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MY PORTFOLIO

ASSESSMENT of LEARNING
Submitted to:
JOHN LORENCE D. CAMACHO
Iloilo Science and Technology University
Burgos Street, La Paz, Iloilo City

Submitted by:

SANDRA MAY ONG MACLANG


DIT-1B, A.Y. 2016-2017
Acknowledgments
Integral to the completion of this portfolio are the these
outstanding human beings:

Mrs. Geralyn Cabanig,


who graciously accommodated our request for an interview and allowed us to
observe her ELECTRONICS class on 2 October 2017;

Grade 10 Becquerel of Leon National High School,


who warmly welcomed our unscheduled intrusion into their lives and remain, to
this date, representative of those from whom I draw inspiration for completing this
course;

Mrs. Jovelyn Calceña,


my coursemate and closest friend in this program, who generously acquiesced to
sharing with me her contacts at Leon National High School and allowed me to join
her in this Field Study; and

Mr. John Lorence D. Camacho,


our course instructor who, after a few tries at dissuasion, finally agreed to be my
cooperating teacher for Episode 3 (CRM IN PRAXIS) and allowed me to meddle with
his senior high school finals examination (probably much to the consternation of his
students).

Without them, none of these would have been possible.


(Although, of course, without Mr. Camacho, none of these would have been necessary.)
1

Assessment of
Learning
Portfolio
MACLANG, Sandra May
DIT -1B

October 2017 $%&"'()#*+#.5(9$$'$$:'6;(,#$;(


Assessment methods are the strategies, techniques, tools and instruments
for collecting information to determine the extent to which students
demonstrate desired learning outcomes.
Opportunities for innovation in assessment are boundless, though
assessment usually reverts to essay questions, multiple choice questions, or
reports.

Assessment methods should be aligned to ensure that the skills and


abilities developed by the students are assessed in a manner consistent with
the design and delivery of the course as a whole. The choice of assessment
Inside method should therefore be influenced by the learning outcomes and the type
of skills sought to be engendered in the learners.
!"#$%&'(<*(.5(9$$'$$:'6;(,#$;(
On 2 October 2017, Mrs. Jovelyn Calceña and
This activity seeks to demonstrate
I were able to observe .0$1( 2'03456( 73836#-!"#
my competency in identifying and
naming different assessment 9:30 to 10:30am ELECTRONICS class at Leon
methods used in the classroom. 1 National High School.

At the time, Grade 10 Becquerel was in the


!"#$%&'()*(+,%-(.'/(
process of learning about ELECTRIC FIELDS.
This activity seeks to ensure that I
be informed on the principles of Mrs. Cabanig started the lesson with a video
authentic assessment and its presentation, which she interrupted intermittently
usefulness in the classroom. 6 to explain the more difficult concepts, and give
real-world examples. This was followed by a more
A'"!&(B0&'0(C%1(DE($1()F<G( extensive discussion of the subject matter,
This contains the Department of punctuated by ORAL QUESTIONING (the
Education Policy and Guidelines in students were basically encouraged to participate
Classroom Assessment.
in the discussion by answering her questions
8
regarding the topic).
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Questioning serves as assessment when it is
This activity seeks to put into
related to outcomes. Teachers use questioning
practice the skills learned in test
construction (criterion-referenced) (usually oral) to discover what students know and
and item analysis. can do.
9
Mrs. Cabanig’s strategies for effective question and answer assessment
included:
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!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

• Applying a wait time or 'no


hands-up rule' (15 seconds) to
provide students with time to
think after a question before
they are called upon randomly
to respond;

• Asking a variety of questions,


including open-ended questions
and those that require more than
a right or wrong answer; and

• Ensuring that majority of her


questions are based on the
desired learning
outcomes/objectives she shared
with them at the start of the
class.

Although she doesn’t record the results of the voluntary recitation, Mrs. Cabanig revealed that she includes them as
part of her planning to improve student learning, i.e., she modifies the lesson according to their needs.

She also takes note of those who participate in class and gives bonuses to the more active ones at the end of each
grading period.

After the discussion, she gave them a QUIZ, which required them to interpret electric field lines and apply
Coulomb’s law by solving a few exercises.

Both methods of assessment are CONVENTIONAL or TRADITIONAL in nature. They simply determine
whether the students have acquired a body of knowledge, without requiring them to demonstrate understanding by
performing a more complex task usually representative of more meaningful application.

ASSESSMENT TOOLS DESCRIPTION


Type of Assessment: Conventional/Traditional
Subject Matter: Electric Fields
Levels of Learning Behavior: Knowledge, Understanding,
Analysis, and Evaluation
1. Oral Questioning Length: approx. 30 minutes (embedded in the lecture/discussion)
(Voluntary Recitation) Manner of Utilization: While discussing the topic, Mrs. Cabanig
posited several questions ranging from simple recall of past
topics, to demonstrations of comprehension of the lesson, to
analytical and evaluative inquiries related to the subject under
discussion. Recitations were voluntary and answers NOT
GRADED, although PARTICIPATION NOTED.
Type of Assessment: Conventional/Traditional
Subject Matter: Electric Fields (emphasis on Coulomb’s Law
and its application)
Levels of Learning Behavior: Understanding, Application, and
2. Pen and Paper Test
Analysis
(Quiz) Length: 15 minutes
Manner of Utilization: Students were given a 15-minute quiz
that required them to apply Coulomb’s law (problem solving
exercises) and answer questions that require analysis)

We were informed, however, that authentic assessments tend to take place during their Laboratory classes
(Tuesdays from 2pm to 3pm). During these periods, the students are tasked to conduct experiments using electronic
equipment. They even have computers that allow them to perform guided simulations. Oftentimes, Mrs. Cabanig and a
partner student begin the period by demonstrating an experiment in front, with the rest of the class observing. This is
then followed by the rest of the class conducting individual or group experiments, if such is feasible, with the aid of
their laboratory manual. Experimentation is followed by answering questions based on what they’ve experienced.
Class discussions conclude these activities.
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MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

Analysis
Variety
Although we were made privy to Mrs. Cabanig’s utilization of only two
methods of assessment, she told us that these are not the only methods she
employs throughout the year. Apart from quizzes and voluntary recitations,
she also gives projects and, as mentioned earlier, authentic assessments in the
laboratory through graded experimentations and simulations. She also gives
summative assessments in the form of long exams at the end of each grading
period.

It seems, however, that Mrs. Cabanig is prone to utilizing the same small
range of assessment methods for a broad range of topics and desired learning
outcomes. The danger here lies in the possibility that she only ends up
assessing the same skill sets over and over, and may also serve to
disadvantage those individuals who find these methods more challenging
(multiple intelligences do not seem to be given sufficient consideration).
Over-reliance also encourages a surface approach to learning, with the student

Analysis
focusing on strategies to pass rather than mastering the subject matter.

Clearly, a little more variety in assessment methods, with emphasis on


acknowledging the diversity of learners in the class, is called for.
ELECTRONICS may be a rather technical subject, but its applications and
Was there a variety implications are numerous. It might be a good idea to include more authentic
of assessment assessments that serve to hone each student’s inherent intelligence and
methods used by the creativity. Personally, I like the idea of concluding each Unit with a rubrics-
scored assessment for each student, directing them simply to creatively
teacher? How demonstrate a complete grasp of all the objectives of the unit in question by
relevant was/were applying them in such a way that they replicate real world performances as
the assessment closely as possible. It can be as simple as writing a newspaper article
dissuading the use of a particular brand of electronic equipment based on the
method/s used? learnings gleaned in class. Not only does this encourage higher order thinking,
it also nurtures and encourages inherent talents and pays proper homage to the
diversity of intelligences.
Do you think the
Relevance
expected students’
learning behaviors Assessment methods are relevant only insofar as they serve the functions
for which they were employed. Mrs. Cabanig utilized those methods with
indicated in the three goals in mind:
objectives were
1. To Measure Student Achievement;
properly and
2. To Evaluate Instruction and Teaching Strategies on the Topic; and
appropriately
addressed? 3. To Assess if the Lesson (or certain parts of it) has to be retaught.

Both methods of assessment evidently served those purposes. The quiz


given at the end of the class provided the teacher with a means to determine

whether the day’s objectives were met, as well as provided a means for grading the students at the end of the year.
The voluntary recitation portion allowed Mrs. Cabanig to monitor the effectiveness of her teaching methods in real-
time and allowed her to identify portions that needed further clarification, apart from providing her with the means
to encourage active participation (through the promise of an end-of-the-year bonus) and higher order thinking, which
is, in itself, a desirable skill.

Appropriateness
Furthermore, it bears noting that both methods properly and appropriately assessed the students’ expected

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!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

learning behaviors. Learning outcomes for the day simply consisted of the
following:

1. To know and understand the concept of electric fields;

2. To recall what they have learned about electric force and be


able to apply it to electric fields and potential difference;

3. To interpret and draw electric field lines; and

4. To understand and apply Coulomb’s Law.

We were unable to fully document the flow of questions and answers


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during the classroom discussion, but suffice it to say that all the methods
1 Misconception/
appropriately (albeit insufficiently) addressed the objectives at the end of the
lesson. The quiz itself took care of learning objective numbers 3 and 4.
Preconception
Check
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Reflection/Observation
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A month ago, I was fortunate enough to have stumbled across this *";;$0$+2$<!
webpage by the University of Tennessee [https://www.utc.edu/walker-center-
teaching-learning/teaching-resources/classroom-assessment- 2 Empty Outlines
strategies.php#teaching] that gave various suggestions of possible techniques C0-#"*$%&'$%(&)*$+&(%4"&'%,+%
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to employ depending on one’s purpose for assessment. I won’t go so far as
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to reproduce the whole thing here—you can simply visit the webpage itself /"#$%&'$8%,%3"8"&$*%,8-)+&%-;%
for more information—but it certainly made me think about a number of &"8$%&-%;"33%"+%&'$%63,+9%(1,2$(<!
things I would have done differently if given the same objectives as Mrs.
Cabanig. 3 Authentic Assessment
First of all, I have a bit of a problem relying mainly on voluntary in the form of a
recitation to assess compliance with the bulk of my objectives. More often RUBRICS-SCORED
than not, the pattern of activity among students remains relatively constant End-of-Unit
throughout the year. As such, the teacher usually gets to hear only from the Assessment
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same students most of the time, regardless of topic. Majority of the class (2-0$*%,(($((8$+&%;-0%$,2'%(&)*$+&7%
have the proclivity towards silence, thus impeding any attempt to gauge the *"0$2&"+/%&'$8%&-%20$,&"#$35%
effectiveness of teaching methods or the students’ achievement of the day’s *$8-+(&0,&$%,%2-813$&$%/0,(1%-;%,33%
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objectives. Please note that I still support the employment of this method (I
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The first two desired learning outcomes for the topic in question clearly require an assessment of “Prior
Knowledge, Recall, and Understanding”. The University of Tennessee actually has 7 suggested techniques to
achieve that kind of goal, namely:

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For this lesson, I think Mrs. Cabanig’s goals would have been better served if she began the period by employing a
Misconception/Preconception Check in the form of a non-graded pre-test to recall what they have learned about
ELECTRIC FORCE, making sure that everyone has the prerequisite knowledge for its later application to the
concept of electric fields and potential difference. This will likely eat up the 1st five minutes of the period and should
precede the introduction of the new topic. No less than a perfect score is required, and it will be easy enough to
separate those papers with wrong answers (i.e., misconceptions about the prior lesson). She can then spend a few
minutes correcting those misconceptions for the benefit of the whole class before presenting the current topic.

After the class discussion (which includes the embedded voluntary recitation portion), Mrs. Cabanig would also do
well to employ the Empty Outlines technique in order to assess each students’ compliance with the day’s objectives.
She can later return these checked and corrected outlines to serve as reviewers for the students, as well as provide her
with the means to identify the parts of the lesson that need to be retaught. The same quiz can still be given as an
adjunct to this. Both can be included as a small component of the students’ grades at the end of the quarter and year. At
the very least, these submissions may serve as a means of checking attendance in lieu of wasting precious time doing
roll call.
As for Authentic assessments, these can indeed wait until the next laboratory class, or can be given in the form of
an end-of-unit-rubrics-scored assessment (or an end-of-quarter one if this proves to be more feasible), as I earlier
proposed in the course of my analysis.
All in all, I think Mrs. Cabanig is a really good teacher who knows how to explain concepts clearly. She just needs
a bit of variety in her assessment methods, taking into consideration her teaching goals, the real-world value of her
lessons (particularly the importance of this being appreciated by her students), and the diversity of learners (emphasis
on multiple intelligences) in her class, in order to teach exceptionally.

“We are not arguing that one assessment approach is good and
another bad: the key issue is around fitness for purpose.”
(Gipps and Cumming, Assessing Literacies)

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!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Name of Cooperating School:


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!
Name of Cooperating Teacher:
;,#<!=$,+6>&!?+@+&-.!
Date of Observation:
A!0:'(@$,!ABCD!
Signature:

NOTE:
The signature above was photographed and
extracted from the form I had Mrs. Cabanig sign
when we conducted our Field Study. See
Appendix A for the actual signed form.

H7*+('%#B=#E*(.!;$F!
MY INTERVIEW NOTES: My Target:
(Answers transcribed from our interview recording, with translations of vernacular !"#"$%#%&'#()#"$*+#,-"*.*"/0#/(1#2*33#
terms enclosed in brackets) 4%#*&)(56%'#(&#"$%#75*&-*73%+#()#
,1"$%&"*-#,++%++6%&"#,&'#*"+#
QUESTION: ",$!>(G!G#-&.!+G'8$&'-:!+##$##%$&'!-&!:6+##H!I8>H! 1+%)13&%++#*&#"$%#-3,++5((68#
“For my Grade 10 Becquerel ELECTRONICS class, authentic #
assessments [come in the form of] laboratory work using electronic
equipment and computers [that have] magnetic field applications. [I
My Tasks:
!1"$%&"*-#,++%++6%&"#*+#,&#
usually have] a partner student [who helps me demonstrate the ,3"%5&,"*.%#2,/#()#,++%++*&9#
activity in front of the class]. The rest of the students will observe. [If +"1'%&"+:#3%,5&*&98#;(#4%#,43%#"(#
individual work is possible], the students proceed to perform the 1+%#*"0#/(1#61+"#$,.%#,#'%%7#
demonstrated activity, following the instructions in their lab manual. 1&'%5+",&'*&9#()#*"8#;(#$%37#/(1#
These are activities based on real-world applications of the concepts 5%,-$#/(15#9(,3+0#'(#"$%#)(33(2*&9#
they learn in class. After each activity, they have to answer questions ",+<+=#
>8 ?*+*"#,#-3,++5((6#,&'#*&"%5.*%2#
based on their own experimentation or observations.
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I also assign projects…outcome-based projects. %A7%5*%&-%+#*&#1+*&9#,1"$%&"*-#
[Most of the time, however, I simply utilize] questioning (i.e., oral ,++%++6%&"8#
recitations) and paper and pen tests like quizzes and practice B8 C%+-5*4%#$(2#"$%#"%,-$%5#1+%+#
exercises. "$%#,1"$%&"*-#,++%++6%&"8#
Why? We have [very limited] time and so much ground to cover. D8 E5*"%#,#5%)3%-"*.%#F(15&,3#(&#"$%#
As much as I’d like to use more authentic assessments, we just don’t ,-"*.*"/8#
#
have enough time!”
My Tools:
QUESTION: 4#!G#-&.!'8-#!J-&K!()!+##$##%$&'!-%L(,'+&'H! G(5#"$*+#3%,5&*&9#,-"*.*"/0#73%,+%#
“Of course! We do not just want students to know the content of '(-16%&"#"$%#*&)(56,"*(&#
9,"$%5%'#)5(6#"$%#*&"%5.*%2#2*"$#
the course when they graduate—we want them to be able to use the
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acquired knowledge and skills in the real world. [Authentic ,++%++6%&"8#E5*"%#/(15#
assessments can] tell us if students can apply what they have learned '(-16%&","*(&#1+*&9#"$%#,-"*.*"/#
in real-life situations. Authentic assessments provide the most direct )(56#75(.*'%'#)(5#/(18#
evidence of that ability.” #

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“It is advantageous [in the sense that it] helps teachers like me
make more meaningful assessments of students. But, like I said, it is
not always easy to do [especially with our limited] time and [breadth
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MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'


of] coverage.”

QUESTION: 5+%'&6-"'7#'+889-#:'&('+99'";7<#=&'+,#+">'
“I think so. I think that in teaching all subjects, we have to combine both traditional and authentic
assessments. In every subject, [there is always a component] that requires application in real life. Otherwise,
what’s the point of learning them, right? So, of course, there will always be a need for authentic assessment.”

Analysis
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Authentic assessment is a “form of assessment in *)+4/'#%)'(&'*)+4'&2'.+%)*5+'
which students are asked to perform real-world tasks 6+%5,(,7'&$52*7$'&$+'8524*-&/'
that demonstrate meaningful application of essential
knowledge and skills.” — Jon Mueller In Mrs. Cabanig’s ELECTRONICS class, authentic
assessment was limited to graded experimentations
They are assignments that ask students to answer
and activities in the lab, as well as projects like the
essential questions within the subject matter
construction of an electric motor.
concerned and use the concepts learned as
professionals in the field would. Higher education The activities are often designed to simulate real-
scholar Dr. Marilla Svinicki suggests that authentic life situations that apply the concepts learned in class.
assignments should be based on “student activities Students are expected to be able to perform these
that replicate real world performances as closely as activities and answer analytical and evaluative
possible”. inquiries related to the accomplished tasks. They
were, like all other forms of assessment, used to
It is said that authentic assessments “require
further the teacher’s desired learning outcomes.
students to generate rather than choose a response.”
They focus on the students’ strengths—what they can Sometimes, as in the case of their ‘electric motor
do—allowing the teacher to choose an appropriate project’, learning is measured through the product
assessment for students with different learning styles, submitted. More often than not, however, learning is
maturity levels, learning disabilities, physical measured by their ability to satisfactorily answer
disabilities, and other characteristics that could affect activity-dependent questions, and to concretely
performance. While one student may choose to write demonstrate task completions in accordance with the
a response, another student may perform better in a prescribed standards.'
role-play situation.
“As is often pointed out, few students end up with jobs where they get paid
to fill out multiple-choice test bubble sheets.”
(Frye, Schmitt, and Allen, Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation)

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!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Reflection
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#2)*$%$"'%*-'%)0%#*$"',$+3%#--'--4',$5%
At the end of the day, the operative word for
both traditional and authentic forms of assessment
still remains the same: ASSESSMENT. As such,
they acquire relevance and validity only insofar as
they remain able to achieve the purposes for
which they were employed, i.e., they serve at the
pleasure of the teacher’s objectives.

I think those who argue staunchly in favor of a


particular type of assessment method as a general
rule are annoyingly closed-minded, to the possible
detriment of the learners. The choice of
assessment method should only be influenced by
the learning outcomes and the type of skills 5$6+,'%$&'!()!789:+'-(&!0,8$,!;<=!!"!>?@A!!
sought to be engendered. #$%&'()*+&,-%&.-!)$.)/%0!!1$$2)3!!-!!2-.4)5$1)
I really don’t care much about what a
46-)7)4$)89):0!&');,+'04&$.)#1$<102)
particular assessment method is called, or what To: Undersecretaries
Assistant Secretaries
category of assessments it falls under—all I need Bureau Directors
to know is whether, under the given Directors of Services, Centers and Heads of Units
Regional Directors
circumstances, it remains the best means of Schools Division Superintendents
assessing the student’s attainment of the desired Heads, Public Elementary and Secondary Schools
All Others Concerned
learning goals.
1. In line with the implementation of the Enhanced Basic Education
A teacher does NOT have to choose between Act of 2013 (Republic Act No. 10533), the Department of Education
is adopting the enclosed Policy Guidelines on Classroom
authentic and traditional methods. It is likely that Assessment for the K to 12 Basic Education Program.
some mix of the two will best meet her needs. I 2. Classroom Assessment is an integral part of curriculum
implementation. It allows the teachers to track and measure
think that’s just common sense. learners’ progress and to adjust instruction accordingly. Classroom
assessment informs the learners, as well as their parents and
There are those who argue that authentic guardians, of their progress.
3. Effective School Year (SY) 2015-2016, the Policy Guidelines on
assessments carry with them the presumption that Classroom Assessment for the K to 12 Basic Education Program
the person who does well on those, already know shall be implemented in public elementary and secondary schools
nationwide.
all there is to know about the subject matter (or at 4. Non-DepEd schools are urged to implement these policy guidelines
least all that he really needs to know). Bollocks. as well. Non-DepEd schools are permitted to modify these policy
guidelines according to their school’s Philosophy, Vision, and
Mission with the approval of the appropriate DepEd Regional
Fact of the matter is, we cannot completely do Office.
away with traditional assessments in favor of so- 5. Special programs may further issue supplementary guidelines in
relation to the program’s specific assessment concerns.
called authentic ones all the time. We shouldn’t 6. These guidelines will remain in force and in effect for the duration of
forget the inherent transferability of basic the program, unless sooner repealed, amended, or rescinded. All
existing Orders and Memoranda that are inconsistent with this
knowledge and skills; forget that contenting Order are rescinded.
oneself with assessing the ability to perform a 7. Immediate dissemination of and strict compliance with this Order is
directed.
specific real-world task at the expense of
mastering its fundamentals would be nothing
(Sgd.) BR. ARMIN A. LUISTRO FSC
short of a disservice to that same self. That would Secretary
be tantamount to saying that one doesn’t need to
learn the whole alphabet or all the rules of Encl.: As stated
grammar just because one already knows how to Reference: DepEd Order No. 73, s. 2012
To be indicated in the Perpetual Index under the following subjects:
read and write a single-paragraph letter! ASSESSMENT
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
Again, as teachers, all we really need to ask POLICY
PROGRAM
ourselves in choosing an assessment method is SCHOOLS
this: What do we really want our students to SECONDARY EDUCATION
TEACHERS
attain, and how best to provide evidence of its
attainment? Call the resultant method a ‘spade’
for all anyone cares afterwards, but that’s it. ! (See full text of DO #8, s. 2015 as Appendix B)
8
1
2

!"#$%&'()*
!"#$%&$'"()*+$
Iloilo Science & Technology
University
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Senior High School Program

In this Episode: !>%,->%?&@"-A->-&B-<$#-;CD>-C$


Criterion-Referenced Measures (CRM) are tests that are interpreted in
!"#$+,-.$/0$
terms of specific performance criteria. They serve to identify to what extent
Construction of Instructional the learner’s performance has met a given criterion. The learner’s
Objectives….........................9 performance is compared with the criteria rather than with other learners. As
such, the meaningfulness of the individual’s score is INDEPENDENT of
!"#$+,-.$10$ other learners. It points out WHAT A LEARNER CAN DO, NOT HOW HE
Outlining the Content……11 COMPARES WITH OTHERS.

!"#$+,-.$20$ For this episode, our class was tasked to develop a criterion-referenced
instrument in the form of an Achievement Test in any subject for
Preparing a Table of Elementary/Secondary pupils/students. The test produced then had to be
Specifications……………...11 validated by the cooperating teacher and administered to the target students,
with an Item Analysis to follow.
!"#$+,-.$30$
After a few unsuccessful attempts at
Construction of Relevant
getting me to coordinate with other
Test Items…………………13
teachers, our instructor, Mr. John D.
Camacho, acquiesced to cooperate with
me for the completion of this episode.
*45#$(6(78+*+0$
Estimating the Index of Mr. Camacho currently teaches
Grade 11 General Mathematics for
Difficulty
ISATU’s Senior High School Program.
Estimating the Index of Since Finals Examination was coming
Discriminating Power up, he allowed me to develop a 35-item
Determining the ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN BUSINESS
MATH for the classes he handles as part of their Final Examination in
Effectiveness of Options
GENERAL MATHEMATICS.

In pursuit of this project, I adhered to the “Steps in the Preparation of


"5975!4*:6$;&<$ Criterion-Referenced Measure” set forth in pages 81-92 of Laurentina
"5!:##56=(4*:6+$ Paler-Calmorin’s Assessment of Student Learning 1 (2014):

1 Clearly define the instructional


objectives in behavioral form.
Utilizing both the Department of Education’s K to 12 Curriculum Guide
and the course textbook, I came up with a total of 31 Instructional
Objectives for the unit on Business Math.
9
3

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

The unit can actually be subdivided into THREE (3) main topics, namely:
1. Key concepts of simple and compound interests, and simple and general annuities;
2. Basic Concepts of STOCKS and BONDS; and
3. Basic Concepts of BUSINESS and CONSUMER LOANS.

I then classified the instructional objectives for each topic into the different domains according to Bloom’s
Taxonomy. Since the chosen assessment tool was a Multiple Choice Test, I simply omitted the Synthesis domain
from the mix.

TOPIC 1:
5$6!7(&7$8'#!()!#-%89$!+&:!7(%8(;&:!-&'$,$#'#<!+&:!#-%89$!+&:!.$&$,+9!+&&;-'-$#!
DOMAIN INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
1. To know and identify the elements that play an
important role in the computation of interest
2. To define the formula for computing simple interest
3. To define the formulas for Present Value at both
1. KNOWLEDGE Simple Interest Rates and Compound Rates
4. To define the formula for Compound Amount and
Compound Interest
5. To identify Simple and General Annuities
6. To distinguish between Simple Interest and
Compound Interest
2. COMPREHENSION 7. To distinguish between Simple and General
Annuities
8. To calculate exact interest and ordinary interest
given a set of given values
9. To calculate ordinary simple interest using the 6%-
60-Day Method
10. To apply Rule #1 for Paying on Installment Basis
11. To apply the Merchant s Rule in determining the
amount to be paid in installments
12. To solve for the Present Value at both Simple
3. APPLICATION Interest Rates and Compound Rates
13. To solve for Compound Amount and Compound
Interest.
14. To find the Future Value and Present Value of both
Simple and General Annuities
15. To calculate the Fair Market Value of a Cash Flow
Stream that includes an Annuity
16. To calculate the Period of Deferral of a Deferred
Annuity
17. To calculate the Present Value of a Deferred Annuity
18. To infer true statements regarding interest
4. ANALYSIS agreements and annuities based on the elements
provided
19. To make salient judgments regarding investments
5. EVALUATION and interest agreements (determining the most
favorable contracts)

TOPIC 2:
=+#-7!>(&7$8'#!()!?20>5?!+&:!=0@A?!
DOMAIN INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
1. KNOWLEDGE 20. To define and identify Stocks and Bonds

2. COMPREHENSION 21. To distinguish between Preferred and Common Stocks


22. To solve problems and answer questions involving
shares of stock.
3. APPLICATION 23. To solve problems and answer questions involving
bonds

10
4
6
5

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'


24. To compute the maturity value of bonds and the total
earnings of their investors
25. To compute the total earnings of bond nvestors

TOPIC 3:
5+"-6'7(%6#8&"'()'59:4;<::'+%='70;:9><1'*0!;:'
DOMAIN INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
26. To know and identify the elements that play an
important role in business or consumer loans

1. KNOWLEDGE 27. To define mortgages and identify examples


28. To know the Formula for Finding Payments on an
Amortized Loan
2. COMPREHENSION 29. To distinguish between Business and Consumer Loans
30. To calculate monthly amortizations on an amortized
3. APPLICATION loan
31. To make salient judgments regarding loan agreements
4. EVALUATION (determining the most favorable contracts)

Outline the Content.


The content of the test can be outlined
2 Prepare a Table of
Specifications 3
as follows:
The DepEd expects all three topics to be covered in 6
4? @#A'6(%6#8&"'()'"-$8B#'+%='6($8(C%='-%&#,#"&"D'+%='
"-$8B#'+%='.#%#,+B'+%%C-&-#"' weeks, with 4 weeks allotted for the first, and a week each
!" #$%&'()*+,(-(.,) for the second and third. This is based on the K to 12 Basic
/0 1-2$+/-3)/+2)45/6,)*+,(-(.,) Curriculum Guide for Senior High School Core
70 8(9:'/-);(,<=2) Subjects. (See the next page for the relevant portions)
>0 ?@A?BAC/3);(,<=2) Since Mr. Camacho’s class meets twice a week, this means
D0 *+.,/''%(+,)E/3%(+,.)
that the number of days assigned to each topic should be as
70 E/3$+9)=+)*+.,/''%(+,)F/.$.)
8:'()G=")7)
follows:
>0 E/3$+9)=+)*+.,/''%(+,)F/.$.) 1st Topic: 8 days
8:'()G=")>)H;(-6</+,I.)8:'(0) 2nd Topic: 2 days
60 E-(.(+,)J/':() 3rd Topic: 2 days
20 ;/,:-$,3)J/':()
(0 K:,:-()J/':() Dividing the number of days for each topic by the total
F" L=%&=:+2)*+,(-(.,)
number of days assigned to the unit, we get the following
/0 E-(.(+,)J/':()
D0 ;/,:-$,3)J/':()
weights:
60 K:,:-()J/':() 1st Topic: 67%
L" #$%&'()/+2)M(+(-/')!++:$,$(.) 2nd Topic: 17%
/0 E-(.(+,)J/':()/+2)K:,:-()J/':() 3rd Topic: 17%
D0 K/$-);/-N(,)J/':()=O)/)L/.<)K'=P)
#,-(/%),</,)*+6':2(.)/+)!++:$,3)
As such, the total number of items (35) should be
20 E-(.(+,)J/':()/+2)E(-$=2)C(O(--/')=O)
/)C(O(--(2)!++:$,3)
subdivided as follows:
44? 5+"-6'7(%6#8&"'()':207@:'+%='50;E:'
1st Topic: 23 items
!" E-(O(--(2)/+2)L=%%=+)#,=6N.)
F" F=+2.) 2nd Topic: 6 items
444? 5+"-6'7(%6#8&"'()'59:4;<::'+%='70;:9><1'*0!;:'
!" K$+2$+9)E/3%(+,.)=+)/+)!%=-,$Q(2)R=/+) 3rd Topic: 6 items

Given those calculations and the number of instructional objectives I prepared for each topic, I decided to
distribute the test questions across the different domains in this manner:

1st Topic: 5 Knowledge, 2 Comprehension, 10 Application, 2 Analysis, and 4 Evaluation Questions

2nd Topic: 1 Knowledge, 1 Comprehension, and 4 Application Questions

3rd Topic: 3 Knowledge, 1 Comprehension, and 1 Application Questions


11
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

12
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

Construct the Test Items 4 Objective: To define the formula for computing
simple interest
Objective: To know and identify the elements that
play an important role in the computation Test Item 2: D
of interest What should you use to compute for Simple Interest?
a. A n – P b. P(1+i)n
-n
Test Item 1: B c. A n(1+i) d. Prt
The description of ‘Interest’ suggests that three
elements play important roles in its computation. !"#$%#&%$'%#($&%)*'+"%,-).*)/01$2*00&$,-)$%"#$&%3/#4%&5$
What do these include? 64-.0#/+#$-,$%"#$,-)(30*$,-)$2-(73%'4+$&'(70#$'4%#)#&%8$
I. The Principal, which is the sum of the 9,$%"#$*:-;#$-:<#2%';#$.*&$7)-7#)01$*%%*'4#/=$%"#$&%3/#4%$
amounts that accumulate over an agreed .-30/$*4&.#)$58$
term.
II. The Term, which is the unit of time for Objective: To define the formulas for Present
which the principal is loaned. Value at both Simple Interest Rates and
III. The Interest rate, which is the base in which Compound Rates
interest is computed.
Test Item 3: A
a. All of the above b. II only What should you use to compute the present value at
c. I and II only d. III a Simple Interest Rate?
a. A/(1+rt) b. An – P
9,$%"#$&%3/#4%&$"*;#$*%%*'4#/$%"#$*:-;#$-:<#2%';#=$%"#1$ c. A n(2+i)-n d. An(1+i)-n
.-30/$64-.$%"*%$."'0#$%"-&#$%")##$*)#$'4/##/$%"#$
#0#(#4%&$-,$>'4%#)#&%5=$-401$43(:#)$99$2-4%*'4&$%"#$2-))#2%$ 94$-)/#)$%-$2-))#2%01$*4&.#)$0#%%#)$!=$%"#$&%3/#4%$(3&%$
/#,'4'%'-48$!"3&$%"#1$.-30/$2"--&#$0#%%#)$67$ "*;#$*%%*'4#/$*%$0#*&%$"*0,$-,$%"#$&%*%#/$-:<#2%';#8$

13
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Objective: To distinguish between Simple and


Objective: To define the formula for Compound
General Annuities
Amount and Compound Interest
Test Item 7: C
Test Item 4: B
Which of the situations is an/are example/s of
What formula defines the computation of Compound
SIMPLE ANNUITIES?
Amount?
I. Mrs. Remoto would like to save Php3,000 at
a. A n – P b. P(1+i)n
the end of each month, for 6 months, in a fund
c. A n(1+i)-n d. Prt
that gives 9% compounded monthly.
!"#$%&'%#($#)$%%')(*+#,"-.'%#*'(('%#5/#(0'#-(1&'"(#21-(# II. Paolo borrowed Php100,000. He agrees to
0,3'#,((,4"'&#,(#*',-(#0,*5#$5#(0'#-(,('&#$67')(43'8# pay the principal plus interest by paying an
equal amount of money each year for three
years. The interest is compounded 8%
annually.
III. Ken borrowed an amount of money from Kat.
Objective: To identify Simple and General He agrees to pay the principal, plus interest,
Annuities by paying Php38,973.76 each year for 3
years. The interest is 8% compounded
Test Item 5: C quarterly.
Which one refers to an annuity where the payment
dates do not coincide with the interest conversion a. All of the above b. II only
periods? c. I and II only d. III
a. Simple Annuity b. Annuity Certain
c. General Annuity d. Contingent Annuity @#-42A*'#,""14(+#4-#,"#,""14(+#.4(0#(0'#-,2'#4"('%'-(#
)$"3'%-4$"#&,('-#,"&#A,+2'"(#&,('-8#!5#(0'#A,+2'"(#
90'#-(1&'"(#.0$#0,-#,((,4"'&#,(#*',-(#0,*5#$5#(0'#-(,('&# &,('-#&$#"$(#)$4")4&'#.4(0#(0'#4"('%'-(#)$"3'%-4$"#A'%4$&/#
$67')(43'#.$1*&#:"$.#(0,(#(0'#,"-.'%#4-#*'(('%#67! (0'#,""14(+#4-#,#B'"'%,*#$"'8#901-/#(0'#,"-.'%#4-#*'(('%#67

Objective: To calculate exact interest and ordinary


interest given a set of given values
Objective: To distinguish between Simple Interest
and Compound Interest Test Item 8: A
What is the exact interest and ordinary interest of
Test Item 6: B Php800,000 for 240 days at 5.5%?
Which is true about compound interests? a. Php28,931.51 and Php29,333.33, respectively
a. It is the amount earned for one year calculated by b. Php25,654.65 and 228,765.54, respectively
multiplying only the principal by the interest c. Php29,333.33 and Php30,545.89, respectively
rate. d. Php28,301.37 and Php29,653.33, respectively
b. It is the amount earned for one year calculated by
multiplying the principal and accumulated past 90'#-(1&'"(#.0$#0,-#)$2A*'('*+#,((,4"'&#(0'#-(,('&#
interests by the interest rate. $67')(43'#.$1*&#:"$.#(0,(#(0'#,"-.'%#4-#*'(('%#"/!6,-'&#
c. It is the kind of interest applied for transactions $"#(0'#5$**$.4"B#)$2A1(,(4$"-C!
that usually last for less than a year. The exact interest is:
d. It is directly proportional to the principal, the I = Prt
= (Php 800,000)(0.055)(240/365)
rate, and the term.
= Php 28,931.51

90'#-(1&'"(#.0$#0,-#,((,4"'&#(0'#-(,('&#$67')(43'#.$1*&# The ordinary interest is:


:"$.#(0,(#(0'#,"-.'%#4-#*'(('%#57!90'#%'-(#$5#(0'#)0$4)'-# I = Prt
&'-)%46'#;!<=>?#!"('%'-(8# = (Php 800,000)(0.055)(240/360)
= Php 29,333.33

Objective: To calculate ordinary simple interest using the 6%-60-Day Method

Test Item 9: B
What is the interest if the principal is Php180,000 at 5% for 75 days (use the 6%-60-Day-Method)?
a. Php1,800 b. Php1,875
c. Php1,575 d. Php375

According to the 6%-60-Day Method, the interest on a principal at 6% for 60 days is equal to P(0.01). As such, one can easily say that
the interest on Php180,000 at 6% for 60 days is Php 1,800. Even without computing further, the student can already eliminate option A.
He can further eliminate options C and D for being less than that amount, given the 15-day difference. So the clear answer would be B.
The student who has attained the objective stated above no longer has to go through lengthy computations to solve the problem.
To completely solve the problem, however, he first has to know what the interest rate is at 5% for 60 days. This he may do by simply dividing Php1,800 by 6 (to get the Interest at 1%
for 60 days) and multiplying the result by 5. This will give him Php1,500. Since he has 15 more days left, he has to get the Interest at 5% for 15 days, which is as simple as dividing the
amount by 4, because 15 days is a fourth of 60 days. This will give him Php375. Adding Php1500 and Php375 will provide him with the interest at 5% for 75 days which id Php1,875.

14
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

Objective: To apply Rule #1 for Paying on Objective: To apply the Merchant!s Rule in
Installment Basis determining the amount to be paid in
installments
Test Item 10: B
Mr. Solis borrowed Php25,000 from the TWLS on 1 Test Item 11: C
August 2015 with interest at 6%. On 15 September Mr. Solis borrowed Php200,000 from the TWLS on
2015, he paid Php6,000. Determine the amount Mr. 1 May 2015 with interest at 6%. On 15 June 2015, he
Solis should pay on 5 December 2015 (due date) paid Php60,000. Determine the amount Mr. Solis
using the Rule #1 for Paying on Installment Basis. should pay on 5 September 2015 (due date) using the
a. Php17,657.87 b. Php19,453.95 Merchant’s Rule.
c. Php18,654.98 d. Php20,054.87 a. Php143,491.21 b. Php204,266.67
c. Php141,500.00 d. Php201,533.33
!"#$%&'(#)&$*"+$,)+*%$-'.#$/0$1%$2*23#$&"2&$&"#3#$1%$2$
%14)15162)&$(155#3#)6#$7#&*##)$&"#$28+')&$(#319#($'%1)4$ B"#)$*#$'%#$&"#$:#36"2)&;%$-'.#@$&"#$1)&#3#%&$5+3$&"#$
&"1%$3'.#$2)($&"#$+)#$(#&#381)#($'%1)4$&"#$:#36"2)&;%$ #)&13#$&#38$+5$&"#$A31)61A2.$28+')&$1%$2((#($&+$&"#$
3'.#<$=2>8#)&$3#6#19#($8'%&$513%&$7#$(#('6&#($53+8$&"#$ 82&'31&>$92.'#<$C5$1)%&2..8#)&%$23#$82(#@$&"#%#$A2>8#)&%@$
28+')&$*1&"$1)&#3#%&$('#<$!"#$72.2)6#$1%$&"#)$%'7?#6&#($ A.'%$&"#$1)&#3#%&$+)$#26"$1)%&2..8#)&$A2>8#)&$53+8$&"#$
&+$&"#$243##($1)&#3#%&@$*"16"$1%$6+8A'&#($53+8$&"#$(2&#$ (2&#$&"2&$A2>8#)&$1%$82(#$&+$&"#$('#$(2&#@$23#$
+5$.2%&$A2>8#)&<$!"1%$1)&#3#%&$1%$&"#)$2((#($&+$&"#$72.2)6#$ %'7&326&#($53+8$&"#$6+8A+')($82&'31&>$92.'#$&+$+7&21)$
+5$&"#$A31)61A2.<$!"#$2)%*#3@$&"#3#5+3#@$1%$5<$ &"#$28+')&$('#<'
Solution: Solution:
Principal = Php 25,000 A=P(1+rt)
Interest from 1 Aug to 15 Sept =Php200,000 [1+(0.06x128/360)]
(Php25,000)(0.06)(46/360) = + Php 191.67
=Php204,266.67
Balance before 5 Dec = Php 25,191.67
Payment made on 5 Dec = 6,000
Payment on 15 June = Php60,000
Balance after 15 Sept = Php 19,191.67 Interest from 15 June to 5 Sept = + 2,766.67
Interest due on balance from
16 Sept to 5 Dec
(Php19,191.67)(0.06)(82/360) = + Php 262.29 Total credits = Php62,766.67
Php19,453.95
Therefore, the answer is C:
Php204,266.67 – 62,766.67 = Php141,500.00

Objective: To solve for the Present Value at both Objective: To solve for Compound Amount and
Simple Interest Rates and Compound Rates Compound Interest.

Test Item 12: A Test Item 13: D


What is the present value of Php50,000 due in 7 What is the compound interest if Php10,000 is
years if money is worth 10% compounded annually? deposited in a bank at 2% compounded quarterly for
a. Php25,657.91 b. Php35,786.94 5 years?
c. Php24,769.93 d. Php26,786.65 a. Php1,096.48 b. Php1,098.46
c. Php1,058.43 d. Php1,048.96
!"#$5+38'.2$5+3$6+8A'&1)4$&"#$A3#%#)&$92.'#$=$+5$2$419#)$
28+')&$D)$2&$2$6+8A+')($1)&#3#%&$32&#$!$5+3$"$A#31+(%$1%$ !"#$5+38'.2$5+3$6+8A'&1)4$6+8A+')($1)&#3#%&$#"$5+3$"$
)$
=$E$D )$F$G0H!I 6+)9#3%1+)$A#31+(%$1%$
$
Therefore, the answer is A: #"$E$D)$J$=
7
P = 50,000 / (1+0.10) )
And since D)$E$=G0H!I @$&"#$2)%*#3$%"+'.($7#$6<
= Php 25,657.91
#" = 10,000(1+0.005)20 – 10,000 = Php1,048.96

Objective: To find the Future Value and Present Value of both Simple and General Annuities

Test Item 14: C


Mel started to deposit Php1,000 monthly in a fund that pays 6% compounded quarterly. How much will the
fund be in 15 years?
a. Php275,096.58 b. Php288,765.78
c. Php290,076.28 d. Php219,756.38

!"#$5'&'3#$92.'#$+5$2)$+3(1)23>$2))'1&>$5+3$"$A#31+(%$2&$1)&#3#%&$!$A#3$6+8A+')(1)4$A#31+($1%$
"(
KL$""%!&'()%*$E$+(MNG0H!I O$0PF!Q$*"#3#$+(1%$&"#$51R#($A#31+(16$A2>8#)&%<$
S1)6#$A2>8#)&%$23#$8+)&".>@$&"#$1)&#3#%&$32&#$+5$TU$6+8A+')(#($V'23&#3.>$8'%&$7#$6+)9#3&#($&+$1&%$#V'192.#)&$1)&#3#%&$32&#$&"2&$1%$
0X Y
6+8A+')(#($8+)&".><$!"#$#2%1#%&$*2>$&+$(+$&"1%$*+'.($7#$&+$(#319#$&"#$92.'#$+5$!(53+8$&"1%$#V'2&1+)W$=G0H!I $E$=G0HGTUFYII <$
4/12
i should therefore be equal to (1.015) – 1 or 0.004975. Plugging this into the KL$""%!&'()%*$#V'2&1+)@$>+'$4#&$.#&&#3 C:
,-.(
KL$""%!&'()%*$= 1,000 MNG0HZ<ZZY[\]I O$0PFZ<ZZY[\]Q$
= Php 290,076.28$
15
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Objective: To calculate the Fair Market Value of a Cash Flow Stream that includes an Annuity

Test Item 15: A


Company A offers Php150,000 at the end of 3 years plus Php300,000 at the end of 5 years. Assuming that
money is worth 8% compounded annually, what is the fair market value of the offer?
a. Php321,216.43 b. Php 118,547.18
c. Php202,669.25 d. Php358,000.78

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@36=#$12$;"#$93AB#8;$5;:#3B$3;$;"3;$>3;#C$!"<5$93:;<4=63:$>3;#$<5$4366#>$;"#$-*.(%'/(,&C$D<84#$;"#$21436$>3;#$<8$;"<5$;#5;$
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356!7!8/,$#$&'!6+9:$!()!/;<!=>?@???!A!B$+,#!),(%!&(CD!E!8/,$#$&'!6+9:$!()!/;<!A??@???!+'!';$!$&F!()!>!B$+,#D!
$
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3#
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34'
$ MHIJEJJJ/HNJCJO0
' '
MG"9$HHPEJQRCOKST
'

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3#
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35'
$ MKJJEJJJ/HNJCJO0
'
MG"9$TJREHQRCPIPH$
$
!"=5E$356$M$G"9$HHPEJQRCOKST$N$G"9$TJREHQRCPIPH$M$/;<AGA@GHIJKI>A!
!
NOTE:
The first time I constructed the test, I actually made a mistake in entering the choices for this number.
Letter A should be “a. Php323,249.80” (not Php321,216.43). I edited it later but it seems that I printed the
wrong version of the file for submission, so Mr. Camacho’s students got test item 15 as it appears above. As
such, the test item should be INVALIDATED and offered as a BONUS instead. However, to be fair to those
who correctly applied the formulas and answered “A” simply because it was the option nearest to the
actual FMV, I suggest that the entire exam be computed as is (still considering Letter A to be the correct
answer), and simply giving everyone an additional point to their raw score at the end of the test.
Those who answered letter A will, in effect, receive a 2-point bonus while
those who chose the other options will only receive a single bonus point.

Objective: To calculate the Period of Deferral of a Deferred Annuity

Test Item 16: B


Sonny has to make annual payments of Php8,000 for 12 years that will start 5 years from now. What is the Period
of Deferral?
a. 5 periods b. 4 periods
c. 12 periods d. 17 periods

%<@#$A#3:5$2:1B$817$<5$3;$;<B#$IE$;"=5$;"#$9#:<1>$12$>#2#::36$7<66$F#$2:1B$;<B#$J$;1$;<B#$RC$D1E$46#3:6AE$;"#$9#:<1>$12$>#2#::36$
<5$H!<$,-(F#$1:$H!B$+,#C$

Objective: To calculate the Present Value of a Deferred Annuity

Test Item 17: D


Emma availed of a cash loan that gave her the option to pay Php10,000 monthly for 1 year. The first payment is
due after 6 months. How much is the present value of the loan if the interest rate is 12% converted monthly?
a. Php103,988.23 b. Php 105,688.73
c. Php106,088.50 d. Php107,088.20
3# '
!"#$ 9:#5#8;$@36=#$12$38$ 388=<;A$>=#$21:$ #$9#:<1>5$ 3;$<8;#:#5;$"$9#:$41B91=8><8U$9#:<1>$<5$ G,60/"#(07'8##+",7$ M$2$V'WHX/HN"0 YZ" Y$ 7"#:#$2' <5$;"#$ 2<[#>$9#:<1><4$
93AB#8;5C$'2$;"#$<8;#:#5;$:3;#$<5$HT\$418@#:;#>$B18;"6AE$;"#8$;"#$'8;#:#5;$:3;#$21:$;"#$9#:<1>$/"0$5"1=6>$F#$JCHTZHT$1:$JCJHC$D<84#$;"#$19;<18$366175$"#:$;1$
93A$B18;"6A$ 21:$ H$ A#3:E$ ;"#$ 8=BF#:$ 12$34;=36$93AB#8;5$5"1=6>$ F#$ HTC$ &8>$ <2$ A1=$ 355=B#$;"#:#$ ;1$ F#$ 34;=36$ 93AB#8;5$ >=:<8U$ ;"#$9#:<1>$ 12$ >#2#::36$ /I$
39:
9#:<1>50E$ ;"#:#$ 71=6>$ F#$ 3$ ;1;36$ 12$ HQ$ 9#:<1>5C$ !"=5E$ G,68M$ HJEJJJV' WHX/HNJCJH0 YZJCJH$ 1:$ G"9HIIESTTCIHC$ ]#[;E$ 7#$ 41B9=;#$ ;"#$ 9:#5#8;$ @36=#$ 12$ ;"#$
93AB#8;5$B3>#$>=:<8U$;"#$9#:<1>$12$>#2#::36E$7"<4"$=;<6<^#5$;"#$53B#$21:B=63E$#[4#9;$;"3;$#MIC$!"<5$U<@#5$=5$G"9ROEIKRCKHC$D=F;:34;<8U$;"<5$@36=#$2:1B$
;"#$1:<U<836$G,68E$7#$;"#8$U#;$/;<!=?K@?LLJG?J$

16
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

Objective: To infer true statements regarding interest agreements and annuities based on the elements
provided

Test Item 18: B


Php18,000 is deposited in a savings account that earns 0.250% compounded monthly. Which of the following
statements are true?
a. The investment will grow to Php20,000 in 30 years.
b. It will take 506 periods before the amount accumulates to Php20,000.
c. It will take 42 years and 2 months to grow the amount to Php30,000.
d. In two years, you will already have Php19,000.

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('&)%89%#,/-5*&$%:%0-'&2,0'#;&%+5'52&%0)15,'$<%="4>?@???A%="4%:?@???A%0,*%="48B@???6%(,%+0/'@%="4>?@???%#$%)&,'#1,&*%
#,%'C1%14'#1,$6%7&%'"&2&+12&%"0$%'1%0$3%"#)$&-+@%D!"#$%&'($)*+,"-.$#,//$,0$0&1*$0"$&223%3/&0*$04".*$&%"3'0.5E%
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% %%%%%I%M?M6T9%12%=>?'@#,-(A"'12%BCD:E'6#+,"'
%
F#G"'%'"&,%0,*%'"&2&@%'"&%$'5*&,'%/0,%/1,+#*&,'-.%/"11$&%-&''&2%F6%U;&,%0$$5)#,G%'"0'%'"&%$'5*&,'%"0$,V'%.&'%'"15G"'%1+%
=>?'
5'#-#W#,G%-1G02#'")$@% "&% /0,%$#)4-.%/"&/3%#+%/G@' :HI>>>' J:;9>D>>C=K:C<L M' /G@C>I>>>6%7&%C#--% $'#--%022#;&%0'% '"&%$0)&%
/1,/-5$#1,6%

Objective: To infer true statements regarding interest agreements and annuities based on the elements
provided

Test Item 19: A


Mr. Ribaya received two offers on the lot he wants to sell. Mr. Ocampo has offered Php50,000 down payment
and a Php1 million lump sum payment 5 years from now. Mr. Cruz has offered Php50,000 down payment plus
Php40,000 every quarter for 5 years. Which statement about the fair market value is true if money can earn 5%
compounded annually?
a. The difference between the fair market value of the two offers at the start of the term is
Php77,953.49 in favor of Mr. Ocampo.
b. The difference between the fair market value of the two offers at the start of the term is
Php77,953.49 in favor of Mr. Cruz.
c. The fair market value of Mr. Ocampo’s offer at the start of the term is Php755,572.68
d. The fair market value of Mr. Cruz’s offer at the start of the term is Php833,526.17

!"&%!&$'%('&)%/0--$%+#2$'%+12%0%/1)45'0'#1,%1+%'"&%XYZ$%1+%&0/"%1++&2@%5$#,G%'"&%+12)5-0<%
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Y26%[/0)41V$%1++&2%C0$%0%="4M?@???%*1C,%40.)&,'%K%0%="4%8Y%-5)4$5)%#,%M%.&02$6%!"5$@%'"&%+0#2%)023&'%;0-5&%1+%"#$%
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/1)415,*&*%0,,50--.%L,O should therefore be equal to (1.05)1/4– 1 or 0.012272. Thus@% '"&%+0#2%)023&'%;0-5&%1+%"#$% 1++&2%
C15-*%H&<%
6' %
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-%')+7(,'()'N,D'0T+$@(@%'"&%/-&02%0,$C&2%#$%!6%

17
1

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Objective: To make salient judgments regarding investments and interest agreements (determining the most
favorable contracts)

Test Item 20: D


Suppose you won Php10,000 and plan to invest it for 5 years. A cooperative group offers simple interest at 2%
per year. A bank offers 2% interest compounded annually. A private company offers simple interest at 3% per
year. Which will you choose in order to make the most out of your principal?
a. The cooperative group investment
b. Either of the three, since they will end up providing equal returns
c. The bank offer
d. The private company investment

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,& 1*#/;$)& #046& 4")& -),*<=6-*8& 3$)23*0)$$& 62& 4")& *)$$60& ,08%& #2& ")& 8)/60$4-,4)$& "#$& ,44,#0/)04& 62& 4")& 6(>)74#+)& #0&
?3)$4#60%&7602#-/$&"#$&,(#*#4.&46&/,@)&$,*#)04&>381/)04$&-)1,-8#01&7604-,74$&#0&,743,*&*#2)&$)44#01$9&!")&76/;34,4#60$&,-)&
$#/;*)&(34%&,$&#$&3$3,**.&4")&7,$)%&#4&#$&4")&)+,*3,4#60&62&4")&622)-$&4",4&/,44)-9&
&
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I9 !")&L,0@&=#**&,**6=&"#/&46&1)0)-,4)&,&/,43-#4.&+,*3)&62&M";CC%GNG9OC&FCG%GGGHPCQ&G9GIR K%&="#7"&#$&4,04,/6304&
46&/56789:9;<7&#0&#04)-)$4&),-0)89&&
A9 !")&M-#+,4)&D6/;,0.&=#**&;-6+#8)&"#/&=#4"&#04)-)$4&),-0)8&#0&4")&,/6304&62&/5678=99&FCG%GGGHG9GAHJK&
&
!")-)26-)%&4")&/6-)&;-38)04&763-$)&62&,74#60&=63*8&()&46&7"66$)&*)44)-&>!P!")&M-#+,4)&D6/;,0.&#0+)$4/)04R9&

Objective: To make salient judgments regarding investments and interest agreements (determining the most
favorable contracts)

Test Item 21: A


A TV set is for sale at Php13,499 in cash. It can also be purchased in installment terms of Php2,500 each
month for the next six months at 9% compounded monthly. If you were the buyer, what would you prefer—
cash or installment?
a. Cash, because the cash price is lower than the cash value of the installment
b. Either of the two, since they will end up costing the same
c. Installment, because the cash value of the installment is lesser than the cash price
d. Cash, because even if installment is cheaper, it is better to only pay once

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76/;34,4#60&62&4")&7,$"&+,*3)&62&4")&#0$4,**/)04&$"6=$&4",4&4"#$&=63*8&464,*&M";&CN%&UCA9VV5$3($4,04#,**.&"#1")-&4",0&
4")&7,$"&;-#7)9&W$&$37"%&4")&$438)04&7,0&,*-),8.&)*#/#0,4)&6;4#60$&L%&D%&,08&X9&!")&60*.&4-3)&7607*3$#60&")-)&#$&4",4&'5$!
?+#5!6,-?$!-#!@(A$,!'5+&!'5$!?+#5!B+@C$!()!'5$!-&#'+@@%$&'%&4"3$&;-6/;4#01&,0.&$,0)&$438)04&46&,0$=)-&*)44)-&"9&&

Objective: To make salient judgments regarding investments and interest agreements (determining the most
favorable contracts)

Test Item 22: D


You would like to save Php50,000 for your graduation celebration. You found a bank that offers an interest
rate of 0.25% compounded monthly. You also found three possible part-time jobs that might help (you can
only choose 1, of course):
Job 1: Pays Php1000 a month but requires you to miss two class periods every week,
which might interfere with your chances of graduating;
Job 2: Pays Php500 a month but doesn’t interfere at all with your class schedule and
allows you enough free time; and
Job 3: Pays Php600 a month but doesn’t allow you any free time.
With only 5.5 years left until graduation, which job will allow you to make enough monthly deposits to reach
your intended goal (Php50,000 for your GRADUATION CELEBRATION)?

(See next page for continuation…)


18
2

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

(…Test Item 22 continued)

a. Job 1
b. Job 2
c. Job 3
d. None

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55
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#
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9"8:/#Q$#83$:$331#!)83-#=0=>' "0#.)$#P"Q#W*.6"'3#96::#%::"9#2"8#."#&$%S)#2"8&#L"%:#4/568?@???#0"&#2"8&#A1!BC!240='
D>*>E1!240=71#!)$#%'39$&#3)"8:/#Q$#B1#

Objective: To make salient judgments regarding investments and interest agreements (determining the most
favorable contracts)

Test Item 23: C


Suppose your father gives you a choice between two gifts:
A. He will deposit in your bank account Php10,000 at an annual interest rate of 0.5% compounded yearly
when you graduate from Grade 12 (at 18 years of age), but you won’t get the amount until you reach
the age of 30, OR
B. He will deposit Php10,000 in another bank that pays 1% annually on your 20th birthday, which you
won’t be able to collect until you reach 30.
Which gift will you choose in order to get the most amount when you reach 30 years old?

a. Choice A because this will allow you to collect Php15,616.77 at the age of 30.
b. Choice A because this will allow you to collect Php10,616.77 at the age of 30.
c. Choice B because this will allow you to collect Php11,046.22 at the age of 30.
d. Choice B because this will allow you to collect Php15,616.77 at the age of 30.

!)$#3.8/$'.#3)"8:/#Q$#%Q:$#."#6<<$/6%.$:2#6/$'.602#O)"6S$#R#%3#"'$#.)%.#S%::3#0"&#.)$#S"<*8.%.6"'#"0#.)$#<%.8&6.2#;%:8$#
!
%.#%#S"<*"8'/#6'.$&$3.#%'/#83$#.)$#0"&<8:%#/FGH,I 1#!)63#96::#%::"9#)6<#."#S"::$S.#()*#C,-5C51XX#%.#.)$#%L$#"0#G,1#O)"6S$#
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96::#$%&'#)6<#%#/56GG@???'+&'&5#'+.#'()'J?1#!)83-#.)$#%'39$&#3)"8:/#Q$#:$..$&#D1#
#
#
NOTE:
Once again, I must apologize to Mr. Camacho and his class for printing the wrong version of the file for
submission. The option in letter C should actually read thus: “Choice B because this will allow you to collect
Php11,000 at the age of 30.” The first time I computed the answer, I mistakenly utilized the formula for
compound interest instead of the correct one which is P+Prt.
As such, the test item should be INVALIDATED and offered as a BONUS instead. However, to be fair
to those who correctly applied the formulas and answered “C” simply because it was the option nearest to
the actual FMV, I suggest that the entire exam be computed as is (still considering Letter C to be the correct
answer), and simply giving everyone an additional point to their raw score at the end of the test.
Those who answered letter C will, in effect, receive a 2-point bonus while those
who chose the other options will only receive a single bonus point.

19
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Objective: To define and identify Stocks and Bonds

Test Item 24: C


Which of the following is true of stocks?
I. Stocks are a form of debt financing, or raising money by borrowing from investors.
II. Stocks are official evidence of part-ownership of a stock company, which may be used in claiming
company’s assets and earnings.
III. Stocks are also known as shares of equity.

a. All of the above b. I only


c. II and III only d. I and II only

!"#$%&'(#)&$*"+$",%$,&&,-)#($&"#$%&,&#($+./#0&-1#$*+'2($3)+*$&",&$&"#$,)%*#4$-%$2#&&#4$56!56&-+)$7$(#%04-.#%$859:;<$

Objective: To distinguish between Preferred and Common Stocks

Test Item 25: C


Atty. Pascual owns 10 shares of stock in a company. He is given the right to cast a number of votes equivalent to
the number of his shares in electing members of the board. His shares enjoy a higher return of investment over
years of market activities, which are exposed to a high-risk environment. What kind of stocks does he own?
a. Preferred Stock b. Indeterminable from the given facts
c. Common Stock d. Mixed Stocks

!"#$%&'(#)&$*"+$",%$0+=62#&#2>$,&&,-)#($&"#$%&,&#($+./#0&-1#$*+'2($3)+*$&",&$&"#$,)%*#4$-%$2#&&#4$5<

Objective: To solve problems and answer questions involving shares of stock.

Test Item 26: D


A certain corporation has declared a 3% dividend on a stock with a par value of Php500. Mrs. Lingan owns
200 shares of stock with a par value of Php500. How much dividend will she receive?
a. Php 1,000 b. Php 1,500
c. Php 2,000 d. Php 3,000

!"#$(-1-(#)($6#4$%",4#$-%$?"6@AA$B$A<AC$D$?"6E@<$;-)0#$F4%<$G-)H,)$+*)%$IAA$%",4#%J$%"#$*-22$4#0#-1#$?"6E@$B$IAA$%",4#%$
D$?"6CJAAA<$!"'%J$&"#$,)%*#4$-%$2#&&#4$7<$

Objective: To solve problems and answer questions involving bonds

Test Item 27: C


A Php450,000 bond is redeemable at Php550,000 after 5 years. Coupons are given at 5%, convertible semi-
annually. What is the amount of the semi-annual coupon?
a. Php35,150 b. Php10,450
c. Php11,250 d. Php13,150

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?"6L@AJAAA<$7K$&"#$0+'6+)$ 4,&#$-%$@MJ$&"#$,))',2$ 0+'6+)$,=+')&$%"+'2($.#$ ?"6L@AJAAA$B$A<A@$D$?"6IIJ@AA<$:-1-(-)H$
&",&$,=+')&$.>$IJ$*#$H#&$&"#$%#=-N,))',2$0+'6+)$,=+')&O$/89!::;<=><$!"#$,)%*#4$-%$&"#4#K+4#$2#&&#4$5<$

20
1

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

Objective: To compute the maturity value of bonds and the total earnings of their investors

Test Item 28: A


Mrs. Ciriaco purchased a hundred 6% bonds from a corporation. Each has a face value of Php1,000 and were
purchased at Php960. They mature in 5 years. What is the maturity value of the bonds?
a. Php100,000 b. Php104,500
c. Php112,050 d. Php160,000

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Objective: To compute the total earnings of bond nvestors

Test Item 29: D


Mrs. Ciriaco purchased a hundred 6% bonds from a corporation. Each has a face value of Php1,000 and were
purchased at Php960. They mature in 5 years. After the maturity date, how much is the total earnings of Mrs.
Ciriaco?
a. Php10,000 b. Php8,500
c. Php11,050 d. Php7,000

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!"(37$=&)1*1>3$3".(-2$0#$#?(&-$'.$4"56887888$B$4"5E7888$D$F4"5GH89688I$.)$/56':9888;$!"#$&13J#)$*3$<-#&)-+$-#''#)$;;$

Objective: To know and identify the elements that play an important role in business or consumer loans

Test Item 30: A


Some elements play important roles in business or consumer loans. What do these include?
I. The Collateral, which is usually in the form of a tax return or credit certificate
II. The Guarantor, who is an individual who agrees to provide the loan.
III.Documentation, which refers to the asset presented by the borrower that is
pledged to be given to the lender in case of the borrower’s default.

a. None of the above b. II only


c. I and II only d. All of the above

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!"(37$'"#+$J.(-2$<"..3#$-#''#)$!>$

Objective: To define mortgages and identify examples

Test Item 31: C


Ms. Malang contracted a loan for Php2 million from the bank. As part of the agreement, she was required to
promise that in the event of failure to pay or default, the bank would own her house. What kind of loan is this?
a. Business Loan b. Indeterminable
c. Mortgage d. Amortized Loan

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Objective: To know the Formula for Finding Payments on an Amortized Loan

Test Item 32: A


The periodic payment R for an amortized loan P at an interest rate i to be paid in n installments is given by
what formula?
(See next page for continuation…)

21
2
1

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

(…Test Item 32 continued)

a. P(1+i)n = R[(1+i)n – 1] / i b. [P(1+i)n] /R = [(1+i)n – 1]


c. P(1+i)2n = R[(1+i)n – 1] / i d. R(1+i)n = P[(1+i)n – 1] / i

!"#$% #$% &% '()**+% $*(&#,"*-.(/&(0% &$$)$$1)2*% .-% *")% $*30)2*$4% &5#6#*+% *.% 72./% *")% 8.(136&% -.(% 8#20#2,% 9&+1)2*$% .2% &2%
:1.(*#;)0%<.&2=%!")%&2$/)(%$".360%5)%6)**)(%"=%

Objective: To distinguish between Business and Consumer Loans

Test Item 33: D


Which is TRUE about the following loans:
I. Mr. Lim wants to have another branch for his cellphone repair shop. He decided to apply for a loan to pay
for the rentals in his new branch.
II. Glenn decided to purchase a condominium unit so that he can live near his company. He got a loan worth
Php2 million.
III. Ron has a computer shop that has 10 computers. Due to increasing demand, he decided to purchase 5
more via a loan.

a. Only I is a business loan b. Both I and III are consumer loans


c. Only II is a business loan d. Only II is a consumer loan

:%53$#2)$$%6.&2%#$%6)2*%*.%53$#2)$$%>.1'&2#)$%.(%#20#?#03&6$%*.%-320%*")#(%53$#2)$$%.')(&*#2,%>.$*$=%:%>.2$31)(%6.&2@%.2%
*")% .*")(% "&20@% #$% 5.((./)0% -.(% *")% '3('.$)% .-% 1&7#2,% ')($.2&6% .(% -&1#6+% '3(>"&$)$=% A2% *")% &5.?)% )B&1'6)$@% .26+%
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Objective: To calculate monthly amortizations on an amortized loan

Test Item 34: D


Mrs. Solinap borrowed Php20,000 from a friend at an interest rate of 18% payable in 5 months. How much is
the outstanding balance after the 3rd payment?
a. Php 1,768 b. Php 4,119
c. Php 12,178 d. Php 8,179

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P(1+i)n = R[(1+i)n – 1] / i!
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&$%-.66./$N%
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I% 9"'%W@IJI=XY% 9"'%ZGG% 9"'%Z@JJI=XY% 9"'%I[@IIJ=FI%
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%
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Objective: To make salient judgments regarding loan agreements (determining the most favorable contracts)

Test Item 35: C


John works as a teacher earning Php18,000 a month. He needs Php 10,000 to cover regular monthly expenses. A
week ago, he was hospitalized and incurred a Php500,000 medical bill. He now needs to borrow money to pay
for it. Which of the following offers should he take?

(See next page for continuation…)

22
2

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

(…Test Item 35 continued)

a. A loan payable in 10 years with an interest rate of 18%.


b. A loan payable in 10 years with an interest rate of 14.5%.
c. A loan payable in 5 years with an interest rate of 9%.
d. A loan payable in 6 years with an interest rate of 9%.

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.)(9*7&A%&6)%&A%.6&$)("$%=&

FINAL EXAM IN GENERAL MATHEMATICS GRADE 11


(Business Math)
ANSWER KEY
1 B 6 B 11 C 16 B 21 A 26 D 31 C
2 D 7 C 12 A 17 D 22 D 27 C 32 A
3 A 8 A 13 D 18 B 23 C 28 A 33 D
4 B 9 B 14 C 19 A 24 C 29 D 34 D
5 C 10 B 15 A 20 D 25 C 30 A 35 C
23
Iloilo Science and Technology University
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
Senior High Scho ol Progr am
Lapaz, Iloilo City

FINAL EXAM IN GENERAL MATHEMATICS


(Business Math) !
Attached herewith is a copy of the actual exam I constructed for Mr.
John D. Camacho’s Grade 11 General Mathematics classes. It spans five
(5) pages and is designed to be completed in 1 hour. I actually
administered the test to a colleague of mine (a co-English teacher at the
private academy where I am currently employed) before submitting the
same to Mr. Camacho. She completed it in 50 minutes with a perfect
score, equipped only with a Bachelor’s Degree in Secondary Education,
specializing in English. As such, I was confident that this is an exam
appropriate for any Grade 11 General Mathematics student.

“The man (or woman) who can make


hard things easy is the educator.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson

24
'()*()&80*/20/&"29&& ./012)()3-&42*5/67*,-&
! !
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
!
Senior High School Program
!"#"$%&'()*()&+*,-&

FINAL EXAM IN GENERAL MATHEMATICS


(Business Math)

Name:___________________________________ Section:_________________ Raw Score:

Multiple Choice
Directions: Write the letter of your answer on the blanks provided before each number.

_____1) The description of ‘Interest’ suggests that three elements play important roles in its computation. What
do these include?
I. The Principal, which is the sum of the amounts that accumulate over an agreed term.
II. The Term, which is the unit of time for which the principal is loaned.
III. The Interest rate, which is the base in which interest is computed.

a. All of the above b. II only


c. I and II only d. III

_____2) What should you use to compute for Simple Interest?

a. An – P b. P(1+i)n
c. An(1+i)-n d. Prt

_____3) What should you use to compute the present value at a Simple Interest Rate?

a. A/(1+rt) b. An – P
c. An(2+i)-n d. An(1+i)-n

_____4) What formula defines the computation of Compound Amount?

a. An – P b. P(1+i)n
c. An(1+i)-n d. Prt

_____5) Which one refers to an annuity where the payment dates do not coincide with the interest conversion
periods?

a. Simple Annuity b. Annuity Certain


c. General Annuity d. Contingent Annuity

_____6) Which is true about compound interests?

a. It is the amount earned for one year calculated by multiplying only the principal by the interest rate.

b. It is the amount earned for one year calculated by multiplying the principal and accumulated past
interests by the interest rate.
c. It is the kind of interest applied for transactions that usually last for less than a year.
d. It is directly proportional to the principal, the rate, and the term.

_____7) Which of the situations is an/are example/s of SIMPLE ANNUITIES?


I. Mrs. Remoto would like to save Php3,000 at the end of each month, for 6 months, in a fund that
gives 9% compounded monthly.
II. Paolo borrowed Php100,000. He agrees to pay the principal plus interest by paying an equal
amount of money each year for three years. The interest is compounded 8% annually.
III. Ken borrowed an amount of money from Kat. He agrees to pay the principal, plus interest, by
paying Php38,973.76 each year for 3 years. The interest is 8% compounded quarterly.

Page 1 of 5!
a. All of the above b. I only
c. I and II only d. III

_____8) What is the exact interest and ordinary interest of Php800,000 for 240 days at 5.5%?

a. Php28,931.51 and Php29,333.33, respectively


b. Php25,654.65 and 228,765.54, respectively
c. Php29,333.33 and Php30,545.89, respectively
d. Php28,301.37 and Php29,653.33, respectively

_____9) What is the interest if the principal is Php180,000 at 5% for 75 days (use the 6%-60-Day-Method)?

a. Php1,800 b. Php1,875
c. Php1,575 d. Php375

_____10) Mr. Solis borrowed Php25,000 from the TWLS on 1 August 2015 with interest at 6%. On 15
September 2015, he paid Php6,000. Determine the amount Mr. Solis should pay on 5 December 2015 (due
date) using the Rule #1 for Paying on Installment Basis.

a. Php17,657.87 b. Php19,453.95
c. Php18,654.98 d. Php20,054.87

_____11) Mr. Solis borrowed Php200,000 from the TWLS on 1 May 2015 with interest at 6%. On 15 June 2015,
he paid Php60,000. Determine the amount Mr. Solis should pay on 5 September 2015 (due date) using the
Merchant’s Rule.

a. Php143,491.21 b. Php204,266.67
c. Php141,500.00 d. Php201,533.33

_____12) What is the present value of Php50,000 due in 7 years if money is worth 10% compounded annually?

a. Php25,657.91 b. Php35,786.94
c. Php24,769.93 d. Php26,786.65

_____13) What is the compound interest if Php10,000 is deposited in a bank at 2% compounded quarterly for 5
years?

a. Php1,096.48 b. Php1,098.46
c. Php1,058.43 d. Php1,048.96

_____14) Mel started to deposit Php1,000 monthly in a fund that pays 6% compounded quarterly. How much
will the fund be in 15 years?

a. Php275,096.58 b. Php288,765.78
c. Php290,076.28 d. Php219,756.38

_____15) Company A offers Php150,000 at the end of 3 years plus Php300,000 at the end of 5 years. Assuming
that money is worth 8% compounded annually, what is the fair market value of the offer?

a. Php323,249.80 b. Php 118,547.18


c. Php202,669.25 d. Php358,000.78

_____16) Sonny has to make annual payments of Php8,000 for 12 years that will start 5 years from now. What is
the Period of Deferral?

a. 5 periods b. 4 periods
c. 12 periods d. 17 periods

_____17) Emma availed of a cash loan that gave her the option to pay Php10,000 monthly for 1 year. The first
payment is due after 6 months. How much is the present value of the loan if the interest rate is 12% converted
monthly?

a. Php103,988.23 b. Php 105,688.73


c. Php106,088.50 d. Php107,088.20
Page 2 of 5!
!
_____18) Php18,000 is deposited in a savings account that earns 0.250% compounded monthly. Which of the
following statements are true?

a. The investment will grow to Php20,000 in 30 years.


b. It will take 506 periods before the amount accumulates to Php20,000.
c. It will take 42 years and 2 months to grow the amount to Php30,000.
d. In two years, you will already have Php19,000.

_____19) Mr. Ribaya received two offers on the lot he wants to sell. Mr. Ocampo has offered Php50,000 down
payment and a Php1 million lump sum payment 5 years from now. Mr. Cruz has offered Php50,000 down
payment plus Php40,000 every quarter for 5 years. Which statement about the fair market value is true if
money can earn 5% compounded annually?

a. The difference between the fair market value of the two offers at the start of the term is
Php77,953.49 in favor of Mr. Ocampo.
b. The difference between the fair market value of the two offers at the start of the term is
Php77,953.49 in favor of Mr. Cruz.
c. The fair market value of Mr. Ocampo’s offer at the start of the term is Php755,572.68
d. The fair market value of Mr. Cruz’s offer at the start of the term is Php833,526.17

_____20) Suppose you won Php10,000 and plan to invest it for 5 years. A cooperative group offers simple
interest at 2% per year. A bank offers 2% interest compounded annually. A private company offers simple
interest at 3% per year. Which will you choose in order to make the most out of your principal?

a. The cooperative group investment


b. Either of the three, since they will end up providing equal returns
c. The bank offer
d. The private company investment

_____21) A TV set is for sale at Php13,499 in cash. It can also be purchased in installment terms of Php2,500
each month for the next six months at 9% compounded monthly. If you were the buyer, what would you
prefer—cash or installment?

a. Cash, because the cash price is lower than the cash value of the installment
b. Either of the two, since they will end up costing the same
c. Installment, because the cash value of the installment is lesser than the cash price
d. Cash, because even if installment is cheaper, it is better to only pay once

_____22) You would like to save Php50,000 for your graduation celebration. You found a bank that offers an
interest rate of 0.25% compounded monthly. You also found three possible part-time jobs that might help
(you can only choose 1, of course):
Job 1: Pays Php1000 a month but requires you to miss two class periods every week, which might
interfere with your chances of graduating;
Job 2: Pays Php500 a month but doesn’t interfere at all with your class schedule and allows you enough
free time; and
Job 3: Pays Php600 a month but doesn’t allow you any free time.
With only 5.5 years left until graduation, which job will allow you to make enough monthly deposits to reach
your intended goal (Php50,000 for your GRADUATION CELEBRATION)?

a. Job 1
b. Job 2
c. Job 3
d. None

_____23) Suppose your father gives you a choice between two gifts:
A. He will deposit in your bank account Php10,000 at an annual interest rate of 0.5% compounded yearly
when you graduate from Grade 12 (at 18 years of age), but you won’t get the amount until you reach the
age of 30, OR
B. He will deposit Php10,000 in another bank that pays 1% annually at your 20th birthday, which you won’t
be able to collect until you reach 30.
Which gift will you choose in order to get the most amount when you reach 30 years old?

Page 3 of 5!
!
a. Choice A because this will allow you to collect Php!"#$!$%&&'()')*+'(,+'-.'/0%'
b. Choice A because this will allow you to collect Php!0#$!$%&&'()')*+'(,+'-.'/0%'
c. Choice B because this will allow you to collect Php!!#000%00'()')*+'(,+'-.'/0%'
a. Choice B because this will allow you to collect Php!"#$!$%&&'()')*+'(,+'-.'/0%

_____24) Which of the following is true of stocks?


I. Stocks are a form of debt financing, or raising money by borrowing from investors.
II. Stocks are official evidence of part-ownership of a stock company, which may be used in
claiming company’s assets and earnings.
III. Stocks are also known as shares of equity.

a. All of the above b. I only


c. II and III only d. I and II only

_____25) Atty. Pascual owns 10 shares of stock in a company. He is given the right to cast a number of votes
equivalent to the number of his shares in electing members of the board. His shares enjoy a higher return of
investment over years of market activities, which are exposed to a high-risk environment. What kind of
stocks does he own?
a. Preferred Stock b. Indeterminable from the given facts
c. Common Stock d. Mixed Stocks

_____26) A certain corporation has declared a 3% dividend on a stock with a par value of Php500. Mrs. Lingan
owns 200 shares of stock with a par value of Php500. How much dividend will she receive?

a. Php 1,000 b. Php 1,500


c. Php 2,000 d. Php 3,000

_____27) A Php450,000 bond is redeemable at Php550,000 after 5 years. Coupons are given at 5%, convertible
semi-annually. What is the amount of the semi-annual coupon?

a. Php35,150 b. Php10,450
c. Php11,250 d. Php13,150

_____28) Mrs. Ciriaco purchased a hundred 6% bonds from a corporation. Each has a face value of Php1,000
and were purchased at Php960. They mature in 5 years. What is the maturity value of the bonds?

a. Php100,000 b. Php104,500
c. Php112,050 d. Php160,000

_____29) Mrs. Ciriaco purchased a hundred 6% bonds from a corporation. Each has a face value of Php1,000
and were purchased at Php960. They mature in 5 years. After the maturity date, how much is the total
earnings of Mrs. Ciriaco?

a. Php10,000 b. Php8,500
c. Php11,050 d. Php7,000

_____30) Some elements play important roles in business or consumer loans. What do these include?
I. The Collateral, which is usually in the form of a tax return or credit certificate
II. The Guarantor, who is an individual who agrees to provide the loan.
III. Documentation, which refers to the asset presented by the borrower that is pledged to be given to the
lender in case of the borrower’s default.

a. None of the above b. II only


c. I and II only d. All of the above

_____31) Ms. Malang contracted a loan for Php2 million from the bank. As part of the agreement, she was
required to promise that in the event of failure to pay or default, the bank would own her house. What kind of
loan is this?

a. Business Loan b. Indeterminable


c. Mortgage d. Amortized Loan

Page 4 of 5!
!
_____32) The periodic payment R for an amortized loan P at an interest rate i to be paid in n installments is
given by what formula?

a. P(1+i)n = R[(1+i)n – 1] / i b. [P(1+i)n] /R = [(1+i)n – 1]


c. P(1+i)2n = R[(1+i)n – 1] / i d. R(1+i)n = P[(1+i)n – 1] / i

_____33) Which is TRUE about the following loans:


I. Mr. Lim wants to have another branch for his cellphone repair shop. He decided to apply for a loan to pay
for the rentals in his new branch.
II. Glenn decided to purchase a condominium unit so that he can live near his company. He got a loan worth
Php2 million.
III. Ron has a computer shop that has 10 computers. Due to increasing demand, he decided to purchase 5
more via a loan.

a. Only I is a business loan b. Both I and III are consumer loans


c. Only II is a business loan d. Only II is a consumer loan

_____34) Mrs. Solinap borrowed Php20,000 from a friend at an interest rate of 18% payable in 5 months. How
much is the outstanding balance after the 3rd payment?

a. Php 1,768 b. Php 4,119


c. Php 12,178 d. Php 8,179

_____35) John works as a teacher earning Php18,000 a month. He needs Php 10,000 to cover regular monthly
expenses. A week ago, he was hospitalized and incurred a Php500,000 medical bill. He now needs to borrow
money to pay for it. Which of the following offers should he take?
a. A loan payable in 10 years with an interest rate of 18%.
b. A loan payable in 10 years with an interest rate of 14.5%.
c. A loan payable in 5 years with an interest rate of 9%.
d. A loan payable in 6 years with an interest rate of 9%.

===================== End of Exam =======================

Prepared by:

______________________________
SANDRA MAY ONG MACLANG
DIT-1B

Noted: Approved:

_____________________________ _______________________________
JOHN LORENCE D. CAMACHO JOHN ERIC V. JUANEZA, Ed.D.
Instructor! Dean, College of Education

Page 5 of 5!
!
1
2
3

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

426;!"7"*D545! Name of Cooperating School:


ISAT University
After a test has been administered and scored, it is essential to determine 567401!8498!5:800*!
the effectiveness of the items by analyzing the learners’ responses to each of !
them. The procedure is known as item analysis. (Paler-Calmorin, 2014) Name of Cooperating Teacher:
In the succeeding pages, I shall attempt to assess the difficulty of the ;,<!=(>&!?<!:+%+@>(!
items I constructed for Mr. Camacho’s Grade 11 General Mathematics !
classes, determine how well those items discriminate between high and low
Subject:
achievers, and report whether all those options functioned well.
9$&$,+A!;+'>$%+'-@#!
At the end of this episode, I shall produce a guide for a exam revisions on
the same topic based on the analyses made in this section. There will also be
!
other recommendations grounded on the results of this episode, as well as a Topic:
detailed reflection on the entire process. BC#-&$##!;+'>!

The UL Method
Laurentina Paler-Calmorin (2014) tells us that while there are actually several item analysis procedures available,
the UL Method has the advantage of being the simplest one. This is the procedure I intend to utilize in this episode.

1
Following the steps set forth by Ms. Paler-
Calmorin in pages 94 to 98 of our textbook
Arrange the scores from
(Assessment of Student Learning 1, 2014), I first HIGHEST to LOWEST.
entered all the students’ scores into an Excel file and
sorted them from Highest to Lowest.
Note that the test was administered to two Grade 11 classes: one class on the Technical, Vocational, and Livelihood
Track (Grade 11-TVL) and another on the STEM Track (Grade 11-STEM). They each consist of 48 students, thus

providing me with a grand total


!"#$%&'(&1$#CA'#!()!'>$!3-&+A!6E+%!4&!9$&$,+A!;+'>$%+'-@#F!BC#-&$##!;+'>! of 96 test takers.
'+G$&!HI!45"2J!9,+K$!LL!5'CK$&'#M!",,+&.$K!),(%!8-.>$#'!'(!*(N$#'&
Each item answered correctly
52J?672!
1"O!
56:2407! 52J?672!
1"O!
56:2407! 52J?672!
1"O!
56:2407!
garnered the student 2 points,
5:016! 5:016! 5:016! with a possible total of 70 points
L! )*& +!,-& LL! *.& +!,-& PL! *'& +!,-& for the entire exam. For the
P! )*& +!,-& LP! **& +!,-& PP! *'& +!,-& purpose of completing this
Q! )*& +!,-& LQ! **& +!,-& PQ! *'& +!,-& episode, the bonus points due
R! )*& +!,-& LR! **& +!,-& PR! *'& +!,-&
them (4 points) for the mistakes
in Items 15 and 23 will
S! )*& +!,-& LS! **& +!,-& PS! *'& +!,-&
temporarily be ignored.
T! )/& +!,-& LT! **& +!,-& PT! *'& +!,-&
U! )/& +!,-& LU! **& +!,-& PU! *'& +!,-& Table 1 shows their raw
V! 01& +!,-& LV! **& +!,-& PV! *'& +!,-& scores after taking the test. See
W! 02& LW! **& PW! */&
Appendices C and D for a more
+!,-& +!,-& +!,-&
detailed tabulation of results for
LX! 02& +!,-& PX! *'& +!,-& QX! */& +!,-&
each student in alphabetical order.
The table there will indicate the
1"O! 1"O! 1"O!
52J?672!
5:016!
56:2407! 52J?672!
5:016!
56:2407! 52J?672!
5:016!
56:2407! instructional objectives he or she
has attained based on the exam.
QL! */& +!,-& RL! '1& +!,-& SL! '2& !34& This is not part of Item Analysis
QP! */& +!,-& RP! '1& +!,-& SP! '2& !34& but is pursuant to the goals of any
QQ! '5& +!,-& RQ! '1& !34& SQ! ')& +!,-& CRM.
QR! '5& +!,-& RR! '1& !34& SR! ')& +!,-&
As is readily apparent from
QS! '5& +!,-& RS! '1& !34& SS! ')& +!,-& Table 1, STEM students are
QT! '5& +!,-& RT! '6& +!,-& ST! ')& +!,-& generally more proficient in
QU! '5& +!,-& RU! '6& +!,-& SU! ')& !34& Business Math than TVL
QV! '5& +!,-& RV! '6& !34& SV! ')& !34& students. The highest scores on
QW! '5& !34& RW! '2& +!,-& SW! '0& !34& this exam pertains to those from
RX! '1& +!,-& SX! '2& !34& TX! '0& !34& Grade 11-STEM (range: 52 to 30
& points), while the lowest scores
come from their TVL counterpart
(Table 1 continued on the next page…) (range: 38 to 14 points. No one
got a perfect score. 30
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'
(…Table 1 continued)

1!:' 1!:' 1!:' 1!:'


5267892' 58;2409' 5267892' 58;2409' 5267892' 58;2409' 5267892' 58;2409'
5;018' 5;018' 5;018' 5;018'

<=' !"# $%&# >=' !'# $%&# ?=' !(# $%&# @=# !)# $%&#
<A' !"# $%&# >A' !'# $%&# ?A' !(# $%&# @A# !)# $%&#
<B' !"# $%&# >B' !'# $%&# ?B' !(# $%&# @B# !)# $%&#
<C' !"# $%&# >C' !'# $%&# ?C' !(# $%&# @C# *# $%&#
<D' !"# $%&# >D' !'# $%&# ?D' !!# $%&# @D# +# $%&#
<<' !"# $%&# ><' !(# $%&# ?<' !!# $%&# @<# ,# $%&#
<>' !"# $%&# >>' !(# $%&# ?>' !!# $%&# # # #
<?' !'# $%&# >?' !(# $%&# ??' !!# $%&# # # #
<@' !'# $%&# >@' !(# $%&# ?@' !!# $%&# # # #
>E' !'# $%&# ?E' !(# $%&# @E' !)# $%&# # # #
#

2 Get 1/3 of the Papers from the Highest


Scores and 1/3 from the lowest scores.
Since the total number of students who took the test was 96, a third of this amounted to 32 students.

$-./0#(1#5F(,#"'+%G'!%"H#,"')(,'#+FI'2#"&'4&#$'),($'&I#'6//81'J106/'K6JL'
428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M' 428M'
# 5;018#
=' A' B' C' D' <' >' ?' @' =E' ==' =A' =B' =C' =D'
#
!# (2# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5' 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
(# (2# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
'# (2# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
"# (2# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
7# (2# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
2# (7# 6# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 4# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
,# (7# 5# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 4# 6# 3# 4# 3# 6#
+# ("# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 5# 3# 4# 6# 6#
*# ('# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 6# 3# 5# 4# 3# 3# 4# 6# 4#
!)# ('# 4# 4# 4# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 5# 4# 4# 6# 3#
!!# ('# 3# 4# 6# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
!(# ((# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 6# 4# 3# 6#
!'# ((# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 4# 3# 5# 4# 3# 3# 4# 3# 6#
!"# ((# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 6# 4# 3# 6#
!7# ((# 3# 4# 5# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 3# 4# 4# 6#
!2# ((# 3# 4# 4# 5# 3# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 3#
!,# ((# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 3# 3# 5# 4# 5# 3# 4# 6# 6#
!+# ((# 5# 4# 5# 5# 6# 4# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 5# 4# 4# 6#
!*# ((# 3# 4# 3# 5# 4# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 3#
()# (!# 3# 4# 5# 5# 4# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 3#
(!# (!# 3# 4# 5# 5# 4# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 3#
((# (!# 3# 4# 5# 5# 4# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 3#
('# (!# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 6# 4# 5# 6#
("# (!# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 6# 6# 4# 4# 6# 3#
(7# (!# 4# 4# 4# 3# 6# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 5# 4# 4# 3# 6#
(2# (!# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 3# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 6#
(,# (!# 3# 4# 5# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 3# 4# 3# 6#
(+# (!# 3# 4# 3# 5# 6# 5# 3# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 6#
(*# ()# 3# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 3# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 6# 6#
')# ()# 5# 4# 4# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 5# 4# 4# 6#
'!# ()# 3# 4# 5# 5# 6# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 3# 3# 4# 4# 3#
'(# !*# 5# 4# 5# 5# 6# 5# 6# 3# 5# 5# 3# 5# 5# 6# 3#

(Table 2 continued on the next page…)


31
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

(…Table 2 continued)
4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278!
! 56017!
9:! 9;! 9<! 9=! >?! >9! >>! >@! >A! >B! >:! >;! ><! >=! @?!
!
"! #$! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

#! #$! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

)! #$! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

*! #$! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

+! #$! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

$! #+! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

,! #+! %! &! '! (! &! (! &! &! %! %! &! %! %! '! &!

-! #*! &! (! %! (! &! (! &! %! %! %! '! %! %! %! '!

.! #)! &! %! '! (! %! (! &! %! %! %! &! %! '! %! &!

"/! #)! &! %! '! (! %! (! &! %! %! %! &! %! (! %! %!

""! #)! %! &! '! (! &! (! '! %! &! %! %! %! %! '! (!

"#! ##! %! &! '! (! &! %! %! (! &! %! &! %! %! '! (!

")! ##! &! %! '! (! %! (! '! %! %! %! &! %! (! %! &!

"*! ##! %! &! '! (! &! (! %! (! &! %! %! %! %! '! (!

"+! ##! %! &! '! (! &! (! %! &! (! %! %! %! %! '! &!

"$! ##! (! '! (! &! &! (! ! %! %! %! '! %! %! '! (!

",! ##! &! '! '! &! &! (! &! (! %! %! '! %! %! %! (!

"-! ##! %! &! &! (! &! (! '! %! %! %! &! %! (! %! '!

".! ##! (! '! &! &! &! (! '! %! %! %! &! %! %! %! &!

#/! #"! (! %! &! &! &! (! &! &! %! (! '! %! %! %! (!

#"! #"! (! '! &! &! &! (! '! %! %! (! '! %! %! %! (!

##! #"! (! '! &! &! &! (! '! %! %! '! '! %! %! %! (!

#)! #"! %! &! '! (! &! %! %! (! &! %! %! %! %! '! (!

#*! #"! &! (! %! (! &! '! (! %! (! %! %! %! %! '! '!

#+! #"! %! &! &! (! %! (! &! %! &! %! &! %! (! %! %!

#$! #"! (! '! '! &! %! (! '! '! %! %! &! %! %! %! (!

#,! #"! %! &! &! (! &! (! %! &! (! %! %! %! %! '! &!

#-! #"! (! '! '! &! %! (! '! '! %! %! &! %! %! %! (!

#.! #/! (! '! '! &! %! (! '! '! %! %! &! %! %! %! (!

)/! #/! &! &! (! %! &! (! %! &! (! %! %! %! %! %! &!

)"! #/! %! %! '! (! &! (! '! %! &! %! &! (! %! %! %!

)#! ".! (! '! &! &! &! (! '! %! %! %! '! %! %! %! (!

(Table 2 continued on the next page…)

32
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'
(…Table 2 continued)
Thus, 32 papers were included from the
4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' UPPER GROUP (See Table 2) and 33 more
! 56017! from the LOWER GROUP (See Table 3).
9:' 9;' 99' 9<' 9='
!
"! #$! %! &! '! '! %! Notable is the fact that ALL the students
#! #$! %! &! '! '! %! in the UPPER GROUP (UG) came from
(! #$! %! &! '! '! %! Grade 11-STEM, and ALL the students in the
)! #$! %! &! '! '! %! LOWER GROUP (LG) came from Grade 11-
*! #$! %! &! '! '! %! TVL.
$! #*! %! &! '! '! %! Sadly, the highest-ranking student in the
+! #*! %! &! '! '! %! TVL class only matches the scores of the 8th
,! #)! %! &! '! '! %! ranking students in the STEM class.
-! #(! %! &! '! '! .! Conversely, the LOWEST ranking students in
"/! #(! '! &! '! '! %! the STEM class would have ranked 4th in the
""! #(! %! &! '! '! %! TVL class on this exam.
"#! ##! %! &! '! '! %!
The data I provided in Appendices C and
"(! ##! %! &! '! .! %!
D of this Portfolio could perhaps aid in
")! ##! %! &! '! '! %!
determining the lessons that need to be
"*! ##! %! &! '! '! %! retaught with regard to this topic.
"$! ##! '! &! '! '! %! Furthermore, if shared with the learners
"+! ##! %! &! '! '! %! themselves, the same may provide the
",! ##! %! &! '! %! %! students with a guide to refocus their study of
"-! ##! %! &! .! %! %! the subject matter. Each student clearly has
#/! #"! '! &! '! '! %! learning outcomes still in need of attaining,
#"! #"! '! &! '! '! %! especially in the TVL class. The students may
##! #"! '! &! '! '! %! be well served to attempt to bridge those
#(! #"! %! &! '! '! %! identified learning gaps as soon as possible.
#)! #"! %! &! '! '! %!
Business Math is not designed only for
#*! #"! %! &! '! %! %!
those who seek to pursue a career in
#$! #"! %! &! '! %! '! business—on the contrary, it is a subject that
#+! #"! %! &! '! '! %! will prove extremely useful in managing
#,! #"! %! &! '! %! '! one’s future finances, regardless of
#-! #/! %! &! '! %! '! profession. To neglect it would be at one’s
(/! #/! %! &! '! '! %! own peril.
("! #/! %! &! '! %! .!
That said, we best stick a pin on that for
(#! "-! %! '! &! %! .!
now and proceed with my item analysis.

01234!(5!5>(,#"'+%?'!%"@#,"')(,'#+>A'2#"&'4&#$'),($'&A#'*0B71'C10D/'E*CF'
4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278' 4278'
! 56017!
:' ;' 9' <' =' G' H' I' J' :K' ::' :;' :9' :<' :='
!
"! ")! &! &! &! .! '! .! .! &! '! %' '! &! '! .! .!
#! ")! &! '! '! .! '! .! .! &! '! %! '! &! '! '! %!
(! ")! '! .! .! &! &! .! '! &! .! .! .! .! '! &! '!
)! "(! &! '! .! .! &! .! %! &! .! %! '! .! '! '! '!
*! "(! '! '! '! &! %! .! &! &! .! .! %! .! %! '! &!
$! "(! &! '! .! .! &! .! .! &! .! %! .! &! '! '! '!
+! "(! &! '! %! .! &! .! %! %! .! %! .! &! '! %! &!
,! "(! &! '! '! .! &! .! &! &! .! .! &! .! %! '! '!
-! "(! '! '! &! .! .! .! '! %! &! .! .! .! '! '! .!
"/! "(! &! '! '! .! '! .! .! &! .! %! '! &! %! .! %!
""! "(! &! '! '! .! '! .! .! &! .! .! .! &! '! .! %!
"#! "#! '! '! '! .! &! .! '! &! %! '! '! %! %! %! '!
"(! "#! &! '! '! .! &! .! &! &! .! %! &! .! %! .! %!
")! "#! &! .! '! .! &! '! &! &! .! .! &! &! '! &! &!
"*! "#! %! '! '! .! %! .! &! &! .! .! &! &! %! &! '!
"$! "#! &! '! '! %! &! .! &! %! .! %! &! &! '! .! %!
"+! "#! &! '! '! .! &! .! '! &! .! %! .! '! %! %! %!
",! "#! &! '! '! .! '! .! .! &! .! '! %! &! '! &! '!
"-! "#! &! .! .! .! %! .! &! %! .! '! .! .! .! %! %!
#/! "#! &! '! '! .! %! .! &! %! .! '! .! .! .! %! &!
! 33
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

(…Table 3 continued)
4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278!
! 56017!
9! :! ;! <! =! >! ?! @! A! 9B! 99! 9:! 9;! 9<! 9=!
!
"#! ##! $! %! %! &! '! '! '! $! &! '! &! '! %! $! &!
""! ##! &! %! %! '! $! '! %! $! '! '! $! $! &! $! '!
"(! ##! $! %! %! '! &! %! %! $! '! '! $! $! &! $! '!
")! ##! $! %! %! '! $! '! '! $! '! %! $! $! %! $! %!
"*! ##! $! %! %! '! $! '! %! $! '! '! $! $! &! $! '!
"+! #,! $! %! %! '! $! '! '! $! '! %! &! $! '! $! %!
"-! #,! $! '! %! '! %! &! '! $! $! &! '! $! %! &! $!
".! #,! $! %! %! '! $! '! %! $! '! &! '! &! '! $! %!
"/! #,! $! %! %! '! $! '! '! $! '! &! '! $! '! $! &!
(,! /! %! %! %! &! $! $! '! $! %! &! %! $! %! '! %!
(#! .! $! %! %! '! $! &! '! $! $! &! '! %! $! &! %!
("! -! $! %! '! $! $! &! %! $! '! $! &! '! '! $! &!
!
4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278! 4278!
! 56017!
9>! 9?! 9@! 9A! :B! :9! ::! :;! :<! :=! :>! :?! :@! :A! ;B!
!
#! #)! $! &! &! '! &! $! '! $! &! &! $! &! &! %! %!
"! #)! '! &! &! %! &! $! '! $! $! &! &! &! &! %! '!
(! #)! &! '! '! %! %! $! '! &! &! &! &! '! '! $! '!
)! #(! &! '! &! %! &! $! '! $! $! $! $! &! &! %! '!
*! #(! '! %! $! '! &! &! '! %! $! &! '! %! &! '! &!
+! #(! &! &! &! $! %! &! $! &! &! $! &! %! $! &! %!
-! #(! $! &! &! %! &! $! '! %! &! $! '! '! %! &! &!
.! #(! $! &! '! $! &! $! %! $! $! %! '! $! %! &! %!
/! #(! &! $! %! %! %! $! '! %! &! %! $! &! &! '! %!
#,! #(! '! &! &! %! &! $! '! $! $! &! $! &! &! '! '!
##! #(! '! %! &! '! $! &! &! $! &! %! '! '! &! '! %!
#"! #"! &! %! $! &! &! $! &! $! &! &! %! '! %! %! '!
#(! #"! '! &! &! $! %! &! '! $! $! &! $! '! %! $! %!
#)! #"! %! &! %! '! &! %! %! '! &! %! %! $! %! $! %!
#*! #"! %! $! &! '! %! %! '! %! &! $! %! %! %! $! %!
#+! #"! %! '! &! $! &! %! &! $! &! $! %! &! &! '! '!
#-! #"! '! $! &! '! $! $! '! %! &! $! %! '! %! $! %!
#.! #"! $! &! %! &! '! %! %! %! &! '! $! '! %! $! %!
#/! #"! &! $! '! &! &! $! '! '! $! '! &! %! $! $! %!
",! #"! &! '! $! &! %! &! %! $! $! &! '! '! %! &! %!
"#! ##! &! '! &! %! %! $! &! $! $! &! '! %! '! %! &!
""! ##! %! '! &! '! $! %! '! %! &! $! %! %! %! $! %!
"(! ##! %! '! &! '! $! %! '! %! &! $! %! '! %! $! %!
")! ##! $! &! &! '! &! %! %! %! &! $! '! '! %! $! %!
"*! ##! %! '! &! '! $! %! '! %! &! $! %! '! %! $! %!
"+! #,! $! &! %! &! '! %! %! %! &! '! $! '! %! $! %!
"-! #,! %! $! &! '! $! &! %! '! &! '! &! %! &! &! &!
".! #,! $! &! &! %! '! $! %! %! $! &! '! '! &! '! $!
"/! #,! $! &! &! '! &! %! %! %! &! $! '! '! %! $! %!
(,! /! &! $! &! '! &! $! '! $! &! &! $! $! %! $! '!
(#! .! %! '! %! &! %! $! &! %! $! $! &! '! &! '! %!
("! -! $! '! $! &! '! %! '! $! %! $! '! &! &! $! '!

(Table 3 continued on the next page…)


34
MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'
(…Table 3 continued) For every item, count the

! 56017!
4278'
9:'
4278'
9;'
4278'
99'
4278'
9<'
4278'
9='
3 number of students in
both the UG and LG who
"!
!
"#! $! $! %! &! '! chose each of the options.
(! "#! $! $! %! &! '!
For this step, I simply utilized the COUNTIF Function
)! "#! $! $! $! &! '!
on Microsoft Excel, e.g., For the Upper Group count of
#! ")! $! $! %! &! '!
correct answers on Item 1, I simply entered COUNTIF
*! ")! $! $! '! &! %!
(C10:C41,“B”). I still marvel at how teachers survived
+! ")! &! $! $! '! !!
prior to the development of this application. !
,! ")! &! $! &! %! &!

4
-! ")! $! $! $! &! '!
.! ")! '! $! $! '! '! Record the frequencies
"/! ")! $! $! %! &! '!
from STEP 3.
""! ")! '! $! %! '! %!
"(! "(! &! '! %! &! &!
")! "(! '! $! $! &! %! Below is a graph of the entire exam, showing the
"#! "(! &! $! &! %! &! percentages of students as a whole (all 96 test takers) who
"*! "(! &! $! $! '! &! answered each of the items correctly:
"+! "(! &! $! &! &! %!
",! "(! &! $! &! '! &!
"-! "(! &! $! &! %! $!
".! "(! '! $! $! &! '!
(/! "(! &! $! %! %! '!
("! ""! &! '! %! &! %!
((! ""! &! $! &! '! &!
()! ""! &! $! &! '! &!
(#! ""! &! $! &! %! &!
(*! ""! &! $! &! '! &!
(+! "/! &! $! $! %! $!
(,! "/! &! $! %! '! '!
(-! "/! %! '! &! $! %!
(.! "/! &! $! &! %! &!
)/! .! $! $! %! %! '! One can readily see the problem areas from a quick
)"! -! &! $! &! '! %! perusal of the said graph. The frequencies of each option
)(! ,! '! $! $! '! %! chosen by both the UG and LG for every Test Item are set
! forth below on Table 4.
! 01234!#5!>??#,'+%@'*(A#,'B,(C?"'0?&-(%"'+%@'!%"A#,"')(,'7+DE'()'&E#'2#"&'4&#$"'
6078!"!! 6078!(!! 6078!)! 6078!#!!
! F' G' !' F'
!' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G'
!
>B' (*! <! "! (! /! /! /! 9;' ::! -' "! "(! "! 9:! /! /!
*B' (*! H! (! *! "! #! /! ;I' ;! *! "! (#! )! ;J! )! /!
090$:! */! <' )! ,! "! #! /! =K' :9! ")! (! )+! #! =I! )! /!
! 6078!*!! 6078!+!! 6078!,! 6078!-!!
! 6' F' 6' !'
!' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G'
!
>B' (! /! ;J! #! /! 9:! /! "! #! "-' K! "! 9;! /! /! /!
*B' ".! (! =! +! "! ;J! )! (! -! ")! ;! .! ;I! /! *! /!
090$:! ("! (! 9:! "/! "! =I! )! )! "(! )"! ::! "/! =K! /! *! /!
! 6078!.!! 6078!"/!! 6078!""! 6078!"(!
! F' F' 6' !'
!' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G' !' F' 6' G'
!
>B' /! 9;! /! /! /! ;J! "! *! (/! #' L! /! ;9! )! )! )!
*B' )! ;<! (! )! "! ::! "#! +! .! "(! =! +! :L! "/! (! (!
090$:! )! =J! (! )! "! 9I! "*! ""! (.! "+! :9! +! <:! ")! *! *!
!
35
1
2
3

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

(…Table 4 continued)
"#$%!&'!! "#$%!&(!! "#$%!&)! "#$%!&*!
! 5! 6! "! 7!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! +! &! +! :;! &'! &! ;<! (! =! +! ,,! &! -! >! &*! .!
*9! &! *! &+! ;?! &'! *! @! *! ?! )! &+! &,! -! A! -! /!
#0#12! &! .! &+! <A! ,*! .! B;! &+! ;<! )! ',! &'! &/! A! ,)! &)!
! "#$%!&.!! "#$%!&/!! "#$%!&-! "#$%!,+!!
! 5! 7! "! 5!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! ,! -! )! ;A! ,! B>! ,! /! B;! +! &! &+! +! +! .! B?!
*9! *! &+! &'! :! (! :! ,+! )! <! &'! .! /! *! (! &(! C!
#0#12! /! &-! &/! ;=! *! B:! ,,! &'! B?! &'! /! &/! *! (! ,&! ::!
! "#$%!,&!! "#$%!,,!! "#$%!,'! "#$%!,(!!
! "! 5! 6! 6!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! B=! &! ,! +! &! &&! *! ;:! (! '! B>! )! (! +! ;A! &,!
*9! ;?! +! *! &&! &! &.! )! =! &'! '! B! &(! &&! +! B>! &!
#0#12! <<! &! /! &&! ,! ,/! &&! BB! &.! *! BB! &-! &)! +! :A! &'!
! "#$%!,)! "#$%!,*!! "#$%!,.! "#$%!,/!!
! 6! 5! 6! "!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! ,! &! B=! +! +! .! .! ;C! &! +! :;! +! <! &! ,.! +!
*9! &'! (! ;;! (! /! &+! *! C! '! &)! @! .! B! ,! &,! &*!
#0#12! &)! )! <>! (! /! &.! &'! BA! (! &)! :C! .! A! '! '-! &*!
! "#$%!,-!! "#$%!'+!! "#$%!'&! "#$%!',!
! 5! "! 6! "!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! +! &)! &.! >! ;=! '! '! .! +! +! B@! )! :;! +! +! &!
*9! &)! .! )! ?! ;! /! (! &-! /! &! ?! &/! B=! +! '! +!
#0#12! &)! ,,! ,,! ?! B>! &&! .! ,*! /! &! :B! ,'! A>! +! '! &!
! "#$%!''!! "#$%!'(!! "#$%!')!
! 5! 5! 6!
"! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5! "! 7! 6! 5!
!
89! &! &! +! :>! +! &! /! B:! +! '! BA! '!
*9! -! &+! &! ;B! &! /! &&! ;B! ,! /! ;;! &+!
#0#12! &+! &&! &! <B! &! -! &-! :?! ,! &&! :@! &'!
!

5
The index of difficulty for each test item can be obtained
Estimate the index of using the formula
difficulty.

This tells us whether an item is DIFFICULT, EASY, or


NEITHER difficult nor easy. Majority criterion (50% plus
1) is the basis for determining the difficulty of the items.
Categorization is as follows: 345657!
Σx= Sum of correct responses from the
If the ID is 50%, the item is NEITHER EASY NOR UG and LG; and
DIFFICULT; N = Number of students from both
If the ID is 51%, the item is EASY; and groups!
If the ID is 49% and below, the item is DIFFICULT.
When I developed the Achievement Test, my goal was to evenly distribute my test items across all three
categories. However, I was informed by Mr. Camacho that the students actually found the exam extremely 36
4
5

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'


difficult. Furthermore, while !"#$%&'(&4%5-6#"'()'7-))-689&:')(,';+6<'2#"&'4&#$
originally designed to be completed
4%&#,=,#&+&-(%' !9&#,%+&->#'
in 1 hour, the students reportedly 47' )*"$%+,-"$./+012& 4%&#,=,#&+&-(%'
!6&-(%'
asked for an extension, despite the
fact that Mr. Camacho already gave Item 1 ?@' 34554-67!& 89:;&30<<0=>$?&
them 90 minutes to complete the Item 2 AB@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
exam.
Item 3 BC@' 34554-67!& 34554-67!&
Table 5 on the right shows the Item 4 DA@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
Difficulty Index of each Test Item
Item 5 ED@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&
and their corresponding
interpretation. I also included a brief Item 6 DA@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
description of my recommended Item 7 FG@' 34554-67!& 34554-67!&
course of action as a result of my
Item 8 AB@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
findings.
Item 9 DD@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
I think Dr. Paler-Calmorin’s
suggested categorizations are a little Item 10 HD@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&
too simplistic. The range of values Item 11 BC@' 34554-67!& 34554-67!&
within each category appears too Item 12 ?E@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&
broad to be useful. Luckily, I found
this list of alternative interpretations Item 13 GB@' 9UQ;& 9UQ;&
online (source undocumented at the Item 14 II@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9& :"?@%+&?@"1&+%A0B%&/+&C0B="+C&"1D&
time of access, apologies) that seems Item 15 BB@' 34554-67!& 34554-67!&
/<&?@%&0?%.B&C>%&?/&?@%0+&47E&4&
F/>$C&B>GG%B?&?@"?&H+(&-"."=@/&
to suit my needs better: <0+B?&=/1C>=?&"?&$%"B?&"1&01</+."$&
Item 16 A@' 34554-67!& 89:;&30<<0=>$?&
• Very Easy: 100% to 86% 01I>0+D&"B&?/&?@%&+%"B/1B&</+&
• Easy: 85% to 71% Item 17 IC@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9& B?>C%1?BJ&%"BD&C0B?+"=?"#0$0?D&<+/.&
?@%&=/++%=?&"1BF%+B(&*"+?0=>$"+&
• Moderate: 70% to 30% Item 18 I?@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9& </=>B&B@/>$C&#%&."C%&/1&4?%.B&KE&
• Difficult: 29% to 15% KLE&MNE&"1C&MO&F0?@&?@%&P+"C%&KK&
• Very Difficult: 14% to 0% Item 19 IA@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&
Q!9H&=$"BB(&4?&=/>$C&#%&"B&B0.R$%&
Thus far, my test questions have Item 20 HB@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9& "B&?@%&F@/$%&=$"BB&B@"+01G&"&
.0B?"S%1&>1C%+B?"1C01G&/<&?@%&
been: Item 21 ?A@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9& =/1=%R?B&01&I>%B?0/1TB/.%?@01G&
?@"?&0B&#/?@&%"B0$D&"CC+%BB%C&"1C&
• Very Easy: 6 items Item 22 IE@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&
1%=%BB"+D&</+&=/>+B%&=/.R$%?0/1(&
• Easy: 1 item
Item 23 IE@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&
• Moderate: 20 items
• Difficult: 4 items Item 24 H?@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&
• Very Difficult: 4 items
Item 25 ?I@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&
I think this is an acceptable Item 26 EF@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&
distribution because to get a passing
score of 27 (or 54 if we consider the Item 27 HA@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&
2-point rule established in scoring Item 28 A@' 34554-67!& 89:;&30<<0=>$?&
this test), the student needs only to Item 29 D@' 34554-67!& 89:;&30<<0=>$?&
answer correctly all the VERY
EASY to MODERATE questions. It Item 30 IF@' 34554-67!& HV39:U!9&

is only if one seeks to attain a score W94!X9:&9"BD&


Item 31 HC@' HV39:U!9&
1/+&34554-67!&
higher than passing that one would
have to get any of the DIFFICULT to Item 32 AE@' 9UQ;& 89:;&9"BD&
VERY DIFFICULT questions right. Item 33 ??@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&

Also, I like the balance between Item 34 HH@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&


the number of VERY EASY and Item 35 HD@' 9UQ;& HV39:U!9&

VERY DIFFICULT items as is—i.e., having a little more of the former to offset the possibility of getting the latter
wrong. And of the 20 MODERATE items given, only 9 are on the difficult side—the rest are relatively easy. As such,
I think that if I do revise the exam due to the other indices, I’d like to keep the current composition in terms of
difficulty.
It still surprises me how the items I thought for sure were easy (i.e., items 1, 16, 28, and 29) ended up being the
most difficult for the students. I think Mr. Camacho has to explore this further with his students through informal
inquiry. Revisiting Table 2 once again, it is apparent that the main cause for the categorization of these questions as
“VERY Difficult” is the inability of his STEM students to arrive at the correct answer for these items. The items are
actually very straightforward tests for their stated objectives. There seems to be a lot of confusion on the matter that
warrants clarification. I might even go so far as to say that in the case of Items 1, 16, 28, and 29, it is not the items that
need changing, but rather their overall preparation to meet them. Either that or I really employed very potent
distractors on those questions. !
37
1
2
3

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

Estimate the index of


6
!"#$%&'(&4&5-6$#!()!7-#6,-%-&+'-&.!/(8$,
47/ 47! "9240: DISCRIMINATING
)*"+%,&-.&!"#$%&/&"#-0%1
POWER.
Item 1 ;<= 2345&678879:$;
Item 2 ;>= 2345&3"+<
Item 3 ?@= 6=>>=?@A! In estimating the index of discriminatory
power of each item, we were taught to first
Item 4 ;>= 2345&3"+<
consider the difference of the right response
Item 5 >>= BC634D!3 between the upper group (RU) and the lower
Item 6 ;>= 2345&3"+< group (RL). The next step is to divide the
Item 7 ??= 6=>>=?@A! result by the number of pupils in each group
(NG). The formula is as follows:
Item 8 ;>= 2345&3"+< RETAIN
Item 9 ?A= 2345&3"+<
Item 10 BC= BC634D!3
Item 11 D= 6=>>=?@A!
Item 12 ;>= BC634D!3
Item 13 AE= 3DE5
Table 6 shows the IDP of each of the
Item 14 ??= BC634D!3
Items in the Achievement Test I constructed.
Item 15 ;<= 6=>>=?@A!
Item 16 F;D= 2345&678879:$; IMPROVE Note that the discriminating power of an
Item 17 B;= BC634D!3 item can never be more than 1.0 (100%).
This can only happen when all learners from
Item 18 A<= BC634D!3
the upper group got the correct response and
Item 19 A<= BC634D!3
none from the lower group. Although ideal,
Item 20 A<= BC634D!3 RETAIN this has not occurred in the exam under
Item 21 BB= BC634D!3 scrutiny.
Item 22 ;<= BC634D!3
Negative discriminating power is
Item 23 A>= BC634D!3
obtained when more students from the lower
Item 24 F;<= BC634D!3 IMPROVE group got the correct answer. This happened
Item 25 A>= BC634D!3 in ITEMS 16, 24, and 29. For some reason,
Item 26 <;= BC634D!3 more TVL students got the answers to these
RETAIN items compared to their STEM counterparts
Item 27 CA= BC634D!3
in the UG. To be fair, for Items 16 and 29,
Item 28 >= 2345&678879:$; only 6 and 5 students respectively got the
Item 29 F;>= 2345&678879:$; IMPROVE correct answer. Most of the students who got
Item 30 A>= BC634D!3 these items correct were from the
AVERAGE GROUP, and were thus not
Item 31 >D= BC634D!3
included in the analysis.
Item 32 >= 2345&3"+<
RETAIN
Item 33 A>= BC634D!3 I still have no earthly idea how this
Item 34 <B= BC634D!3 happened, although it bears noting that Items
16 and 29 are the same items that got rated a
Item 35 BC= BC634D!3

“VERY Difficult” earlier in terms of ID. Item 16 is the one that calls for a simple identification of an annuity’s
PERIOD of DEFERRAL, while Item 29 called for the computation of a BOND INVESTOR’S TOTAL EARNINGS.
I honestly don’t think that either question needs further improvement, but such is the rule taught in class. We are to
RETAIN only those items with a discriminating power of greater than 0 to 1.0, and DISCARD or IMPROVE the
items with a discriminating power of 0 or less (negative).

Personally, I’d rather find out first what the students’ problem is with those topics before doing anything drastic.
For purposes of this episode, however, let’s just say that I’m going to IMPROVE on those items. This will still
require actually determining what the problem is with the item in the first place. Perhaps a quick interview of a
handful of students from the STEM class should suffice to inform test reconstruction. In the course of this inquiry, I
could give them a few alternative problems with the same objectives and check if it produces the same result. It really
would be quicker to just first ask them how they came up with the answers they did. Most likely there is a need to
clarify a few misconceptions on those topics.

On a more uplifting note, allow me to point out that based on the above, as well as the glaring differences between
the scores of both sections, I clearly constructed an Achievement Test that (save for 3 measly items where only a
handful of LG students from TVL got the answer) successfully discriminates between high and low achievers. ! 38
1
2

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'

7
Determine the !"#$%&'(&1#5($$#%6#6'78-6#')(,'49'4%&#,:,#&+&-(%
EFFECTIVENESS Index of
of each Option.
Effectiveness Interpretation
(IE)
A negative IE indicates that the option is
Distractor Analysis If IE is BELOW 0 PLAUSIBLE (GOOD) since there are more
students in the lower group who selected it.
All options, including distractors A positive IE shows that more examinees in the
(wrong response), must be analyzed to upper group chose the option. This shows that the
If IE is ABOVE 0
determine if they are effective. option is NOT working well as a distractor and
should be REVISED.
A GOOD distractor attracts more Since no examinees chose the option, it has to be
students from the lower group to choose If IE is 0
DISCARDED.
as their answer than the upper group. If THE SAME count of student in both groups
If IE is 0 and the count is
chose the option and the count is FEW, the
A FAIR distractor has the same FEW
option should be DISCARDED.
frequency of choice from both the U and However, if the SAME COUNT of students from
L. Other sources recommend discarding If IE is 0 and the count is both groups chose the item AND they are
the distractor if the count is few MANY MANY, it may be REEXAMINED for possible
compared to the number of students in retention or improvement.
Source: <https://www.slideshare.net/RonaldQuileste/distracter-
analysis-index-of-effectiveness>
the group. If the count is large, it can be re-examined or improved.
Laurentina Paler-Calmorin, the author of our textbook, does not elaborate on how to do a more quantitative
DISTRACTOR ANALYSIS (an analysis of the effectiveness of distractors). Other sources1, however, suggest the
following steps:
1. Count the students from the UG who selected each of the options.
2. Count the students from the LG who selected each of the options.
3. Calculate the index of effectiveness of each option using the same formula for index of discrimination.
That said, I now direct your attention to Table 8 for the results of my computations.

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@>?>AB @>?GAB >?>>''
Item 2 =4H<!1=&
700=' 700=' ),2728-&.1234&5!6 '
>?>C' >?>>'' @>?AIB
Item 3 =4H<!1=&
19J4H9' )94:-&;4<&.1234&5!6 ' 700='
@>?>KB @>?>CB' >?>>'
Item 4 =4H<!1=&
700=' 700=' '
),2728-&.1234&5!6

@>?LAB @>?>KB @>?>KB


Item 5 '
700=' 700=' 700='
@>?>AB @>?>CB' @>?>AB
Item 6
700=' 700=' 700='
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Item 7 '
700=' 19J4H9' 700='
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Item 8 =4H<!1=& =4H<!1=&
),2728-&.1234&5!6' 700=' '
),2728-&.1234&5!6

@>?>CB @>?>KB' @>?>CB


Item 9
700=' 700=' 700='
@>?>AB @>?NGB' @>?>AB
Item 10
700= 700=' 700= 39
1

!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

!"#$%&'(&54621"7201!"8"*9646!:4;!<-'=!1$>(%%$&?$?!">'-(&#@!7(&'-&A$?B
" C 7! 5!
DEFG :DEHI@ DEDJ :DEKJ@
Item 11
1;L46; M005 M005
DEKN! :DEHH@ DEDF! DEDF!
Item 12
M005 1;L46; 1;L46;
:DEDF@ :DEKN@ :DEFK@ DEID!
Item 13
M005 M005 M005
DEDD! :DEKN@ DEHH! :DEDN@
Item 14 1;;O"P48;& M005 M005
)*+,-&+.!/+00-&.1234&5!6
DEKF! :DEKN@ DEHH! :DEFG@
Item 15
M005 1;L46; M005
DEDD! :DEKJ@ DEHH! :DEDF@
Item 16 5467"15&
1;L46; M005
)748-&94:&.1234&5!6
:DEKF@ :DEDF@ :DEHI@ DEDJ!
Item 17
M005 M005 M005
:DEDN@ DEIF! :DEIN@ DEDJ!
Item 18
M005 M005 1;L46;
DEIF! :DEGK@ :DEKJ@ DEDN!
Item 19
M005 M005 1;L46;
:DEKJ@ :DEKF@ :DEHH@ DEIF!
Item 20
M005 M005 M005
DEGG! DEDF! :DEKF@ :DEFG@
Item 21
1;L46; M005 M005
DEGG! DEDF! :DEKF@ :DEFG@
Item 22
1;L46; 1;L46; M005
:DEHQ@ DEDD! DEIN! :DEHQ@
Item 23
M005 1;L46; M005
:DEHH@ DEDD! :DEKF@ DEFG!
Item 24
M005 5467"15& 1;L46;
),2;2<-&.1234&5!6
:DEFG@ :DEDJ@ DEIN! :DEKF@
Item 25
M005 M005 M005
:DEHI@ :DEDJ@ DEDF! DEFK!
Item 26
M005 M005 1;L46;
:DEDN@ :DEGR@ DERI! :DEHH@
Item 27
M005 M005 M005
DEDN! :DEDF@ DEGR! :DEID@
Item 28
M005 1;L46; M005
:DEGR@ DEHI! DEFQ! :DEKN@
Item 29
M005 1;L46; 1;L46;
DEIN! :DEKN@ :DEDF@ :DEFQ@
Item 30
M005 M005 M005
:DEHI@ :DEDF@ DENJ! :DEGK@
Item 31
M005 M005 M005
DEDN! DEDD! :DEDJ@ DEDF!
Item 32
1;L46; M005 1;L46;
:DEHI@ :DEHQ@ :DEDF@ DEIN!
Item 33
M005 M005 M005
:DEDF@ :DEHH@ :DEDJ@ DEFG!
Item 34
M005 M005 M005
:DEDN@ :DEKN@ DEGR! :DEHH@
Item 35
M005 M005 M005

Reflection and Recommendations


Based on the findings in this Episode, it is now my recommendation that ITEMS 16, 24, and 29 be temporarily held
in abeyance pending investigation into the problems encountered by the students in answering them. Alternative Items

40
2
3

MACLANG, Sandra May Ong !""#""$#%&'()'*#+,%-%.'/01230*40'


ought to be constructed to further the stated objectives of those items, and tested somehow on a group of Grade 11
students.

Future versions of the same exam should also contain REVISED DISTRACTORS (Options 3B, 7B, 11A, 12CD,
15C, 18D, 19D, 21B, 22B, 23B, 26C, 28C, and 32BD) designed to attract more students from the lower group
(compared to the upper group). I suggest a simple modification of the current distractors to increase confusion. [e.g.,
For Item 3B: Instead of “An-P”, we eliminate the use of “P” altogether because this is actually what we’re searching
for, and revise the distractor thus, “b. An(1-rt)”.] Something to make it a little more appealing as an answer than it
currently is without employing drastic measures. If the IE of the distractors sought to be revised aren’t too huge
(perhaps those less than 0.1?), it can still be the teacher’s call whether to keep some of them as is, depending on how
well they suit the items. Sometimes students just guess answers rather than really deliberating on the questions. This
could result in artificial findings that might make any changes done because of them wholly unnecessary in retrospect.

NEW OPTIONS should also be constructed to replace the ones discarded (Options 2C, 3C, 4D, 8BD). I suggest
that the exam developer create more distractors that simply reflect common errors in computation and the usual
misunderstandings/confusions in concepts. The following are just a few suggestions:

Option 2C: !"#$%& '(%& )'%*& +,-,& ./0& '(%& ./0*12+& "#& $/*31'"#4& ,"*32%& "#'%0%,'5& +& 6%''%0&
#$
“An(1+i)-n” 7",'0+$'/0&*"4('&6%&,/*%'("#4&+-"#&'/&'(%&+$'1+2&./0*12+&!"#5&,1$(&+,&8!567"8 9&
'(+'&$/127&+2,/&6%&,2"4('2:&$/#.1,%7&;"'(&'(%&./0*12+&./0&$/*3/1#7&"#'%0%,'<&
Option 3C: =%0(+3,&;%&$+#&"#,'%+7&4">%&'(%*&+#/'(%0&/3'"/#&'(+'&"#$217%,&7">","/#&/.&?&6:&
#
“An(2+i)-n” ,/*%'("#4&'(+'&"#$217%,&6/'(&"$+#7&#%$,1$(&+,&8!9567"8 9&
'&
Option 4D: @(%& $/*31'+'"/#& /.& A/*3/1#7& +*/1#'& +$'1+22:& 2//-,& 2"-%& '(",B& !CDE&F 5& ,/& +&
#$
“Prt” 6%''%0&7",'0+$'/0&./0&'(",&"'%*&*"4('&'(%0%./0%&6%&8!567%8 9&
Option 8B and 8D: @(%&+#,;%0&./0&'(",&3+0'"$12+0&"'%*&",&+$'1+22:&8=(3GH5IJD<KD&+#7&=(3GI5JJJ<JJ5&
0%,3%$'">%2:9& 6%$+1,%& "'& +,-,& ./0& '(%& LM?A@& "#'%0%,'& ."0,'5& +#7& '(%& NOP)Q?OR&
“Php25,654.65 and Php28,765.54, "#'%0%,'& ,%$/#7<& )'&",&'%*3'"#4& '/&S1,'&4/&+(%+7& +#7&,;"'$(&'(%&';/& +*/1#',&"#&
respectively” '(%&,+*%&+#,;%0&3(0+,%5&61'&'(",&",5&+.'%0&+225&QN@&+&40+**+0&$2+,,<&)7%+22:5&'(%&
7",'0+$'/0,& ,(/127& 30/6+62:& ./$1,& /#& ("4(2"4('"#4& '(%& 1,1+2& $/#.1,"/#,& "#&
“Php28,301.37 and Php29,653.33, $/*31'+'"/#<& =%0(+3,& '(%& */,'& $/**/#& *",'+-%& '(+'& ,'17%#',& *+-%& "#&
respectively” $/*31'"#4&./0&"#'%0%,'&",&0%,'+'"#4&'(%&3%0$%#'+4%&>+21%&/.&'(%&"#'%0%,'&0+'%&"#'/&
7%$"*+2&./0*<&@(%&0+'%&"#&'(",&"'%*&",&K<KT<&)#&7%$"*+2&./0*5&'(",&,(/127&6%&U<UKK<&
!'+'"#4& "'& +,& U<UUKK& $/127& 6%& 7",+,'0/1,& ./0& '(%& $/*31'+'"/#<& @(1,5& N3'"/#& HP&
$/127&6%&8=(3G5HIJ<DK&+#7&=(3G5IJJ<JJ5&0%,3%$'">%2:9<&N3'"/#&HV5&/#&'(%&/'(%0&
(+#75&$+#&6%&,"*"2+0&'/&N3'"/#&HA&61'&;"'(&'(%&,+*%&#1*6%0&/.&7"4"',&+,&N3'"/#&
HP<&@(%&#%;&,%'&/.&/3'"/#,&$+#&#/;&0%+7&+,&./22/;,B&
&
+< =(3GH5IJD<KD&+#7&=(3GI5JJJ<JJ5&0%,3%$'">%2:&
:; /<=>?@AA;AA'+%B'/<=A?CDE;D@',#"=#F&-G#HI'
$< =(3GI5JJJ<JJ&+#7&=(3JU5KWK<HI&0%,3%$'">%2:&
B; /<=>?J@A;6D'+%B'/<=>?@AA;AA?',#"=#F&-G#HI'

Options 1A and 14A, although both having an IE of 0 because an equal number of students from both groups chose
them, should only be re-examined but NOT discarded. They are what Dr. Paler-Calmorin may consider “FAIR”
Distractors. And since the count is MANY (they were chosen by 25 and 13 students from both groups, respectively),
they only require re-examination for possible retention or improvement. In the case of Item 1A, I believe retention is
warranted. An “all of the above” option seems to be a standard inclusion in test items such as these. No further
improvement ought to be required. As for Item 14A, the option was included simply by virtue of its nearness to the
actual answer. The fact that an equal number of students from both groups chose it should not detract from its
effectiveness as a distractor. I’d rather retain the option as it is.
***
The things we learn in class, these strategies that we employ to
make sure that we provide our students with quality basic
instruction, all need to be taken seriously and developed organically
to suit our particular requirements as educators. It would be so easy
to just construct an exam without painstakingly taking into
consideration the learning outcomes of the course…so easy to just
give the same and be done with it without extracting from it the
necessary information that could help improve our teaching
processes or inform our learners appropriately about
themselves….so easy to forego things like Item Analyses or
Distractor Analyses, or providing students with the feedback on
attained objectives so intrinsic to the very essence of any CRM. And
yet we don’t. We don’t, because that would be to the detriment of
those young minds entrusted to our care. We don’t this time, and
pray that we always have the strength to never do so. 41
!"##$##%$&'!()!*$+,&-&.!/01230*40! MACLANG, Sandra May Ong

After completing the first two episodes, I realized that so much of that which we take for granted to be ideal
in theory has to face application challenges in actual teaching situations. In the public school setting in
particular, when one is faced with learners who can barely comply with the simple requirement of coming to
class, much less meeting the teacher’s instructional objectives for each lesson, it becomes tempting indeed to
lower our standards of assessment.
Further temptation to let standards slide arise when given very little time to cover a broad range of topics. In
the words of Mrs. Cabanig herself, “We have [very limited] time and so much ground to cover. As much as I’d like
to use more authentic assessments, we just don’t have enough time!”
I still wonder, though, if that should be accepted as a valid excuse. Surely there are ways to make student
assessment more authentic despite the constraints set upon in every school year. My recommendation of concluding
each unit with a rubrics-scored assessment that requires students to creatively demonstrate their grasp of the course
objectives that simulate real-world applications for the same can still be practicable. Learners rarely know their own
talents and worth until the teacher draws this out of them. Perhaps if Mrs. Cabanig provides them with enough
suggestions for this undertaking, they may even surprise themselves at what they are capable of achieving. If it were
me, I’d even provide them with a list of possible activities they might choose to perform in pursuit of the unit
objectives; activities suited for the different identified types of learner intelligence. True, completion of this form of
assessment may take a while and will most likely eat up a lot of my spare time in the process, but surely the end
result could be well worth the trouble.
One of the reasons I failed to fully appreciate my high school education until much later in life is the fact
that none of my teachers ever attempted to get me to realize just how useful the stuff we were learning are. I
simply went through the motions and studied to pass tests, not even bothering to commit most of what I was
learning into long term memory. The way I saw it, high school was just a means to an end—a means to get me
into a good university where the real learning should start. At the time, I really felt that nothing we learned there
would truly be useful in real life. Obviously, I was mistaken. And I certainly don’t want any of my future
students to feel the same way.
I think that if we encourage our learners to creatively find ways to apply the things they learn in class into
actual situations (incorporating this into our assessment methods), they will be taught to appreciate the
meaningfulness of the subject matter. Furthermore, when students learn by actually ‘doing’, they tend to
commit these lessons to memory more than when they are simply taught to learn theory after theory. What good
is it for students to demonstrate knowledge of the subject via pen and paper tests when we cannot know for sure
whether they are capable of applying the same more meaningfully? Also, creative applications of learnings tend
to awaken dormant intelligences in the learners that they can later build on as they go through life.
So perhaps I may indeed end up sacrificing most of my free time to that endeavor—even end up prolonging
the school year for both myself and my students. But shouldn’t that be a small price to pay for a more
meaningful education? I still believe that. I only hope to be able to prove that this is possible if given the chance
to join the ranks of our esteemed public school educators. (fingers crossed)
As for Episode 3, my greatest take-away from that activity is the fact that when push comes to shove, the
entire process can be done quickly and efficiently without sacrificing quality. A valid CRM can be constructed
in two days (even overnight by a more seasoned teacher who actually teaches the subject), and a detailed Item
Analysis of the same CAN be done overnight for the benefit of the students. As such, there can be no excuse for
foregoing any of those processes when assessing students. It just takes a bit of diligence on the part of the
teacher—something that we ought to expect more as a rule, than as the exception.
Hopefully, with a little more training and guidance (as well as a whole lot of Divine Providence in the board
exams), I shall be able to qualify as a teacher and transform these musings into a reality.

_____________________________________
SANDRA MAY ONG MACLANG
DIT-1B

42
Sandra May Ong Maclang
Bloc k 4 Lot 19 C adena de A mor S treet, D on Franc isc o V illage, Jaro, Iloilo C ity
E-mail: <sa nd ra ma c la ng @ g ma il. c o m>
Personal Mission Statement:
SUMMARY
Legal M anagement graduate with exc eptional ac ademic
rec ord, equipped with Learning Fac ility M anagement and
“Engage only in actions
Teac hing experienc e, seeking more ways to further deepen that may be done without
her immersion in the Teac hing profession • C urrently enrolled
at IS A TU to obtain her D iploma in Teac hing • Impec c able remorse. Strive to live
c ommunic ation and interpersonal skills • Proven expertise in
strategic management, projec t planning and c oordination, life to the fullest but
sales, and marketing • C onsc ientious worker with a knac k for
innovation • D emonstrated c apac ity to profic iently multi-task
within the boundaries of
and smoothly adapt to any given situation • H ighly c reative personal integrity.”
and tec hnologic ally savvy, with inherent ability to ac quire
knowledge and skills rapidly • Believes wholeheartedly that
Q U A LITY BA S IC E D U C A TIO N is a RIG H T, N O T a PRIVILE G E
!
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