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3 Standardization of Harmonic Levels

3.1

INTRODUCTION

The most widespread standards for harmonic control worldwide are due to IEEE in the U.S. and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) in the European Union. In 1981, the IEEE issued Standard 519-1981, 1 which aimed to provide guidelines and recommended practices for commutation notching, voltage distortion, telephone influence, and flicker limits produced by power converters. The standard contended with cumulative effects but did little to consider the strong interaction between harmonic producers and power system operation. The main focus of the revised IEEE-519 standard in 1992 2 was a more suitable stance in which limitations on customers regarding maximum amount of harmonic currents at the connection point with the power utility did not pose a threat for excessive voltage distortion. This revision also implied a commitment by power utilities to verify that any remedial measures taken by customers to reduce harmonic injection into the distribution system would reduce the voltage distortion to tolerable limits. The interrelation of these criteria shows that the harmonic problem is a system, and not a site, problem. Compliance with this standard requires verification of harmonic limits at the interface between utilities and customers, more commonly known as PCC. Recommended total harmonic distortion (THD) levels for current and voltage signals were established in the 1992 revision of IEEE-519. Total and individual harmonic distortion levels were issued for customers on current and for utilities on voltage signals at the PCC. The TDD concept was created to better relate the THD to the demand current. The TDD is the total root sum square (RSS) of the harmonic current expressed in percentage of the nominal maximum demand load current. The standard also called for limiting commutation-notching levels at individual low- voltage customer locations. Communication interference with systems produced by low-voltage DC converters was addressed in the revised standard and IT limits for utilities were also established. All recommended IEEE-519-1992 limits were pre- sented for different voltage levels encompassing 69 kV and below, 69.001 through 161 kV, and higher than 161 kV. The 1992 edition of the IEEE harmonic standard thus advocates the joint con- tribution of utilities and customers to contend with harmonic emission and control matters. The compliance with recommended levels was deemed a convenient way to keep harmonic current penetration into the distribution system under control and

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59

60

Harmonics and Power Systems

permit the operation of equipment and devices that draw current in a nonlinear fashion. For over a decade, this standard has been the main reference for American utilities, customers, and manufacturers alike in trying to sustain the operation of the electrical systems within tolerable waveform distortion margins. Harmonic distortion limits were not specified for particular types of customers (industrial, commercial, or residential). The observance of these limits brought also the need for properly modeling utility systems and harmonic sources, which led to the development of expert software whose main characteristics are described in Chapter 8. Similar to IEEE-519, IEC harmonic standards set limits at the utility–customer interface; they also set limits for customer equipment, in a clear reference to resi- dential installations. After multiple revisions, the last IEC harmonic standard 61000- 3-2 3 focused on limiting equipment consumption of harmonics. The equipment refers to single- and three-phase units with per-phase currents up to 16 A. Individual harmonic limits are required for every one of the four different classes of equipment considered — namely, A through D. Class D is regarded as a highly harmonic producer and its harmonic content is subject to a strict maximum harmonic current

per unit of the current drawn at the main frequency. These are more stringent limits

than for the other classes of equipment.

Regarding voltage distortion, compatibility 4 and planning 5 levels are specified

for

electrical networks to tie in with emission and immunity levels, respectively, in

LV

and MV installations. Compatibility levels are used as a reference for coordi-

nating the emission and immunity of the equipment in LV and MV installations. Planning levels are used by system operators in evaluating the impact of all disturbing loads on the utility supply. For MV, compatibility levels are described in IEC 61000- 2-12:2003-04. 4 Indicative values for planning levels along with definitions of LV, MV, HV, and EHV are given in IEC 61000-3-6:1996 5 : LV is 1 kV or less; MV is above 1 kV and below 35 kV; HV is from 35 to 230 kV; and EHV is above 230 kV. Unlike IEEE-519, IEC considers the harmonic distortion assessment to cover short- and long-term effects. 5 The former are referred to as very short (3 s) events and the latter as short-period (10 min) events. Very short-time events are meant to account for disturbing effects on electronic devices that may be susceptible to harmonic levels lasting up to 3 s, excluding transients. Long-term effects account for thermal effects on equipment such as transformers, motors, cables, capacitor banks, etc. However, for statistical assessment, periods of 1 week or longer are recommended. 58 Interharmonic (harmonic components not an integer of the fundamental fre- quency) voltage compatibility limits related to flicker in lighting devices are addressed in IEC 61000-2-2. 7 IEEE-519:1992 does not specifically set limits for interharmonics. However, it is expected that this issue will be included in the present revision of the standard, in accordance with Halpin. 10

3.2 HARMONIC DISTORTION LIMITS

The rms value of a voltage waveform, considering the distortion produced by har- monic currents, is expressed by:

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Standardization of Harmonic Levels

Vrms =

∞ ∑ 2 Vh h = 1
2
Vh
h
= 1

61

(3.1)

Likewise, the rms value of a sinusoidal current, taking into account the distortion created by the harmonic source currents, is given by:

Irms =

∞ ∑ 2 Ih h = 1
2
Ih
h
= 1

(3.2)

As defined in Chapter 1, total harmonic distortion is a parameter used in IEEE and IEC standards. For the sake of convenience, the definition of THD discussed in Chapter 1 is repeated here for voltage and current signals, respectively:

THD

V

THD

I

=

∞ ∑ 2 V h h = 2
2
V
h
h
= 2

(3.3)

V

1

=

∞ ∑ 2 I h h = 2
∑ 2
I
h
h
= 2

(3.4)

I

1

3.2.1 IN AGREEMENT WITH IEEE-519:1992

Per IEEE-519, 2 recommended harmonic distortion limits are to be verified through comparison with measurements at the PCC, i.e., the interface between the electric utility and the customer. Chapter 5 describes the relevant aspects involved in the measurements of harmonics. A significant issue is that levels can be exceeded by 50% under start-ups or unusual conditions with durations less than an hour. It additionally recommends the use of probability distribution functions from field measurements, stating that if limits are exceeded for only a “short” period, such a condition can be considered acceptable. As portrayed in Figure 3.1, the recommended limits are a function of the system voltage level. For electric networks 69 kV and below, for example, the total voltage distortion is limited to 5%; no individual voltage harmonic should exceed 3%, as depicted in the illustration. Concerning current harmonic distortion, IEEE-519 defines the limits as a function of the ratio between the short-circuit current at the PCC (I sc ) and the average current corresponding to the maximum demand during a period of 12 months (I L ). The recommended limits are summarized in Figure 3.2. Notice that

Copyright 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

%

%

62

5

4

3

2

1

0

Harmonics and Power Systems

% % 62 5 4 3 2 1 0 Harmonics and Power Systems 69 kV and

69 kV and under

69001-161 kV

161 kV and above

THDV (%)

Individual voltage

distortion (%)

FIGURE 3.1 IEEE-519 voltage harmonic distortion limits.

20

15

10

5

0

Harmonic distortion limits at the PCC must be below the values on the z axis

15 12 20 7 10 6 5.5 15 7 4.5 5 2.5 4 1.2 4
15
12
20
7
10
6
5.5
15
7
4.5 5
2.5
4
1.2
4 3.5
2 1.4
2.5
1.5
1
2
h < 11
11 = <h <17
1.5
1
0.7 8
0.6
0.5
5
17 = <h <23
23 = <h <35
0.3
h < 35
Isc/lL< = 20

Isc/lL > 1000 100 < Isc/lL < 1000

50 < Isc/lL < 100 20 < Isc/lL < 50

THDI (orTDD)

FIGURE 3.2 IEEE-519 current distortion limits.

the suggested limits become more stringent for decreasing I sc /I L ratios and increas- ing harmonic order. The following aspects are to be noticed:

Regardless of the I sc /I L ratio at the PCC, all power generation equipment must meet the values given for an I sc /I L ratio < 20. Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limits. Current distortions that result in a DC offset (e.g., half-wave converters) are not allowed. Note that total harmonic distortion limits are expressed in terms of the total demand distortion or TDD, which refers to the electric demand during a period of 15 to 30 min.

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Standardization of Harmonic Levels

36500 22800 16400 50 10 20 10 5 10 1 Notch area 3 (V-µs) Notch
36500
22800
16400
50
10 20
10
5
10
1
Notch area
3
(V-µs)
Notch depth
(3)
(%)
Voltage

100,000

10,000

1,000

100

Dedicated system (2)

General system

Special applications (1)

THD (%)

63

(1) Special applications include hospitals and airports (2) A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to converter loads (3) In V-µs for rated voltage and current. If voltage is different than 480 V, multiply by V/480

FIGURE 3.3 Notching levels from IEEE-519. (Data from Standard 519-1992: “IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power Converters.”)

The shown values are the maximum permissible limits under continuous operation. During start-up or unusual operating conditions lasting less than 1 hour, these limits can be exceeded by 50%. In systems that use converters of more than six pulses, these limits can be

increased by

q 6
q
6

, where q is the number of pulses.

IEEE-519 also sets limits for commutation notching in LV power converters. Figure 3.3 depicts the allowed notch depth and notch area along with the corre- sponding THD. IEEE-519:1992 practically establishes a joint involvement of the customer and the electric company to maintain harmonic distortion levels within limits that will enable the power distribution systems to operate within safe voltage distortion limits. Making customers play a part in this process assures the direct benefit of minimizing the negative effects that harmonic currents may have at their premises. Figure 3.4 outlines this relationship.

3.2.2 IN CONFORMANCE WITH IEC HARMONIC DISTORTION LIMITS

With regard to IEC, as described earlier, compatibility levels are used as a reference for coordinating the emission and immunity of the equipment in LV and MV installations. Planning levels are used by system operators in evaluating the impact of all disturbing loads on the utility supply. For the interface utility/customer short-

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64

Harmonics and Power Systems

64 Harmonics and Power Systems IEEE- 519:1992 (IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in
IEEE- 519:1992 (IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems) compliance

IEEE-519:1992 (IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems) compliance

IEEE- 519:1992 (IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems) compliance
IEEE- 519:1992 (IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems) compliance
e customer (Controlling harmonic distortion levels within recommended limits) e electric power company (Verifying
e customer
(Controlling harmonic distortion
levels within recommended limits)
e electric power company
(Verifying effectiveness of corrective
measures applied by customers to assure
that voltage distortion limits at the PCC
are achieved)

FIGURE 3.4 Relationship between customers and power utilities to achieve compliance with

IEEE-519.

time (10 min) measurement results of voltage distortion, usually taken as the value related to the 95% probability weekly value, 5 must conform to planning levels. Planning levels are defined in IEC 61000-2-12; 4 higher level emissions reaching up to 11% for very short periods (3 s) are also considered. These are important in assessing very short-time effects of harmonics. Figure 3.5 shows the IEC Compatibility 4 and Planning 5 individual voltage dis- tortion levels for MV systems. As noted, THD levels for MV systems are somewhat higher than those from IEEE in Figure 3.1. Regarding customer equipment, IEC standards specifically set harmonic levels aimed at protecting low-voltage systems at customer and utility installations. IEC

Voltage distortion limits for MV systems

6.5 4 5 4 3 1.6 1 1.2 2.5 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.2 8 0.5
6.5
4
5 4
3
1.6 1
1.2
2.5 1.6
1.2 1.2
1.2
8
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2
0.2
5
6 5
3
2
3.5
2
1.5
1.76
1.41 1.27
1 0.5
0.5
0.5
0.46 0.43 0.4 0.41
0.39
0.38
0.3 0.36
0.35
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
h
Planning levels IEC 61000-3-6
Compatibility levels IEC-61000-2-12

9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 THD

8.00 %

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

FIGURE 3.5 IEC voltage distortion limits.

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Standardization of Harmonic Levels

65

61000-3-2 3 considers four different classes of equipment in establishing harmonic current limits:

Class A: balanced three-phase equipment; household appliances (excluding equipment) identified as class D; tools (except portable), dimmers for incandescent lamp (but not other lighting equipment), audio equipment; anything not otherwise classified Class B: portable power tools Class C: all lighting equipment except incandescent lamp dimmers Class D: single phase, under 600 W, personal computer, PC monitor, TV receiver

Table 3.1 presents the limits for individual harmonic current for every one of

the classified equipment classes. Limits are given in amperes for equipment classes

A and B and in percentage of fundamental for class C. For class D, levels are

specified in milliamperes per watt for equipment with a rated power exceeding 75

W but inferior to 600 W, or in amperes for equipment larger than 600 W. Notice

that total harmonic distortion levels are not specified. For an application involving 230-V class D equipment subject to the maximum level of individual harmonic current, the total harmonic distortion would yield around 95%. 11 Finally, IEC61000-2-2 7 defines compatibility levels for situations of interhar- monic voltages occurring near the fundamental frequency. Specific types of loads are

sensitive to the square of the voltage and exhibit a beat effect resulting in flicker. Figure 2 in reference 7 describes maximum interharmonic amplitudes (as a percentage

of fundamental voltage) as a function of the difference between the interharmonic

and the fundamental frequency (beat frequency). In essence, voltage oscillations between 1 and 4% are established for beat frequencies below 1 Hz or between 20 and 40 Hz (too small or too large differences) and voltage variations between about 0.2 and 1% are set for beat frequencies between 1 and 25 Hz for 120- and 230-V lamps. Other effects of interharmonics and subharmonics, including their detrimental effects on underfrequency relays and harmonic torques in rotating machines that are not addressed in the IEC standards, are described in reference 8.

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66

Harmonics and Power Systems

TABLE 3.1 IEC 61000-3-2 Harmonic Current Limits for Different Equipment Classes

 

Max. Permissible

Max.

Permissible

Max.

Permissible

Harmonic Current

Harmonic Current

Odd

Even

Max. Permissible

Harmonic Current

(mA/W)

(A)

Harmonic

Harmonic

Harmonic Current (A)

(%

of Fundamental)

75 W < P < 600 W

P > 600 W

n

n

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

2

1.08

1.62

2

3

2.3

3.45

(30) × circuit power factor

3.4

2.3

 

4

0.43

0.645

5

1.14

1.71

10

1.9

1.14

 

6

0.3

0.45

7

0.77

1.155

7

1

0.77

 

8 n 40

1.84/n

2.76/n

9

0.4

0.6

5

0.5

0.4

11

0.33

0.495

3 (For all

11

n 39)

0.35

0.33

13

0.21

0.315

0.296

0.21

15 n 39

2.25/n

3.375/n

3.85/n

2.25/n

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Standardization of Harmonic Levels

REFERENCES

67

1.

Standard 519-1981: “IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power Converters.”

2.

IEEE Std. 519-1992: Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Con- trol in Electric Power Systems.

3.

IEC 61000-3-2 (2001-10): Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — part 3-2: limits — limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current 16 A per phase).

4.

IEC 61000-2-12, 2003-04: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — part 2-12: com- patibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public medium-voltage power supply systems.

5.

IEC 61000-3-61996: Assessment of emission limits for distorting loads in MV and HV power systems, technical report type 3.

6.

IEC 61000-4-30, 2003: Power quality measurement methods.

7.

IEC 61000-2-2: Electromagnetic compatibility — part 2-2, environment compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signaling in public and low- voltage power supply systems, 2002.

8.

Joint WG CIGRE C4.07/CIRED, Power quality indices and objectives, final WG Report, January 2004, Rev. March 2004.

9.

Fuchs, E.F., Roesler, D.J., and Masoum, M.A.S., Are harmonic recommendations according to IEEE and to IEC too restrictive? IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, 19(4), Oct. 2004.

10.

Halpin, M., Harmonic modeling and simulation requirements for the revised IEEE Standard 519-1992, 2003 IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meet. Conf. Proc., July 13–17, 203, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

11.

Ward, J. and Ward, D., Single phase harmonics, PSER EMI, Power Quality, and Safety Workshop, April 18–19, 2002.

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