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surface. When it became clear that the colonial

authorities were prejudiced in favour of their white
1. Solution: d) compatriots, the Parsis built their own gymkhana
The epidermis is usually made of a single layer of to play cricket in.
cells. In some plants living in very dry habitats, the The rivalry between the Parsis and the racist
epidermis may be thicker since protection against Bombay Gymkhana had a happy ending for these
water loss is critical. The entire surface of a plant pioneers of Indian cricket. A Parsi team beat the
has this outer covering of epidermis. It protects all Bombay Gymkhana at cricket in 1889, just four
the parts of the plant. years after the foundation of the Indian National
Epidermal cells on the aerial parts of the plant often Congress in 1885, an organisation that was lucky to
secrete a waxy, water-resistant layer on their outer have amongst its early leaders the great Parsi
surface. This aids in protection against loss of statesman and intellectual Dadabhai Naoroji.
water, mechanical injury and invasion by parasitic
fungi. Since it has a protective role to play, cells of
epidermal tissue form a continuous layer without 3. Solution: b)
intercellular spaces. Most epidermal cells are
Bastar is located in the southernmost part of
relatively flat. Often their outer and side walls are
Chhattisgarh and borders Andhra Pradesh, Orissa
thicker than the inner wall.
and Maharashtra. The central part of Bastar is on a
plateau. To the north of this plateau is the
Chhattisgarh plain and to its south is the Godavari
2. Solution: a) plain. The river Indrawati winds across Bastar east
The origins of Indian cricket, that is, cricket played to west. A number of different communities live in
by Indians are to be found in Bombay and the first Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas,
Indian community to start playing the game was Bhatras and Halbas. They speak different
the small community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis. languages but share common customs and beliefs.
Brought into close contact with the British because
of their interest in trade and the first Indian
community to westernise, the Parsis founded the 4. Solution: c)
first Indian cricket club, the Oriental Cricket Club
EXERCISING HAS various physical and mental
in Bombay in 1848. Parsi clubs were funded and
health benefits. It is known to help in relieving
sponsored by Parsi businessmen like the Tatas and
stress-induced depression. But till now
the Wadias. The white cricket elite in India offered
mechanisms behind this were not known. A study
no help to the enthusiastic Parsis. In fact, there was
on mice has shown that physical activity causes
a quarrel between the Bombay Gymkhana, a
changes in skeletal muscles that help it block
whites-only club, and Parsi cricketers over the use
kynurenine-a substance that accumulates in the
of a public park. The Parsis complained that the
blood during stress and in high amounts can cause
park was left unfit for cricket because the polo
depression-from entering the brain. Physical
ponies of the Bombay Gymkhana dug up the INSIGHTS Page 1


exercise increases protein PGC-1α1 in skeletal (the forests of God and Goddesses). These patches
muscles. The study found that mice with high of forest or parts of large forests have been left
levels of PGC-1α1 also had a high level of an untouched by the local people and any interference
enzyme called KAT. This enzyme converted with them is banned. Certain societies revere a
kynurenine into kynurenic acid, which is not able particular tree which they have preserved from
to pass from the blood to the brain, protecting the time immemorial. The Mundas and the Santhal of
brain from stress. Source – Down To Earth. Chhota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia
latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba)
For associated diseases:
trees, and the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship
the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango
(Mangifera indica) trees during weddings. To
many of us, peepal and banyan trees are
5. Solution: a) considered sacred.

Refer to the link for basics about reserved forests

etc. 7. Solution: a)
nd_protected_forests_of_India Dams were traditionally built to impound rivers
Typically, reserved forests are often upgraded to and rainwater that could be used later to irrigated
the status of wildlife sanctuaries, which in turn agricultural fields. Today, dams are built not just
may be upgraded to the status of national parks, for irrigation but for electricity generation, water
with each category receiving a higher degree of supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood
protection and government funding. For control, recreation, inland navigation and fish
example, Sariska National Park was declared a breeding. Hence, dams are now referred to as
reserved forest in 1955, upgraded to the status of a multi-purpose projects where the many uses of the
wildlife sanctuary in 1958, becoming a Tiger impounded water are integrated with one another.
Reserve in 1978. Sariska became a national park in For example, in the Sutluj-Beas river basin, the
1992, though primary notification to declare it as a Bhakra – Nangal project water is being used both
national park was issued as early as 1982. for hydel power production and irrigation.
Similarly, the Hirakud project in the Mahanadi
basin integrates conservation of water with flood
6. Solution: c)

Sacred groves - a wealth of diverse and rare

species 8. Solution: d)
Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on Self-explanatory.
the premise that all creations of nature have to be
protected. Such beliefs have preserved several
virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves INSIGHTS Page 2


9. Solution: d) only because villages protected them in sacred

groves known as sarnas, devarakudu, kan, rai, etc.
NEP 1991 also known as liberalization, Some villages have been patrolling their own
privatization and globalization policy gave a huge forests, with each household taking it in turns,
boost to the service sector. Refer to the Section on instead of leaving it to the forest guards. Local
―Rising importance of service sector in India‖ in forest communities and environmentalists today
Chapter 2 of class Xth NCERT economy for a are thinking of different forms of forest
detailed explanation. Because of the length of the management.
explanation, it cannot be provided here.
11. Solution: d)
10. Solution: c)
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is
The First World War and the Second World War a short season during the summer months known
had a major impact on forests. In India, working as the Zaid season. Some of the crops produced
plans were abandoned at this time, and the forest during ‗zaid‘ are watermelon, muskmelon,
department cut trees freely to meet British war cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane
needs. In Java, just before the Japanese occupied takes almost a year to grow.
the region, the Dutch followed ‗a scorched earth‘
policy, destroying sawmills, and burning huge 12. Solution: b)
piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall
Rare earth minerals—-there are 17 of them—are
into Japanese hands. The Japanese then exploited
vital for the production of smart phones, cameras,
the forests recklessly for their own war industries,
steel and hybrid cars, and hence the world
forcing forest villagers to cut down forests. Many
economy. They are present in a significant amount
villagers used this opportunity to expand
on the sea floor, both in sovereign and international
cultivation in the forest. After the war, it was
waters. Polymetallic
difficult for the Indonesian forest service to get this
nodules are known to
land back. As in India, people‘s need for
contain rare earth
agricultural land has brought them into conflict
mineralsAt present,
with the forest department‘s desire to control the
China contributes 90
land and exclude people from it.
per cent of the global
Since the 1980s, governments across Asia and production of the
Africa have begun to see that scientific forestry and minerals.
the policy of keeping forest communities away Developments in last
from forests has resulted in many conflicts. five years show that
Conservation of forests rather than collecting China has been using this monopoly to control the
timber has become a more important goal. The production and price of the minerals. So there have
government has recognised that in order to meet been attempts worldwide to realign strategic
this goal, the people who live near the forests must relations around exploration of rare earths in
be involved. In many cases, across India, from seabed. Developed countries are taking the lead.
Mizoram to Kerala, dense forests have survived Japan, along with the US and the EU, formed an INSIGHTS Page 3


alliance to challenge China's restrictive policies in 14. Solution: d)

the WTO. In April 2014, the WTO ruled against
China. Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry
conditions. Being leguminous crops, all these crops
India has collaborated with Japan since November except arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing
2012 to develop rare earth materials. As part of nitrogen from the air. Therefore, these are mostly
India-Japan strategic collaboration, an agreement grown in rotation with other crops. Major pulse
was signed for exploration and production of rare producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh,
earths, following which India is setting up a Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and
monazite processing plant in Odisha. In April 2013, Karnataka.
Japan disclosed discovery of a bounty of rare earths
in the seabed around Minami-Tori-shima Island.
Scientists claim the reserve holds 20 to 30 times
15. Solution: b)
more minerals than those being mined in China.
Refer to
13. Solution: b)
Down to Earth - ducing_countries_of_agricultural_commodities Look at only where India is the major producer.

16. Solution: b)

17. Solution: d)

Manganese Nodules: A type of sediment scattered

on the ocean floor, consisting mainly of manganese
and iron, and usually containing small amounts of
copper, nickel and cobalt.

This article shows the significance of manganese

nodules for India
seabed/article4577372.ece INSIGHTS Page 4


18. Solution: d) while taking their flocks to higher ground for

grazing in the summer.
Agricultural modernization basically means using
scientifically determined inputs like chemical
fertilizers, insecticides, weedicides, pesticides etc.
21. Solution: c)
These chemicals flow from farm to nearby
waterbodies and pollute the water. In the fluid a body weighs less due to buoyant
force acting in upwards direction on the body. The
gravitation force remains the same downwards.
19. Solution: a) The net effect is reduction in actual seen weight.

Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive minerals

like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various
22. Solution: d)
phosphate minerals do the cleaning. Fluoride
which is used to reduce cavities, comes from a 1. Megaphones or loudhailers, horns, musical
mineral fluorite. Most toothpaste are made white instruments such as trumpets and shehanais, are all
with titanium oxide, which comes from minerals designed to send sound in a particular direction
called rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in without spreading it in all directions, In these
some toothpastes comes from mica. The toothbrush instruments, a tube followed by a conical opening
and tube containing the paste are made of plastics reflects sound successively to guide most of the
from petroleum. sound waves from the source in the forward
direction towards the audience.
20. Solution: c)
2. Stethoscope is a medical instrument used for
The Gaddi (aka Pahari Bharmauri) are a Hindu listening to sounds produced within the body,
tribe living mainly in the Indian states of Himachal chiefly in the heart or lungs. In stethoscopes the
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar sound of the patient‘s heartbeat reaches the
Pradesh and Punjab. They used to be considered doctor‘s ears by multiple reflection of sound.
as scheduled tribe but some are scheduled caste or
3. Generally the ceilings of concert halls, conference
"untouchables" in the Punjab but are no longer
halls and cinema halls are curved so that sound
considered such and are made up
after reflection reaches all corners of the hall.
of Rajputs, Khatris, Ranas, and Thakurs. They are
said to have fled into the mountains centuries ago
when the Muslims moved into the plains of
23. Solution: b)
northern India.

Many of them are shepherds and live a semi- Just as we need food for development, growth and
nomadic lifestyle (transhumance)- having hill or well-being, plants also require nutrients for growth.
Nutrients are supplied to plants by air, water and
mountains' feet villages where they live in winter,
soil. There are sixteen nutrients which are essential
for plants. Air supplies carbon and oxygen, INSIGHTS Page 5


hydrogen comes from water, and soil supplies the Indian. Khadi, white and coarse, was to him a sign
other thirteen nutrients to plants. Amongst these of purity, of simplicity, and of poverty. Wearing it
thirteen nutrients, six are required in large became also a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of
quantities and are therefore called macronutrients. Western mill- made cloth.
The other seven nutrients are used by plants in
small quantities and are therefore called micro-
nutrients 26. Solution: d)

Photosynthesis consumes Co2 to make glucose.

Calcification of shells requires carbonate dissolved
in water (due to Co2). And phytoplanktons are a
major carbon sink.

27. Solution: a)

Unlike most other lymphoid structures, the

24. Solution: d) thymus grows rapidly and attains its greatest size
relative to the rest of the body during fetal life and
Refer to chapter 12 Science IXth NCERT section the first years after birth. Thereafter, it continues to
12.5 for details. It has been explained thoroughly grow, but more slowly than the other organs. At
there. the onset of puberty, the thymus begins a slow
process of shrinking. This gradual diminution in
size continues for the rest of the individual‘s life.
25. Solution: c)
The functions of the thymus that have so far been
Gandhi initially said that: observed relate chiefly to the newborn. Removal of
the organ in the adult has little effect, but when the
‗I propose to discard at least up to 31st of October thymus is removed in the newborn, T cells in the
my topi and vest and to content myself with a blood and lymphoid tissue are depleted, and
loincloth, and a chaddar whenever necessary for failure of the immune system causes a gradual,
protection of my body. I adopt the change because I fatal wasting disease. The animal whose thymus
have always hesitated to advise anything I may not has been removed at birth is less able to reject
be prepared to follow …‘ foreign-tissue grafts or to make antibodies to
certain antigens. Moreover, certain parts of the
At this time, he did not want to use this dress all
white pulp of the spleen and lymph nodes are
his life and only wanted to ‗experiment for a month
much reduced in size. These results demonstrate
or two‘. But soon he saw this as his duty to the
that the T cells produced in the thymus and
poor, and he never wore any other dress. He
transported to the lymphoid tissues are crucial
consciously rejected the well-known clothes of the
elements in the development of immunity.
Indian ascetic and adopted the dress of the poorest INSIGHTS Page 6


28. Solution: d) India has been given license to mine in Indian

ocean. For more details:
The term water-pollution to cover the following
effects: deep-sea
1. The addition of undesirable substances to water-
bodies. These substances could be the fertilisers
and pesticides used in farming or they could be 31. Solution: d)
poisonous substances, like mercury salts which are
used by paper-industries. These could also be
disease-causing organisms, like the bacteria which
cause cholera. Increase I nutrients can cause
eutrophication in the water body leading to algal 32. Solution: d)
bloom and toxication.
IRNSS is a navigation system that will cover India,
2. The removal of desirable substances from water- and also extend 1,500 kms from its boundaries. It
bodies. Dissolved oxygen is used by the animals will provide accurate position information to users
and plants that live in water. Any change that in India and will also be used for terrestrial and
reduces the amount of this dissolved oxygen would marine navigation, disaster management, fleet
adversely affect these aquatic organisms. Other management and for vehicle tracking. However, to
nutrients could also be depleted from the water be able to use the IRNSS satellites, ISRO will have
bodies. to launch at least four of the seven planned IRNSS
satellites. IRNSS is similar to other satellite
3. A change in temperature. Aquatic organisms are navigation service providers like USA‘s GPS
used to a certain range of temperature in the water- (Global Positioning System), Russia‘s
body where they live, and a sudden marked Glonass, Europe‘s Galileo, Japan‘s Quasi Zenith
change in this temperature would be dangerous for and China‘s Beidou.
them or affect their breeding. The eggs and larvae
of various animals are particularly susceptible to
temperature changes.
33. Solution: d)

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

29. Solution: d)
 Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes
See of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
of_India  Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on
biodiversity and promote sustainable use
 Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of
biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species
30. Solution: a) and genetic diversity INSIGHTS Page 7


 Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from production and consumption and have
biodiversity and ecosystem services kept the impacts of use of natural resources
 Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation well within safe ecological limits.
through participatory planning, knowledge
management and capacity building Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on
biodiversity and promote sustainable use

Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of Target 5

biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural
across government and society habitats, including forests, is at least
halved and where feasible brought close to
Target 1 zero, and degradation and fragmentation is
By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of significantly reduced.
the values of biodiversity and the steps
they can take to conserve and use it
Target 6
By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and
aquatic plants are managed and harvested
Target 2
sustainably, legally and applying
By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values
ecosystem based approaches, so that
have been integrated into national and
overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and
local development and poverty reduction
measures are in place for all depleted
strategies and planning processes and are
species, fisheries have no significant
being incorporated into national
adverse impacts on threatened species and
accounting, as appropriate, and reporting
vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of
fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems
are within safe ecological limits.
Target 3
By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including
Target 7
subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are
By 2020 areas under agriculture,
eliminated, phased out or reformed in
aquaculture and forestry are managed
order to minimize or avoid negative
sustainably, ensuring conservation of
impacts, and positive incentives for the
conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity are developed and applied,
Target 8
consistent and in harmony with the
By 2020, pollution, including from excess
Convention and other relevant
nutrients, has been brought to levels that
international obligations, taking into
are not detrimental to ecosystem function
account national socio economic
and biodiversity.

Target 9
Target 4
By 2020, invasive alien species and
By 2020, at the latest, Governments,
pathways are identified and prioritized,
business and stakeholders at all levels have
priority species are controlled or
taken steps to achieve or have
eradicated, and measures are in place to
implemented plans for sustainable
manage pathways to prevent their INSIGHTS Page 8


introduction and establishment. Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from
biodiversity and ecosystem services
Target 10
By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic Target 14
pressures on coral reefs, and other By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential
vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate services, including services related to
change or ocean acidification are water, and contribute to health, livelihoods
minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and well-being, are restored and
and functioning. safeguarded, taking into account the needs
of women, indigenous and local
Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of communities, and the poor and vulnerable.
biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species
and genetic diversity Target 15
By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the
Target 11 contribution of biodiversity to carbon
By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial stocks has been enhanced, through
and inland water, and 10 per cent of conservation and restoration, including
coastal and marine areas, especially areas restoration of at least 15 per cent of
of particular importance for biodiversity degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing
and ecosystem services, are conserved to climate change mitigation and
through effectively and equitably adaptation and to combating
managed, ecologically representative and desertification.
well connected systems of protected areas
and other effective area-based conservation Target 16
measures, and integrated into the wider By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to
landscapes and seascapes. Genetic Resources and the Fair and
Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from
Target 12 their Utilization is in force and operational,
By 2020 the extinction of known threatened consistent with national legislation.
species has been prevented and their
conservation status, particularly of those Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation
most in decline, has been improved and through participatory planning, knowledge
sustained. management and capacity building

Target 13 Target 17
By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted
plants and farmed and domesticated as a policy instrument, and has
animals and of wild relatives, including commenced implementing an effective,
other socio-economically as well as participatory and updated national
culturally valuable species, is maintained, biodiversity strategy and action plan.
and strategies have been developed and
implemented for minimizing genetic Target 18
erosion and safeguarding their genetic By 2020, the traditional knowledge,
diversity. innovations and practices of indigenous
and local communities relevant for the INSIGHTS Page 9


conservation and sustainable use of uniform and even a symbol of defiance. For
biodiversity, and their customary use of example, the Gwalior state tried to prohibit its use
biological resources, are respected, subject in 1921 during the non co-operation movement.
to national legislation and relevant During the Khilafat movement the cap was worn
international obligations, and fully
by large numbers of Hindus and Muslims. A group
integrated and reflected in the
of Santhals who attacked the police in 1922 in
implementation of the Convention with the
full and effective participation of Bengal demanding the release of Santhal prisoners
indigenous and local communities, at all believed that the Gandhi cap would protect them
relevant levels. from bullets: three of them died as a result.

Target 19 Large numbers of nationalists defiantly wore the

By 2020, knowledge, the science base and Gandhi cap and were even beaten or arrested for
technologies relating to biodiversity, its doing so. With the rise of the Khilafat movement in
values, functioning, status and trends, and the post-First World War years, the fez, a tasseled
the consequences of its loss, are improved,
Turkish cap, became a sign of anti- colonialism in
widely shared and transferred, and
applied. India. Though many Hindus – as in Hyderabad for
instance – also wore the fez, it soon became
Target 20 identified solely with Muslims.
By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of
financial resources for effectively
implementing the Strategic Plan for
Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, 36. Solution: a)
and in accordance with the consolidated
and agreed process in the Strategy for Sharks BECOME abundant in a coral zone when
Resource Mobilization, should increase the reefs are healthy. In a decade-long study
substantially from the current levels. This conducted in the Great Barrier Reef, researchers
target will be subject to changes contingent used thousands of remote underwater video
to resource needs assessments to be stations to count the number of sharks. The results
developed and reported by Parties. showed that the health of coral reef had a huge
affect on abundance of shark, especially the grey
reef shark which is found on coral reefs. The study
34. Solution: a) underlines the importance of coral reefs in
protecting sharks Source: Down To Earth
35. Solution: b)
Regarding Coral Bleaching:
Some time after his return to India from South
Warmer water temperatures can result in coral
Africa in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi transformed the
bleaching. When water is too warm, corals will
Kashmiri cap that he sometimes used into a cheap
expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their
white cotton khadi cap. For two years from 1919, he
tissues causing the coral to turn completely white.
himself wore the cap, and then gave it up, but by
This is called coral bleaching. When a coral
this time it had become part of the nationalist
bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can survive a INSIGHTS Page 10


bleaching event, but they are under more stress and 42. Solution: d)
are subject to mortality. For more: Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered
tml in the Krishna- Godavari basin. Along the west
coast the reserves of the Mumbai High and allied
37. Solution: c) fields are supplemented by finds in the Gulf of
Cambay. Andaman and Nicobar islands are also
Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are
important areas having large reserves of natural
associated with anticlines and fault traps in the
rock formations of the tertiary age. In regions of
folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is Also refer to
trapped in the crest of the upfold. The oil bearing
layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through of_India#Oil
which oil may flow. The oil is prevented from
rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.
Petroleum is also found in fault trap between 43. Solution: d)
porous and non-porous rocks. Gas, being lighter
usually occurs above the oil. The British were worried that the use of forests by
local people and the reckless felling of trees by
38. Solution: d) traders would destroy forests. So they decided to
invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for
advice, and made him the first Inspector General of
Forests in India.

Brandis realised that a proper system had to be

39. Solution: c) introduced to manage the forests and people had to
be trained in the science of conservation. This
system would need legal sanction. Rules about the
use of forest resources had to be framed. Felling of
40. Solution: d)
trees and grazing had to be restricted so that forests
Refer to could be preserved for timber production. Anybody who cut trees without following the
ment system had to be punished. So Brandis set up the
Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate
41. Solution: b) the Indian Forest Act of 1865. The Imperial Forest
Tea requires a moist fros-free climate with even Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.
The system they taught here was called ‗scientific
rainfall throughout the year. Millet is a semi-arid
forestry‘. Many people now, including ecologists,
area crop and thus can be grown in dry conditions.
feel that this system is not scientific at all. INSIGHTS Page 11


In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lots cause the rock surface to powder down and form a
of different types of trees were cut down. In their thin layer of soil. Other small plants like moss, are
place, one type of tree was planted in straight rows. able to grow on this surface now and they cause the
This is called a plantation. Forest officials surveyed rock to break up further. The roots of big trees
the forests, estimated the area under different types sometimes go into cracks in the rocks and as the
of trees, and made working plans for forest roots grow bigger, the crack is forced bigger.
management. They planned how muchof the
plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was
then to be replanted so that it was ready to be cut 46. Solution: d)
again in some years.
The warm and humid tropical regions of the earth,
After the Forest Act was enacted in 1865, it was between the tropic of Cancer and the tropic of
amended twice, once in 1878 and then in 1927. The Capricorn, are rich in diversity of plant and animal
1878 Act divided forests into three categories: life. This is called the region of megadiversity. Of
reserved, protected and village forests. The best the biodiversity of the planet, more than half is
forests were called ‗reserved forests‘. Villagers concentrated in a few countries – Brazil, Colombia,
could not take anything from these forests, even for Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Zaire, Madagascar,
their own use. For house building or fuel, they Australia, China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia.
could take wood from protected or village forests.

47. Solution: c)
44. Solution: c)
RESEARCHERS DID not consider climate change
Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. to be a factor in formation of tornadoes because
They are most suitable for carrying heavy and there was no pattern to link the two. But an
bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment analysis of records on tornadoes in the US between
friendly mode of transport. India has inland 1954 and 2013 has found that there has been a
navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out consistent decrease in the number of days
of these only 3,700 km are navigable by mechanised witnessing at least one tornado, while the number
boats. of days having multiple tornadoes has increased.
Whereas the Indian coastline is some 7400 kms. 95 Though tornadoes are forming on fewer days (187
per cent of the country‘s trade volume (68 per cent tornado days in 1971 against 79 in 2013), the
in terms of value) is moved by sea. severity and frequency of the number of tornadoes
formed in one particular day has increased. There
were 1,700 in 2011 and 2014 has already seen 189.
Source: Down to Earth
45. Solution: a)
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that
Living organisms also influence the formation of
is in contact with both the surface of the earth and
soil. The lichen grows on the surface of rocks.
a cumulonimbus cloudor, in rare cases, the base of
While growing, they release certain substances that INSIGHTS Page 12

a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to of the Earth where they may damage many forms
as twisters or cyclones, although the of life.
wordcyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider
sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. 50. Solution: c)

The low pressure system over Indian region are

classified based on the maximum sustained winds
48. Solution: d) speed associated with the system and the pressure
deficit/ number of closed isobars associated with
Wildlife CORRIDORS aretracts of natural land that
the system. The pressure criteria is used, when the
connect habitats divided by agricultural or other
system is over land and wind criteria is used, when
human activities. These are set up to promote
the system is over the sea. The system is called as
spread of native species. But such corridors can
low if there is one closed isobar in the interval of 2
also lead to spread of invasive species. A study in
hPa. It is called depression, if there are two closed
Florida, US, found that polygyne fire ants (a type of
isobars, a deep depression, if there are three closed
slow-moving fire ants) were able to use wildlife
isobars and cyclonic storm if there are four or more
corridors to spread and dominate the habitat. The
closed isobars. The detailed classification based on
study indicates it is crucial to study traits of likely
wind criteria are given in the Table
invasive species before setting up a corridor.
below. Considering wind criteria, the system with
Source: Down to Earth.
wind speed of 17-27 knots is called as depression
49. Solution: a) and the low pressure system with maximum
sustained 3 minutes surface winds between 28-33
Elemental oxygen is normally found in the form of knots is called a deep depression. The system
a diatomic molecule. However, in the upper with maximum sustained 3 minutes surface
reaches of the atmosphere, a molecule containing winds of 34 knots or more is called as cyclonic
three atoms of oxygen is found. This would mean a storm.
formula of O3 and this is called ozone. Unlike the
normal diatomic molecule of oxygen, ozone is For interesting article: Regarding Cyclone Phailin
poisonous and we are lucky that it is not stable and other Bay of Bengal related cyclones
nearer to the Earth‘s surface. But it performs an
essential function where it is found. It absorb ally-prone-cyclones
harmful radiations from the Sun. This prevents
those harmful radiations from reaching the surface

51. Solution: d)

Varieties or strains of crops can be selected by

breeding for various useful characteristics such as
disease resistance, response to fertilisers, product
quality and high yields. One way of incorporating INSIGHTS Page 13


desirable characters into crop varieties is by Green manure: Prior to the sowing of the crop
hybridisation. Hybridisation refers to crossing seeds, some plants like sun hemp or guar are
between genetically dissimilar plants. This crossing grown and then mulched by ploughing them into
may be intervarietal (between different varieties), the soil. These green plants thus turn into green
interspecific (between two different species of the manure which helps in enriching the soil in
same genus) or intergeneric (between different nitrogen and phosphorus.
genera). Another way of improving the crop is by
introducing a gene that would provide the desired
characteristic. This results in genetically modified
It is considered a practice in organic farming.

52. Solution: c)

53. Solution: d)

Higher per capita income does not necessarily Health and nutritional status of people of such
translate into better health or education indicators states is certainly likely to be better.
and vice versa. The availability and accessibility of
public services like health and education should
also be there. 54. Solution: a)
Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate because it Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-
has adequate provision of basic health and exploitation, environmental pollution, poisoning
educational facilities. Similarly, in some states, the and forest fires are factors, which have led to the
Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well. decline in India‘s biodiversity. Other important
causes of environmental destruction are unequal INSIGHTS Page 14


access, inequitable consumption of resources and lower entry barriers for employees, a higher
differential sharing of responsibility for proportion of migrants with a lower rate of
environmental well-being. compensation. Employees of enterprises belonging
to the unorganised sector have lower job security
and poorer chances of growth, and no leaves and
55. Solution: c) paid holidays, they have lower protection against
employers indulging in unfair or illegal practices.
Intermediary goods are used to make final goods. If
the value of intermediary goods are counted along
with final goods, it will be double counting.
58. Solution: c)

Refer to
56. Solution: d) 10th/Organised-and-Unorganised-Sectors/15078-
Refer to

You can also view more about the scheme and its
performance analysis. 59. Solution: a)

Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity.

Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high
57. Solution: a) tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped
when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside
The term unorganised sector when used in
the flood gate, the water retained by the floodgate
the Indian context is defined by National
flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it
Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized
through a power-generating turbine. In India, the
Sector, in their Report on Conditions of Work and
Gulf of Kuchchh, provides ideal conditions for
Promotion of Livelihoods in the Unorganised
utilising tidal energy.
Sector as .... consisting of all unincorporated private
enterprises owned by individuals or households engaged
in the sale or production of goods and services operated
on a proprietary or partnership basis and with less than 60. Solution: b)
ten total workers. Amongst the characteristic features
Option 2 and 3 satisfy all the criteria used to
of this sector are ease of entry, smaller scale of
classify unorganized sector. Refer to the
operation, local ownership, uncertain legal status,
explanations given in the previous questions to
labour-intensive and operating using lower
understand the criteria.
technology based methods, flexible pricing, less
sophisticated packing, absence of a brand name,
unavailability of good storage facilities and an
effective distribution network, inadequate access to
government schemes, finance and government aid, INSIGHTS Page 15


61. Solution: b)

The Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) is a 63. Solution: a)

medicinal plant found in various parts of Himachal
Political control of India helped the British in two
Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. A chemical
ways: Indian peasants could be forced to grow
compound called ‗taxol‘ is extracted from the bark,
crops such as indigo, and cheap British
needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has been
manufacture easily replaced coarser Indian one.
successfully used to treat some cancers – the drug
Large numbers of Indian weavers and spinners
is now the biggest selling anti-cancer drug in the
were left without work, and important textile
world. The species is under great threat due to
weaving centres such as Murshidabad,
Machilipatnam and Surat declined as demand fell.

Yet by the middle of the twentieth century, large

62. Solution: b) numbers of people began boycotting British or mill-
made cloth and adopting khadi, even though it was
Unwilling cultivators were made to produce opium coarser, more expensive and difficult to obtain.
through a system of advances. In the rural areas of How did this change come about?
Bengal and Bihar, there were large numbers of poor
peasants. They never had enough to survive. It was In 1905, Lord Curzon decided to partition Bengal to
difficult for them to pay rent to the landlord or to control the growing opposition to British rule. The
buy food and clothing. From the 1780s, such Swadeshi movement developed in reaction to this
peasants found their village headmen (mahato) measure. People were urged to boycott British
giving them money advances to produce opium. goods of all kinds and start their own industries for
When offered a loan, the cultivators were tempted the manufacture of goods such as matchboxes and
to accept, hoping to meet their immediate needs cigarettes. Mass protests followed, with people
and pay back the loan at a later stage. vowing to cleanse themselves of colonial rule. The
use of khadi was made a patriotic duty. Women
But the loan tied the peasant to the headman and were urged to throw away their silks and glass
through him to the government. It was the bangles and wear simple shell bangles. Rough
government opium agents who were advancing the homespun was glorified in songs and poems to
money to the headmen, who in turn gave it to the popularise it.
cultivators. By taking the loan, the cultivator was
forced to grow opium on a specified area of land The change of dress appealed largely to the upper
and hand over the produce to the agents once the castes and classes rather than to those who had to
crop had been harvested. He had no option of make do with less and could not afford the new
planting the field with a crop of his choice or of products. After 15 years, many among the upper
selling his produce to anyone but the government classes also returned to wearing European dress.
agent. And he had to accept the low price offered
Though many people rallied to the cause of
for the produce.
nationalism at this time, it was almost impossible to INSIGHTS Page 16


compete with cheap British goods that had flooded see if they could be preventing you from getting
the market. pregnant. Women who begin to display masculine
physical features (such as increased body hair or a
deepening voice) would also have their androgen
64. Solutions: d) levels checked. You would also have your
androgen levels checked if your fertility doctor
The Androgen test is the latest means adopted by suspects you have polycystic ovary syndrome
the International Association of Athletics (PCOS).
Federation (IAAF) to weed out what it believes are
male interlopers in women‘s sporting competitions. When Are Androgen Levels Checked?
Adopted in 2011 by IAAF and ratified by the Androgen can be checked at any time of the
International Olympic Committee a year later, the menstrual cycle. Levels are stable across the cycle.
tests use testosterone levels to decide whether an They can also be checked at any time in men.
athlete is feminine enough to take part in women‘s
competitions. An athlete can compete in this What Do Androgen Levels Mean?
category only if her testosterone levels are below
Androgen tests are done to find out the level of
the normal male range— a little over 3 ng/ml.
different androgens in your blood. A testosterone
What Are Androgens? test is most common. You may also have your
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) level
Androgens are typically thought of as male checked if you have symptoms that warrant it.
hormones, but they also play an important role in Your fertility doctor will make this decision with
women. In men, androgens support sperm you.
production and the development of male
secondary sex characteristics. Women produce Almost all women who have elevated androgen
androgens in their ovaries and adrenal cortex. levels have an underlying cause that can be
Almost all of the androgens a woman makes are identified. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of
immediately converted into estrogen. Estrogen women with high androgen levels have PCOS.
promotes the development of female secondary sex Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing
characteristics. It is also involved in thickening the syndrome, and tumors on the ovaries or adrenal
endometrium and regulating the menstrual cycle. glands are all rare but possible causes of increased
The androgens that are not converted into estrogen androgen levels.
play a role in sex drive and slowing bone loss.

Why Would You Have Androgen Levels

65. Solution: d)

In women, excess androgen production is the most

common cause of an ovulatory (failure to ovulate) In the Indian context refer to
infertility. If you are having trouble getting
pregnant, your androgen levels will be checked to /article1391165.ece INSIGHTS Page 17


66. Solution: c) governments to do so. At the international level,

this has become the foundation for consumer
The actual weight of an object on earth = (weight of movement.
the object) – (centrifugal force cause due to rotation
of earth) Indian constitution does not have any provision.
Laws such as Consumer protection act, 1986 exist.
Centrifugal force is caused due to rotation. So, if
earth stops rotating centrifugal force will become
zero. So all objects on earth (except at poles) will
increase in actual weight.
71. Solution: d)

But, at poles this does not happen because, at poles

the earth‘s effect of rotation is nil. So, centrifugal
force at poles is anways zero. So, at poles the
weight of the object is just its own weight and does 72. Solution: d)
not change even if the earth stops rotating.
They are at Central, State and district levels with
67. Solution: c) specifications for filing cases regarding to certain
goods and services.
RBI supervises using CRR, SLR, priority sector
lending etc. The informal sector is too scattered and 73. Solution: d)
remote to monitored by any agency. Besides, it
Rubber: It is an equatorial crop, but under special
comes outside the framework of financial laws in
conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-
tropical areas. It requires moist and humid climate
68. Solution: a) with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temperature
above 25°C. Rubber is an important industrial raw
Forming a SHG is not a fundamental right, forming material. It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
a cooperative is. Karnataka and Andaman and Nicabar islands and
Garo hills of Meghalaya. India ranks fifth among
Refer to
the world‘s natural rubber producers.

69. Solution: d) 74. Solution: d)

International Resources: There are international

Refer to
institutions which regulate some resources. The
oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive
70. Solution: c) Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no
individual country can utilise these without the
In 1985 United Nations adopted the UN Guidelines concurrence of international institutions. Anything
for Consumer Protection. This was a tool for useful found in the sea or seabed can be termed as
nations to adopt measures to protect consumers a resource like gas, oil etc.
and for consumer advocacy groups to press their INSIGHTS Page 18


77. Solution: a)

75. Solution: d) The laterite soil develops in areas with high

temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of
Refer to
intense leaching due to heavy rain. Humus content
The Brundtland commission report introduced the of the soil is low because most of the micro
term ‗sustainable development‘. Agenda 21 was the organisms, particularly the decomposers, like
action plan at the first earth summit on bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.
environmental change. Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with
adequate doses of manures and fertilizers. These
soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil
Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of
76. Solution: a)
Orissa and Assam.
The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e.
clayey material. They are well-known for their
capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich 78. Solution: d)
in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate,
magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are After adopting appropriate soil conservation
generally poor in phosphoric contents. They techniques particularly in the hilly areas of
develop deep cracks during hot weather, which Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very
helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils useful for growing tea and coffee. Red laterite soils
are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are
tilled immediately after the first shower or during more suitable for crops like cashew nut.
the pre-monsoon period.

79. Solution: b)

Annual state of forest report 2013 INSIGHTS Page 19


82. Solutions: a)

80. Solution: a) For first two points:
Tyndall effect can be observed when sunlight
passes through the canopy of a dense forest. In the
forest, mist contains tiny droplets of water, which The major sources of lead in drinking water are
act as particles of colloid dispersed in air. corrosion of household plumbing systems; and
erosion of natural deposits. Lead enters the water
(―leaches‖) through contact with the plumbing.
81. Solution: a) Lead leaches into water through corrosion – a
dissolving or wearing away of metal caused by a
Examples of aerosols include haze, dust, chemical reaction between water and your
particulate air pollutants and smoke plumbing. Lead can leach into water from pipes,
solder, fixtures and faucets (brass), and fittings. The
People generate aerosols for various purposes,
amount of lead in your water also depends on the
types and amounts of minerals in the water, how
 as test aerosols for calibrating instruments, long the water stays in the pipes, the amount of
performing research, and testing sampling wear in the pipes, the water‘s acidity and its
equipment and air filters; temperature.

 to deliver deodorants, paints, and other Although the main sources of exposure to lead are
consumer products in sprays; ingesting paint chips and inhaling dust.

 for dispersal and agricultural application of 83. Solution: a)


 for medical treatment of respiratory

disease; and

 in fuel injection systems and

other combustion technology.

Some devices for generating aerosols are:

 Aerosol spray

 Atomizer nozzle or Nebulizer

 Electrospray

 Vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG) INSIGHTS Page 20


84. Solution: d)

Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of

the centrifugal force for the sedimentation of
heterogeneous mixtures with a centrifuge, used in
industry and in laboratory settings. This process is
used to separate two immiscible liquids. More-
dense components of the mixture migrate away
from the axis of the centrifuge, while less-dense
components of the mixture migrate towards the

Also refer to

85. Solution: a)

TREES ARE the environmental source of

Cryptococcus gattii, the fungus responsible for
86. Solution: a)
causing life-threatening lung and brain infections
in AIDS patients in southern California for decades. Burning of paper and wood is a chemical change.
Three tree species - Canary Island pine, The wood converts into carbon rich material after
pohutukawa and American sweetgum - are the heating losing its original composition.
primary hosts of the fungus behind one-third of all
AIDS-related deaths. The study found that the
fungus remains fertile even after isolation from its
87. Solution: a)
environment, reproducing by sexual or asexual
means. Refer to

88. Solution: d)

Refer to the section ―Mode of occurrence of

minerals‖ in Chapter 5 – 10th NCERT Geo. INSIGHTS Page 21


89. Solution: b) 92. Solution: b)

93. Solution: d)

changesIN ocean temperatures have been

attributed to global warming, but local winds can
Share of iron-ore mining in India explain them better. Wind speed impacts ocean
temperatures by changing the rate of evaporation.
Faster wind means more evaporation and cooling.
Between 1900 and 2012, changes in temperatures in
Pacific Ocean waters off North America followed
90. Solution: b) changes in wind directions and velocity. Ocean
temperature in the region saw a steep rise between
Indian coal quality is poor and the supplies are less
given so many problems like mining licenses issue, 1920 and 1940, though the increase in greenhouse
problems of fuel supply agreements; technology gases during the period were negligible. Source:
Down to Earth
deficit for sustainable coal mining etc.

Coking coal needs to be of higher quality and hence Regarding density:

needs to be imported. Temperature and density share an inverse
relationship. As temperature increases, the space
91. Solution: d)
between water molecules increases—also known as
Legally groundwater is not a community resource density, which therefore decreases. If the
in India. It is considered to be that of the temperature of water decreases its density
landowner‘s. The national water policy will increases, but only to a point. At a temperature
however change this. It calls for making ground of 4°C pure water reaches its maximum or peak
water a community resource. density, cooled further it expands and becomes less
dense than the surrounding water which is why
Even though surface irrigation facilities are not when water freezes at 0°C it floats.
adequate in India, it is not a reason for
groundwater depletion. Provision of cheap Salinity and density share a positive relationship.
electricity to farmers for drawing groundwater As density increases, the amount of salts in the
through pumps, and MSp based incentivization of water—also known as salinity, increases. Various
cultivating water-intensive crops is the reason. events can contribute to change in the density of
seawater. INSIGHTS Page 22


Salinity can decrease from the melting of polar ice increases their vulnerability to infection,
or increase from the freezing of polar ice. birth defects, and impaired development.
Evaporation increases salinity and density while  People suffering from hidden hunger have
the addition of freshwater decreases salinity and diets that are deficient in micronutrients.
density. They habitually eat large amounts of staple
food crops (such as maize, wheat, and rice)
94. Solution: c) that are high in calories but lack sufficient micronutrients, and low amounts of foods
india/indian-wildlife-species.html that are rich in micronutrients such as fruits,
vegetables, and animal and fish products.
 People suffering from hidden hunger are
often too poor to be able to afford foods that
95. Solution: a)
are more nutritious, or otherwise lack access
Self-explanatory. The more water vapour is there is to these foods.
in the surrounding area of the cloth, the more
saturated the air around it will be. If air is more
saturated, there can not be more evaporation. 97. Solution: a)
Hence, wind helps.
The particles gain energy from your palm or
96. Solution: a) surroundings and evaporate causing the palm to
feel cool. After a hot sunny day, people sprinkle
Hidden hunger, or micronutrient deficiency, is a
water on the roof or open ground because the large
major public health problem in developing
latent heat of vaporisation of water helps to cool
countries caused by a lack of essential vitamins and
the hot surface.
minerals (e.g. vitamin A, zinc, iron, iodine) in the
diet. Often, the signs of this form of malnutrition 98. Solution: a)
are ‗hidden‘, as individuals may ‗look alright‘ but
suffer extremely negative impacts on health and Option B is called disguised unemployment where
well‐being. For example, children may be stunted, people seem to be employed but they are not
have poor night vision or suffer frequently from actually required on the job. In underemployment,
illness. Adults, too, may succumb more frequently irrespective of whether more or less people are
to illness and fatigue easily. employed, their productivity will always be below
 Hidden hunger can lead to illness,
blindness, premature death, reduced
productivity, and impaired mental
99. Solution: a)
development, particularly among women
and children in developing countries. A desert cooler cools better on a hot dry day
 1 out of 3 people in developing countries because on a hot dry day temperature is high and
suffers from hidden hunger, which humidity is less which helps in better evaporation. INSIGHTS Page 23


Due to the higher rate of evaporation it gives better

cooling effect.

100. Solution: b)

ASIAN MONSOON system is much older than

thought. Scientists believed that the system took
form 22-25 million years ago due to the uplift of the
Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas. But research
has shown that it came into existence 35-40 million
years ago when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were
three-four times more than what they are now. The
pattern became weak 34 million years ago when
the CO2 levels declined by 50 per cent. For the
study, 40-million-year-old snail and mammal
fossils in Myanmar were analysed to find the types
of oxygen they contained. The ratio of oxygen-18
and oxygen-16 (two different forms of oxygen)
showed that the animal lived in monsoonal
conditions. Another study in China corroborated
the results. Monsoon climate generates winter
winds that bring dust from Central Asia to China.
Such dust, dating 41 million years ago, was found
in Xining basin in central China. Linking the results
with CO2 levels present at the time showed the
correlation. Source: Down to Earth. INSIGHTS Page 24



Time Allowed: 2 Hours Maximum Marks: 200

2. You have to enter your Roll Number on the Test
Booklet in the Box provided alongside. DO NOT
Write anything else on the Test Booklet.
4. This Test Booklet contains 200 items (questions). Each item is printed only in English. Each item
comprises four responses (answers). You will select the response which you want to mark on the
Answer Sheet. In case you feel that there is more than one correct response, mark the response which
you consider the best. In any case, choose ONLY ONE response for each item.
5. You have to mark all your responses ONLY on the separate Answer Sheet provided. See directions in
the Answer Sheet.
6. All items carry equal marks.
7. Before you proceed to mark in the Answer Sheet the response to various items in the Test Booklet, you
have to fill in some particulars in the Answer Sheet as per instructions sent to you with your
Admission Certificate.
8. After you have completed filling in all your responses on the Answer Sheet and the examination has
concluded, you should hand over to the Invigilator only the Answer Sheet. You are permitted to take
away with you the Test Booklet.
9. Sheets for rough work are appended in the Test Booklet at the end.
10. Penalty for wrong answers :
(i) There are four alternatives for the answer to every question. For each question for which a
wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one-third of the marks assigned to that
question will be deducted as penalty.
(ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of
the given answers happens to be correct and there will be same penalty as above to that
(iii) If a question is left blank, i.e., no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty
for that question.

4. Recently a study published in journal Cell,
has showed that doing exercise regularly
1. The entire surface of a plant has an outer blocks the accumulation of kynurenine - a
covering of epidermis. Why is it useful for substance produced in the body – in blood.
plants? With what disease is Kynurenine
1. Protects against loss of water associated? Choose from below options:
2. Protects against invasion by parasitic 1. Depression
fungi 2. Alzheimer's disease
3. It makes them water resistant to an
extent Choose the correct answer using the codes below

Choose the correct answer using the coded below: a) 1 Only

b) 2 Only
a) 1 and 2 c) Both
b) 2 and 3 d) None
c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above 5. Consider the following areas as per various
legislations enacted to safeguard wildlife,
forests and biodiversity.
2. With reference to origins of Indian cricket, 1. Reserved forests
consider the following statements 2. Protected forests
1. The first Indian community to start 3. Wildlife Sanctuary
playing the game was the small 4. National Park
community of Zoroastrians, the Parsis
Arrange the following in increasing order of
2. The Bombay Gymkhana was the first
protection and funding given by the government in
club in India established by Indiana i.e.
connection with safeguarding wildlife, biodiversity
and forests.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 2134
a) 1 Only b) 1234
b) 2 Only c) 3214
c) Both d) 2143
d) None
6. Consider the following statements about
3. Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas are the sacred groves.
communities of people living in which of 1. These patches of forests have been left
the following regions? untouched by the local tribals.
a) Chhotanagpur 2. Any interference with them is banned
b) Bastar by the local community.
c) Niyamgiri
Which of these is/are true?
d) Nilgiri
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None INSIGHTS Page 3

2. More development of primary and
secondary sector leads to even greater
7. Which of the following purposes can be development in the service sector.
served by multi-purpose projects (dams)? 3. New economic policy 1991
1. Fish breeding
2. Irrigation Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
3. Inland navigation
4. Flood control a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
Choose the correct answer using the codes below: c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 4 only
c) 2 and 4 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only 10. With reference to forests in India, consider
the following statements
1. Forest cover was greatly reduced during
world wars in India and surrounding
8. Which of the following can be the negative countries
effects of building dams? 2. In India pockets of dense forests still
1. Dams fragment rivers making it difficult remain thanks to community beliefs of
for aquatic fauna to migrate. indeginous people and protection of
2. The reservoirs that are created on the them as sacred groves
floodplains also submerge the existing
vegetation and soil leading to its Which of the above statements is/are correct?
decomposition over a period of time.
3. Regulating and damming of rivers affect a) 1 Only
their natural flow causing poor b) 2 Only
sediment flow and excessive c) Both
sedimentation at the bottom of the d) None
reservoir, resulting in rockier stream
beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’
aquatic life. 11. The Zaid crop season occurs between the
kharif and rabi seasons. Which of the
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
following crops are grown in this season?
a) 1 and 2 1. Watermelon
b) 2 and 3 2. Cucumber
c) 1 and 3 3. Fodder crops
d) All of the above
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
9. Which of the following reasons can be a) 1 and 2
behind the high growth and/or majority b) 2 and 3
share of the service sector in the GDP of c) 1 and 3
India? d) All of the above
1. Public services contribute a large part of
the services sector. 12. With reference to rare earth minerals,
consider the following statements INSIGHTS Page 4

1. At present, China produces 90 per cent 15. India is the largest producer of which of the
of world’s rare earth minerals following?
2. There are 20 rare earth minerals 1. Cashewnut
available on earth 2. Oilseeds
3. Exploring rare earth materials is part of 3. Pulses
India – Japan strategic cooperation
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
Which of the above statements is /are correct?
a) 1 and 2
a) 1 and 2 Only b) 2 and 3
b) 1 and 3 Only c) 1 and 3
c) 2 and 3 Only d) All of the above
d) All

16. Which one of the following describes a

13. Consider the following statements: system of agriculture where a single crop is
1. Use of natural gas for cooking does not grown on a large area?
produce any pollutants a) Shifting Agriculture
2. Pollutants released from various in b) Plantation Agriculture
indoor cooking methods include c) Horticulture
Nitrogen Dioxide, Formaldehyde and d) Intensive Agriculture
Carbon Monoxide

Which of the above statements is/are correct? 17. Manganese nodules, a type of sediment
spread on the sea floor, has come recently in
a) 1 Only
interest because of its abundance. It consists
b) 2 Only
of which of the following other than
c) Both
d) None
1. Nickel
2. Iron
3. Cobalt
14. Generally pulses are grown in rotation with
other crops. This is because Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
a) pulses take less nutrients from soil and
a) 1 and 2
so the next crop can utilize nutrients
b) 2 and 3
better from the soil
c) 1 and 3
b) pulses are leguminous crops and hence
d) All of the above
help in restoring soil fertility.
c) water requirement for pulses is lower as
compared to other crops and hence it
helps in conserving soil moisture for the
next season of cropping
d) Both (b) and (c) 18. Which of the following factors have
negatively affected the water quality of the
rivers in India?
1. Population growth
2. Agricultural modernization
3. Urbanization and Industrialization INSIGHTS Page 5
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:

a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3 22. Which of the following
d) All of the above applications/devices/phenomenon use the
multiple reflection property of the sound?
1. Megaphones
2. Stethoscope
19. The sparkle in toothpastes come from 3. Sound effects in cinema theatres
a) Mica
b) Fluoride Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
c) limestone
d) Silica a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
20. The Gaddi shepherds, who practice c) 1 and 3
transhumance and live a semi-nomadic life, d) All of the above
are mainly NOT found in which of the
following states? 23. Which of the following are considered to be
1. Jharkhand macro-nutrients for plants?
2. Madhya Pradesh 1. Nitrogen
3. Punjab 2. Calcium
4. Rajasthan 3. Iron
4. Sulphur
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
a) 1 and 2 Only
b) 2 and 3 Only a) All of the above
c) 1 and 4 Only b) All except 3
d) 2 and 4 Only c) All except 3 and 4
d) 3 and 4 only

21. Consider the following statements:

24. Ultrasounds are high frequency waves.
Assertion (A): When measured by a spring balance, They are able to travel along well-defined
a body weighs less in water than in air. paths even in the presence of obstacles.
Which of the following are the uses of
Reason (R): The gravitation force on the body in the ultrasound?
fluid decreases causing a reduction in the weight. 1. Generally used to clean parts located in
hard-to-reach places.
In the context of the above statements, which of
2. Detect cracks and flaws in metal objects
these is/are true?
3. used in SONAR in ships
a) A and R both are true, and R is the
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
correct explanation for A.
b) A and R both are true, and R is the NOT a) 1 and 2
the correct explanation for A. b) 2 and 3
c) A is correct, R is incorrect. c) 1 and 3
d) A and R both are incorrect. d) All of the above INSIGHTS Page 6

Which of the above statements is/are
25. With reference to Gandhiji’s choosing of a
piece of loin cloth as his daily wear, a) 1 Only
consider the following statements: b) 2 Only
1. Initially he did not want to use this c) Both
dress all his life and only wanted to d) None
experiment for a month or two
2. White Khadi which he wore all his life
was to him a sign of purity, of
28. Which of the following can be covered in
simplicity, and of poverty
the generic term ‘water pollution’?
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. Change in normal temperature of a
water body
a) 1 Only 2. Change in dissolved oxygen level of a
b) 2 Only water body.
c) Both 3. Change in the nutrient concentration of
d) None the water body

Choose the correct answer using the coded below:

26. Which of the following processes reduce the
a) 1 and 2
carbon dioxide stock in the atmosphere?
b) 2 and 3
1. Photosynthesis
c) 1 and 3
2. Calcification of marine animal’s shells in
d) All of the above
sea water.
3. Growth of phytoplanktons
29. Which of the following routes have been
Choose the correct answer using the coded below: declared National Waterways in India?
1. The Ganga river between Allahabad and
a) 1 and 2 Haldia.
b) 2 and 3 2. The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya
c) 1 and 3 and Dhubri
d) All of the above 3. Lakhipur-Bhanga stretch of the Barak

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

27. Recently a wholly functional organ has been
a) 1 and 2
successfully grown inside an animal for the
b) 2 and 3
first time. The organ is Thymus. With
c) 1 and 3
reference to Thymus, consider the following
d) All of the above
1. Thymus, unlike other organs of the
body, goes on growing albeit very
slowly for the rest of an individual’s life 30. With reference to deep sea minerals,
2. Removal of the organ in the adult has consider the following statements
little effect, than when the thymus is 1. They are more enriched with minerals
removed in the newborn than the ones mined on earth surface
2. Many of these minerals are products of
volcanic activity INSIGHTS Page 7
3. India has not got an official license from 33. Which of the following is/are Aichi
International Seabed Authority to mine Biodiversity targets under Convention of
minerals from bottom of the oceans, Biological Diversity?
whereas likes of China, Russia and 1. By 2015, the rate of loss of all natural
Germany have been given habitats, including forests, is at least
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 2. By 2015 all fish and invertebrate stocks
and aquatic plants are managed and
a) 1 and 2 Only
harvested sustainably, legally and
b) 2 and 3 Only
applying ecosystem based approaches
c) 1 and 3 Only
3. By 2015, pollution, including from
d) None
excess nutrients, has been brought to
levels that are not detrimental to
ecosystem function and biodiversity.
31. Which are the commodities have shown an 4. By 2015 the extinction of known
increase in exports over the last few threatened species has been prevented
decades? and their conservation status,
1. Petroleum products particularly of those most in decline, has
2. Agriculture and allied products been improved and sustained.
3. Gems and jewellery
Choose the correct answer using the codes below.
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
a) 1 and 4 Only
a) 1 and 2 b) 1, 3 and 4 Only
b) 2 and 3 c) 1 and 2 Only
c) 1 and 3 d) None of the above
d) All of the above

34. Minerals are deposited and accumulated in

32. ISRO recently will be launching IRNSS 1C. the stratas of which of the following rocks?
For what purposes will this satellite(In the a) Sedimentary rocks
IRNSS constellation as a whole) be used? b) Igneous rocks
1. Disaster management c) Metamorphic rocks
2. Terrestrial and marine navigation d) None of the above
3. Will serve military purposes also
35. With reference to ‘Gandhi Cap’, consider
Choose the correct answer using the codes below: the following statements
a) 1 and 2 1. It was a modified cap of Kashmiri cap
b) 2 and 3 by Gandhiji, which he made of cheap
c) 1 and 3 khadi cloth
d) All of the above 2. Though he introduced it to masses, he
never wore the cap
3. It was so powerful a tool of nationalism
that the Gwalior state tried to prohibit
its use in 1921 during the non co-
operation movement INSIGHTS Page 8

Which of the above statements is/are correct? b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
a) 1 and 2 Only d) All of the above
b) 1 and 3 Only
c) 2 and 3 Only 39. Consider the following statements:
d) All 1. Madhya Pradesh has the highest
production of copper in India.
36. Consider the following statements: 2. Odisha is the largest producer of
1. The health of coral zones determines the manganese ore in India.
abundance of some shark species
2. Warm waters result in coral bleaching Which of these is/are true?
3. When a coral bleaches, it is dead
a) 1 only
Which of the above statements is/are correct? b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
a) 1 and 2 Only d) None
b) 2 and 3 Only
c) 1 and 3 Only 40. Which of the following can be the problems
d) All related to the extraction of shale gas in
37. Consider the following statements: 1. Requires huge amount of water
1. Most of the petroleum occurrences in 2. Technological know-how to extract
India are associated with anticlines and shale gas not available with India
fault traps in the rock formations of the 3. Extraction by hydraulic fracture will
tertiary age. cause groundwater pollution
2. While extracting petroleum, the oil
bearing layer is found to be a porous Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
limestone or sandstone through which
oil may flow. a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
Which of these is/are true? c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None 41. Which of the following crops require high
temperature and high humidity/rainfall to
38. Which of the following can be the uses of grow?
limestone? 1. Rice
1. It can suppress methane explosions in 2. Millet
underground coal mines. 3. Tea
2. It is used in sculptures because of its 4. Sugarcane
suitability for carving
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
3. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil
conditioner to neutralize acidic soils a) All of the above
b) 1 and 4 only
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
c) 1, 2 and 4 only
a) 1 and 2 d) 2 and 3 only INSIGHTS Page 9

42. Natural gas reserves in India can be found 45. Which of the following living organisms
in cause weathering in rocks and thus help in
1. Gulf of Cambay formation of soil?
2. Offshore Bay of Bengal 1. Lichens
3. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2. Mosses
3. Algae
Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3 a) 1 and 2
c) 1 and 3 b) 2 and 3
d) All of the above c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above

43. ‘Scientific Forestry’ was taught in the then

Imperial Forest Research Institute set up at 46. Which of these countries have biodiversity
Dehradun by the British. With reference to hotspots?
this, consider the following statements: 1. Australia
1. Scientific Forestry encouraged growing 2. Peru
of diverse species of trees in forest 3. Malaysia
regions 4. Mexico
2. This system discouraged plantations in
and near virgin forests Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Which of the above statements is/are correct? a) 2, 3 and 4

b) 2 and 3 only
a) 1 Only c) 1 and 4 only
b) 2 Only d) All of the above
c) Both
d) None

44. Consider the following statements: 47. Consider the following statements
1. The total Inland navigation waterways 1. A tornado is nothing but a cyclone
length is more than the total length of 2. Climate change affects the frequency of
the Indian coastline. tornadoes
2. In India, more freight is handled via the
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
coastal route and ports than the inland
waterway route. a) 1 Only
b) 2 Only
Which of these is/are true?
c) Both
a) 1 only d) None
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None INSIGHTS Page 10

48. With reference to wildlife corridors, a) 1 and 2 Only
consider the following statements b) 2 and 3 Only
1. They are tracts of natural land that c) 1 Only
connect habitats divided by agricultural d) None
or other human activities
2. These are set up to promote spread of
native species
51. Hybridization within plants can be done
3. These corridors might lead to spread of
invasive species
1. Different species of the same genus
Which of the above statements is/are correct? 2. Different varieties
3. Different genera
a) 1 and 2 Only
b) 2 and 3 Only Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
c) 1 and 3 Only
a) 1 and 2
d) All
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
49. Consider the following statements:
d) All of the above
Assertion (A): The poisonous Ozone does not exist
very near to earth’s surface.
52. Consider the following statements about
Reason (R): It is unstable near the earth’s surface.
green manuring:
In the context of the above statements, which of 1. It is done prior to sowing the seeds.
these is/are true? 2. It involves growing plants and then
mulching and ploughing them in the
a) A and R both are true, and R is the soil.
correct explanation for A.
b) A and R both are true, and R is the NOT Which of these is/are true?
the correct explanation for A.
a) 1 only
c) A is correct, R is incorrect.
b) 2 only
d) A and R both are incorrect.
c) Both 1 and 2
d) None

50. With reference to cyclones, consider the

following statements
53. Consider the following statements about the
1. Till now majority of the deadliest
development level of states in India:
tropical cyclones in world history have
1. The states which have a higher per
been Bay of Bengal storms
capita income than the other states, also
2. A cyclonic storm is classified as Severe
have better health indicators invariably.
Cyclonic Storm if its speed is more than
2. The states which have a higher literacy
220 Kilometer per hour (Kmph)
rate than the other states, also have
3. Cyclone Phailin which affected Orissa
higher per capita income than those
recently was classified as Severe
states invariably.
Cyclonic Storm
Which of these is/are true?
Which of the above statements is/are correct? INSIGHTS Page 11

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2 57. Indian Economy has been divided into
d) None organized and unorganized sectors. The
unorganized sector is defined based on
54. Which of these factors over the decades which of the following in India?
have caused decline in India’s biodiversity? a) Number of workers employed
1. Forest fires b) Total capital deployed
2. Habitat destruction c) Annual turnover
3. Poaching d) Proprietary or partnership basis
4. Over-exploitation of natural resources
58. Which of the following are the
Choose the correct answer using the codes below: characteristics of the organized sector in
a) All of the above 1. Terms of employment are regular and
b) 2 and 3 only there is security of employment.
c) 3 and 4 only 2. They are registered with the
d) 1 and 2 only government and have to comply to
labour laws.
55. Consider the following statements:
1. Intermediary goods are not counted in Choose the answer from the codes below:
the calculation of Gross Domestic
Product (GDP). a) 1 only
2. Only those goods that are produced b) 2 only
within the territory of India are included c) Both 1 and 2
in the GDP. d) None

Which of these is/are true? 59. In India, Gulf of Kuchch is ideal for
harnessing which kind of energy?
a) 1 only a) Tidal energy
b) 2 only b) Geo-thermal energy
c) Both 1 and 2 c) Wind energy
d) None d) Solar energy

56. Consider the following statements about

1. It has been implemented all over India. 60. Which of these are unorganized sector
2. It recognizes the legal Right to Work. activities?
3. If the Government fails to provide 1. A teacher taking classes in school
employment, it will give unemployment 2. A farmer irrigating his field
allowances to the people. 3. A daily wage labourer working under a
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3 a) 1 and 2
c) 1 and 3 b) 2 and 3
d) All of the above c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above INSIGHTS Page 12

c) Both
61. ‘X’ is a medicinal plant found in various d) None
parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal
Pradesh. A chemical compound called
‘taxol’ is extracted from the plant, and it has
64. Consider the following statements
been successfully used to treat some cancers
1. A female athlete can compete in this
– the drug is now the biggest selling anti-
category only if her testosterone levels
cancer drug in the world.
are below the normal male range— a
X is? little over 3 ng/ml
2. The International Association of
a) Moeirnga Oliefera Athletics Federation (IAAF) conducts
b) Himalayan Yew androgen tests to weed out what it
c) Withania somnifera believes are male interlopers in
d) Vitexnegundo women’s sporting competitions
3. In men, androgens support sperm
62. Consider the following statements with production and the development of
reference to opium cultivation in British male secondary sex characteristics
1. Unwilling cultivators were made to Which of the above statements is/are correct?
produce opium through a system of use
a) 1 and 2 Only
of force and coercion without paying
b) 2 and 3 Only
them any advances
c) 1 and 3 Only
2. Opium was mainly produced in the
d) All
rural Bihar and Bengal regions

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

65. Consider the following statements about
a) 1 Only
b) 2 Only
1. They are owned by their members.
c) Both
2. In India, they are regulated by the
d) None
constitution and legislation.
3. Cooperatives can be formed not just for
63. With reference to Swadeshi movement and
producing a commodity or running a
use of Khadi during freedom struggle,
company, but also for doing marketing,
consider the following statements
getting credit etc.
1. During Swadeshi movement, mainly the
change of dress appealed largely to the Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
upper castes and classes rather than to
poor people a) 1 and 2
2. The use of Khadi appealed to all the b) 2 and 3
masses and even after Swadeshi c) 1 and 3
movement, Khadi was used by both d) All of the above
upper class and lower class people
66. Imagine an object kept at South pole on
Which of the above statements is/are correct? earth weighing ‘M’ kgs. If the earth
suddenly stopped rotating, the weight of
a) 1 Only
the object will
b) 2 Only INSIGHTS Page 13
a) Increase 2. Labour laws are more rigid in SEZs
b) Decrease because of possible violation.
c) Remain constant 3. Only foreign investors can invest in
d) Cannot be ascertained with this limited SEZs.
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
67. Consider the following statements:
a) 1 and 2
1. The RBI supervises the functioning of
b) 2 and 3
formal sources of loans.
c) 1 and 3
2. There is no organization in India which
d) Only 1
supervises the credit activities of the
lenders in the informal sector.

Which of these is/are true? 70. Provisions for consumer protection have
been promulgated by/in which of the
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
1. United Nations
c) Both 1 and 2
2. Indian constitution
d) None
3. Indian laws

Choose the correct answer using the coded below:

68. Consider the following statements about
a) 1 and 2
Self-Help Groups (SHGs).
b) 2 and 3
1. There is no strict need for a formal
c) 1 and 3
registration of a SHG.
d) All of the above
2. This system eliminates the need
for collateral and is closely related to
that of solidarity lending, widely used
by micro finance institutions. 71. Which of the following rights are part of
3. Forming self-help group is a consumer rights in India?
fundamental right just as forming a 1. The right to be protected from all kind
cooperative is. of hazardous goods and services
2. The right to be fully informed about the
Choose the correct answer using the coded below: performance and quality of all goods
and services
a) 1 and 2
3. The right to complete consumer
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above Choose the correct answer using the coded below:

a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
69. Consider the following statements about
c) 1 and 3
Special Economic Zones (SEZs):
d) All of the above
1. Companies who set up production units
in the SEZs do not have to pay taxes for
an initial period of few years. INSIGHTS Page 14

72. Consumer dispute redressal forums, under 1. Agenda 21
the Consumer Protection Act,1986, have 2. Brundtland Commission report
been established, inter alia, at 3. Aichi targets
1. District level
2. Block level Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
3. Village level
a) 1 and 2
Choose the correct answer using the coded below: b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
a) 1 and 2 d) All of the above
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) Only 1
76. Consider the following statements:
1. Black soil is made up of lava flows.
2. Black soil can hold moisture better than
73. Consider the following statements about the
most soils.
plantation of rubber.
3. They are poor in nutrients like calcium
1. It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical
carbonate, magnesium, potash, lime etc.
2. It is grown in the North-Eastern region Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
of India as well as South India.
3. India is one of the leading producers of a) 1 and 2
rubber in the world. b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
Choose the correct answer using the codes below: d) All of the above
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3 77. Consider the following statements:
d) All of the above
Assertion (A): Humus is low in laterite soils.

Reason (R): Excessive heat destroys the

74. Which of the following can be examples of decomposers in the soil and bleaching takes away
international resources? the organic content.
1. Fishery
2. Oil In the context of the above statements, which of
3. Natural Gas these is/are true?

Choose the correct answer using the coded below: a) A and R both are true, and R is the
correct explanation for A.
a) 1 and 2 b) A and R both are true, and R is the NOT
b) 2 and 3 the correct explanation for A.
c) 1 and 3 c) A is correct, R is incorrect.
d) All of the above d) A is incorrect and R is correct.

75. Which of the following has a bearing on

‘sustainable development’? INSIGHTS Page 15

78. Which of the following crops can be grown 81. An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles
in laterite soil? or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. For
1. Cashewnut what all purposes can aerosols be used?
2. Tea 1. Medical treatment of respiratory illness
3. Coffee 2. Dispersal of pesticides
3. Used in nanotechnology
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3 a) 1 and 2
c) 1 and 3 b) 2 and 3
d) All of the above c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above

82. With reference to lead poisoning, consider

79. Arrange the following forest types in
the following statements
increasing order of abundance in which
1. Paint is one of the leading sources of
they occur in India.
lead poisoning
1. Mangroves
2. Consumption of meat hunted by bullets
2. Dense forests
also leads to lead poisoning
3. Open forests
3. Lead in drinking water mainly comes
Choose the correct answer using the codes below. from natural sources in soil

a) 321 Which of the above statements is/are correct?

b) 231
a) 1 and 2 Only
c) 312
b) 2 and 3 Only
d) 213
c) 1 and 3 Only
d) All

80. When sunlight passes through the canopy

of a dense forest, it looks scattered. Why is
83. As per latest available data, which of the
following is the biggest source of credit for
a) Particles dispersed in the air scatter
rural households?
a) Cooperatives and commercial banks
b) While travelling through the dense
b) Professional and agricultural money
forest, the speed of light reduces which
causes its wavelength to also reduce.
c) Government of India and states
Lower wavelength light scatter well.
d) None of the above
c) The forest trees act as obstructions
causing the light to scatter.
d) None of the above INSIGHTS Page 16

84. Centrifugation is often used in home and 2. Transfer of fluid across cell walls in
industry for various purposes. Which of the plants
following places can the phenomena of 3. In a thermometer
centrifugation be used?
1. Used in diagnostic laboratories for Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
blood and urine tests.
a) 1 and 2
2. Used in dairies and home to separate
b) 2 and 3
butter from cream.
c) 1 and 3
3. Used in washing machines to squeeze
d) All of the above
out water from wet clothes.

Choose the correct answer using the coded below:

88. Which of the following processes can lead
a. 1 and 2
to the formation of minerals from ores
b. 2 and 3
c. 1 and 3
1. Weathering of rocks
d. All of the above
2. Through bank and bed erosion of rivers;
and alluvial deposits
3. Deposition, accumulation and
85. Cryptococcus gattii, the organism concentration in horizontal strata
responsible for causing life-threatening lung
and brain infections in AIDS patients in Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
southern California for decades is a
a) 1 and 2
a) Fungus
b) 2 and 3
b) Bacteria
c) 1 and 3
c) Virus
d) All of the above
d) None of the above

89. Which of the following states in India are

86. Which of the following can be categorized rich in iron ores mines?
as physical changes? 1. Goa
1. Melting of butter in pan after heating 2. Karnataka
2. Dissolving common salt in water 3. Odisha
3. Burning of paper and wood 4. Madhya Pradesh

Choose the correct answer using the coded below: Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

a) 1 and 2 a) All of the above

b) 2 and 3 b) 1, 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 c) 1 and 2 only
d) All of the above d) 3 and 4 only

87. The phenomenon of osmosis or the use of

osmotic pressure may be found in which of
the following?
1. Filtering of water INSIGHTS Page 17

90. Despite having large reserves of coal, why Choose the correct answer using the codes below:
does India import millions of tonnes of
coal? a) 123
1. It is the policy of Indian government to b) 213
save its own coal reserves for future, c) 231
and import it from other countries for d) None of (a), (b) and (c) are correctly
the present use. ordered.
2. Most of the power plants in India are
coal-based and they are not able to get 93. Consider the following statements
sufficient supplies of coal from within 1. Winds do not have any effect on
the country. influencing surface temperatures of
3. Steel companies need large quantity of oceans
coking coal which has to be imported. 2. With increased temperature, ocean
density also increases
Which of the statements given above is/are
correct? Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 a) 1 Only
b) 2 and 3 b) 2 Only
c) 1 and 3 c) Both
d) All of the above d) None

91. Which of the following can be likely causes 94. Which of the following species are endemic
of the excessive depletion of groundwater to India?
in India? 1. Nicobar pigeon
1. Irrigation for water intensive crops in 2. Himalayan brown bear
some pockets of the country 3. Forest owlet
2. Legally Ground water is a community
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
3. Surface irrigation facilities are not a) 1 and 2
adequate in India. b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
Choose the correct answer using the coded below:
d) All of the above
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3 95. Consider the following statements:
d) Only 1
Assertion (A): On a windy day, wet clothes dry
92. India imports huge quantities of crude oil to faster.
satisfy domestic fuel requirements. Out of
these regions arrange India’s volume of Reason (R): The wind blows away particles of
crude oil import from them in an increasing water vapour around the wet cloth thus decreasing
manner. the amount of water vapour in the surrounding.
1. Latin America In the context of the above statements, which of
2. Gulf countries these is/are true?
3. Africa INSIGHTS Page 18
a) A and R both are true, and R is the correct 99. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a
explanation for A. hot dry day?
b) A and R both are true, and R is the NOT the a) Because on a hot dry day temperature is
correct explanation for A. high and humidity is less which helps in
c) A is correct, R is incorrect. better evaporation.
d) A and R both are incorrect. b) Because on a hot day latent heat of
vapourisation increases for water.
96. The 2014 Global Hunger Index report c) Because the water in the desert cooler
released by the International Food Policy gets colder than the room, which makes
Research Institute (IFPRI) talks about us feel cool.
‘Hidden Hunger’. Consider the following d) None of the above
statements with reference to Hidden
1. It is a chronic lack of micronutrients in
100. Consider the following statements:
food intake of, mainly women and
1. Asian Monsoon system is a recent
phenomenon which first took place
2. The sign of this form of hunger are
around 5 million years ago
visible but neglected
2. Monsoon climate generates winter
Which of the above statements is/are correct? winds that bring dust from Central Asia
to China
a) 1 Only
b) 2 Only Which of the above statements is/are correct?
c) Both
a) 1 Only
d) None
b) 2 Only
c) Both
d) None
97. Putting nail polish remover (acetone) on
your palm makes it feel cool. What causes
a) Evaporation of acetone from the palm
b) Reaction of acetone with the water palm
c) Acetone reacts with surrounding air
releasing heat.
d) None of the above

98. Which of the following would best explain

the term ‘underemployment’?
a) When labour productivity is less than
b) When more labour is employed than
required in a job
c) When less labour is employed than
required in a job
d) None of the above INSIGHTS Page 19