ( baffle cut at 25%) 0.500 m
7 Tube pitch 0.025
8 Number of passes 3.000
9 Thermal Conductivity of tubes 42.300 W/m - K
10 Tube side heat transfer coefficient 8526.66 W/m2 - K
11 Shell side heat transfer coefficient 2800.32 W/m2 - K
12 Clean overall heat transfer coefficient 1869.27 W/m2 - K
13 Fouled overall heat transfer coefficient 1406.54 W/m2 - K
14 Tube side pressure drop 58.68 Kpa
15 Shell side pressure drop 6.40 Kpa
ENGINEERING CALCULATION Designed by Rey Fiedacan
THERMAL CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER Date 11.07.2010
TYPE: SHELL & TUBES Doc. No. HX - 01 -09
DEVELOPED USING EXCEL BY REY FIEDACAN,MECHANICAL ENGINEER, 11.07.2010 -fiedrey@yahoo.com Revision 1