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# Teaching program

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 for the

Australian Curriculum
(Syllabus extracts © Board of Studies NSW 2012)
<MAT10XXTR10001, use same format as MAT09XXTR10001>
Year 10 topics
Week
SEMESTER 1 Week
SEMESTER 2

Term 1 1. Interest and depreciation Term 3 8. Trigonometry◊
1 (Number and Algebra) 1 (Measurement and Geometry)
2 2

3 2. Coordinate geometry 3
(Number and Algebra)
4 4 9. Simultaneous equations
(Number and Algebra)
5 3. Surface area and volume 5
(Measurement and Geometry)
6 6 10. Probability
(Statistics and Probability)
7 4. Algebra 7
(Number and Algebra)
8 8

9 9 11. Geometry
Lost time (Measurement and Geometry)
10 10

## Term 2 5. Investigating data◊ Term 4

1 (Statistics and Probability) 1
2 2 STAGE 5.3 OPTION TOPICS
(recommended for Stage 6
3 3 Mathematics)

## 4 6. Equations and inequalities 4 12. Products and factors§

(Number and Algebra) 13. Surds§
and the parabola§
6 6
7 7. Graphs◊ 7 10+10A Stages 5.2/5.3:
(Number and Algebra) 3. Coordinate geometry§
8 8 5. Products and factors§
7. Equations§, 13. Surds§
9 9 8. Graphs§
9. Trigonometry§
13. Geometry§
10 Lost time 10 Lost time

◊ = Stage 5.2 content recommended for students progressing to Stage 6 Mathematics General 2
§ = Stage 5.3 content recommended for students progressing to Stage 6 Mathematics

CURRICULUM STRANDS
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Statistics and Probability

## New Century Maths 9 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 1)

Year 9 topics

Week
SEMESTER 1 Week
SEMESTER 2
Term 1 1. Pythagoras’ theorem Term 3 7. Equations
1 (Measurement and Geometry) 1 (Number and Algebra)
2 2

3 3

## 4 2. Working with numbers 4 8. Earning money

(Number and Algebra) (Number and Algebra)
5 5

6 6 9. Investigating data
(Statistics and Probability)
7 3. Algebra 7
(Number and Algebra)
8 8

9 9 Lost time

## 10 Lost time 10 10. Surface area

and volume
Term 2 4. Trigonometry Term 4 (Measurement and Geometry)
1 (Measurement and Geometry) 1
2 2

## 3 3 11. Coordinate geometry

and graphs
4 5. Indices 4 (Number and Algebra)
(Number and Algebra)
5 5

6 6 12. Probability
(Statistics and Probability)
7 6. Geometry 7
(Measurement and Geometry)
8 8 13. Congruent and
similar figures
9 9 (Measurement and Geometry)
Lost time
10 10

CURRICULUM STRANDS
Number and Algebra Measurement and Geometry Statistics and Probability

## New Century Maths 9 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 2)

1. INTEREST AND DEPRECIATION

Recommended for Stage 5.1 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics General 2 course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 1) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 1, p.2
NSW Curriculum reference: Number and Algebra
Financial mathematics / Money and financial mathematics
• Solve problems involving earning money (NSW Stage 5.1)
• Solve problems involving simple interest (9NA211)
• Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies
(10NA229)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-2 WM selects and uses appropriate strategies to solve problems
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-4 NA solves financial problems involving earning, spending and investing money
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-4 NA solves financial problems involving compound interest

INTRODUCTION
In this short Financial Mathematics topic, students revise the mathematics of earning an income and paying income tax from
Year 9 before being introduced to the concept of compound interest, with Stage 5.2 students learning the compound interest
formula and depreciation. Half of this topic is actually unique to the NSW syllabus and does not appear in the national
Australian curriculum, but it has been retained so that Stage 5.1 students can be more financially literate with the mathematics
of earning, saving and borrowing. Classroom examples should be as realistic as possible, with current rates being found on the
Internet.

CONTENT
1 Earning an income NSW U F PS C
• solve problems involving earning money
• calculate weekly, fortnightly, monthly and yearly earnings
• calculate earnings from wages, overtime, commission and piecework
2 Income tax NSW U F C
• determine annual taxable income using current tax rates
• use published tables or online calculators to determine the weekly, fortnightly or monthly tax to be deducted from a
worker’s pay under the Australian ‘pay-as-you-go’ (PAYG) taxation system
3 Simple interest 9NA211 U F PS C
• apply the simple interest formula I = PRN to solve problems related to investing money at simple interest rates
• solve problems involving simple interest
4 Compound interest 10NA229 U F PS C
• calculate compound interest for two or three years using repetition of the formula for simple interest
5 Stage 5.2: Compound interest formula◊ 10NA229 U F PS R C
• establish and use the formula A = P(1 + R)n to find compound interest
• solve problems involving compound interest
6 Term payments NSW U F PS C
• calculate the cost of buying expensive items by paying an initial deposit and making regular repayments that include
simple interest
7 Stage 5.2: Depreciation◊ NSW U F PS R C
• use the compound interest formula to calculate depreciation
8 Revision and mixed problems

## New Century Maths 9 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 3)

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Earning money

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Learning about the different ways of calculating income, income tax,
interest, term payments and depreciation
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Having the financial literacy to make appropriate calculations for income, income tax,
simple and compound interest
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Finding unknown amounts in problems involving
earning an income, simple interest, compound interest and depreciation
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic and reasoning behind the compound
interest formula and depreciation
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the terminology of financial mathematics appropriately

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Back-to-front problems, for example, given the final pay after annual leave loading or overtime pay was added, find the
original pay
• Calculating tax refunds or debts
• Compound interest tables and graphs, the exponential graph
• Credit card calculations and charges, debit cards, hidden costs
• Term payments charges, deferred payments

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: job advertisements and interest rates from newspapers and websites, tax tables, payslips, savings and loans
brochures from banks and credit unions, depreciation tables from tax guides, spreadsheets.
• Use employment sections of newspapers to compare current wages and salaries of occupations.
• Liaise with the HSIE faculty or the school’s careers adviser for resources.
• Investigate the compound interest formula from first principles by examining repeated percentage increase, for example,
increasing by 8% = × 108% = × 1.08.
• Students should learn the skill of expressing the interest rate, R, as a decimal. They should not round the value of R when
calculating interest compounded monthly.
• From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Calculate and compare investments for different compounding periods’.
• Discuss whether it makes sense to round up or down to the nearest cent when calculating interest.
• Compare simple interest with compound interest. Which one earns more?
• Examine the different types of savings and investment accounts available.
• With depreciation, will the value of the item ever be zero?
• Make problems as realistic as possible. Some students may be starting part-time jobs now and earning incomes.
• Collect examples of term payments and interest rates from store catalogues such as Harvey Norman and The Good Guys.
Compare total paid with cash price.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical or problem-solving test/assignment
• Collage/poster/case study on the different ways of earning money.
• Compound interest assignment comparing different interest rates, principals or compounding periods.
• Spreadsheet or graphics calculator test.

TECHNOLOGY
Use spreadsheets or graphics calculators to calculate incomes, tax, interest and depreciation. Graph the progress of an
investment under compound interest. From the NSW syllabus, Stage 5.2: ‘Internet sites may be used to find commercial rates
for home loans and to find “home loan calculators”.’

LANGUAGE
• Some students have difficulty differentiating between interest and interest rate when answering questions.
• Note that ‘flat interest’ = ‘simple interest’.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 4)

2. COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 3) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 2, p.??
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Find the distance between two points located on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing
software (9NA214)
• Find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including
graphing software (9NA294)
• Sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points (9NA215)
• Interpret and graph linear relationships using the gradient-intercept form of the equation of a straight line (NSW Stage
5.2)
• Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (10NA238)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-6 NA determines the midpoint, gradient and length of an interval, and graphs linear relationships
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-9 NA uses the gradient-intercept form to interpret and graph linear relationships

INTRODUCTION
This algebra topic revises and extends coordinate geometry concepts and skills introduced in the Year 9 topic, Coordinate
geometry and graphs. It examines intervals and lines on the number plane as well as various forms of the equation of a straight
line. The general form of a linear equation is met for the first time, as well as the equations of parallel and perpendicular lines.
There is much scope for using graphing software such as GeoGebra in this topic. Note that the formulas for the length,
midpoint and gradient of an interval are no longer part of the Stage 5.2 course, amd students will meet non-linear graphs in the
Graphs topic.

CONTENT
1 Length, midpoint and gradient of an interval 9NA214, 9NA294 U F R C
• find the distance between two points located on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing
software
• find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including
graphing software
2 Parallel and perpendicular lines 10NA238 U F R C
• determine that parallel lines have equal gradients
• (STAGE 5.2) determine that straight lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is -1
3 Graphing linear equations 9NA215 U F R C
• sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points
• determine whether a point lies on a line by substitution
4 Stage 5.2: The gradient-intercept equation y = mx + b NSW U F R C
• interpret and graph linear relationships using the gradient-intercept form of the equation of a straight line
5 Stage 5.2: The general form of a linear equation ax + by + c = 0 NSW U F R C
• rearrange an equation of a straight line in the form ax + by + c = 0 ('general form') to gradient-intercept form to
determine the gradient and the y-intercept of the line
6 Stage 5.2: Finding the equation of a line NSW U F R C
• find the gradient and y-intercept of a straight line from its graph and use these to determine the equation of the line
7 Stage 5.2: Equations of parallel and perpendicular lines 10NA238 U F R C
• find the equation of a straight line parallel or perpendicular to another given line using y = mx + b
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem, Algebra, Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Algebra, Graphs, Simultaneous equations

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 5)

PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Relating linear equations and their different forms to their graphs
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using appropriate techniques to graph equations and to find the equation of a line
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using the properties of parallel and perpendicular lines to find
their equations algebraically
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Writing the equation of a line in different ways and
describing its properties using correct terminology

EXTENSION IDEAS
• The formulas for distance, midpoint and gradient of an interval (Stage 5.3)
• Back-to-front problems involving distance, midpoint and gradient of an interval
• Open-ended problems: (a) Find two points that are 2 units apart; (b) If the midpoint of an interval is (1, 4), what could
the endpoints of the interval be?
• The point-gradient equation of a line, or finding the equation of a line through two points (Stage 5.3)
• More geometrical proofs using coordinate geometry formulas (Stage 5.3)
• 3D coordinate geometry, polar coordinates, latitude and longitude.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics calculator, graphing software.
• Develop the idea of the midpoint as an average. Remind students that the midpoint is a point and so the answer should be a
pair of coordinates.
• Describing gradient as the ratio of ‘difference in y over difference in x’ will lead smoothly to the meaning of derivative in
the Stage 6 Mathematics (calculus) course.
• When graphing linear equations, remind students to label the axes and graph, and to show the scale on both axes.
• Identify the x- and y-intercepts of a line.
• All points that lie on the line have coordinates that satisfy the linear equation. Points that don’t lie on the line do not satisfy
the equation.
• Explain why the x-axis has equation y = 0. Explain why the y-axis has equation x = 0.
• Students need practice in converting between y = mx + b and ax + by + c = 0.
a
• A handy formula: The gradient of the line ax + by + c = 0 is − .
b

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical graphing test using pen-and-paper or technology.
• Graphing test or graphics calculator test.

TECHNOLOGY
Use a graphics calculator, graphing software or spreadsheets to complete tables of values and graph linear equations.

LANGUAGE
• The Cartesian (number) plane is named after 17th century French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes
(pronounced ‘day-cart’), who was one of the first to develop analytical geometry on the number plane.
• Why does the gradient-intercept equation have that name?
• The y-intercept is a value, b, not a point (0, b). So y = 2x – 6 has a y-intercept of -6, not (0, -6).

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 6)

3. SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME
Time: 2 weeks (Term 1, Week 5) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 3, p.??
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Area and surface area, Volume / Using units of measurement
• Calculate the areas of composite shapes (9MG216)
• Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems (9MG217)
• Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of right prisms (9MG218)
• Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (10MG242)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-2 WM selects and uses appropriate strategies to solve problems
• MA5.1-8 MG calculate the areas of composite shapes, and the surface areas of rectangular and triangular prisms
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interpret mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-11 MG calculates the surface areas of right prisms, cylinders and related composite solids
• MA5.2-12 MG applies formulas to calculate the volumes of composite solids composed of right prisms and cylinders

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises and extends surface area and volume concepts met in Year 9. Rather than learn a set of facts and formulas,
the emphasis is upon understanding each idea met in this topic. This is achieved by applying the skills to a variety of real
problems. Stage 5.1 students intending to study the Mathematics General course next year should cover the Stage 5.2 content,
either now or at the end of the year as an option topic. As this is a Measurement topic, there are opportunities for investigation,
practical work and open-ended problem-solving. Practice in estimating, the correct setting-out of solutions and the rounding of
answers should feature prominently in the teaching of this topic.

CONTENT
1 Areas of composite shapes 9MG216 U F PS R
• calculate the areas of composite figures by dissection into triangles, special quadrilaterals, quadrants, semi-circles and
sectors
2 Surface area of a prism 9MG218, 10MG242 U F PS R C
• solve problems involving the surface areas of right prisms
3 Stage 5.2: Surface area of a cylinder 9MG217, 10MG242 U F PS R
• calculate the surface areas of cylinders and solve related problems
4 Stage 5.2: Surface areas of composite solids 10MG242 U F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems related to surface areas of prisms, cylinders and related composite solids
5 Volumes of prisms and cylinders 10MG242 U F PS R C
• solve problems involving volume and capacity of right prisms and cylinders
• find the volumes of solids that have uniform cross-sections that are sectors, including semi-circles and quadrants
6 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem, Surface area and volume

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the concepts of area, surface area and volume, and their
formulas
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting correct strategies to calculate areas and volumes
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving area, surface area and
volume

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 7)

• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the reasoning behind the formula for the surface
area and volume of a cylinder
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describing the parts of a solid shape when calculating its
surface area and volume

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Heron’s formula for the area of a triangle with sides of length a, b and c.
• Areas of irregular figures: traverse surveys, Simpson’s rule.
• Surface area and volume of a pyramid, cone or sphere (Stage 5.3).
• Right vs oblique prisms and cylinders.
• Harder problems involving composite solid shapes.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: chart of area, surface area and volume formulas, nets or models of solid shapes, paper, scissors, measuring
containers for capacity.
• Emphasise how area involves multiplying two dimensions or powers of 2 while volume involves three dimensions or
powers of 3.
• With composite area problems, encourage students to look for opportunities for combining two semi-circles.
• The formula for the volume of a right prism and cylinder also works for oblique prisms and cylinders, provided that the
perpendicular height is used.
• Include problems where extra information is given, or composite solids are involved.
• Include surface area problems where Pythagoras’ theorem must be applied to find a slant height.
• For problems involving surface area and/or composite solids, encourage students to leave partial answers unrounded
otherwise the final result will be inaccurate.
• Include back-to-front problems where the surface area or volume is given.
• Find applications of surface area and volume in building and construction, e.g. backyard pool, packing material.
• Link to algebra: show that the formula for the surface area of a cylinder SA = 2πr2 + 2πrh may be factorised to SA = 2πr(r +
h) for easier calculation.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical activity/assignment/test on area, surface area and volume.
• Open-ended and back-to-front questions: ‘The volume of a triangular prism is 540 cm3. What might its dimensions be?’
• Research project.

TECHNOLOGY
Drawing and animation software may be used to demonstrate area and volumes of geometrical figures. Also search for
animations and applets from the Internet.

LANGUAGE
• From NSW syllabus: ‘Students are expected to be able to determine whether the prisms and cylinders referred to in practical
problems are closed or open (one end only or both ends), depending on the context’.
• From NSW syllabus: ‘The abbreviation m2 is read as 'square metre(s)' and not 'metre(s) squared' or 'metre(s) square'.
• A right prism has side faces that are rectangular and perpendicular to its cross-section. An oblique prism has side faces that
are parallelograms and that are not perpendicular to its cross-section. Similarly, a right cylinder has its axis (of rotation)
perpendicular to its cross-section. An oblique cylinder’s axis is not perpendicular to its cross-section.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 8)

4. ALGEBRA
Time: 2 weeks (Term 2, Week 7) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 4, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Indices / Real numbers
• Apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices (9NA209)
• Apply index laws to algebraic expressions involving integer indices (NSW Stage 5.2)
Indices / Patterns and algebra
• Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (10NA231)
Algebraic Techniques / Patterns and algebra
• Apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions, including binomials, and collect like terms where
appropriate (9NA213)
• Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (10NA230)
• Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (10NA232)
• Apply the four operations to algebraic fractions with pronumerals in the denominator (NSW Stage 5.2)
• Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (10NA233)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-5 NA operates with algebraic expressions involving positive-integer and zero indices, and establishes the
meaning of negative indices for numerical bases
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-6 NA simplifies algebraic fractions, and expands and factorises quadratic expressions
• MA5.2-7 NA applies index laws to operate with algebraic expressions involving integer indices

INTRODUCTION
This topic mostly revises algebra skills from the Year 9 topics Algebra and Indices, before introducing factorising (monic)
quadratic expressions of the form x2 + bx +c. Note that fractional indices are not part of the Stage 5.2 course, only negative
indices are. This topic is fairly technical and abstract so each skill should be revised with care and precision appropriate to the
level of the class. Students should practise and master each skill before moving onto the next one.

CONTENT
1 The index laws 9NA209, 10NA231 U F R C
• simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws
2 Stage 5.2: Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions 10NA232 U F R C
3 Stage 5.2: Multiplying and dividing algebraic fractions 10NA232 U F R C
• apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions
4 Expanding and factorising expressions 9NA213, 10NA230 U F R C
• apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions and collect like terms where appropriate
• factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor
5 Stage 5.2: Expanding binomial products 9NA213, 10NA233 U F R C
• apply the distributive law to the expansion of binomials
6 Stage 5.2: Factorising quadratic expressions 10NA233 U F R C
• factorise monic quadratic expressions x2 + bx + c using a variety of strategies
7 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Algebra, Indices
Year 10: Equations and inequalities, Products and factors (option topic), Quadratic equations and the parabola (option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Relating the index laws, zero and negative indices

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 9)

• F = Fluency (applying maths): Interpreting and writing ‘algebra’ fluently and selecting the right strategy to simplify,
expand and factorise expressions
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using algebra to represent and generalise the index laws
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the language of expanding and factorizing correctly

EXTENSION IDEAS
• More challenging problems involving substitution and translating worded statements into algebraic expressions
• Special binomial products (Stage 5.3 option topic Products and factors), for example, (x + 5)(x – 5), (x + 2)2
• Factorising by grouping in pairs, factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx +c (Stage 5.3 option topic Products
and factors)
• Fractional indices, negative powers of fractions (Stage 5.3)

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Open-ended question: find two terms that can be divided to give 27.
• Verify the index laws by using a calculator. Explain why a particular algebraic sentence, for example, a3 × a2 = a6, is
incorrect.
1
• Common student errors: 5x0 = 1, 9x5 ÷ 3x5 = 3x, 2c-4 = 4
, 2a2 = 4a2, (3b)2 = 3b2.
2c
• Describe the process involved when expanding a binomial product. There are many approaches: distributive law, long
multiplication, areas of rectangles. Encourage students to look for patterns in their expanded results.
• Demonstrate the equivalence of expansions and factorisations, for example (x + 2)(x – 2) = x2 – 4 by substituting a value for
x in both sides of the identity. Use a spreadsheet or graphics calculator.
• Evaluate 982 by expanding (100 – 92)2. Evaluate 19 × 21 by expanding (20 – 1)(20 + 1). Investigate the mental calculation
trick for squaring a 2-digit number ending in 5, found in Mental Skills 2A in Chapter 2 of New Century Maths 9

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity on the use of variables and simplifying algebraic expressions
• Research assignment or poster on the algebraic rules or the history/meaning of algebra
• Vocabulary test

TECHNOLOGY
Note that spreadsheet formulas are written differently to algebraic formulas. CAS (Computer Algebra Systems) and the
Wolfram Alpha website can be used to simplify, expand or evaluate algebraic expressions.

LANGUAGE
• For 24, 2 is called the base and 4 is called the power, index or exponent.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘Teachers should use fuller expressions before shortening them, for example, 24 should be
expressed as “2 raised to the power of 4”, before “2 to the power of 4” and finally “2 to the 4”.
• An algebraic term consists of a number and/or a variable, for example, 4p2. An algebraic expression is a ‘phrase’ containing
terms and one or more arithmetic operation, for example, 5x + 6. An equation is a ‘sentence’ containing an expression, an
‘=’ sign and an ‘answer,’ for example, 5x + 6 = 26.
• Reinforce the difference between expand and factorise, as students will often do the opposite of what is requested.
• binomial = algebraic expression with two terms, for example 2ab – b2 or x + 5, from the Latin bi nomen, ‘two names’.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 10)

5. INVESTIGATING DATA

Recommended for Stage 5.1 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics General 2 course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 1) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 5, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Statistics and Probability
Single Variable Data Analysis / Data representation and interpretation
• Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots and histograms and describe data using terms, using terms including
‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi-modal’ (9SP282)
• Determine quartiles and interquartile range (10SP248)
• Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (10SP249)
• Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (10SP250)
• Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data
(10SP253)
Bivariate Data Analysis / Data representation and interpretation
• Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (10SP251)
• Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (10SP252)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-12 SP uses statistical displays to compare sets of data, and evaluates statistical claims made in the media
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-15 SP uses quartiles and box plots to compare sets of data, and evaluates sources of data
• MA5.2-16 SP investigates relationships between two statistical variables, including their relationship over time

INTRODUCTION
In this mostly Stage 5.2 topic, students consolidate their statistical skills by meeting interquartile range, box plots, bivariate data
and scatter plots. The shape of a frequency distribution is revised first, but the rest of the topic will be new to students. The
objective of this topic is to compare statistical measures for different sets of data. Aim to include analysis of data from class
surveys and students’ own experiences. Because this is an interpretation and investigation topic, there is much scope for writing
and literacy activities.

CONTENT
1 The shape of a frequency distribution 9SP282 U F PS R C
• describe data using terms, including ‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi-modal’
2 Stage 5.2: Quartiles and interquartile range◊ 10SP248 U F PS R C
• determine quartiles and interquartile range
3 Stage 5.2: Box plots◊ 10SP249 U F PS R C
• construct and interpret box plots
4 Stage 5.2: Parallel box plots◊ 10SP249 U F PS R C
• compare two or more sets of data using parallel box plots drawn on the same scale
5 Stage 5.2: Comparing data sets◊ 10SP250 F PS R C
• compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots
6 Stage 5.2: Scatter plots◊ 10SP251 U F R C
• describe, informally, the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables displayed in a scatter plot, for
example, strong positive relationship, weak negative relationship, no association
7 Stage 5.2: Bivariate data involving time◊ 10SP252 U F R C
• recognise the difference between an independent variable and its dependent variable
• investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time
8 Stage 5.2: Statistics in the media◊ 10SP253 U F PS R C
• Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data
7 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Investigating data

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 11)

PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the concepts of quartiles, interquartile range, box plots,
bivariate data and scatter plots
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Constructing a five-number summary and box-and-whisker plot from a set of data
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Analysing data presented in different forms to solve
problems and draw conclusions
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Drawing conclusions about a set of data from box plots and
scatter plots
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Classifying, representing and interpreting data in different
forms and using correct statistical terminology

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Standard deviation (Stage 5.3)
• Grouped data, class intervals, median class, cumulative frequency graphs (no longer part of syllabus)
• Replicate or implement a major statistical investigation.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: Graphics calculator, statistical and graphing software, spreadsheets, databases, newspapers and magazines,
Australian Bureau of Statistics (www.abs.gov.au), Bureau of Meteorology (www.bom.gov.au).
• This topic lends itself to investigation projects. The class may be surveyed on a number of characteristics and the data
analysed: height, arm span, shoe size, heartbeat rate, reaction time, health and PE data, number of children in family,
number of people living at home, hours slept last night, number of letters in first name, number of vehicles/TV sets/mobile
phones owned at home.
• Students should be able to calculate quartiles and interquartile range from data displayed in different forms: list of scores,
frequency table, dot plot, stem-and-leaf plot, box-and-whisker plot.
• Examine the statistics from the sports page of a newspaper or website.
• Students are not expected to analyse the relative positions of the mean, mode and median in skewed distributions.
• Why is the interquartile range a better measure of spread than the range sometimes?
• From the NSW syllabus (Stage 5.2): ‘Bivariate data analysis explores relationships between variables, including through the
use of scatter plots and lines of best fit, and is generally used for explanatory purposes. A researcher investigating the
proportion of eligible voters who actually vote in an election might consider a single variable, such as age. If wanting to use
a bivariate approach, the researcher might compare age and gender, or age and income, or age and education, etc’.
• Find newspaper articles in which statistics have been misinterpreted. Students could analyse the statistics used in media
claims or use statistics to justify an argument themselves.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Plan, implement and report on a statistical investigation.
• Vocabulary test, Statistical graphs and displays test.
• Investigate the use and abuse of statistics and statistical graphs in the media.
• Research the role of the Australian Bureau of Statistics or the Australian Census.

TECHNOLOGY
From the NSW syllabus (Stage 5.2): ‘Graphics calculators and other statistical software will display box plots for entered data,
but students should be aware that results may not always be the same. This is because the technologies use varying methods for
creating the plots, eg some software packages use the mean and standard deviation by default to create a box plot’.
Explore the statistical and graphing features of a spreadsheet, GeoGebra, Fx-Stat, graphics/CAS calculators or software. Use a
spreadsheet to examine the effects of altering data, such adding outliers or doubling every score. Visit the CensusAtSchool
website www.abs.gov.au/censusatschool.

LANGUAGE
• This topic contains much statistical jargon, so a student-created glossary may be useful.
• Strictly speaking, the term bi-modal does not mean ‘two modes’. A bi-modal distribution actually has two ‘peaks’, with the
higher one being the mode. However, in this context, ‘mode’ has the same meaning as ‘peak’.
• Reinforce the terminology measures of location and measures of spread.
• Name the five measures found in a five-number summary.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 12)

6. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES
Time: 2 weeks (Term 2, Week 4) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 6, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Solve linear equations (9NA215)
• Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (10NA234)
• Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (10NA235)
• Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (10NA236)
• Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (10NA240)
• Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (10NA241)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-8 NA solves linear and simple quadratic equations, linear inequalities and linear simultaneous equations, using
analytical and graphical techniques

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises equation-solving skills from the Year 9 topic, Equations before introducing students to quadratic equations of
the form x2 + bx + c = 0 and linear inequalities. Stage 5.1 students should simply revise Stage 4 work but those who intend to
study the Mathematics General course next year should also learn to solve equations with algebraic fractions and apply
equations and formulas, either here or as an option topic at the end of the year. Simultaneous equations will be covered in a
separate topic, while harder quadratic equations will be met in the Stage 5.3 option topic Quadratic equations and the parabola.
Like many algebra skills, the process of equation-solving is detailed and technical, requiring careful and precise understanding
and practice, so don’t rush through this topic.

CONTENT
1 Equations 9NA215 U F R
• solve linear equations using algebraic techniques
2 Stage 5.2: Equations with algebraic fractions 10NA240 U F R
• solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions
3 Stage 5.2: Quadratic equations x2 + bx + c = 0 10NA241 U F R C
• solve simple quadratic equations of the form ax = c, leaving answers in exact form and as decimal approximations
2

## • solve quadratic equations of the form x2 + bx + c = 0, by factorisation

4 Equation problems 10NA235 U F PS R C
• solve real-life problems by using pronumerals to represent unknowns
5 Stage 5.2: Equations and formulas 10NA234, 10NA235 U F PS R C
• substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown
• solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas
6 Stage 5.2: Graphing inequalities on a number line 10NA236 U F C
• represent simple inequalities on the number line
7 Stage 5.2: Solving inequalities 10NA236 U F R
• solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Algebra, Equations
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Algebra, Simultaneous equations, Quadratic equations and the parabola (Stage 5.3 option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the different types of equations and inequalities

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 13)

• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using the correct algebraic techniques for solving equations and inequalities
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving real-life problems using equations and
formulas
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic behind the steps in solving equations and
inequalities
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Expressing solutions to equations algebraically and solutions
to problems in words

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Harder formulas and word problems, constructing formulas
• Equations with the unknown in the denominator, equations involving powers and roots
• Harder inequalities (Year 10)
• Harder quadratic equations, the quadratic formula, simple cubic equations ax3 = c (Stage 5.3)

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Students have been solving equations since Year 8. Emphasise the correct setting-out of solutions. The aim is to have the
variable on the LHS of the equal sign, and the numerical answer on the RHS.
• Encourage students to check solutions to equations and inequalities by substituting back.
• Examples of Stage 5.2 equations with algebraic fractions from NSW syllabus:

## (denominators should be numerical).

• When solving a word problem, identify the unknown quantity and call it x, say. After solving, check that its solution sounds
reasonable.
• Examples of formulas: perimeter and area, circle formulas, speed, metric conversions (for example, Celsius to Fahrenheit),
Pythagoras’ theorem, angle sum of a polygon, E = mc2.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity comparing and evaluating the different methods of solving an equation.
• Writing activity describing the process of solving an inequality.

TECHNOLOGY
CAS calculators and the Wolfram Alpha website can be used to solve equations.

LANGUAGE
• An algebraic expression refers to a ‘phrase’ containing terms and arithmetic operations, such as 2a + 5, while an algebraic
equation refers to a ‘sentence’ involving an expression and an equals sign, such as 2a + 5 = 13.
• Encourage students to set out their solutions to equations neatly with equals signs aligned in the same column.
• quadratic = algebraic expression in which the highest power of x is 2, eg 5x2 – 3x + 4.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘The square root sign signifies a positive number (or zero). Thus 9 = 3 (only). However, the
two numbers whose square is 9 are 9 or - 9 , i.e. 3 or -3.’
• Some students believe that x < 5 and x ≤ 4 mean the same thing. Explain the difference.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 14)

7. GRAPHS

Recommended for Stage 5.1 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics General 2 course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 2, Week 7) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 7, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Ratios and rates / Real numbers
• Solve problems involving direct proportion; explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to
simple rate problems (9NA208)
Non-linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Graph simple non-linear relations, with and without the use of digital technologies (9NA296)
• Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles
and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (10NA239)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-7 NA graphs simple non-linear relationships
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-5 NA recognises direct and direct proportion, and solves problems involving direct proportion
• MA5.2-10 NA connects algebraic and graphical representations of simple non-linear relationships

INTRODUCTION
This algebra topic revises and extends concepts in proportion and non-linear graphs from the Year 9 topic Coordinate geometry
and graphs. Last year, students met the idea of direct proportion and the graphs of simple parabolas and circles, but here they
are introduced to inverse proportion, conversion graphs and the exponential curve. There is much scope for using graphing
software such as GeoGebra in this topic.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.2: Direct proportion◊ 9NA208 U F PS R C
• solve problems involving direct proportion and explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to
simple rate problems
2 Stage 5.2: Inverse proportion◊ NSW U F PS R C
• identify and describe everyday examples of inverse (indirect) proportion
3 Stage 5.2: Conversion graphs◊ NSW U F PS R C
• interpret and use conversion graphs to convert from one unit to another
4 The parabola 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
• graph simple non-linear relations, with and without the use of digital technologies
• graph parabolic relationships of the form y = ax2 and y = ax2 + c
• (STAGE 5.2) determine the x-coordinate of a point on a parabola, given the y-coordinate of the point◊
5 The exponential curve 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
• graph exponential relationships of the form y = ax
• (STAGE 5.2) sketch, compare and describe simple exponential curves of the form y = ±a±x + c◊
6 The circle 9NA296, 10NA239 U F R C
• sketch circles of the form x2 + y2 = r2
7 Stage 5.2: Identifying graphs◊ 10NA239 F R C
• match graphs of straight lines, parabolas, circles and exponentials to the appropriate equations
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Simultaneous equations, Quadratic equations and the parabola (Stage 5.3 option topic)

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 15)

PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the concepts of direct and inverse proportion
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using appropriate techniques to graph parabolas, exponential curves and circles
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving direct and inverse
proportion
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Generalising how the variables in an equation affect its graph’s
shape and other features
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describing and interpreting relationships using equations and
graphs.

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Graphing hyperbolas and cubic curves (Stage 5.3)
• Graphing parabolas of the form y = ax2 + bx + c (Stage 5.3 option topic)
• The parabola as a locus of all points equidistant from a fixed point and line
• Direct and inverse proportion problems involving the square, cube or square root of a variable

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics calculator, graphing software, spreadsheets.
• When graphing, encourage students to label axes, use a suitable scale and label the graph.
• The parabola is a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane that cuts it at a steeper angle to its base than
its axis. The path of a projectile (object thrown) is a parabola, as is the shape of a satellite dish, concave lens or car
headlight. The path of some comets is a parabola.
• All points that lie on the graph have coordinates that satisfy its equation. Points that don’t lie on the graph do not satisfy the
equation.
• Compound interest and population growth can be modelled by exponential equations and graphs.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical graphing test using pen-and-paper or technology.
• Matching equations to their graphs.

TECHNOLOGY
Use a graphics calculator, graphing software or spreadsheets to complete tables of values and graph linear and non-linear
equations.

LANGUAGE
• Why is it called direct proportion? Why is it called inverse proportion?
• y = ax is called an exponential equation because a is the base and x is the power, index or exponent.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 16)

8. TRIGONOMETRY

Recommended for Stage 5.1 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics General 2 course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 3, Week 1) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 8, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Right-angled triangles (Pythagoras) / Pythagoras and trigonometry
• Investigate Pythagoras’ theorem and its application to solving simple problems involving right-angled triangles (NSW
Stage 4 / 9MG222)
• Use similarity to investigate the constancy of the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for a given angle in right-angled
triangles (9MG223)
• Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems (9MG224)
• Solve right-angled triangle problems, including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression
(10MG245)

## NSW Stage 5 outcomes

A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-2 WM selects and uses appropriate strategies to solve problems
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-10 MG applies trigonometry, given diagrams, to solve problems, including problems involving angles of
elevation and depression
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-13 MG applies trigonometry to solve problems, including problems involving bearings

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises right-angled trigonometry from Year 9 before introducing angles of elevation and depression, and bearings.
Do not rush through this topic—spend some time reviewing the sine, cosine and tangent ratios before applying them to solve
problems. Stage 5.1 students work with angles in degrees only, while Stage 5.2 students work in degrees and minutes. Ensure
that students receive plenty of practice in setting out their work correctly.

CONTENT
1 Pythagoras’ theorem 9MG222 U F PS R C
• investigate Pythagoras’ theorem and its application to solving simple problems involving right-angled triangles
2 The trigonometric ratios 9MG223 U C
3 Finding an unknown side 9MG224 U F PS
• select and use appropriate trigonometric ratios in right-angled triangles to find unknown sides, where the given angle is
measured in degrees
• (STAGE 5.2) find the lengths of unknown sides in right-angled triangles where the given angle is measured in degrees
and minutes◊
• apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems
4 Finding an unknown angle 9MG224 U F PS
• select and use appropriate trigonometric ratios in right-angled triangles to find unknown angles correct to the nearest
degree
• (STAGE 5.2) find the size in degrees and minutes of unknown angles in right-angled triangles◊
5 Angles of elevation and depression 10MG245 U F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems involving angles of elevation and depression, including problems for which a
diagram is not provided
6 Stage 5.2: Bearings◊ 10MG245 U F R C
• interpret three-figure bearings (for example, 035°, 225°) and compass bearings (for example, SSW)
7 Stage 5.2: Problems involving bearings◊ 10MG245 F PS R C
• solve a variety of practical problems involving bearings, including problems for which a diagram is not provided
8 Revision and mixed problems

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 17)

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem, Trigonometry

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the trigonometric ratios and using them to find unknown
sides and angles in right-angled triangles
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Applying appropriate methods to find unknown sides and angles
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Apply trigonometric methods to real-life problems
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Apply geometric reasoning in trigonometry problems involving
angles of elevation and depression, and bearings
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describe directions using three-figure bearings and compass
bearings

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Harder problems involving angles of elevation and depression and bearings.
• The exact ratios, complementary relations such as cos 25° = sin 65°, trigonometry of obtuse angles (Year 10 Stage 5.3)
• The sine, cosine and tangent graphs (Year 10 Stage 5.3)

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Make a clinometer. Calculate the heights of trees, flagpoles and buildings using trigonometry.
• Investigate the history of the Babylonian base 60 system used in measuring angle size (and time). Students have already
used the degrees-minutes-seconds button on the calculator for time calculations in Stage 4.
• Students could verify their answers to trigonometric problems using scale drawings.
• Students should set out their solutions properly and use correct trigonometric terminology. Encourage them to check the
reasonableness of answers to trigonometric problems by making a rough scale drawing. Students need practice in drawing
diagrams for a given problem. Have students devise a problem for a given diagram and swap problems.
• Problems involving angles of elevation and depression usually require the tangent ratio. Also discuss the effect of the
observer’s height.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Practical test involving clinometers
• Research project on the history or applications of trigonometry

TECHNOLOGY
Make sure that students have set their calculators in degrees mode. Display an old book of trigonometric tables to show what
students used before calculators became widely available. Use a spreadsheet to compare the ratios of the sides of similar right-
angled triangles. The trigonometric ratios can be calculated on a spreadsheet but the angle sizes must be converted from degrees

LANGUAGE
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘The word “trigonometry” is derived from two Greek words meaning “triangle” and
“measurement”’.
• Stress that the hypotenuse is a fixed side in a right-angled triangle, while the opposite and adjacent sides depend upon the
angle quoted.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘Emphasis should be placed on correct pronunciation of sin as “sine”.’
• Encourage students to devise mnemonics for the trigonometric ratios.
• The word minute comes from the Latin pars minuta prima, meaning the first (prima) division of a degree or hour. The
word second comes from pars minuta secunda, meaning the second (secunda) division of a degree or hour.
• With compass bearings, stress the terminology: ‘the bearing of P from O.’ See syllabus Language notes (Stage 5.2) for
more details.
• Elevated = feeling happy = looking up, Depressed = feeling sad = looking down.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘Students may find some of the terminology encountered in word problems involving
trigonometry difficult to interpret, eg “base/foot of the mountain”, “directly overhead”, “pitch of a roof”, “inclination of a
ladder”. Teachers should provide students with a variety of word problems and they should explain such terms explicitly’.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 18)

9. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
Time: 2 weeks (Term 3, Week 4) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 9, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques, including with the use of digital
technologies (10NA237)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical and real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-8 NA solves linear and simple quadratic equations, linear inequalities and linear simultaneous equations, using
analytical and graphical techniques

INTRODUCTION
In this short Stage 5.2 algebra topic, students are introduced to linear simultaneous equations and three different methods for
solving them: graphical method, elimination method and substitution method, building upon previous work on algebra and
graphing linear equations. As mentioned previously, the process of equation-solving is detailed and technical, and even more
so for simultaneous equations, requiring careful and precise understanding and practice, so don’t rush through this topic.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.2: Solving simultaneous equations graphically 10NA237 U F R C
• solve linear simultaneous equations by finding the point of intersection of their graphs
2 Stage 5.2: The elimination method 10NA237 U F R C
• solve linear simultaneous equations using appropriate algebraic techniques
3 Stage 5.2: The substitution method 10NA237 U F R C
4 Stage 5.2: Simultaneous equation problems 10NA237 U F PS C
• generate and solve linear simultaneous equations from word problems and interpret the results
5 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Coordinate geometry, Equations and inequalities, Quadratic equations and the parabola (Stage 5.3 option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the idea of simultaneous equations
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting an appropriate method for solving a pair of simultaneous equations
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems using simultaneous equations
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the logic behind the steps in solving simultaneous
equations
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Expressing solutions to simultaneous equations algebraically
and solutions to problems in words

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Simultaneous equations involving linear and non-linear equations (Stage 5.3 option topic Quadratic equations and the
parabola)
• Using technology and websites to solve simultaneous equations

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Encourage students to check solutions by substituting back. For word problems, check that the solution sounds reasonable.
• When solving a word problem, students need practice in identifying the unknown quantity and calling it x, say.
• When solving simultaneous equations, students often forget to give the solution for both variables x and y.
• Open-ended question: if x + 2y = 9, what are some possible values of x and y?

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 19)

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity comparing and evaluating the different methods of simultaneous equations.
• Simultaneous equations test/assignment comparing different methods of solution.

TECHNOLOGY
Investigate the use of CAS (computer algebra system) calculators/software, websites such as Wolfram Alpha, spreadsheets and
graphics calculators to solve simultaneous equations. Spreadsheets are good for ‘guess-and-check’ strategies.
From the NSW syllabus (Stage 5.2): ‘Graphing software and graphics calculators allow students to graph two linear equations
and to display the coordinates of the point of intersection of their graphs’.

LANGUAGE
• Why are they called simultaneous equations? Why do the three methods of solving simultaneous equations have those
names?

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 20)

10. PROBABILITY
Time: 3 weeks (Term 3, Week 6) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 10, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Statistics and Probability
Probability / Chance
• Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
(9SP226)
• Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without replacement, assign probabilities to
outcomes, and determine probabilities of events; investigate the concept of independence (10SP246)
• Use the language of 'if ... then', 'given', 'of', 'knowing that' to investigate conditional statements and to identify common
mistakes in interpreting such language (10SP247)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-2 WM selects and uses appropriate strategies to solve problems
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-13 SP calculates relative frequencies to estimate probabilities of simple and compound events
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-17 SP describes and calculates probabilities in multi-step chance experiments

INTRODUCTION
This topic revises Year 9 probability theory before Stage 5.2 students tackle the more advanced concepts of multi-step
experiments, dependent events and conditional probability. The focus is upon interpreting descriptions of events using the
words ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘without replacement’ and ‘given that’, so there are many opportunities for class discussion and language
activities. Tree diagrams to represent the sample space of multi-step experiments are introduced, so spend considerable time
teaching and practising drawing these as students (even in Years 11-12) often have difficulty understanding them.

CONTENT
1 Relative frequency 9SP226 U F PS R C
• calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving ‘and’ or ‘or’
2 Venn diagrams 9SP226 U F PS R C
• represent events in Venn diagrams and solve related problems
• describe events using language of ‘at least,’ exclusive ‘or’ (A or B but not both), inclusive ‘or’ (A or B or both) and
‘and’
• calculate probabilities of events from data contained in Venn diagrams
3 Two-way tables 9SP226 U F PS R C
• represent events in two-way tables and solve related problems
• calculate probabilities of events from data contained in two-way tables
4 Stage 5.2: Two- and three-step experiments 10SP246 U F PS R C
• calculate probabilities of simple and compound events in two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without
replacement
5 Stage 5.2: Selecting with and without replacement 10SP246 U F PS R C
• describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, with and without replacement, assign probabilities to
outcomes, and determine probabilities of events
6 Stage 5.2: Dependent and independent events 10SP246 U F PS R C
• distinguish informally between dependent and independent events, and recognise that for independent events A and B,
P(A and B) = P(A) × P(B)
7 Stage 5.2: Conditional probability 10SP247 U F PS R C
• calculate probabilities of events where a condition is given that restricts the sample space, eg given that a number less
than 5 has been rolled on a fair six-sided die, calculate the probability that this number was a 3
• critically evaluate conditional statements used in descriptions of chance situations
8 Revision and mixed problems

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 21)

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Probability

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Understanding the concepts of multi-step experiments, dependent
events and conditional statements in probability
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Interpreting and drawing Venn diagrams, two-way tables, lists and tree diagrams
competently
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving multi-step experiments,
dependent events and conditional probability
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using logic to interpret statements involving ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘without
replacement’ and ‘given that’
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Representing events using Venn diagrams, two-way tables,
lists and tree diagrams

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Probability tree diagrams that have probability values listed on branches, addition and product rules
• Probability simulations using technology
• More complex Venn diagrams, set notation (union vs intersection)
• Investigate probability expressed as odds (ratio), for example, 10 to 1
• Counting techniques, the birthday problem
• Investigating the probability of winning games of chance and gambling
• Investigate the use of probability in insurance, for example, life expectancy

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: Dice, coins, counters, spinners, playing cards, probability simulation software.
• Students were introduced to Venn diagrams and two-way tables in Year 8.
• Do not assume that all students have had experience with the properties of playing cards: suits, colours, deck of 52. Be
sensitive to religious and cultural differences in attitudes towards gambling.
• Graph the results of a probability experiment on a dot plot or histogram.
• What happens to relative frequencies as the number of experimental trials increases?
• If a coin is tossed seven times and comes up heads each time, what is the probability that the next toss is also a head?

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing and comprehension activities on describing events involving mutually exclusive and overlapping activities
• Experimental probability investigation or simulation
• Research project on the applications or history of probability, for example, insurance premiums, planning for roads and new
communities

TECHNOLOGY
Random numbers can be generated on the calculator, graphics calculator and spreadsheet. Spreadsheets and other software may
be used to simulate a chance situation. The Internet is also a rich source for probability simulations.

LANGUAGE
• Students should know the difference between an outcome and an event: an event contains one or more outcomes of an
experiment.
• Inclusive ‘or’ = A or B or both, exclusive ‘or’ = A or B but not both, mutually exclusive means A and B are not overlapping
and cannot both happen
• What is the difference between ‘at least 4’ and ‘4 or more’? Students (even in Year 12) often think that the two phrases
mean the same thing.
• Note that in the new syllabus the term ‘multi-step experiment’ replaces ‘multi-stage experiment’. Clearly explain the
difference between ‘with replacement’ and ‘without replacement’.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 22)

• From the NSW syllabus (Stage 4): A compound event is an event that can be expressed as a combination of simple events,
eg drawing a card that is black or a King from a standard set of playing cards, throwing at least 5 on a standard six-sided
die.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 23)

11. GEOMETRY
Time: 3 weeks (Term 3, Week 9) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 11, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry
Properties of Geometrical Figures
• Apply the result for the interior angle sum of a triangle to find, by dissection, the interior angle sum of polygons with
more than three sides (NSW Stage 5.2)
• Establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex polygon is 360° (NSW Stage 5.2)
Properties of Geometrical Figures / Geometric reasoning
• Use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity and develop the conditions for triangles to be similar
(9MG220)
• Solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures (9MG221)
• Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (10MG243)
• Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving
plane shapes (10MG244)

## NSW Stage 5 outcomes

A student:
• MA5.1-1 WM uses appropriate terminology, diagrams and symbols in mathematical contexts
• MA5.1-2 WM selects and uses appropriate strategies to solve problems
• MA5.1-3 WM provides reasoning to support conclusions that are appropriate to the context
• MA5.1-11 MG describes and applied the properties of similar figures and scale drawings
• MA5.2-1 WM selects appropriate notations and conventions to communicate mathematical ideas and solutions
• MA5.2-2 WM interprets mathematical or real-life situations, systematically applying appropriate strategies to solve
problems
• MA5.2-3 WM constructs arguments to prove and justify results
• MA5.2-14 MG calculates the angle sum of any polygon and uses minimum conditions to prove triangles are congruent
or similar

INTRODUCTION
This short topic revises Year 9 geometry theory with angle sums of polygons, similar figures and the similar triangles tests and
introduces formal congruent triangle proofs to Stage 5.2 students, including proving properties of triangles and quadrilaterals.
Stage 5 marks the start of more formal deductive geometry. Promote the correct use of language in reasoning, with attention
given to drawing clear diagrams and setting out proofs and solutions carefully.

CONTENT
1 Stage 5.2: Angle sum of a polygon NSW U F R C
• apply the result for the interior angle sum of a triangle to find, by dissection, the interior angle sum of polygons with
more than three sides
2 Stage 5.2: Exterior angle sum of a convex polygon NSW U F R C
• establish that the sum of the exterior angles of any convex polygon is 360°
3 Stage 5.2: Congruent triangle proofs 10MG243 U F PS R C
• write formal proofs of the congruence of triangles, preserving matching order of vertices
4 Stage 5.2: Proving properties of triangles and quadrilaterals 10MG243 U F PS R C
• use the congruence of triangles to prove properties of special triangles and quadrilaterals
5 Similar figures 9MG220 U F R C
• use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity
6 Finding unknown lengths in similar figures 9MG221 U F R C
• solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures
7 Stage 5.2: Tests for similar triangles 9MG220 U F PS R C
• investigate the minimum conditions needed, and establish the four tests, for two triangles to be similar
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Trigonometry, Geometry, Surface area and volume, Congruent and similar figures

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 24)

PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY
• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the properties of polygons, congruent figures and similar
figures
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting appropriate tests and strategies for identifying congruent and similar triangles
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Proving that two triangles are congruent or similar
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using congruence to prove properties of triangles and
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using correct geometrical terminology and notation to show
or prove that two triangles are congruent or similar

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Investigate the history of geometry and Euclid.
• Investigate why the geometrical constructions work by analysing the properties of the bisected isosceles triangle and the
rhombus.
• Similar triangle proofs, tests for quadrilaterals, more complex proofs (Stage 5.3)

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: paper, scissors, dynamic geometry software such as GeoGebra, scale diagrams, summary charts.
• Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals may be demonstrated informally (by symmetry, paper-folding, protractor and ruler
measurement) but now also by congruent triangle proofs.
• Students should have experience in classifying triangles and quadrilaterals using their properties and minimal conditions,
for example, which quadrilateral’s diagonals bisect each other?
• The exterior angle sum of a convex polygon is 360°: if you walk around the perimeter of a closed figure, the total of your
turns should be a revolution.
• Students should be encouraged to prove results orally before writing them up. Introduce scaffolds of proofs where students
fill in the blanks.
• Are all equilateral triangles similar? Are all rectangles similar? Are all isosceles triangles similar?
• When forming a proportion equation involving similar triangles, make x appear in the numerator.
• Trigonometry is based on similar right-angled triangles.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity or poster summary on the properties of triangles, quadrilaterals and polygons
• Vocabulary test
• Research/investigation assignment on properties of polygons or similar figures.
• Writing activities, especially in identifying congruent and similar triangles or in writing a proof
• Test or assignment on setting out a geometrical proof correctly. Proving properties of geometrical figures by congruent
triangles.
• Practical activities/projects using similar triangles.

TECHNOLOGY
There is much scope in this topic to use dynamic geometry software such as GeoGebra. The Internet is full of dynamic
geometry animations and applets that demonstrate the properties shown in this topic. The Math Open Reference website
www.mathopenref.com contains animations demonstrating the tests for congruent and similar triangles.

LANGUAGE
• Use matching angles rather than corresponding to avoid confusion with corresponding angles found when a transversal
crosses two lines. From the NSW syllabus: ‘This syllabus has used “matching” to describe angles and sides in the same
position: however, the use of the word “corresponding” is not incorrect.’
• Encourage students to set out their geometrical answers logically, step-by-step and giving reasons.
• From the NSW syllabus: ‘If students abbreviate geometrical reasons that they use in deductive geometry, they must take
care not to abbreviate the reasons to such an extent that the meaning is lost’.
• The mathematical symbol ‘≡’ means ‘is identical to’ in algebra and ‘is congruent to’ in geometry.
• In geometry, the word similar has a different meaning to its everyday one.
• Remember to name the vertices of congruent and similar figures in matching order.
• Be wary that in NSW, there is a continual debate on whether the tests for similar triangles can be abbreviated by initials in
the same way as the tests for congruent triangles. The Australian curriculum lists these abbreviations in its glossary (using
AAA for ‘equiangular’), but the NSW syllabus does not formally acknowledge them.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 25)

12. PRODUCTS AND FACTORS§ (Stage 5.3 option topic)
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 4) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 12, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Algebraic Techniques / Patterns and algebra
• Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of techniques (10NA233)
Algebraic Techniques / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Expand binomial products and factorise algebraic expressions using a variety of techniques (10ANA269)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-5 NA selects and applies appropriate algebraic techniques to operate with algebraic expressions

INTRODUCTION
This is the Stage 5.3 topic on binomial expansions and factorisations that will help students graduate to the Stage 6
Mathematics course more smoothly. The content is completely new to students, although some simpler examples have been
met in the Algebra topic earlier this year, so spend considerable time in class examining the patterns found in expansions and
practising the abstract algebraic manipulations. The aim is to develop a systematic approach to expansion and factorisation.

CONTENT
1 Perfect squares 10NA233 U F R C
2 Difference of two squares 10NA233 U F R C
3 Mixed expansions 10NA233 F R C
• expand binomial products using a variety of strategies
4 Factorising special binomial products 10ANA269 U F R C
• factorise algebraic expressions involving grouping in pairs and a difference of two squares
5 Factorising quadratic expressions of the form ax2 + bx + c 10ANA269 U F R C
• factorise non-monic quadratic expressions ax2 + bx + c using a variety of strategies
6 Mixed factorisations 10ANA269 F R C
7 Factorising algebraic fractions NSW U F R C
• factorise and simplify complex algebraic expressions involving algebraic fractions
8 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 10: Algebra, Surds, Quadratic equations and the parabola

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing how the processes of expanding and factorizing algebraic
expressions are related
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Interpreting and writing ‘algebra’ fluently and selecting the right strategy to simplify,
expand and factorise expressions
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Using algebra to represent, generalise and simplify number
patterns and rules
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Describing number patterns and rules algebraically

EXTENSION IDEAS
• More challenging problems involving expanding and factorising

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Demonstrate the equivalence of expansions and factorisations, for example (x + 2)(x – 2) = x2 – 4 by substituting a value for
x in both sides of the identity. Use a spreadsheet or graphics calculator.
• Include open-ended questions such as (x …)(x …) = x2 … 5x ... or what two terms could be multiplied to give 4a2 + 8a?

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 26)

• Evaluate 982 by expanding (100 – 92)2. Evaluate 19 × 21 by expanding (20 – 1)(20 + 1). Investigate the mental calculation
trick for squaring a 2-digit number ending in 5, found in Mental Skills 2 in Chapter 2 of New Century Maths 9.
• Students will need these factorising strategies if they solve the quadratic equations in the Stage 5.3 option topic Quadratic
equations and the parabola. The quadratic formula will also be introduced then.
• Factorising ax2 + bx + c by grouping in pairs is a powerful method because it can be applied to problems where a is
negative.
• With the many types of factorisation, students need to use a systematic approach to decide which method to use. Have them
design a poster on this.
• Encourage students to check that an expression is fully factorised. Include quadratic trinomials where a simple numerical
factor can be taken out first, eg 2x2 – 10x + 12 = 2(x2 – 5x + 6).

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Writing activity on the processes of expanding and factorising and the patterns found in the special products.

TECHNOLOGY
CAS (Computer Algebra Systems) and websites such as Wolfram Alpha can be used to simplify, expand or evaluate algebraic
expressions. Use spreadsheets to evaluate and verify equivalent expressions.

LANGUAGE
• Make sure students understand the difference between expand and factorise, because sometimes they will do the opposite of
• From NSW syllabus (Stage 5.3): ‘When factorising (or expanding) algebraic expressions, students should be encouraged to
describe the given expression (or expansion) using the appropriate terminology (for example, “difference of two squares”,
“monic quadratic trinomial”) to assist them in learning the concepts and identifying the appropriate process’.
• binomial = algebraic expression with two terms, for example 2ab – b2 or x + 5, from the Latin bi nomen, ‘two names’.
• trinomial = algebraic expression with three terms, for example x2 – x + 4.
• monomial = algebraic expression with one term, for example 5b3.
• quadratic = algebraic expression in which the highest power of x is 2, for example 5x2 – 3x + 4.

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 27)

13. SURDS§ (Stage 5.3 option topic)
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 2 weeks (Term 4) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 13, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Measurement and Geometry, Number and Algebra
Surds and indices / Real numbers
• Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (10ANA264)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3 NA performs operations with surds and indices

INTRODUCTION
This topic covers Stage 5.3 arithmetic of surds that will help students graduate to the Stage 6 Mathematics course more
smoothly, especially for the Arithmetic topic. Students have already met surds when solving problems involving Pythagoras’
theorem, lengths on the number plane and simple quadratic equations. This topic covers operations with surds, including
binomial products and rationalising the denominator. Students should complete the Products and factors option topic before
starting this topic so that they understand binomial expansions. This is quite a technical topic, so make sure students spend
considerable time developing their knowledge and practising their manipulation skills.

CONTENT
1 Surds and irrational numbers 10ANA264 U F R C
• define rational and irrational numbers
2 Simplifying surds 10ANA264 U F R
• perform operations with surds
3 Adding and subtracting surds 10ANA264 U F R
4 Multiplying and dividing surds 10ANA264 U F R
5 Binomial products involving surds 10ANA264 U F R C
(
• expand expressions involving surds, for example, 2 − 3 2 + 3 )( )
6 Rationalising the denominator 10ANA264 U F C
a b
• rationalise the denominators of surds of the form
c d
7 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Pythagoras’ theorem, Algebra
Year 10: Algebra, Products and factors (Stage 5.3 option topic), Quadratic equations and the parabola (Stage 5.3 option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing what a surd is and how to perform operations on them
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Using the correct strategy to simplify expressions involving surds, including rationalising
the denominator
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Use the properties of surds to simplify expressions, including
rationalising the denominator
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Understanding the concepts of surds and irrational numbers

EXTENSION IDEAS
• The real number system and classifying types of numbers
• Newton’s method for calculating square roots. The cube root formula.
• Proof by contradiction that 2 is irrational.
2
• Rationalising binomial denominators such as .
3− 7

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 28)

• The golden section.
• The graph of y = x (top half of a sideways parabola).

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• When simplifying surds, encourage students to find a factor that is a square number. List the first 10 square numbers on the
board for easy reference: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100.
• Demonstrate how surd arithmetic follows the rules of algebra (as it should), for example, collecting like terms.
• Demonstrate that the length 2 can be constructed using a right-angled isosceles triangle.
• By construction, graph surds on the number line. See Worksheet Surds on the number line.
• Ancient Greek mathematicians believed that all numbers were rational and the world could be explained by rational
numbers. Pythagoras proved this was false when calculating the diagonal of a square with sides 1 unit long.
• Investigate how square roots were found before calculators were invented: Newton’s method.
• For the A series of paper sizes, investigate the ratio of length to width ( 2 : 1) or the lengths of the diagonals.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Research assignment on Pythagoras and the discovery of surds, or the golden section.

TECHNOLOGY
Spreadsheets can be used to approximate surds using the =SQRT formula or evaluate a square root using Newton’s formula.
Use the Internet to research the history of Pythagoras and surds. Use CAS (computer algebra system) software to manipulate
surds.

LANGUAGE
a
• A rational number is a number than can be expressed in the ratio where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. An irrational
b
number cannot be expressed in this form. As decimals, they do not terminate, but they are not recurring either.
• A surd is a root of a number that is not a square or any other power. All surds are irrational, but not all irrational numbers
are surds. For example, π is irrational but is not a surd.
• The Latin word surdus means ‘muffled’ or ‘indistinct’.
• Note that a 2 = a if and only if a is positive. More generally, a2 = a .
• What is meant by ‘rationalising the denominator?’

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 29)

14. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND THE PARABOLA§
(Stage 5.3 option topic)
§
Recommended for Stage 5.2 students intending to study the Stage 6 Mathematics course
Time: 3 weeks (Term 4) Text: New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2, Chapter 14, p.???
NSW and Australian Curriculum references: Number and Algebra
Equations / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Factorise monic and non-monic quadratic expressions and solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a
variety of contexts (10ANA269)
Non-linear relationships / Linear and non-linear relationships
• Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations
(10ANA267)
NSW Stage 5 outcomes
A student:
• MA5.3-1 WM uses and interprets formal definitions and generalisations when explaining solutions and/or conjectures
• MA5.3-2 WM generalises mathematical ideas and techniques to analyse and solve problems efficiently
• MA5.3-7 NA solves complex linear, quadratic, simple cubic and simultaneous equations, and rearranges literal
equations
• MA5.3-9 NA sketches and interprets a variety of non-linear relationships

INTRODUCTION
This topic extends algebra skills in solving quadratic equations and graphing parabolas from Year 10 topics Equations and
inequalities and Graphs respectively. Students should already know how to solve quadratic equations of the form x2 + bx + c =
0 by factorisation and graph the quadratic equation y = ax2 + c. They should also learn to factorise quadratic expressions of the
form ax2 + bx + c from the option topic Products and factors. Solving quadratic equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 and
graphing parabolas of the form y = ax2 + bx + c require different complex techniques, so students should spend considerable
time in class learning and practising the processes.

CONTENT
1 Quadratic equations ax2 + bx + c = 0 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve equations of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 by factorisation
• check the solutions of quadratic equations by substituting
2 Completing the square 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve equations of the form ax2 + bx + c by 'completing the square'
3 The quadratic formula 10ANA269 U F R C
• solve a variety of quadratic equations
4 Higher-order quadratic equations NSW U F R C
• substitute a pronumeral to simplify higher-order equations and then solve the equations, for example, x4 – 13x2 + 36
5 Quadratic equation problems 10ANA269 U F PS C
• solve quadratic equations resulting from substitution into formulas
• create quadratic equations to solve a variety of problems and check solutions
6 The parabola y = ax2 + bx + c 10ANA267 U F R C
• graph a variety of parabolas, including where the equation is given in the form y = ax2 + bx + c, for various values of a, b
and c
7 The axis of symmetry and vertex of a parabola 10ANA267 U F R C
• determine the equation of the axis of symmetry of a parabola and coordinates of the vertex
• identify and use features of parabolas and their equations to assist in sketching quadratic relationships, for example,
identify and use the x- and y-intercepts, vertex, axis of symmetry and concavity
8 Point of intersection of a line and a curve NSW U F R C

## New Century Maths 10 Stages 5.1/5.2 teaching program (p. 30)

• determine the points of intersection of a line with a parabola, hyperbola or circle
9 Revision and mixed problems

RELATED TOPICS
Year 9: Equations, Coordinate geometry and graphs
Year 10: Equations and inequalities, Graphs, Simultaneous equations, Products and factors (Stage 5.3 option topic)

## PROFICIENCY STRANDS / WORKING MATHEMATICALLY

• U = Understanding (knowing and relating maths): Knowing the processes of solving quadratic equations and graphing
parabolas
• F = Fluency (applying maths): Selecting the best method for solving a quadratic equation
• PS = Problem solving (modelling and investigating with maths): Solving problems involving quadratic equations
• R = Reasoning (generalising and proving with maths): Understanding the reasoning behind the methods for finding the
axis of symmetry and vertex of a parabola
• C = Communicating (describing and representing maths): Using the terminology of quadratic equations and parabolas
correctly

EXTENSION IDEAS
• Equations involving powers and roots.
• Prove the quadratic formula by completing the square.
• Investigate the value of b2 – 4ac and its effect on the solutions of the quadratic equation.
• The parabola y = a(x – b)2, the square root graph y = x.
• Investigate the conic sections.

## TEACHING NOTES AND IDEAS

• Resources: number plane grid paper, graphics or CAS calculator, graphing software, spreadsheets, websites such as
Wolfram Alpha that can solve quadratic equations and graph parabolas.
• Stress that the solutions to a quadratic equation may be integers, fractions or surds. Include quadratic equations with
variables other than x, or written in a different form, eg p(p – 5) = 6. Encourage students to check solutions by substituting
back.
• Applications of quadratic equations: height/path of a projectile, max/min volume/surface area problems, fencing, triangular
• When graphing, encourage students to label axes, use a suitable scale and label the graph.
• The parabola is a conic section formed by the intersection of a cone by a plane that cuts it at a steeper angle to its base than
its axis.
• The path of a projectile (object thrown) is a parabola, as is the shape of a satellite dish, concave lens or headlight.

ASSESSMENT IDEAS
• Quadratic equations test/assignment comparing different methods of solution.
• Matching quadratic equations to their graphs.

TECHNOLOGY
Graphics or CAS (computer algebra system) calculators, graphing software, dynamic geometry software and spreadsheets can
be used to solve quadratic equations or graph parabolas. Use spreadsheets to evaluate tables of values.

LANGUAGE
• quadratic expression: an expression of the form ax2 + bx + c.
• quadratic equation: an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 (the “= 0” makes it an equation).